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of Hadith) Rijal al-Hadith (the study of the reporters of Hadith) SECTION B: THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH : - According to the reference to a particular authority - According to the links in the isnad - According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the isnad - According to the manner in which the hadith is reported - According to the nature of the text and isnad - According to a hidden defect found in the isnad or text of a hadith - According to the reliability and memory of the reporters SECTION C: FURTHER BRANCHES OF MUSTALAH AND RIJAL AL-HADITH (classification of hadith and their reporters) APPENDIX : Verdicts on the ahadith mentioned in the Foreword
All Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and on his family and companions. We have undoubtedly sent down the Reminder, and We will truly preserve it. (Al-Qur'an, Surah al-Hijr, 15:9) The above promise made by Allah is obviously fulfilled in the undisputed purity of the Qur'anic text throughout the fourteen centuries since its revelation. However, what is often forgotten by many Muslims is that the above divine promise also includes, by necessity, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), for it is the practical example of the implementation of the Qur'anic guidance, the Wisdom taught to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) along with the Scripture, and neither the Qur'an nor the Sunnah can be understood correctly without recourse to the other. Hence, Allah preserved the Qur'an from being initially lost by the martyrdom of its memorisers, by guiding the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, endorsed by the consensus of the Messenger's Companions (may Allah bless him and grant him peace and may He be pleased with them), to compile the ayat (signs, miracles, "verses") of the Qur'an into one volume, after these had been
scattered in writing on various materials and in memory amongst many faithful hearts. He safeguarded it from corruption by its enemies: disbelievers, heretics, and false prophets, by enabling millions of believers to commit it to memory with ease. He protected its teachings by causing thousands of people of knowledge to learn from its deep treasures and convey them to the masses, and by sending renewers of His Deen at the beginning of every century. Similarly, Allah preserved the Sunnah by enabling the Companions and those after them (may Allah be pleased with them) to memorise, write down and pass on the statements of the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the descriptions of his Way, as well as to continue the blessings of practising the Sunnah. Later, as the purity of the knowledge of the Sunnah became threatened, Allah caused the Muslim nation to produce outstanding individuals of incredible memory-skills and analytical expertise, who journeyed tirelessly to collect hundreds of thousands of narrations and distinguish the true words of precious wisdom of their Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) from those corrupted by weak memories, from forgeries by unscrupulous liars, and from the statements of the enormous number of 'ulama', the Companions and those who followed their way, who had taught in various centres of learning and helped to transmit the legacy of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) - all of this achieved through precise attention to the words narrated and detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands of reporters of Hadith. Action being the best way to preserve teachings, the renewers of Islam also revived the practice of the blessed authentic Sunnah. Unfortunately however, statements will continue to be attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) although the person quoting them may have no idea what the people of knowledge of Hadith have ruled regarding those ahadith, thus ironically being in danger of contravening the Prophet's widely-narrated stern warnings about attributing incorrect/unsound statements to him. For example, here are some very commonly-quoted ahadith, which actually vary tremendously in their degree of authenticity from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace): 1. "Surah al-Ikhlas is worth a third of the Qur'an." 2. The hadith about the Ninety-Name Names of Allah. 3. Allah says, "I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known, so I created a creation (mankind), then made Myself known to them, and they recognised Me." 4. Allah says, "Were it not for you (O Muhammad), I would not have created the universe."
5. When Allah completed creation, He wrote in a Book (which is) with Him, above His Throne, "Verily, My Mercy will prevail over My Wrath." 6. Allah says, "Neither My heaven nor My earth can contain Me, but the heart of My believing slave can contain Me." 7. "He who knows himself, knows his Lord." 8. "Where is Allah?" 9. "Love of one's homeland is part of Faith." 10. "I have left amongst you two things which, if you hold fast to them, you will never stray: the Book of Allah, and my Sunnah." "I have left among you that which if you abide by, you will never 11. go astray: the Book of Allah, and my Family, the Members of my House." 12. The hadith giving ten Companions, by name, the good tidings of Paradise. 13. "If the iman (faith) of Abu Bakr was weighed against the iman of all the people of the earth, the former would outweigh the latter." "I am the City of Knowledge, and 'Ali is its Gate." 14. 15. "My companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be guided." 16. "The differing amongst my Ummah is a mercy." 17. "My Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects: seventy-two will be in the Fire, and one in the Garden." 18. Prophecies about the coming of the Mahdi (the guided one), Dajjal (the False Christ, the Anti-Christ) and the return of Jesus Christ son of Mary. Description of punishment and bliss in the grave, for the wicked 19. and pious people respectively. 20. Intercession by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and the believers seeing Allah, on the Day of Judgment. "Paradise is under the feet of mothers." 21. 22. "Paradise is under the shade of swords." "Seeking knowledge is a duty upon every Muslim." 23. 24. "Seek knowledge, even if you have to go to China." 25. "The ink of the scholar is holier than the blood of the martyr." 26. "We have returned from the lesser Jihad to the greater Jihad (i.e. the struggle against the evil of one's soul)." The methodology of the expert scholars of Hadith in assessing such narrations and sorting out the genuine from the mistaken/fabricated etc., forms the subject-matter of a wealth of material left to us by the muhaddithun (scholars of Hadith, "traditionists"). This short treatise is a humble effort to introduce this extremely wide subject to English readers. The author has derived great benefit from the outstanding scholarly work in this field, Muqaddimah Ibn al- Salah.
A brief explanation of the verdicts from the experts in this field on the above ahadith is given in the Appendix. We ask Allah to accept this work, and make it beneficial to its readers.
The Muslims are agreed that the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam, after the Glorious Qur'an. The authentic Sunnah is contained within the vast body of Hadith literature.1. A hadith (pl. ahadith) is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad (chain of reporters). A text may seem to be logical and reasonable but it needs an authentic isnad with reliable reporters to be acceptable; 'Abdullah b. al-Mubarak (d. 181 AH), one of the illustrious teachers of Imam al-Bukhari, said, "The isnad is part of the religion: had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to would have said whatever he liked."2. During the lifetime of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and after his death, his Companions (Sahabah) used to refer to him directly, when quoting his sayings. The Successors (Tabi'un) followed suit; some of them used to quote the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) through the Companions while others would omit the intermediate authority - such a hadith was later known as mursal. It was found that the missing link between the Successor and the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) might be one person, i.e. a Companion, or two people, the extra person being an older Successor who heard the hadith from the Companion. This is an example of how the need for the verification of each isnad arose; Imam Malik (d. 179) said, "The first one to utilise the isnad was Ibn Shihab al- Zuhri" (d. 124).3. The other more important reason was the deliberate fabrication of ahadith by various sects which appeared amongst the Muslims, in order to support their views (see later, under discussion of maudu' ahadith). Ibn Sirin (d. 110), a Successor, said, "They would not ask about the isnad. But when the fitnah (trouble, turmoil, esp. civil war) happened, they said: Name to us your men. So the narrations of the Ahl al-Sunnah (Adherents to the Sunnah)
many of the criteria of early traditionists.Hakim (d. The next major contribution was Ma'rifah 'Ulum alHadith by al.Yahsubi (d. 911) compiled a valuable commentary on . 279).g. was the work by alRamahurmuzi (d. e. e. After further contributions by Qadi 'Iyad al. al-Bukhari. which he later summarised in his Taqrib.would be accepted. using standard (i. were deduced by later scholars from a careful study of which reporters or isnads were accepted and rejected by them. Amongst the early traditionists (muhaddithin. 463) and another work on the manner of teaching and studying Hadith. the Introduction to the Sahih of Muslim (d. 261) and the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi (d. Al-Irshad by al. over many centuries until the present day: 'Ulum al. the rules and criteria governing their study of Hadith were meticulous but some of their terminology varied from person to person. more reporters were involved in each isnad. 580) among others. 676). 643). later scholars were considered to be greatly indebted to al-Khatib's work. 430) completed some of the missing parts to this work. commonly known as Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah."4. and their principles began to be systematically written down. was so comprehensive in its excellent treatment of the subject that it came to be the standard reference for thousands of scholars and students of Hadith to come.Riwayah of al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 544) and Abu Hafs al-Mayanji (d. which covered fifty classifications of Hadith. although modest in size. One of the earliest writings to attempt to cover Mustalah comprehensively. came the work which. After that came AlKifayah fi 'Ilm al. and so the situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of ahadith. generally-accepted) terminology. but scattered amongst various books. compiled while he taught in the Dar al-Hadith of several cities in Syria. 204). while those of the Ahl al-Bid'ah (Adherents to Innovation) would not be accepted.g.e.Hadith of Abu 'Amr 'Uthman Ibn al-Salah (d. 360).Nawawi (d. scholars of Hadith). but still left some points untouched. al-Suyuti (d.Shafi'i (d. Some of the numerous later works based on that of Ibn al-Salah are: An abridgement of Muqaddimah. the rules regulating this discipline are known as Mustalah al-Hadith (the Classification of Hadith). in Al-Risalah of al. Chapter 3 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith (Classification of Hadith) As time passed. Abu Nu'aim al-Isbahani (d. 405).
including one by the author himself.Salah. Chapter 4 A brief history of Mustalah al-Hadith (Classification of Hadith) As time passed. 852). one by his son Muhammad. Alfiyyah al-Hadith of al-Suyuti. Qatar al-Durar of al. 840). 1338). Other notable treatises on Mustalah include: Al-Iqtirah of Ibn Daqiq al-'Id (d. 774). and so the situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of ahadith. 702). Ibrahim al. 743).Suyuti and Fath al-Baqi of Shaykh Zakariyyah al-Ansari (d. Alfiyyah al-Hadith of al-'Iraqi. . a rewriting of Muqaddimah in the form of a lengthy poem. 1182). more reporters were involved in each isnad. Taujih al-Nazar of Tahir al-Jaza'iri (d. the most comprehensive poetic work in the field. 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-Munawi (d. 794). Nukhbah al-Fikr of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. 802) and Mahasin al-Istilah of al-Balqini (d. Ikhtisar 'Ulum al-Hadith of Ibn Kathir (d. the rules regulating this discipline are known as Mustalah al-Hadith (the Classification of Hadith). Al. the subject of a commentary by al-Amir al-San'ani (d. Tanqih al-Anzar of Muhammad b. 1031) and Muhammad b. Al-Khulasah of al-Tibi (d. 1122) and Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan (d. Among those who rephrased the Nukhbah in poetic form are al-Tufi (d. amongst others. a summary of al-Hakim's Ma'rifah. 1014). AlMinhal of Badr al-Din b. which became the subject of several commentaries. again the subject of several commentaries. Qawa'id al-Tahdith of Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (d. 893) and al.Muqni' of Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d. 1332). alZurqani (d.Amir al-San'ani. 1307). Jama'ah (d.Wazir (d. 733). and those of 'Ali al-Qari (d. including two (one long. one short) by the author himself.the latter entitled Tadrib al-Rawi. Al-Taqyid wa 'l-Idah of al-'Iraqi (d. 806) and AlNukat of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 903). Al-Manzumah of al-Baiquni. 928). Al-Nukat of al-Zarkashi (d.Salah. which was expanded upon by. all of which are further notes on the points made by Ibn al. Fath al-Mughith of al-Sakhawi (d. 1138). all of which are abridgements of Muqaddimah Ibn al. 'Abd al-Hadi al-Sindi (d. 805).
Abu Nu'aim al-Isbahani (d. Al-Taqyid wa 'l-Idah of al-'Iraqi (d. e. 802) and Mahasin al-Istilah of al-Balqini (d. 360). 794). AlMinhal of Badr al-Din b. over many centuries until the present day: 'Ulum al.Nawawi (d. was the work by alRamahurmuzi (d. 430) completed some of the missing parts to this work. After that came AlKifayah fi 'Ilm al. Al-Khulasah of al-Tibi (d.g. 806) and AlNukat of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d.g. and their principles began to be systematically written down. Some of the numerous later works based on that of Ibn al-Salah are: An abridgement of Muqaddimah.Riwayah of al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d.Shafi'i (d. 774). Al-Nukat of al-Zarkashi (d. Alfiyyah al-Hadith of al-'Iraqi. all of which are further notes on the points made by Ibn al. 261) and the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi (d. were deduced by later scholars from a careful study of which reporters or isnads were accepted and rejected by them. later scholars were considered to be greatly indebted to al-Khatib's work. but still left some points untouched. using standard (i. 204). 743). which became the subject of several commentaries. in Al-Risalah of al. al-Bukhari. Jama'ah (d. The next major contribution was Ma'rifah 'Ulum alHadith by al. although modest in size.Hadith of Abu 'Amr 'Uthman Ibn al-Salah (d. al-Suyuti (d. all of which are abridgements of Muqaddimah Ibn al. 544) and Abu Hafs al-Mayanji (d. 852). 676). but scattered amongst various books.Hakim (d. 643). a rewriting of Muqaddimah in the form of a lengthy poem. One of the earliest writings to attempt to cover Mustalah comprehensively. 733). many of the criteria of early traditionists. Al.Muqni' of Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d.Salah. 405). After further contributions by Qadi 'Iyad al. including two (one . compiled while he taught in the Dar al-Hadith of several cities in Syria. 805). the rules and criteria governing their study of Hadith were meticulous but some of their terminology varied from person to person. 580) among others. scholars of Hadith). e. 463) and another work on the manner of teaching and studying Hadith.Yahsubi (d. came the work which. the Introduction to the Sahih of Muslim (d.e. was so comprehensive in its excellent treatment of the subject that it came to be the standard reference for thousands of scholars and students of Hadith to come.Salah. generally-accepted) terminology. Al-Irshad by al. Ikhtisar 'Ulum al-Hadith of Ibn Kathir (d. 911) compiled a valuable commentary on the latter entitled Tadrib al-Rawi. 279). which he later summarised in his Taqrib. commonly known as Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah.Amongst the early traditionists (muhaddithin. which covered fifty classifications of Hadith.
Amir al-San'ani. Al-Manzumah of al-Baiquni. 840). one short) by the author himself. 1138).long. Qawa'id al-Tahdith of Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (d. 903)." "Liar. authenticating or disparaging remarks made by recognised experts." "Weak. a summary of al-Hakim's Ma'rifah. Chapter 5 Rijal al-Hadith (the study of the reporters of Hadith) Mustalah al-Hadith is strongly associated with Rijal al-Hadith (the study of the reporters of hadith). Tanqih al-Anzar of Muhammad b. Alfiyyah al-Hadith of al-Suyuti. 928). the subject of a commentary by al-Amir al-San'ani (d. trustworthy. Qatar al-Durar of al. 702). Hafiz (preserver)." "Reliable. Other notable treatises on Mustalah include: Al-Iqtirah of Ibn Daqiq al-'Id (d. 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-Munawi (d. Ibrahim al. Taujih al-Nazar of Tahir al-Jaza'iri (d. 1031) and Muhammad b. 1338). alZurqani (d. including one by the author himself. 1014)."5 ." "Abandoned (by the traditionists). which was expanded upon by. in descending order of authentication. 1332). amongst others. used to fabricate ahadith. from amongst the Successors and those after them. 1182). In scrutinising the reporters of a hadith. again the subject of several commentaries. 893) and al. one by his son Muhammad. 1307). Among those who rephrased the Nukhbah in poetic form are al-Tufi (d. 1122) and Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan (d. 'Abd al-Hadi al-Sindi (d. Nukhbah al-Fikr of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani.Wazir (d. are: "Imam (leader). Examples of such remarks. Fath al-Mughith of al-Sakhawi (d.Suyuti and Fath al-Baqi of Shaykh Zakariyyah al-Ansari (d. the most comprehensive poetic work in the field." "Makes mistakes. were found to be of great help. and those of 'Ali al-Qari (d.
the reason given for any disparagement. Ahmad b. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi (d.Reporters who have been unanimously described by statements such as the first two may contribute to a sahih ("sound". giving authenticating and disparaging remarks in detail.Bukhari (d. 261). those of al-Bukhari (d. Tarikh of al.third of the original omitted. . Jamal al-Din Abu 'l-Hajjaj Yusuf b. 256). Shams al-Din Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad b. Muslim (d.g. the weight of each type of criticism. Later. A number of traditionists made efforts specifically for the gathering of information about the reporters of the five famous collections of hadith. summarised his shaikh's work and produced two abridgements: a longer one called Tadhhib al-Tahdhib and a shorter one called Al-Kashif fi Asma' Rijal al-Kutub al. he named it Tahdhib al. 'Uthman b. 240). the relative strictness or leniency of each critic. etc. An isnad containing a reporter who is described by the last two statements is likely to be da'if jiddan (very weak) or maudu' (fabricated).Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal and produced it in twelve volumes. 256). 233). 273) is the ten-volume collection of al-Hafiz 'Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi (d. punctuated by places and countries of origin of the reporters. Kitab al-Jarh wa 'l-Ta'dil of Ibn Abi Hatim (d. Among the earliest available works in this field are Tarikh of Ibn Ma'in (d. If the remarks about a particular reporter conflict. 320). followed by those after them until the period of the six canonical traditionists. 275). known as Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal. V and VI. who prepared a lengthy but abridged version. A similar effort with the work of al-Mizzi was made by Ibn Hajar (d. at the end of chapters IV. 600). Further. 742) prepared an edited and abridged version of this work. The first major such work to include also the reporters of Ibn Majah (d. with about one. 327) and Tabaqat of Muhammad b.Dhahabi (d. 852). 748). entitled Tahdhib al-Tahdhib in twelve shorter volumes. alTirmidhi (d. 303). Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Majah. A list of such names is provided by the author in his thesis. see later) isnad. Khayyat (d. The earliest remarks cited in the books of Rijal go back to a host of Successors. Abu Dawud (d. Tabaqat of Khalifa b. Reporters who are the subject of statements such as the middle two above will cause the isnad to be da'if (weak). a period covering the first three centuries of Islam. although several of them relating the same hadith independently will often increase the rank of the hadith to the level of hasan (good). a careful verdict has to be arrived at after in-depth analysis of e.Sittah. Qa'imaz al. one of al-Mizzi's gifted pupils. 279) and al-Nasa'i (d. Sa'd (d.
" Mauquf ."stopped": A narration from a Companion only. in Kitab al-Fara'id (Book of the Laws of Inheritance).Khazraji (Safi al-Din Ahmad b. "I heard Allah's Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) saying: The reward of deeds depends on the intentions.g. his own statement. the following: "We were commanded to . Chapter 6 SECTION B THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to the reference to a particular authority The following principal types of hadith are important: Marfu' .g. e.e.Bukhari === Al-Humaidi 'Abdullah b. 'Abdullah. i. Kitab al-Du'afa' wa al-Matrukin by alNasa'i and Kitab al-Majruhin by Muhammad b.. Kitab al-Thiqat by al-'Ijli (d.g. 261) and Tadhkirah al-Huffaz by al-Dhahabi.volume work called Taqrib al-Tahdhib. the very first hadith in Sahih alBukhari is as follows: Al. e. e. who said: I heard 'Umar b. al-Zubair === Sufyan === Yahya b. so whoever emigrated for wordly benefits or for a woman to marry. "The grandfather is (treated like) a father. Hibban al-Busti (d." . a reporter (whether a Companion."elevated": A narration from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).. both authenticated and disparaged. producing his Khulasah. Two more works in this field which include a large number of reporters. The work of al-Dhahabi was not left unedited.. e. are Mizan al-I'tidal of al.Khattab saying." It should be noted that certain expressions used by a Companion generally render a hadith to be considered as being effectively marfu' although it is mauquf on the face of it. d. 354).. al-Bukhari reports in his Sahih. and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn al-Zubair said. while on the pulpit. al. that Abu Bakr. Successor or other) says. Sa'id al-Ansari === Muhammad b.Later." For example. Waqqas al-Laithi. Ibrahim al-Taymi === 'Alqamah b.g. or with disparaged authorities only. "The Messenger of Allah said . he abridged this further to a relatively-humble two. after 923) summarised it and also made valuable additions.Dhahabi and Lisan al-Mizan of Ibn Hajar. A number of similar works deal with either trustworthy reporters only. al. e.g. his emigration was for what he migrated.
.7 Chapter 7 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to the links in the isnad Musnad .. 110) said. the nature of the linkage amongst them. this is especially helpful in debate about matters of Fiqh.6 Among other collections. so be careful from whom you take your religion. one of the early collections of hadith. speaking about a verse of the Qur'an. Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 211) and the Tafsirs of Ibn Jarir (d." "We used to say/do . However. Hadith) is the Religion. since through it the sayings of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) can be distinguished at once from those of Companions or Successors.." "We used to do ."." "We did not use to mind such-and-such.g. etc. Maqtu'." "It used to be said . e." The authenticity of each of the above three types of hadith depends on other factors such as the reliability of its reporters.."severed": A narration from a Successor." "It is from the Sunnah to . 319).. a total of 1726 ahadith. relatively more mauquf and maqtu' ahadith are found in Al-Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaibah (d...e. Imam Malik's Al-Muwatta'.. contains a relatively even ratio of these types of hadith. and 228 mursal ahadith. 235)..."We were forbidden from . 327) and Ibn al-Mundhir (d." "It was revealed in the following circumstances: .. 285 maqtu' ahadith. 310). as well as mursal ahadith (which are discussed later). the above classification is extremely useful... while the Messenger of Allah was amongst us. AlMuwatta' contains the following: 600 marfu' ahadith. "This knowledge (i.. 375). Muslim reports in the Introduction to his Sahih that Ibn Sirin (d. According to Abu Bakr al-Abhari (d. Al-Musannaf of 'Abd alRazzaq (d. 613 mauquf ahadith.
Musarhad (d. whose link to their father and his companionship of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) are well. Malik --.. 241). "O Ka'b! Write off a part of your debt" . and the man paid him. 'Amr === Yunus --. one with an uninterrupted isnad) is excluded if it goes back only to a Companion or Successor. . and the latter with the sons of Ka'b b. in the mosque. Zaid are known as well. which contains around thirty thousand ahadith."8 By this definition. 228) at Basrah. the hadith is mursal ("hurried"). & Mu'allaq If the link between the Successor and the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is missing.his father. 'Amr and the latter's with Yunus b. So he agreed."9 The term musnad is also applied to those collections of ahadith which give the ahadith of each Companion separately. my hearing from Ibn al-Simak is well.. "Now. "The Prophet said . The largest existing collection of ahadith of Companions arranged in this manner is that of Imam Ahmad b. and similarly in turn for each shaikh. Mursal. an ordinary muttasil hadith (i. as is a marfu' hadith which has an interrupted isnad.". Hanbal (d. their voices were raised until heard by the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). who in turn reports from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). 'Abd al.known. as is his from Ibn Mukarram.e. He then remarks. Among the early compilers of such a Musnad were Yahya b. Ka'b b. who eventually lifted the curtain of his apartment and said. 228) at Kufah and Musaddad b.established. Another larger work is attributed to the famous Andalusian traditionist Baqi b.Hamid al-Himmani (d. Mu'dal. Makhlad al-Qurtubi (d. Yunus is always remembered with al.'Abdullah b. 276). During the ensuing argument.known Companion.Hasan's link with 'Uthman b. Ahmad al-Sammak al-Baghdadi === Al-Hasan b. Mukarram === 'Uthman b. but unfortunately it is now untraceable. al. Al-Hakim gives the following example of a musnad hadith: We reported from Abu 'Amr 'Uthman b. Munqati'. e.he meant remission of half of it.g.al-Zuhri --.Al-Hakim defines a musnad ("supported") hadith as follows: "A hadith which a traditionist reports from his shaikh from whom he is known to have heard (ahadith) at a time of life suitable for learning. who asked Ibn Abi Hadrad for payment of a debt he owed to him. until the isnad reaches a well.Zuhri. Malik. when a Successor says.
Imam Malik sometimes says in Al-Muwatta'.".e. If the reporter omits the whole isnad and quotes the Prophet." Example of a munqati' hadith Al-Hakim reported from Muhammad b. unlike the case with a mursal isnad). for example. the hadith is called mu'allaq ("hanging") .e. even though he may be his contemporary.Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith. without naming this authority.g. al-Hakam Al." Al-Hakim said.Qatadah --." He said. 'Asim --..10 If the number of consecutive missing reporters in the isnad exceeds one. "a man narrated to me .Qurashi in the year 254 === Sulaiman b. in accordance with the statement of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Ka'b.Auza'i --." Al-Dhahabi says. the hadith is munqati' and da'if.. but they did not collect it." After that. e. Fatimah gave birth to al. One day. may Allah bless him and grant him peace. because Shaddad never met Umm al-Fadl and Muhammad b. the link is missing at the beginning. the hadith is munqati' ("broken"). "This is a sahih hadith according to the conditions of the Two Shaykhs (i. "I have seen in a vision last night as if a part of your body was cut out and placed in my lap. He said. who used to be in my lap. I noticed that both his eyes were shedding tears. directly (i. 'Ammar === 'Ali b."11 Example of a mu'dal hadith Ibn Abi Hatim === Ja'far b.Sa'id --. The term munqati' is also applied by some scholars to a narration such as where a reporter says.Husain. Bukhari & Muslim).However. Mus'ab === al. Mansur b.Husain in his lap. "You have seen something good.Shaddad Abu 'Ammar --.. This applies even if there is an apparent link.e. an isnad seems to be muttasil ("continuous") but one of the reporters is known to have never heard ahadith from his immediate authority. Ahmad b. Mus'ab is weak. Fatimah will give birth to a lad who will be in your lap.. "It reached me that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said . I came to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and placed al. the isnad is mu'dal ("perplexing"). if a link anywhere before the Successor (i. who said: I came to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said.Ubayy b. closer to the traditionist recording the hadith) is missing. Allah Willing. "Jibril came to me and told me that my Ummah will kill this son of mine. who reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah .sometimes it is known as balaghah ("to reach"). "No. and he brought me some of the reddish dust of that place (where he will be killed).
the Marasil of elder Successors such as Sa'id b. For example. Abi Rabah (d. To be precise in this issue. 114) are acceptable because all their Marasil. "After Adam had tasted from the tree. He said: O Adam! Go away from My neighbourhood. However. the Marasil of younger Successors are only acceptable if the names of their immediate authorities are known through other sources. no-one who disobeys Me can live here near Me. There is inqita'. 94) and 'Ata' b. let us investigate in detail the various opinions regarding the Mursal Hadith: . 2. Marasil). However. may Allah be pleased with them both. for By My Honour. two widely-differing positions on this issue are: 1. for a Successor can only report from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) through a Companion."12 Authenticity of the Mursal Hadith There has been a great deal of discussion amongst the scholars regarding the authenticity of the Mursal Hadith (pl. in fact i'dal. It was proclaimed: O Adam! Are you running away from Me? He said: No. even if I were to create people like you numbering enough to fill the earth and they were to disobey Me. between Qatadah and Ubayy b. if not. are found to come through the Companions only. "This is a gharib hadith. but is severely attacked by the majority. Ka'b. those of an elder Successor and a Companion. the Marasil of Successors and those who report from them are acceptable without any investigation at all. after investigation. he ran away.bless him and grant him peace) said. but I feel ashamed before You." Ibn Kathir remarks. opinions vary in the case where the Successor might have omitted the names of two authorities (since not all the Successors were reliable in matters of Hadith). that of a Companion. al-Musayyab (d. the omission of the name of the Companion does not affect the authenticity of the isnad since all Companions are held to be trustworthy and reliable. I would make them live in a home of sinners. This opinion is supported by the Kufi school of traditionists. rather than just one name. since it is quite probable that a Successor might have omitted two names. by both Qur'anic injunctions and sayings of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). If the Successor is known to have omitted the name of a Companion only. but the tree caught his hair. they are rejected outright. then the hadith is held to be authentic.
e.1. or that he does not contradict a reliable person when he happens to share with him in a narration. the preference of most later traditionists. or that most scholars hold the same opinion as conveyed by the mursal hadith.g. he accepts the Mursal Hadith whether or not it is supported by another hadith. Hence. al. that the meaning be supported by the sayings of some Companions. that if he names the person missing in the isnad elsewhere. he requires that one of the following conditions be met: that it be reported also as musnad through another isnad."17 4. . has already done so and found the hadith to be sound. By da'if here is meant ahadith which are not severely weak. since Imam Ahmad classified ahadith into sahih and da'if rather than into sahih. He then says. al-Shafi'i accepts the Irsal of Sa'id b. Imam Abu Hanifah (d. al-Musayyab.18 Overlooking this fact has caused misunderstanding about Imam Ahmad's view on the place of da'if ahadith in rulings of Fiqh and in matters of Fada'il al-A'mal (virtues of various acts of worship).15 3. he saves you from further research. munkar. In the narrative. 150) holds the same opinion as Malik. one of the elder Successors. reporting from Zaid b. 204) has discussed this issue in detail in his al-Risalah. being a knowledgeable and trustworthy person himself. "This is our opinion.13 This view has been developed to such an extreme that to some of them. the mursal is even better than the musnad. 241) accepts mursal and (other) da'if (weak) ahadith if nothing opposing them is found regarding a particular issue.Shafi'i considers the issue of selling meat in exchange for a living animal: he says that Malik told him. for the Irsal of Ibn alMusayyib is fine. Aslam."14 2. For example. the category da'if in his view applied to ahadith which were relatively close to being sahih. hasan and da'if. 2. batil. The opinion held by Imam Malik and all Maliki jurists is that the Mursal of a trustworthy person is valid as proof and as justification for a practice. Regarding the narrator. whereas the one who narrates by way of Irsal.16 On the basis of these arguments. he does not usually name an unknown person or someone not suitable for reporting from acceptably. Imam Ahmad b. based on the following reasoning: "the one who reports a musnad hadith leaves you with the names of the reporters for further investigation and scrutiny. or maudu'. he requires that one of the following conditions be met: that he be an elder Successor. he requires the following conditions to be met before accepting a mursal hadith: 1. Imam al-Shafi'i (d. Hanbal (d. In fact. that its contents be reported as mursal through another reliable source with a different isnad. and included many ahadith which were classed as hasan by other scholars. who reported from Ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) forbade the selling of meat in exchange for an animal. just like a musnad hadith. preferring them to qiyas (analogical deduction).
In this regard.Abu Musa --."24 Al-Khatib gives the following example. Ibn Hazm (d. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 462) strongly supports the view of those who reject the Mursal except if it comes through an elder Successor. the remainder of each isnad is: Sufyan al-Thauri and Shu'bah --. This isnad is mursal because Abu Burdah. whose narratives were subjected to criticism due to Irsal. if he is ambiguous. narrates directly from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). to ascertain his reliability is impossible. the Mursal should not be accepted at all."23 9.the Prophet. al-Rabi'. Abi Ishaq. We have already explained that a narration is only acceptable if it comes through a reporter known for reliability. However. We say that Irsal leads to one reporter being ambiguous. that knowledge is based on what is heard (directly). even though it contains less reliable reporters: The text of the hadith is: "No marriage is valid except by the consent of the guardian". "This verse shows that the acceptable knowledge is the one which is being heard. including four female reporters. Laith: "O Abu Isma'il! Did Allah mention the Ahl al-Hadith (scholars of Hadith) in the Qur'an?" He replied. . He concludes. Abu Dawud (d . al-Khatib further gives three isnads going back to Yunus b. al-Musayyib or alHasan al-Basri. he says that the Mursal is unacceptable. not just received by way of Irsal.Khatib gives two isnads going back to Shu'bah and Sufyan alThauri. nor is it acceptable as proof. or that if a musnad hadith is found. not on what is reported (indirectly). 275) accepts the Mursal under two conditions: that no musnad hadith is found regarding that issue. whether it comes through Sa'id b. Harun who asked Hammad b. 327) does not give a specific opinion about the Mursal Hadith. He holds. Yunus and Qais b. it is not contradicted by the mursal hadith. and then return to those who remained behind in order to teach them. after giving a perusal of different opinions about this issue.20 7. he quotes Yazid b. they 21 could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them. that thus they may guard themselves (against evil)' (Qur'an. This concerns those who set off to seek knowledge.the Prophet. Ibn Abi Hatim (d.Abu Burdah --. the remainder of the first isnad is: Yunus b."22 Al-Hakim then remarks. he did collect an anthology of 469 reporters of hadith. a Successor. 405) is extremely reluctant to accept the Mursal Hadith except in the case of elder Successors.5.Abu Ishaq --. "What we select out of these sayings is that the Mursal is not to be practised. Isra'il b.Abu Burdah --. 8. 9:l22).Abu Ishaq --. To him. "Yes! Did you not hear the saying of Allah. Abi Ishaq --. not because of the reliability of those who narrated it by way of Irsal but because of an uninterrupted isnad.19 6. Hence. 456) rejects the Mursal Hadith outright. al. This collection is known as Kitab al-Marasil. However. Al-Hakim (d. showing that a narrative which has been reported through both musnad and mursal isnads is acceptable. on the basis of the Qur'an. even the Mursal which comes through someone who was not well-known to be amongst the Companions would be unacceptable. If a party from every expedition remained behind.
this addition of Abu Musa in the isnad is quite acceptable. 911). Muhammad b. .25 10. Qatadah and Humaid al-Tawil as the weakest type of Mursal.30 He is correct in this stipulation because some narrations or ideas. but none of them holds an opinion different to those mentioned above. Ibn Hajar (d. Al. There is no precise definition for a "large number of reporters".Ibn al-Salah (d. al-Suyuti (d. all of them together. 748) regards the Mursal of younger Successors such as alHasan al-Basri. 744). for he is narrating from someone whose reliability is unknown.29 Al-Ghazali (d. without further investigation). al. 806). five. 643) agrees with al-Shafi'i in rejecting the Mursal Hadith unless it is proved to have come through a musnad route. although known as mutawatir among some people.26 11. 1332) and Tahir al. Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (d. we shall not accept his narration (on its own.'Iraqi (d. Chapter 8 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the isnad Mutawatir & Ahad Depending on the number of the reporters of the hadith in each stage of the isnad.Ibn Taimiyyah (d. "There are some acceptable. both of them including the name of Abu Musa.e. originally have no tawatur. i. al.e. reliable and unreliable."27 12.Zuhri.Jaza'iri (d. seven. Al-Dhahabi (d. in each generation of reporters. He says. 728) classifies Mursal into three categories. 505) stipulates that a mutawatir narration be known by the sizeable number of its reporters equally in the beginning. Hence. if he does so from both classes of authorities. in the middle and at the end. 1338) have given exhaustive discussions about this issue. the Companion from whom Abu Burdah has reported. narrates by Irsal) from reliable authorities.e. 852). then his report will be accepted. 840). it can be classified into the general categories of mutawatir ("consecutive") or ahad ("single") hadith. although the numbers four. and some which require further investigation: if it is known that the reporter does so (i. i.The other two reporters narrate similarly. A mutawatir hadith is one which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie. whether Muslims or non-Muslims. Ibrahim al-Wazir (d.Khatib goes on to prove that both al-Thauri and Shu'bah heard this hadith from Abu Ishaq in one sitting while the other three reporters heard it in different sittings. others unacceptable.28 Later scholars such as Ibn Kathir (d. ten. all such mursal ahadith which go against the reports made by reliable authorities will be rejected completely.
rubbing wet hands on the leather socks during ablution. i. strange") when only a single reporter is found relating it at some stage of the isnad. and the prohibition of every intoxicant are further examples of verbal mutawatir ahadith. it is known in three ways: 1. and has been widelyknown amongst the Muslims throughout the ages: "Whoever invents a lie and attributes it to me intentionally. 2. 'Aziz & Mashhur A hadith is termed gharib ("scarce. forty and seventy. "Travel is a piece of punishment" is gharib. Abi Salih --.g. the saying of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). fasting. With regard to its isnad. this hadith is sahih." Ahadith related to the description of the Haud Kauthar (the Basin of Abundant Goodness) in the Hereafter. 3. although most gharib ahadith are weak. revelation of the Qur'an in seven modes. For example. Ahad is further classified into: Gharib.32 A hadith ahad or khabar wahid is one which is narrated by people whose number does not reach that of the mutawatir case. the people of one locality only are known to narrate the hadith. let him prepare his seat in the Fire. Hanbal said. have all been variously suggested as a minimum.31 Examples of mutawatir practices are the five daily prayers.the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Ahmad b.Yahya b. e."33 A type of hadith similar to gharib is fard ("solitary"). zakat. narrators from one locality report the hadith from narrators of another locality. a single person is found reporting it from a well-known Imam. "Do not write these gharib ahadith because they are unacceptable.twelve. the isnad of this hadith contains only one reporter in each stage: Malik --. Among the verbal mutawatir ahadith. similar to gharib.Abu Hurairah --. the Hajj and recitation of the Qur'an. Imams of Hadith. carry more weight anyway than others who are their contemporaries): the important condition is that the possibility of coincidence or "organised falsehood" be obviously negligible. the following has been reported by at least sixty-two Companions from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).e. among others.34 . the exact number is irrelevant (some reporters. raising the hands at certain postures during prayer. and most of them are weak. such as the people of Makkah reporting from the people of Madinah.
such as the saying of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). is called mashhur. every narrative which comes to be known widely. According to some scholars. It later becomes mashhur as seven people report it from Abu Hurairah.37 Chapter 9 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to the manner in which the hadith is reported Mudallas hadith & Tadlis Different ways of reporting. (I heard). For example.g. only two reporters are found to narrate the hadith. (he narrated to us)." Two reporters. whether or not it has an authentic origin. . then a group of people report from each of them. "We are the last but (will be) the foremost on the Day of Resurrection. his son. strong"). For example. report this hadith from Anas." This hadith is 'aziz in its first stage. al-Yaman and Abu Hurairah only. By this he means a hadith which is left with only two reporters in its isnad at any stage while it enjoys a host of reporters in other stages. d. (he informed us). "None of you (truly) believes until I become more beloved to him than his father.35 A hadith which is reported by more than two reporters is known as mashhur ("famous"). and all the people. it will be known as mashhur. whereas the fourth mode can denote either hearing in person or through another reporter. and (on the authority of) are used by the reporters of hadith. which are reported by one or two reporters in the beginning and continue to have the same number even in the times of the Successors and those after them. and Isma'il b. e. and two more reporters narrate from each of them: Shu'bah and Sa'id report from Qatada. a hadith may be known as 'aziz and mashhur at the same time. if a group of people narrate from them. if only one or two reporters are found narrating hadith from a reliable authority in Hadith such as al-Zuhri and Qatadah. the hadith will remain either gharib or 'aziz. On the other hand. The first three indicate that the reporter personally heard from his shaikh. Shu'aib. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said. A mashhur hadith might be reported by only one or two reporters in the beginnning but become widely-known later.If at any stage in the isnad. as it is reported by Hudhaifah b. 761). unlike gharib or 'aziz.36 According to al-'Ala'i (Abu Sa'id Khalil Salah al-Din. it is termed 'aziz ("rare. Ulayyah and 'Abd al-Warith from 'Abd al'Aziz. Qatadah and 'Abdul 'Aziz b.
'Abdullah have been collected in Sahih Muslim. Ibn al-Salah describes two types of tadlis: 1. Sa'id al-Ansari. who in turn reports from another trustworthy shaikh. Similar to the previous category. al-A'mash and al.Zubair al-Makki. Muslim. Those who practised it a great deal. A person reports from his shaikh whom he met. Walid b. tadlis al-isnad. Sufyan al-Thauri (d. Among these are Abu 'l. leaving it apparently consisting of reliable authorities.A mudallas ("concealed") hadith is one which is weak due to the uncertainty caused by tadlis. tadlis al-taswiyyah. the reporter of this isnad omits the intermediate weak authority.Mudallisin: Those who are known to do it occasionally. 161). nickname etc. in his notes on Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah.Thauri. whose ahadith narrated from the Companion Jabir b. or because they reported from authentic authorities only. 806). To explain it. adds a third type of tadlis: 3. e. but uses a less well-known name. by-name. A mudallis (one who practises tadlis) here usually uses the mode ("on the authority of") or ("he said") to conceal the truth about the isnad. and the traditionists have accepted such ahadith from them which were reported with a clear mention of hearing directly. 2. This is known to have been practised by Baqiyyah b. To an average student. what he did not hear from him. He plainly shows that he heard it from his shaikh but he uses the mode "on the authority of" to link his immediate shaikh with the next trustworthy one. Those who are accepted by the traditionists.. tadlis al-shuyukh. Opinions differ regarding whether they are acceptable or not. or from a contemporary of his whom he did not meet. let us assume an isnad which contains a trustworthy shaikh reporting from a weak authority. this isnad seems free of any doubt or discrepancy. such as by saying "I .g.g. Now. Tadlis (concealing) refers to an isnad where a reporter has concealed the identity of his shaikh. alWalid. such as Yahya b. The reporter does mention his shaikh by name. 198). but the traditionists agree that their ahadith are to be rejected unless they clearly admit of their hearing. either because of their good reputation and relatively few cases of tadlis.39 Ibn Hajar classifies those who practised tadlis into five categories in his essay Tabaqat al. It is said to be the worst among the three kinds of tadlis. in order not to disclose his shaikh's identity. in such a way as to create the impression that he heard the hadith in person. Sufyan Ibn 'Uyainah (d. e.38 Al-'Iraqi (d.
their ahadith are rejected.".heard".40 Tadlis. "Tadlis is the brother of lying" and "To commit adultery is more favourable to me than to report by way of Tadlis. an example of this category is Baqiyyah b. and interlocking the fingers. is so disliked that Shu'bah (d. repeat any other additional statement or remark. the expression "I testify that . the expression "stand and pour water for me so that I may illustrate the way my shaikh performed ablution". Ibn Hajar gives the names of 152 such reporters. al. or act in a particular manner while narrating the hadith.42 Knowledge of musalsal helps in discounting the possibility of tadlis.."41 Musalsal A musalsal (uniformly-linked) isnad is one in which all the reporters. use the same mode of transmission such as 'an.Walid. whose weakness is found to be of a lesser degree. etc. Chapter 10 . 170) said.. Exempted from them are reporters such as Ibn Lahi'ah. Those who are disparaged due to another reason apart from tadlis. holding one's beard. amarani (he commanded me). especially of those in the last three categories. haddathana (he narrated to us). the famous Egyptian judge.. even though they admit of hearing them directly. each having a different characteristic repeated feature: use of the phrase sami'tu (I heard). as well as the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). illustrating by counting on five fingers. haddathana. Al-Hakim gives eight examples of such isnads.
157) as saying. al-Baihaqi said. "Actions are (judged) according to their intentions".Abu Hurairah === the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace): "When one of you offers the two rak'ahs before the Dawn Prayer."45 According to Ibn Hajar. the well-known hadith. whereas the second contradicts it and is unreliable: . the first of which is acceptable. we accept. he should lie down on his right side. 'Abdul Wahid is alone amongst the trustworthy students of al-A'mash in narrating these words.Abu Salih --.47 Sometimes. "Some ahadith have a light like that of day.46 Traditionists as late as Ahmad used to simply label any hadith of a weak reporter as munkar. Ibrahim al-Taimi from 'Alqamah from 'Umar. It does not include a hadith which is unique in its contents and is not narrated by someone else. Al-Khatib (d. just as we present forged coins to money-changers: whatever they recognise of them. "'Abdul Wahid has gone against a large number of people with this narration. all of whom are trustworthy authorities. "We used to listen to ahadith and present them to fellow traditionists.44 An example of a shadhdh hadith according to some scholars is one which Abu Dawud and al-Tirmidhi transmit. Ziyad --." Regarding it. if a narration which goes against another authentic hadith is reported by a weak narrator. we also reject. Khaitham (d. it is known as munkar (denounced). for they have reported the above as an act of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). others have a darkness like that of night which makes us reject them. 463) quotes al-Rabi' b. is not considered shadhdh since it has been narrated by Yahya b. and not as his saying."48 Ibn Kathir quotes the following two ahadith in his Tafsir.43 In the light of this definition." He also quotes al-Auza'i (d. and whatever they reject of them. which we recognise. although each one of them is the only reporter at that stage. through the following isnad: 'Abdul Wahid b. a shadhdh ("irregular") hadith is one which is reported by a trustworthy person but goes against the narration of a person more reliable than him.al-A'mash --. 63) as saying. Sa'id al-Ansari from Muhammad b. a hadith is labelled as munkar because of its contents being contrary to general sayings of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to the nature of the text and isnad Shadhdh & Munkar According to al-Shafi'i.
both Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban declared this addition to be sahih. our mother has come to Madinah willingly: do we treat her kindly?' He said. while she was still a polytheist. my mother has come willingly: should I treat her with kindness?' He replied. "The statement.Abu Hurairah --. the addition is accepted as long as it does not contradict them.'Urwah --. "." 2.'Adawi --. who said. reported it with the addition.52 For example. 'O Messenger of Allah.50 An example is the hadith of alBukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud: "I asked the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). So I came to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said to him. The distinction between . during the peace treaty between the Quraish and the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).Muhammad b. 'Which action is the most virtuous?' He said.Fatimah bint alMundhir --. if a reliable reporter is found to add something which is not narrated by other authentic sources. both of whom said. Makdam and Bindar.51 Mudraj An addition by a reporter to the text of the saying being narrated is termed mudraj (interpolated).The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).. Abi Shaibah === Abu Qatadah al.Zuhri --.Asma' bint Abi Bakr. as mentioned by name in other ahadith. to our knowledge is reported only through this route of al. 'The Prayer at its due time'. while the statement afterwards. AlHasan b."49 In contrast to a munkar hadith." Ibn Kathir then remarks: "This (latter) hadith. It is a munkar hadith with this text because the mother of 'A'ishah is Umm Ruman. So we said. Shabib === Abu Bakr b." Two reporters. "Perform the ablution fully. 'Urwah --. 'O Messenger of Allah. Al-Bazzar === 'Abdullah b. "Our mother came to us in Madinah while she was a polytheist. Ahmad === Abu Mu'awiyah === Hisham b.Shu'bah --. and is known as ziyadatu thiqah (an addition by one trustworthy).Zuhri --. 'Woe to the heels from the Fire!'. is that of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). al-Khatib relates via Abu Qattan and Shababah --. woe to the heels from the Fire!" Al-Khatib then remarks. "My mother came (to Madinah) during the treaty Quraish had made.1. 'Yes! Treat her kindly'. 'Perform the ablution fully' is made by Abu Hurairah.'A'ishah.'Urwah --'A'ishah and Asma'.al. who was already a Muslim emigrant.. who said. 'Yes! Treat her with kindness'. at the beginning of its time".the nephew of al-Zuhri --. Ziyad --. while the mother of Asma' was another woman.
for Abu 'l-Qasim (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: Woe to the heels from the Fire!". others as muttasil."56 . it is difficult to prefer one above another. Since all these reports are comparable in weight. Chapter 11 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to a hidden defect found in the isnad or text of a hadith Before discussing ma'lul (defective) ahadith. or at the end. but as many as ten different opinions are held about this isnad: some report it as mursal. some take it as musnad of Abu Bakr. such a hadith is called mudtarib (shaky)."53 Such an addition may be found in the beginning. "What made me old are Surah Hud and its sister surahs.54 However. It is reported through Abu Ishaq. "This is an example of a mudtarib hadith. "Complete the ablution. often in explanation of a term used. the hadith is termed as mudtarib. a brief note on mudtarib (shaky) and maqlub (reversed) ahadith would help in understanding ma'lul.the two is understood from the narration of al. if reporters disagree about a particular shaikh. others as musnad of Sa'd or 'A'ishah. in such a way that none of the opinions can be preferred over the others. Mudtarib According to Ibn Kathir. Idraj (interpolation) is mostly found in the text. Hence.55 For example with regard to idtirab in the isnad.Bukhari. in the middle. where the reporter grafts a part of one isnad into another. or about some other points in the isnad or the text." Al-Daraqutni says. "O Messenger of Allah! I see you getting older?" He (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) replied. A reporter found to be in the habit of intentional idraj is generally unacceptable and considered a liar. and thus there is uncertainty about the isnad or text. who transmits the same hadith and quotes Abu Hurairah as saying. it is reported on the authority of Abu Bakr that he said. although a few examples show that such additions are found in the isnad as well. the traditionists are more lenient towards those reporters who may do so forgetfully or in order to explain a difficult word.
or abandon it.. each hadith (text) . in his transmission of the famous hadith describing the seven who will be under the shelter of Allah on the Day of Judgment. in order to test their visitor. who forbade the renting of land. as follows: 1.' Rafi' has only heard the last phrase. As an example relating to the text. who said after listening to their cases. Rafi' b.the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)."57 Maqlub A hadith is known as maqlub (changed.Rafi' --. The reporters narrating from Rafi' give different statements. i. so they came to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)."58 The famous trial of al-Bukhari by the scholars of Baghdad provides a good example of a maqlub isnad.the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)." This sentence has clearly been reversed by a reporter. Muslim reports one of the categories as. He must not rent it for a third or a quarter of the produce. They are not to be accepted. Salim --.As an example of idtirab in the text.. "What about renting for gold and silver?" He replied.his two uncles --. Khadij said that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) forbade the renting of land. Zaid b. A different narration by Rafi' from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). "It does not matter if it is rent for gold and silver. "Whoever owns a piece of land should cultivate it. reversed) when its isnad is grafted to a different text or vice versa. Ahmad b. Thabit said. who said.Rafi' --.the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). then do not rent the farms. "May Allah forgive Rafi'! I am more aware of the hadith than he. who forbade the renting of farming land. The traditionists. Now. especially when they go against the well-established hadith of Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) gave the land of Khaibar to the Jews on condition that they work on it and take half of the produce..Rafi' --. give it to his brother to cultivate.e. Hanbal said. "a man who conceals his act of charity to such an extent that his right hand does not know what his left hand gives in charity. "Whoever owns a piece of land should either cultivate it or give it to his brother to cultivate. 4. who said." Because of these various versions. what happened was that two of the Ansar (Helpers) had a dispute. alBukhari. each with ten ahadith.. nor for a given quantity of the produce. because the correct wording is recorded in other narrations of both al-Bukhari and Muslim as follows: "." 2. Rifa'ah --. "The ahadith reported by Rafi' about the renting of land are mudtarib." 6. 'Do not rent the farms'. or if a reporter happens to reverse the order of a sentence in the text. appointed ten men. The son of Rafi' --." 3. 'If this is your position.. that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives . 5. Hanzalah asked Rafi'.
Murrah instead of Murrah b. Imam al-Bukhari listened to each of the ten men as they narrated their ahadith and denied the correctness of every hadith. 234). 327).of these ten people was prefixed with the isnad of another. 40). mentioning Walid b. When they had finished narrating these ahadith. showing a reporter to narrate from his shaikh when in fact he did not meet the latter. or attributing a hadith to one Companion when it in fact comes through another. e.g. Ibn Abi Hatim. e. who is claimed to report directly from 'Ali. since for example. or marfu' when it is in fact mauquf. who reports the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) as saying.60 Ma'lul or Mu'allal Ibn al-Salah says. has given 2840 examples of ma'lul ahadith about a range of topics.59 Other ways in which ahadith have been rendered maqlub are by replacement of the name of a reporter with another. He created the mountains on Sunday. many Sufi traditions go back to al. in his Kitab al-'Ilal. 311) and al-Daraqutni (d. only a few well-known traditionists such as Ibn al-Madini (d. aged 88) did not see 'Ali (d. he says that al-Hasan al-Basri (d.62 Such information is very important. 110. Muslim instead of Muslim b. This trial earned him great honour among the scholars of Baghdad. For example." Such factors can be: 1. quoting Abu Hurairah as the reporter from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) although the actual reporter was someone else. In his book al. although he adds that there is a slight possibility that he may have seen him during his childhood in Madinah. declaring a hadith musnad when it is in fact mursal.Hadith. have compiled books about it. . but thorough research reveals a disparaging factor.g. An example of a ma'lul hadith is one transmitted by Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah. Being a very delicate branch of Mustalah al. Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (d.61 Ibn al-Madini (d. 324) says that such a defect can only be revealed if all the isnads of a particular hadith are collated.Hasan al-Basri. al-Khallal (d. Ka'b. "A ma'lul (defective) hadith is one which appears to be sound.'Ilal. he addressed each person in turn and recounted to him each of his ahadith with its correct isnad. 385). Walid. "Allah created the land on Saturday. 2. or by reversal of the name of the reporter. or Ka'b b. he gives thirtyfour Successors and the names of those Companions from whom each of them heard ahadith directly.
This is because if he does not know how a different expression can change the whole meaning. 65 We now examine in more detail these four important classes of ahadith. He should not be a mudallis. sahih (sound). He created the things entailing labour on Tuesday. were in fact basing their argument on the ahadith which were later to be known as hasan. mostly of the first two centuries.Tirmidhi was to be the first to distinguish hasan from da'if. no change of meaning will be found at all. Al-Bukhari said. not only its meaning. between the afternoon and night. and report the wording of the hadith verbatim. hasan (good). the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. who narrates from someone he met something he did not hear.He created the trees on Monday. such as al-Bukhari and Yahya b. He should agree with the narrations of the huffaz (leading authorities in Hadith). he should be a good memoriser if he happens to report from his memory. This is why traditionists and jurists such as Ahmad. depends critically on this factor. da'if (weak) or maudu' (fabricated. he will not know if he has changed what is lawful into what is prohibited. He scattered the beasts in it (the earth) on Thursday. to understand what he narrates. or a good preserver of his writings if he happens to report from them. have criticised it. Hence. "Men more knowledgeable than Muslim. forged). Ibn Taimiyyah says. who seemed to argue on the basis of da'if ahadith sometimes. and He created Adam after the afternoon of Friday. . to know how a different expression can alter the meaning. i. if he reports the hadith according to its wording. 'This saying is not that of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). he should be known to be truthful in his narrating."63 Regarding it. al."64 Chapter 12 THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH: According to the reliability and memory of the reporters The final verdict on a hadith. ahadith were classified into two categories only: sahih and da'if. but one of Ka'b alAhbar'. He created the light (or fish) on Wednesday. Ma'in. Among the early traditionists.e. if he reports something which they do also. Moreover. Sahih Al-Shafi'i states the following requirement in order for a hadith which is not mutawatir to be acceptable: "Each reporter should be trustworthy in his religion.
ma'lul. 3. and those declared sahih by other traditionists. those which are transmitted by both al. which agree with the requirements of Muslim only. made up of reporters of trustworthy memory from similar authorities. as will be discussed under that heading. those which are not found in the above two collections. which agree with the requirements of al.nor should he report from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) contrary to what reliable sources have reported from him. and which is found to be free from any irregularities (i. for example. Muslim would accept a reporter who is simply found to be contemporary to his immediate authority in reporting. whether.The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). in the isnad).Shafi'i --. no room is left for any weak hadith.Bukhari only. maqlub. al-Bukhari and Muslim were greatly admired because of their tireless attempts to collect sahih ahadith only. 67 Some traditionists prefer Sahih al-Bukhari to Sahih Muslim because alBukhari always looked for those reporters who had either accompanied or met each other. the more authentic the hadith. 5. is called a "golden isnad" because of its renowned reporters. even if only once in their lifetime. shadhdh. which agree with the requirements of both al-Bukhari and Muslim.Bukhari and Muslim. 'Umar --. munkar. those which are transmitted by Muslim only.e. 2. Of all the collectors of hadith. but 4. [and so on.e. The isnad: al." 66 Ibn al-Salah. 6. defines a sahih hadith more precisely by saying: "A sahih hadith is the one which has a continuous isnad. 68 The following grading is given for sahih ahadith only: 1.] until the hadith goes back uninterrupted to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) or any authority below him. in the text) or defects (i. however. The definition also excludes hasan ahadith. or contains a mudallis. mu'dal. mudtarib. On the other hand. It is generally understood that the more trustworthy and of good memory the reporters. 7. it is munqati'. 69 Hasan ." By the above definition.Nafi' --'Abdullah b. those which are transmitted by al-Bukhari only. In addition. the one who is above him (in the isnad) should be of the same quality.Malik --.
Hajjaj b. 2.e. says. 70 Al-Khattabi (d. i. nor contains a disparaged reporter in its isnad. 'Abd al.Rahman and Darraj Abu al-Samh attract different verdicts: some traditionists declare their ahadith hasan. one with an isnad containing a reporter who is mastur ("screened". Ibn al-Salah classifies hasan into two categories: 1. the following isnads are hasan according to al-Dhahabi: 1. Bahz b.Abu Hurairah. Artat.his grandfather." 72 In the light of this definition. . that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said. Reporters such as al-Harith b. Muhammad b. 388) states a very concise definition. Ibn al-Salah requires that the hadith be free of any shudhudh (irregularities). 3.his grandfather. al-Tirmidhi and al-Hakim reported through their isnads from 'Amr b. or one containing a mudallis. 71 Al-Dhahabi. In both categories.his father --. no prominent person reported from him) but is not totally careless in his reporting. Shu'aib --." By this he means that the reporters of the hadith should not be of a doubtful nature. 'Abdullah. Shu'aib --. 'Asim b. and which is reported through more than one route of narration. "A hasan hadith is one which excels the da'if but nevertheless does not reach the standard of a sahih hadith. 'Amr --. "It is the one where its source is known and its reporters are unambiguous.his grandfather.his father --.Al-Tirmidhi means by hadith hasan: a hadith which is not shadhdh. Damurah. after giving the various definitions. provided that a similar text is reported through another isnad as well. others declare them da'if. Khusaif b.Abu Salamah --. one with an isnad containing a reporter who is known to be truthful and reliable. but is a degree less in his preservation/memory of hadith in comparison to the reporters of sahih ahadith. 'Amr b.his father --. 73 Example of a hasan hadith Malik. Hakam --. 2. Abu Dawud. such as with the mursal or munqati' hadith.
such as due to his telling lies.e. although it is reported through several routes. the less severe the weakness." Al-Tirmidhi declares this hadith to be hasan because of the above isnad. Sa'd attract such types of . in case the weakness is severe (e. Abi Maryam al-Himsi. such very weak ahadith will not support each other and will remain weak. but three makes a travelling party. several hasan ahadith on the same subject may make the hadith sahih li ghairihi. Lahi'ah (a famous judge from Egypt). Similarly. or one of a reporter having a disparaged character. or ambiguity surrounding his person. 76 Some ahadith. disobedient). the well-known hadith. according to the precise nature of the discontinuity. "He who preserves forty ahadith for my Ummah will be raised by Allah on the Day of Resurrection among the men of understanding". excessive mistakes. The smaller the number and importance of defects. The more the defects in number and severity. mudallas. 74 Several weak ahadith may mutually support each other to the level of hasan According to the definitions of al-Tirmidhi and Ibn al-Salah.g. Aslam. to be distinguished from the previously-discussed sahih li dhatihi. which falls short of the requirements for a sahih hadith. the reporter is accused of lying or the hadith is itself shadhdh). mu'allaq. 'Abd al-Rahman b. the closer the hadith will be to being maudu' (fabricated). opposition to the narration of more reliable sources. Faraj b. a number of similar weak ahadith on a particular issue can be raised to the degree of hasan if the weakness found in their reporters is of a mild nature. Reporters such as 'Abdullah b. However. 75 Da'if A hadith which fails to reach the status of hasan is da'if. involvement in innovation. Fadalah. has been declared to be da'if by most of the traditionists. Such a hadith is known as hasan li ghairihi (hasan due to others). For example. and Rishdin b.. to distinguish it from the type previously-discussed. Zaid b. two riders are two devils. the weakness is one of discontinuity in the isnad. munqati' or mu'dal. which is hasan li dhatihi (hasan in itself)."A single rider is a devil (i. Usually. in which case the hadith could be mursal. according to the variation in the nature of the weakness associated with its reporters. rank at the bottom of the hasan grade or at the top of the da'if grade. Abu Bakr b.
'Abd al-Karim Abu 'l-Auja. Sa'd b. al-Jauzaqani in Kitab al-Abatil. 'Ali. and Mu'awiyah embraced Islam in 8 AH. 2. Sulaiman b. e.Qari in al-Maudu'at. 78 A number of traditionists have collected fabricated ahadith separately in order to distinguish them from other ahadith. al-Suyuti in al-La'ali alMasnu'ah fi 'l-Ahadith al-Maudu'ah. the forty ahadith known as Wad'aniyyah or the small collection of ahadith which was fabricated and claimed to have been reported by 'Ali alRida. Muhammad b. For example. in his Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Majah. Mu'adh died in 3 AH just after the Battle of the Trench. al.g. who was killed and crucified by Muhammad b. and 'Ali al. Sa'id al-Maslub used to say. factions based on issues of creed.varying ranks as they are neither extremely good preservers nor totally abandoned by the traditionists. or its reporters include a liar. forged) as the term applied to a hadith.Khattab decided to expel the Jews from Khaibar." 79 Another notorious inventor. governor of Basrah. the text of which goes against the established norms of the Prophet's sayings (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). the document carried the witness of two Companions. Mu'adh and Mu'awiyah b. when the second caliph. 80 Maudu' ahadith are also recognised by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the dates or times of a particular incident. 'Umar b. 81 For example. after the conquest of Makkah! 82 The author. 'Umar rejected the document outright. whereas Sa'd b. the eighth Imam of the Ithna 'Ashari Shi'ah. knowing that it was fabricated because the conquest of Khaibar took place in 6 AH. political differences. "It is not wrong to fabricate an isnad for a sound statement. admitted that he had fabricated four thousand ahadith declaring lawful the prohibited and viceversa. 77 Maudu' Al-Dhahabi defines maudu' (fabricated. has given more examples of fabricated ahadith under the following eight categories of causes of fabrication: 83 1. Abi Sufyan. among them are Ibn al-Jauzi in al-Maudu'at. some Jewish dignitaries brought a document to 'Umar apparently proving that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) had intended that they stay there by exempting them from the jizyah (tax on non-Muslims under the rule of Muslims). Some of these ahadith were known to be spurious by the confession of their inventors. .
For example. fabrications by zanadiqah (enemies-within spreading heretical beliefs). it is declared as fard mutlaq (absolutely singular) or gharib. a narration which supports the text (meaning) of the original hadith. fabrications by story-tellers. if so. 4. 7. Afrad (singular narrations). such research is termed i'tibar.-Ayyub --. Whereas mutaba'ah applies to the isnad.e. although it may be through a completely different isnad.Abu Hurairah --. Similar to the last category above is the case of Isra'iliyat ("Israelite traditions"). . Knowledge of i'tibar ("consideration"). If a supporting narration is not found for a particular hadith. fabrications by ignorant ascetics. race or a particular imam. have been dealt with from other sources. 1. is called a shahid ("witness"). research would be done to ascertain whether another trustworthy reporter has narrated it from Ayyub. 6.85 2.3. narrations from the Jews and the Christians 84 which were wrongly attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Two further types not included by Ibn al-Salah. Salamah . The remaining fortytwo types follow in brief. Traditionists are always in search of strengthening support for a hadith which is reported by one source only.Ibn Sirin --. 5. a reporter other than Ayyub narrating from Ibn Sirin would be sought: if so. it will be called mutaba'ah tammah (full follow-up). and punctuation marks used. other narrations from the same reporters. proverbs turned into ahadith. 5. if not. mu'allaq and mutawatir. it will be called mutaba'ah qasirah (incomplete follow-up). The way a hadith is heard. How a hadith is written. i. if a hadith is reported through the following isnad: Hammad b. mutaba'ah ("follow-up") and shawahid ("witnesses"). inventions for personal motives. prejudice in favour of town. which help further distinguish between different types of narrations. of which twenty-three have been discussed above. 3. 8.Salah mentions sixty-five terms in his book. The type of character required in an acceptable reporter.the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). and the different ways of acquiring ahadith. Ibn al. Chapter 13 SECTION C FURTHER BRANCHES OF MUSTALAH AND RIJAL AL-HADITH (classification of hadith and their reporters) The above-mentioned classification of ahadith plays a vital role in ascertaining the authenticity of a particular narration. 4.
Knowledge of nicknames (alqab) of the traditionists.Knowledge of a well-concealed type of mursal hadith.Knowledge of sons reporting from their fathers.Knowledge of abrogated ahadith.g. e. by an inserting the name of an additional reporter).g. e.g. e.Knowledge of such authorities from whom only one person reported. not because of his reliability in Hadith. 35. 7. 36.Knowledge of names and by-names (kunyah). Isma'il b.Knowledge of brothers and sisters among reporters. one in his early life and the other in his old age. Kuraiz and Kariz. 15.Knowledge of elders reporting from younger reporters. Mu'awiyah b. one with less or more reporters respectively).e. e.Knowledge of reporters similar in age reporting from each other. in such cases the dates of death of the two reporters will be of significance. 13. not because he witnessed the battle of Badr but because he came to live there.Knowledge of such reporters who are known by a number of names and titles. al-Aswad and al-Aswad b.g.e.Knowledge of unique names amongst the Companions in particular and the reporters in general. but due to a weak physique.Knowledge of fathers reporting from their sons. in this case Umayyah is the mother's name. 33. 12.Knowledge of contradictory ahadith.Knowledge of additions made to an isnad (i. 19. 32. 6.Knowledge of the Successors.Knowledge of the Companions. Yazid b.Knowledge of ambiguous reporters by finding out their names.g. 29. 25. 26. one because of his tribe Banu Hanifah.Knowledge of muttafiq and muftariq (similar names but different identities). not because of his beliefs but because he lost his way while travelling to Makkah. 14. Yazid.g. 20. e. 34. 21. and 'Abdullah b.Knowledge of cases where e.Knowledge of such titles which have a meaning different from what they seem to be. 27. 28. The manners required in traditionists. 16.Names attributed to other than their fathers. the other because of his attribution to a particular Madhhab (school of thought in jurisprudence). 24. 11. 9.Knowledge of mu'talif and mukhtalif (names written similarly but pronounced differently). "Hanafi": there are two reporters who are called by this name. Knowledge of a higher or lower isnad (i. Abu Mas'ud al-Badri.Knowledge of difficult words. Umayyah.The way a hadith is reported. 10.Dall ("the one going astray").Names covering both the previous types. 8.Knowledge of altered words in a text or isnad. 'Abdul Karim al. 22. two reporters report from the same authority. The manners required in students of Hadith.Knowledge of by-names for reporters known by their names only. 17. . Muhammad al-Da'if ("the weak"). 31. 18. 23.Names looking similar but they differ because of the difference in their father's names. 30.
trustworthy and weak reporters. 7. The type of character required in an acceptable reporter. and the different ways of acquiring ahadith.Knowledge 40. Salamah .85 2. mutaba'ah ("follow-up") and shawahid ("witnesses").Knowledge 39. free slaves (mawali) amongst the reporters.e. Afrad (singular narrations). 5. which help further distinguish between different types of narrations. If a supporting narration is not found for a particular hadith.86 SECTION C FURTHER BRANCHES OF MUSTALAH AND RIJAL AL-HADITH (classification of hadith and their reporters) The above-mentioned classification of ahadith plays a vital role in ascertaining the authenticity of a particular narration.Abu Hurairah --. it will be called mutaba'ah qasirah (incomplete follow-up).Knowledge 42. Knowledge Chapter 14 of of of of of of the dates of birth and death of reporters. For example. The way a hadith is reported. Traditionists are always in search of strengthening support for a hadith which is reported by one source only. and punctuation marks used. i. Knowledge of a higher or lower isnad (i. have been dealt with from other sources.e. The remaining fortytwo types follow in brief. The manners required in students of Hadith. trustworthy reporters who became confused in their old age. mu'allaq and mutawatir. other narrations from the same reporters. 6. 1. 4. How a hadith is written. a reporter other than Ayyub narrating from Ibn Sirin would be sought: if so. 8. contemporaries in a certain period.Knowledge 41. it is declared as fard mutlaq (absolutely singular) or gharib.the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). the homelands and home towns of reporters. is called a shahid ("witness").Salah mentions sixty-five terms in his book.-Ayyub --. The way a hadith is heard. Two further types not included by Ibn al-Salah.37. . one with less or more reporters respectively). if so. such research is termed i'tibar. 9. if not. Whereas mutaba'ah applies to the isnad. Knowledge of i'tibar ("consideration"). although it may be through a completely different isnad. of which twenty-three have been discussed above. a narration which supports the text (meaning) of the original hadith. if a hadith is reported through the following isnad: Hammad b. research would be done to ascertain whether another trustworthy reporter has narrated it from Ayyub. Ibn al.Knowledge 38. 3.Ibn Sirin --. The manners required in traditionists. it will be called mutaba'ah tammah (full follow-up).
Names covering both the previous types. 33.Knowledge of ambiguous reporters by finding out their names. and 'Abdullah b. "Hanafi": there are two reporters who are called by this name.Knowledge of the Successors.Knowledge of brothers and sisters among reporters.Knowledge of contradictory ahadith.Knowledge of such authorities from whom only one person reported. Mu'awiyah b. 27. by an inserting the name of an additional reporter). but due to a weak physique. not because of his beliefs but because he lost his way while travelling to Makkah. 35.Knowledge of trustworthy and weak reporters. e.Knowledge of by-names for reporters known by their names only.g. 11. .Knowledge of sons reporting from their fathers. 23. 26. e. Abu Mas'ud al-Badri. not because of his reliability in Hadith.Names looking similar but they differ because of the difference in their father's names. 22. 21.Knowledge of altered words in a text or isnad.Knowledge of elders reporting from younger reporters.g. Kuraiz and Kariz. e. 'Abdul Karim al. 30. 39. in such cases the dates of death of the two reporters will be of significance.Names attributed to other than their fathers. not because he witnessed the battle of Badr but because he came to live there. 38.Knowledge of the dates of birth and death of reporters.10.g. the other because of his attribution to a particular Madhhab (school of thought in jurisprudence).Knowledge of mu'talif and mukhtalif (names written similarly but pronounced differently).e.Knowledge of contemporaries in a certain period. 37.Knowledge of muttafiq and muftariq (similar names but different identities). 28. one because of his tribe Banu Hanifah.Knowledge of unique names amongst the Companions in particular and the reporters in general. 24. 36. e.Knowledge of difficult words. 25. 17.Knowledge of reporters similar in age reporting from each other.Knowledge of cases where e.Knowledge of such reporters who are known by a number of names and titles.Knowledge of such titles which have a meaning different from what they seem to be. 15. 13.Knowledge of free slaves (mawali) amongst the reporters. 14. in this case Umayyah is the mother's name. al-Aswad and al-Aswad b. one in his early life and the other in his old age.g. 31.Knowledge of nicknames (alqab) of the traditionists. 29. e. 34.Knowledge of additions made to an isnad (i.Knowledge of trustworthy reporters who became confused in their old age.Dall ("the one going astray"). 32.g.Knowledge of names and by-names (kunyah).Knowledge of a well-concealed type of mursal hadith. 40.Knowledge of abrogated ahadith. Umayyah. 16. 20.Knowledge of fathers reporting from their sons. Muhammad al-Da'if ("the weak").g. 41. 18. Yazid b. Isma'il b. two reporters report from the same authority. Yazid. 12. 19.Knowledge of the Companions.
al-Maktab al-Islami.. Tradition. A. Ahmad al-Jaza'iri. Cairo.116). The existing English translation of Sahih Muslim.g. Latif. pp. 2. Hyderabad). Tahir b. 11.. Mu'azzam Husain..86 Chapter 15 ENDNOTES 1.see Sahih Muslim (ed.D. Lamahat fi Usul al-Hadith (2nd ed. Al-Dhahabi. Cairo. 8. Al-Jarh wa l-Ta'dil (8 vols. 1937). . 7. and a brief history of the collections of Hadith. See also Imam al. 1:197. 1:15. Remarks like these are exceptions from the basic Islamic prohibition of backbiting (ghibah) another Muslim. 4. where general benefit to the Muslim public is at stake. 1:15 & Sahih Muslim bi Sharh an-Nawawi (18 vols. 1:87. Abu 'l-Fida' 'Imad al-Din Ibn Kathir. N.).. See Suhaib Hasan. 9. M.F. 'Abdul Baqi. Example. the importance of the Sunnah. ibid. 'Abdullah al-Hakim.Salihin of al-Nawawi. even obligatory in some cases. does not contain this extremely valuable Introduction. Madinah. Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi. 5. 13601373). 12. Muhammad Adib Salih. Sahih Muslim. 5. Cairo.). Ma'rifah 'Ulum al-Hadith (ed. 3:176. p.. for the justification for certain types of backbiting from the Qur'an and Sunnah. See e. p. 68. Muhammad b.A. N. 1389). Knowledge of the homelands and home towns of reporters. Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja (Ta Ha publishers / AlQuran Society. Sunnah: Way. Beirut.. Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti. by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi. even if the statement is true.Shafi'i's al-Risalah for the authoritative position of the Sunnah (Eng.42. Riyad al. in 6. Such exceptions are allowed. 6. 1349). Cairo. p.D. 1374/1955). published by Al-Quran Society). Path. London. Tadrib al-Rawi (ed. Tafsir al-Qur'an al-Azim (4 vols. 1st ed. 143. 1379/1959). See An Introduction to the Sunnah by Suhaib Hasan (Understanding Islam Series no. Talkhis al-Mustadrak (printed with Mustadrak alHakim. 1407/1986). trans. 4 vols. 109. 3. such as knowing which ahadith are authentic. 5 vols. Ar. Chapter on Backbiting. 1:20. 15-17 for discussion of this statement of Ibn Sirin. Cairo. Taujih al-Nazar ila Usul al-Nazar (Maktaba 'Ilmiyyah. 10. Hyderabad. for Qur'anic proofs of revelation besides the Qur'an.. related by Imam Muslim in the Introduction to his Sahih . 17. pp. 1:80.
Al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam (Matba'ah al-Sa'adah. 26. Damascus. 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abdul Barr. AlMursal min al-Hadith (Darif Ltd. al-Kauthari. pp. 'Aud & M. 36.. 1389/1969). 1410/1990).Tamhid lima fi lMuwatta' min al-Asanid (Cairo.13. 1987.Ghadamsi. Taudih al-Afkar (2 vols. Muhammad b. M. ibid. al-Jaza'iri. 1366). al-Suyuti. 49. 14. For the discussion in detail. . 17. 461-470. Ibn Hazm. 1:2.Salafiyyahh. 1397/1977). Mustafa al. Tajrid al. 23. 1350). p. 411-413. Muhammad b. Al-Muqizah (Maktab al-Matbu'at al. ibid. p. Beirut. ibid. Minhaj al-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah fi Naqd Kalam al-Shi'ah wa 'l-Qadariyyah (al. Al-Hazimi. pp.Z. 20. London. 1345). Cairo. Shurut al-A'immah al-Khamsah (ed. 268. 1358/1940. 28. According to the different interpretations of this verse.D. Al-Dhahabi. Ahmad Shakir. Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi. 2:405. p. 45. al-San'ani.Amir al-San'ani. English translation: M. al-Hakim. Yusuf b. Sabbagh. I'lam al-Muwaqqi'in (2nd ed. p. 2nd ed. 29. al-San'ani. ed. 40. 32. Cairo. Sharh Nukhbah al-Fikr (ed.. 25. 4 vols. al-San'ani. p. 39. pp. 2:406. p. 35.Riwayah (Hyderabad.D. 96. M. N. 24. pp.). 2:409. Dar alFikr. 16. 26. al-'Iraqi. Halab. 22. Bulaq. see al-Shafi'i. 1:31. 387. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. 33. Cambridge. al-Risalah (ed. p.. 34. Cairo. 4:117. 33. 96-102. 1322). Isma'il al. al-'Iraqi.Islamiyyah. or those who go forth. 1:198. ibid. 18. in 2. p. Islamic Texts Society. M.Maktabah al-Amiriyyah. pp. Cairo. 2:455.). 15. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. ibid. 38. al-Suyuti. Ibn Taymiyyah. 72 27. 279284. p. p. 8-9. N. al-Jaza'iri. 31. al-Hakim.M. where the mursal hadith has been translated as "interrupted tradition"). 19.G.. Ibn al-Qayyim. Al-Kifayah fi 'Ilm al. 1405). "they" here could refer to those who stay behind. Al-Taqyid wa 'l-Idah Sharh Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah (al-Maktabah al. Khadduri. 2:135. 37. 21. Madinah. 30. 1357). 1:199.71. 'Abdul Hamid.
al-'Iraqi. al-Suyuti. 58. p. He further says that the hadith is sahih. Ibn Kathir. 72. Ihtimam al-Muhaddithin bi Naqd al-Hadith. 1322). 59. N.. 1:248. Ibn Taimiyyah. p. al-Hakim. Ibn Kathir. since what is mentioned in the Qur'an is the creation of the heavens and the earth in six days. 51. Al-Albani says that it was Ibn alMadini who criticised it. al-Suyuti. Ikhtisar.Salah. 260.. Ibn Kathir. 62.). 4:2149 (English transl. Kitab al-'Ilal. Qasim & his son Muhammad. Ibn Kathir. whereas Ibn Ma'in did not (the latter was known to be very strict. 2nd imp. A. p. Ibn Kathir. each of which may be like a thousand years. Fath al-Mughith Sharh Alfiyyah al. Ahmad Shakir. 55. 'Abd al-Rahman al. Ikhtisar. Cairo. al-'Iraqi. al-Hakim. Ikhtisar 'Ulum al-Hadith (ed. 87. Ikhtisar. 56. Tabaqat al-Mudallisin (Cairo. 53. 48. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani mentions that the Imams of Hadith have agreed that al-Hasan al-Basri did not hear a single word from 'Ali. 'Ali b. Ibn 'Abdul Barr. ibid. 64. Riyad. 46. 1:274. Ja'far Ibn al-Madini. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Dimashqi Ibn al. 18:18f. 49. 60. ibid. ibid. al-San'ani. 4:349. 39.40.. pp. IV:1462. 47. Ibn Hajar. p. 63. p. 57. 30-34. 1398). al-Khatib. 'Ulum alHadith (commonly known as Muqaddimah. p. 2:6. Tafsir. ed. Sharh Nawawi. 1350). 58. Halab..Jauzi.Hadith li 'l-'Iraqi (Lucknow. 2:3. 50. Majmu' Fatawa (37 vols. p. 431. Salih. p. 45. 'Uthman b. p. p. 42.Sakhawi. p. as quoted by Luqman al-Salafi. 57. ed. 1:235. 381f. 61. al-Suyuti.. 43. 98. 'Abdullah b. ibid. 41. 1:278. al-Tabbakh. Al-Tamhid. 54.. 3:32. p. p. 52. and does not contradict the Qur'an. Sahih Muslim. contrary to the probable view of the scholars who criticised the hadith. 129f. 1951). p. both of them were shaikhs of al-Bukhari). whereas the hadith refers to the creation of the earth . 7f. 44. 88. whereas al-Baihaqi supports those who disparaged it. M. 17:133). 119. 116. Shams al-Din Muhammad b. 62. p. 'Abd al-Rahman b. Ibn Taimiyyah mentions that Imam Muslim's authentication of this hadith is supported by Abu Bakr al-Anbari & Ibn al.D.
but they are not to be confirmed nor denied. 66. pp. Taqrib.g. no. who spat on the document as it was unfolded from beneath its silken covers. no. 83.240). p. Kashf al. 70. no. Kashf al-Khafa'. p. The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) allowed such narrations. which the Jews repeatedly attempted to use to deceive the Muslims over the centuries.only. 78. Isma'il b. 88. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. see Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah. no. 33-34. 90. 2256. al-Sakhawi. 56-58. al-Tibi. N. Abu Ghuddah. 89.H. Subhi al-Samarra'i.Khafa' (2 vols. 86. trans. Fatawa Ibn Taimiyyah. Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Sahihah. 91. 84. Muqaddimah. see Ibn al-Qayyim. Sahih al-Jami' al-Saghir. al-Manar al-Munif fi 'l.Sahih wa 'l-Da'if (ed. al-Nawawi.. in days which are shorter than those referred to in the Qur'an (Silsilah al-Ahadith as-Sahihah. p.. 282. 87. Baghdad. Silsilah al-Ahadith alSahihah. Lahore. al-Dhahabi. al-Husain b. no. al-Shafi'i. Ibn al-Qayyim mentions more than ten clear indications of the forgery of the document. Al-Albani. 36. 6:379-382. 14. 1391).). 67. 1833). 71. 149. al-Jaza'iri. 27. 1:264. p. 79. 728). al-Albani. 26. 'Abdullah. 80. Al-Hidaayah. 32-33. Birmingham. . See e. 81. pp. 35-44.. 102-105 for a fuller discussion. 310). 77.such incidents occurred with Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. pp. 73. p. 1:275. pp. Cairo/Aleppo. 36.D. 76.. ibid. 72. Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Da'ifah.. 1691. al-Dhahabi. but each time a scholar of Hadith intervened to point out the forgery . p. no.. p. Muhammad al-'Ijlouni. pp. p. 43. p. Criticism of Hadith. 1414/1993). al-Nawawi. ibid. 370f (Eng. ibid. 74. al-Khulasah fi Usul al-Hadith (ed. 75. 463) and Ibn Taimiyyah (d. ibid. Ansari. 38. 1402/1982). 156. al-Nawawi.F. 2016. 1:275. 239. in 1. Muqaddimah. pp. 24. 82. p. al-Dhahabi. no. al-Dhahabi. M. 68. p. except for what is confirmed or denied by the Qur'an and Sunnah.A. 62. Suhaib Hasan. 85. 2163. 65. An Introduction to the Principles of Tafseer of Ibn Taimiyyah (trans. 69. al-Sakhawi. 1:99. A. ibid.
1078. no. no. 1005-6. 2276. 2532. no. Kashf al-Khafa'. Da'if al-Jami' al.92. Kashf al-Khafa'. nos.Saghir. Al-Da'ifah. no. 1416. Al-Da'ifah. 103. Al-Da'ifah. Da'if al-Jami' al-Saghir. Kashf al-Khafa'. no. no. 98. 94. 1665. 1362.Saghir. Kashf al-Khafa'. 593. nos. 99. nos. 66. 100. Kashf al-Khafa'. no. 416. 102. 2130. 4. Kashf al-Khafa'. 3913Al-Da'ifah. no. 97. no. no. 95. 93. Al-Da'ifah. Sahih al-Jami' al. 618. no. no. no. 1410. 1761. 101. 58. 1102. no. 36. Kashf al-Khafa'. . Al-Sahihah. Kashf al-Khafa'. 96.
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