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American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

C1.0 - 2006 Standard for

Composite Steel Floor Deck

s copyright 2009 steel deck institute

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck

1. General 7. Underwriters Laboratories C. Sheet steel for accessories shall
(UL) Fire Resistance Directory- conform to ASTM A653
1.1 Scope: (A653M)-minimum yield
2006 strength of 33 ksi (230 MPa).
A. This specification for Composite Structural Quality for structural
Steel Deck shall govern the Commentary: Many fire accessories, ASTM A653 (A653M)
materials, design, and related assemblies that use Commercial Quality for
erection of cold formed composite floor decks are non-structural accessories, or
steel deck which acts as a available. In the Underwriters ASTM A1008 (A1008M) for
permanent form and as Laboratories Fire Resistance either structural or
positive reinforcement Directory, the composite deck non-structural accessories.
for a structural concrete slab. constructions show hourly Other structural sheet steels or
ratings for restrained and high strength low alloy steels
B. Commentary shall not be unrestrained assemblies. ASTM
considered part of the are acceptable, and shall be
E119 provides information in selected from the North
mandatory document. appendix X3 called “Guide for American Specification for the
Determining Conditions of Design of Cold-Formed Steel
1.2 Reference Codes, Restraint for Floor and Roof Structural Members.
Standards and Documents: Assemblies and for
Individual Beams”. D. The deck type (profile) and
A. Codes and Standards: thickness (gage) shall be as
For purposes of this Standard, B. Reference Documents: shown on the plans.
comply with applicable Refer to the following
provisions of the following documents: Commentary: Most composite
Codes and Standards: steel floor deck is manufactured
1. SDI Composite Deck Design from steel conforming to ASTM
1. American Iron and Steel Handbook-CDD2-1997 Designation A1008 (A1008M),
Institute (AISI) Standard-North Grades 33 and 40, or from A653
2. SDI Manual of Construction
American Specification for (A653M), Structural Sheet Steel.
the Design of Cold-Formed with Steel Deck-MOC2-2006
When specifying alternative
Steel Structural Members, 2001 3. SDI Standard Practice Details- steels, certain restrictions apply
Edition with Supplement 2004 SPD2-2001 (See North American Specification
2. American Welding Society- 4. SDI Diaphragm Design for the Design of Cold-Formed
ANSI/AWS D1.3 Structural Manual-DDMO3-2004 Steel Structural Members Section
Welding Code/Sheet Steel-98 A 2-3.2). 2.1A refers to the use of
Structural Welding Code- 2. Products galvanized deck while 2.1B refers
Sheet Steel to the use of uncoated or
2.1 Material: phosphatized top/painted
3. American Society for Testing underside deck. In most cases the
and Materials (ASTM) A653 A. Sheet steel for galvanized deck
shall conform to ASTM A653 designer will choose one finish or
(A653M)-06, A924 (A924M)-06, the other. However, both types of
A1008 (A1008M)-06, A820 (A653M) Structural Quality, with
a minimum yield strength of finish may be used on a job, in
(A820M)-06, C1399 (C1399M)- which case the designer must
04, Test Method E2322-03, 33 ksi (230 MPa).
indicate on the plans and project
ASTM Subcommittee CO9.42 B. Sheet steel for uncoated or specifications the areas in which
4. American Concrete Institute phosphatized top/painted each is used. (Refer to Section 2.3
(ACI) Building Code bottom deck shall conform to and the commentary of these
Requirements for Reinforced ASTM A1008 (A1008M) with specifications). In section 2.1D, the
Concrete – ACI 318-05 a minimum yield strength of deck type is the particular profile of
33 ksi (230 MPa). Other deck chosen by the designer.
5. American Society of Civil Engi- structural sheet steels or high
neering (ASCE)-SEI/ASCE7-05 strength low alloy steels are 2.2 Tolerance:
acceptable, and shall be
6. American Institute of Steel A. Uncoated thickness shall not be
selected from the North
Construction (AISC)- less than 95% of the design
American Specification for the
Specification for Structural thickness as listed in Table 2.2.1:
Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Steel Buildings, 13th Edition
Structural Members.

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck

Table 2.2.1
Gage Design Minimum considered an impermanent and may be restricted and an
No. Thickness Thickness provisional coating. amplification factor of 1.5 is applied
in. mm. in. mm. to the concrete load to address this
22 0.0295 0.75 0.028 0.71 2.4 Design: condition; however, in order to keep
21 0.0329 0.84 0.031 0.79 A. Deck as a form this 50% load increase within a
20 0.0358 0.91 0.034 0.86 reasonable limit, the increase is not
19 0.0418 1.06 0.040 1.01 1. The section properties for to exceed 30 psf (1.44 kPa). In LRFD,
18 0.0474 1.20 0.045 1.14 the steel floor deck unit (as a a load factor for construction of 1.4
17 0.0538 1.37 0.051 1.30
form in bending) shall be is applied to this load. Whenever
computed in accordance with possible, the deck shall be
16 0.0598 1.52 0.057 1.44
the North American Specification multi-span and not require shoring
B. Panel length shall be within plus for the Design of Cold-Formed during concrete placement.
or minus 1/2 inch (12 mm) of Steel Structural Members.
4. Deck Deflection: Calculated
specified length. 2. Allowable Stress Design (ASD): deflections of the deck, as a
C. Panel cover width shall be no Bending stress shall not exceed form, shall be based on the
greater than minus 3/8 inch 0.60 times the yield strength, load of the wet concrete as
(10 mm), plus 3/4 inch (20 mm). nor exceed 36 ksi (250MPa) determined by the design slab
under the combined loads thickness and the weight of
D. Panel camber and/or sweep of wet concrete, deck weight, the steel deck, uniformly
shall be no greater than 1/4 inch and the following construction loaded on all spans, and shall
in 10 foot length (6 mm in 3 m). live loads: 20 pounds per be limited to 1/180 of the
E. Panel end out of square shall square foot (1 kPa) uniform clear span or 3/4 inch
not be greater than 1/8 inch per load or 150 pound concentrated (20 mm), whichever is smaller.
foot of panel width (10 mm per m). load on a 1’-0” (300 mm) wide Calculated deflections shall be
section of deck (2.2 kN per m). relative to supporting members.
2.3 Finish: The interaction of shear and
bending shall be considered in Commentary: The deflection
A. Galvanizing shall conform to the calculations. calculations do not take into
ASTM A653 (A653M). (See Figure 1-Attachment C1) account construction loads
because these are considered
B. Uncoated or phosphatized 3. Load and Resistance temporary loads. The deck is
topside with painted underside Factor Design (LRFD): The load designed to always be in the elastic
shall be applied to steel sheet combinations for construction range so removal of temporary
conforming to ASTM A1008 are as shown in Attachment C1. loads should allow the deck to
(A1008M). Load factors shall be in recover. The structural steel also
C. The finish on the steel accordance with ASCE 7 (See deflects under the loading of the
composite deck shall be Section 1.2.A.5). The wet concrete.
suitable for the environment resistance factors and nominal
resistances shall be in The designer is urged to check
of the structure. the deflection of the total system,
accordance with North
Commentary: The finish on the American Specification for especially if composite beams
steel composite deck shall be as the Design of Cold-Formed and girders are being used. If the
specified by the designer and be Steel Structural Members. designer wants to include
suitable for the environment of additional concrete loading on the
the structure. Since the composite Commentary: The loading shown deck because of frame deflection,
deck is the positive bending in Figure 1 of Attachment C1 is the additional load should be
reinforcement for the slab, it must representative of the sequential shown on the design drawings or
be designed to last the life of the loading of wet concrete on the stated in the deck section of the
structure. A galvanized finish deck. The 150 pound load (per foot job specifications.
equal to ASTM A653 (A653M)-G30 of width) is the result of distributing
minimum is recommended. a 300 pound (1.33 kN) man over a 5. Minimum Bearing: Minimum
When composite deck with a 2 foot (600 mm) width. Experience interior bearing lengths shall
phosphatized top and painted has shown this to be a conservative be determined in accordance
bottom is used, the primer coat distribution. The metric equivalent with the web crippling
is intended to protect the steel of the 150 pound load is 2.2 kN per provisions of the North
for only a short period of meter of width. For single span American Specification for the
exposure in ordinary atmospheric deck conditions, the ability to Design of Cold-Formed Steel
conditions and shall be control the concrete placement Structural Members; a uniform

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck

loading case of wet concrete, reinforcement. The deck must be Commentary: By using the
plus the weight of the steel suitable to develop composite reference analysis techniques or
deck, plus 20 psf (1 kPa) interaction. Justification of this test results, the deck manufacturer
construction load shall be used. requires full scale testing as per determines the live loads that can
(See Figure 3-Attachment C1) ASTM E2322, or calculations based be applied to the composite deck
upon testing. slab combination. The results are
Commentary: Experience usually published as uniform load
has shown that 1-1/2 inches a. Allowable Strength Design tables. For most applications, the
(38 mm) of bearing is sufficient (ASD) shall be permitted as an deck thickness and profile is
for composite floor decks. If alternate design method. selected so that shoring is not
less than 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) of (See SDI Composite Deck required; the live load capacity of
end bearing is available, or if high Design Handbook.) the composite system is usually
support reactions are expected, b. Standard reinforced concrete more than adequate for the
the design professional should design procedures shall be used superimposed live loads. In
check the deck web crippling to determine ultimate load calculating the section properties
capacity. The deck must be capacity. The allowable of the deck, the AISI provisions may
adequately attached to the superimposed load shall then require that compression zones in
structure to prevent slip off. be determined by deducting the deck be reduced to an
6. Diaphragm Shear Capacity: the weight of the slab and the “effective width,” but as tensile
Diaphragms without concrete deck. Attachment C4, reinforcement, the total area of
shall be designed in accordance Strength and Serviceability the cross section may be used.
with the SDI Diaphragm Design Determination of Composite (See attachment C5)
Manual, or from tests Deck Slab shall be used for Coatings other than those tested
conducted by an independent strength determination. may be investigated, and if there
professional engineer. is evidence that their performance
Commentary: High concentrated is better than that of the tested
Commentary: Calculations of loads, diaphragm loads, etc. require
diaphragm strength and stiffness product, additional testing may
additional analysis. Horizontal not be required.
should be made using the SDI load capacities can be determined
Diaphragm Design Manual. If by referring to the SDI Diaphragm 3. Concrete: Concrete design
testing is used as the means for Design Manual. Concentrated loads shall be in accordance with the
determining the diaphragm can be analyzed by the methods ACI Building Code
strength and stiffness, then it shown in the SDI Composite Deck Requirements for Reinforced
should follow the AISI TS 7-02 Design Handbook. Most published Concrete. Minimum
test protocol. live load tables are based on compressive strength (f’c) shall
B. Deck and Concrete as a simple span analysis of the be a minimum of 3 ksi
Composite Slab: composite system; that is, the (20 MPa) or as required for fire
slab is assumed to crack over each ratings or durability.
1. General: The “SDI Method” support. Admixtures containing chloride
(refer to SDI Composite Deck salts shall not be used.
Design Handbook) shall be 2. Load Determination: Using
limited to galvanized or standard reinforced concrete Commentary: Load tables are
topside uncoated steel decks design procedures, the generally calculated by using a
with embossments. The allowable superimposed load concrete strength of 3 ksi (20 MPa).
embossment patterns shall shall be found by using Composite slab capacities are not
be typical of the manufactured appropriate load and greatly affected by variations in
steel deck with the depth of the resistance design factors (LRFD) concrete compressive strength;
embossment not less than 90% and applicable reduction but, if the strength falls below
of the tested embossment factors based on the presence, 3 ksi (20 MPa) it would be advisable
depth. (Refer to Attachment C4 absence, or spacing of shear to check shear stud strengths. Fire
for further limitations). studs on beams perpendicular rating requirements may dictate
to the deck. (Refer to the minimum concrete strength.
The composite slab shall be designed Attachment C4 and C5) The use of admixtures containing
as a reinforced concrete slab with chloride salts is not allowed
the steel deck acting as the positive because the salts will corrode the
steel deck.

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck

a. Minimum Cover: The minimum 6. Reinforcement: moment exists, the deck shall
concrete thickness above the a. Temperature and shrinkage be designed to act only as a
top of the steel deck shall be reinforcement, consisting of permanent form.
2 inches (50 mm). When welded wire fabric or reinforcing
additional (negative bending) bars, shall have a minimum Commentary: Composite steel
reinforcement is placed in the area of 0.00075 times the area deck does not function as
slab, the minimum cover of of the concrete above the deck compression reinforcing steel in
concrete above the reinforcing (per foot or meter of width), areas of negative moment. If the
shall be in accordance with the but shall not be less than the designer wants a continuous slab,
ACI Building Code Requirements area provided by 6x6-W1.4 x then negative bending reinforcing
for Reinforced Concrete. should be designed using
W1.4 welded wire fabric. conventional reinforced concrete
4. Deflection: Deflection of the Fibers shall be permitted as a design techniques in compliance
composite slab shall not exceed suitable alternative to the with the ACI Building Code
1/360 of the clear span under welded wire fabric specified Requirements for Reinforced
the superimposed live load. for temperature and shrinkage Concrete. The welded wire fabric,
Commentary: Live load deflections reinforcement. Cold-drawn chosen for temperature
are seldom a design factor. The steel fibers meeting the criteria reinforcing, may not supply
deflection of the slab/deck of ASTM A820, at a minimum enough area for continuity. The
combination can be predicted by addition rate of 25 lb/cu yd deck is not considered to be
using the average of the cracked (14.8 kg/cu meter), or macro compression reinforcement.
and uncracked moments of inertia synthetic fibers “Coarse fibers” Typically negative reinforcement
as determined by the transformed (per ASTM Subcommittee is required at all cantilevered slabs,
section method of analysis. Refer to CO9.42), made from virgin or if a continuous slab is desired.
Attachment C5 of this specification polyolefin, shall have an
equivalent diameter between c. Distribution: When localized
or the SDI Composite Deck Design loads exceed the published
Handbook. 0.4 mm (0.016 in.) and 1.25 mm
(0.05 in.), having a minimum uniform composite deck load
5. Suspended Loads: All aspect ratio (length/equivalent tables, the designer shall
suspended loads must be diameter) of 50, at a minimum proportion distribution
included in the analysis and addition rate of 4 lb./cu yd reinforcement using
calculations for strength and (2.4 kg/m3) are suitable to be conventional concrete design
deflection. used as minimum temperature methods.
Commentary: The designer must and shrinkage reinforcement. Commentary: Distribution steel
take into account the sequence may be required in addition to the
Commentary: Neither welded wire
of loading. Suspended loads may welded wire fabric or steel fibers.
fabric or fibers will prevent
include ceilings, light fixtures, Concentrated loads, either during
cracking; however, they have
ducts or other utilities. The construction or in-service, are the
been shown to do a good job
designer must be informed of any most common example of this
of crack control. The welded wire
loads applied after the composite requirement. Concentrated loads
fabric must be placed near the top may be analyzed by the methods
slab has been installed. of the slab [3/4 to 1 inch cover in the latest SDI Composite Deck
(20 to 25 mm)] at supports and
Care should be used during the draped toward the center of the Design Handbook.
placement of loads on all types of deck span. If a welded wire fabric
hanger tabs or other hanging 7. Cantilever Loads: When
is used with a steel area given cantilevered slabs are
devices for the support of ceilings by the above formula, it will not
so that an approximate uniform encountered, the deck acts
be sufficient as the total negative only as a permanent form; top
loading is maintained. The reinforcement. If the minimum
individual manufacturer should be reinforcing steel shall be
quantity of steel fibers, or macro proportioned by the designer.
consulted for allowable loading on synthetic fibers, are used for
single hanger tabs. Improper use of For construction loads, the deck
shrinkage and temperature shall be designed for the more
hanger tabs or other hanging reinforcement, they will not be
devices could result in the severe of (a) deck plus slab
sufficient as a total negative weight plus 20 psf (1 kPa)
overstressing of tabs and/or the reinforcement. construction load on both
overloading of the composite
deck slab. b. Negative: When negative cantilever and adjacent span, or
(b) deck plus slab weight on

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck

both cantilever and adjacent 2.5 Accessories: design strength and a
span plus a 150 pound (665N) minimum of seven (7) days.
concentrated load per foot of A. Pour stops, column closures,
width at end of cantilever. The end closures, cover plates, and E. Deck panels shall be placed
load factors for bending, shear, girder fillers shall be the type on structural supports and
and interior bearing shall be as suitable for the application. adjusted to final position with
required by ASCE 7. Resistance Pour stop minimum gages ends aligned, and attached
factors for bending, shear, and shall be in accordance with the securely to the supports
interior bearing shall be in Steel Deck Institute. (See Pour immediately after placement
accordance with the North Stop Selection Table, in order to form a safe working
American Specification for the Attachment C2) platform. All deck sheets shall
Design of Cold Formed have adequate bearing and
B. Mechanical fasteners or welds fastening to all supports to

Structural Members. shall be permitted for deck and prevent slip off during
The maximum cantilever accessory attachment. construction. Deck ends over
deflection as a form, under supports shall be installed
deck plus slab weight, shall be 3. Execution with a minimum end bearing
a/90 where “a” is the cantilever 3.1 Installation/ General: of 1-1/2 inches (38 mm). Deck
length, and shall not exceed A. Support framing and field areas subject to heavy or
3/4 inches (19 mm). conditions shall be examined repeated traffic, concentrated
Side laps shall be attached at for compliance with installation loads, impact loads, wheel
the end of the cantilever and tolerances and other loads, etc. shall be adequately
a maximum spacing of 12 conditions affecting protected by planking or
inches (300 mm) o.c. from the performance of work of this other approved means to avoid
cantilever end. Each section. All OSHA rules for overloading and/or damage.
corrugation shall be erection shall be followed. F. Butted Ends: Deck ends
fastened at both the perimeter B. Deck panels shall be installed shall be butted over supports.
support and the first interior on a concrete support
support. The deck shall be Commentary: Lapping composite
structure only after the deck ends can be difficult
completely attached to the concrete has attained 75% of
supports and at the side laps because shear lugs (web
before any load is applied to the its specified design strength. embossment) or profile shape
cantilever. Concrete shall not be C. Deck panels and accessories can prevent a tight metal to
placed on the cantilever until shall be installed according metal fit. The space between
after placement on the adjacent to the SDI Manual of lapped sheets can make
span. Construction with Steel Deck, welded attachments more
placement plans, and difficult. Gaps are acceptable
8. Diaphragm Shear Capacity: up to 1” (25 mm) at butted ends.
requirements of this Section.
Diaphragms with concrete shall
be designed in accordance with D. Temporary shoring, if required, G. Deck units and accessories shall
the SDI Diaphragm Design shall be installed before be cut and neatly fit around
Manual, or from tests conducted placing deck panels. scheduled openings and other
by an independent professional Temporary shoring shall be work projecting through or
engineer. designed to resist a minimum adjacent to the decking.
uniform load of 50 psf (2.4 kPa), Commentary: It is the
Commentary: Calculations of and loading criteria indicated
diaphragm strength and stiffness responsibility of the designer to
on Attachment C1. Shoring designate holes/openings to be
should be made using the SDI shall be securely in place
Diaphragm Design Manual. If decked over in compliance with
before the floor deck erection applicable federal and state OSHA
testing is used as the means for begins. The shoring shall be
determining the diaphragm directives. Care should be taken
designed and installed in to analyze spans between
strength and stiffness, then it accordance with the ACI
should follow the AISI TS 7-02 test supports at openings when
Building Code Requirements determining those holes/openings
protocol. for Reinforced Concrete and
to be decked over. When a framed
shall be left in place until the opening span exceeds the
slab attains 75% of its specified maximum deck span limits for

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck

construction loads, the opening demonstrate an ability to the type and spacing of the
must be detailed around instead produce satisfactory welds fastener satisfies the design
of decked over. (Minimum floor using a procedure such as criteria. Documentation in the
construction load 50 lbs./sq. ft. shown in the SDI Manual of form of test data, design
(2.4 kPa), unless specific Construction with Steel Deck, or calculations, or design charts
requirements dictate otherwise). as described in ANSI/AWS D1.3. should be submitted by the
fastener manufacturer as the
When a framed hole/opening in 2. A minimum visible 5/8 inch
floor deck is shown and basis for obtaining approval.
(15 mm) diameter arc
dimensioned on the structural puddle weld shall be used. 6. For deck units with spans
design drawings, pour stop Weld metal shall penetrate all greater than 5 feet (1.5 m), side
(screed) angle is required to top layers of deck material, and laps and perimeter edges of
of slab. When specified, cell closure shall have good fusion to units between span supports
angle will be provided at the open the supporting members. shall be fastened at intervals
ends of deck in standard 10’-0” not exceeding 36 inches (1 m)
(3 m) lengths to be field sized, cut 3. Edge ribs of panels shall be on center, using one of the
and installed. Alternate means to welded at each support. following methods:
dam concrete may be used in lieu Space additional welds an a. #10 self drilling screws
of cell closure, at the discretion of average of 12 inches (300 mm) b. Crimp or button punch
the installer, if approved by the apart but not more than c. Arc puddle welds 5/8 inch
designer. 18 inches (460 mm). (15 mm) minimum visible
4. When used, fillet welds shall be at diameter, or minimum 1 inch
When a hole/opening is not shown
and dimensioned on the least 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) long. (25 mm) long fillet weld.
structural design drawings, no 5. Mechanical fasteners, either Commentary: The above side lap
provisions for concrete retainage powder actuated, spacing is a minimum. Service
will be provided by the metal deck pneumatically driven, or loads or diaphragm design may
manufacturer/supplier. Metal floor screws, shall be permitted in require closer spacing or larger
decking holes and openings to be lieu of welding to fasten deck side lap welds. Good metal to
cut after the concrete pour shall to supporting framing if metal contact is necessary for a
not be field cut until concrete has fasteners meet all project good side lap weld. Burn holes
reached 75% of its design strength service requirements. When are to be expected.
and a minimum of seven (7) days. the fasteners are powder B. Accessory Attachment:
H. Trades that subsequently cut actuated or pneumatically
unscheduled openings driven, the load value per 1. Pour Stop and Girder Fillers:
through the deck shall be fastener used to determine the Pour stops and girder fillers
responsible for reinforcing maximum fastener spacing is shall be fastened to supporting
these openings based upon an based on a minimum structural structure in accordance with
approved engineered design. support thickness of not less the SDI Standard Practice
than 1/8 inch (3 mm) and on Details, and Attachment C2.
3.2 Installation/Anchorage: the fastener providing a 2. Floor Deck Closures:
minimum 5/16 inch (8 mm) Column closures, cell closures,
A. Floor deck units shall be diameter bearing surface
anchored to steel supporting girder closures and Z closures
(fastener head size). When the shall be fastened to provide
members including perimeter structural support thickness is
support steel and/or bearing tight fitting closures at open
less than 1/8 inch (3 mm), ends of ribs and sides of
walls by arc spot puddle welds powder actuated or
of the following diameter and decking. Fasten cell closures at
pneumatically driven fasteners changes of direction of floor
spacing, fillet welds of equal shall not be used, but screws
strength, or mechanical deck units unless otherwise
are acceptable. directed.
Commentary: Mechanical
1. All welding of deck shall be in fasteners (screws, powder or
strict accordance with ANSI/AWS pneumatically driven fasteners,
D1.3, Structural Welding Code- etc.) are recognized as viable
Sheet Steel. Each welder shall anchoring methods, provided

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Attachment C1

Composite Deck Construction Loading Diagrams
Loading Diagrams Loading Diagrams Loading Diagrams
and Bending Moments and Deflections and Support Reactions

Simple W11 Simple W1 Simple W2
Span l Span l Span W1
+M = .25Pl + 0.125W11l2 l
Condition Condition Δ = .0130W1 l (1728)
Condition Pext Pext
Pext = .5 (W1 + W2)l
+M = .125 (W11 + W2)l2

Double W1 Double W2

Span l l Span W1
l l
Double W1 Condition Δ = .0054W1 l (1728)
Condition Pext Pext Pext
Span l l
Pext = .375 (W1 + W2)l
Condition +M = .203Pl + .096W1l2 Pext = 1.25 (W1 + W2)l
l l Triple W1 Triple W2
+M = .096 (W1 + W2)l2 Span l l l Span W1
l l l
W2 Condition Δ = .0069W1 l (1728)
Condition Pext Pext Pext Pext
l l Pext = .4 (W1 + W2)l
–M = .125 (W1 + W2)l2 Pext = 1.1 (W1 + W2)l

Triple W1
Span l l l
Condition +M = .20Pl + .094W1l2
W1 Notes for Figures 1, 2, and 3 LRFD Load Factors
l l l
+M = .094 (W1 + W2)l2 P = 150 pound concentrated load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4
W2 I = in4/ft. - deck moment of inertia
W1 = slab weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6
l l l
–M = .117 (W1 + W2)l2 + deck weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
W2 = 20 pounds per square foot construction load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4
E = 29.5 x 106 psi
l = clear span length (ft.)
W11 = 1.5 x slab weight + deck weight < slab weight
+ 30 + deck weight

Dimensional check shows the need for the 1728 factor when
calculating deflections using pound inch units.

Note: In addition to an analysis of slab weight plus construction surcharge, the deck must
be independently investigated for a total construction load of 50 psf. The step loads in
figures 1 through 3 shall be used.

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Attachment C2

Pour Stop Selection Table
overhang (inches)
depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
(INCHES) pour stop types
4.00 20 20 20 20 18 18 16 14 12 12 12 10 10
4.25 20 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 12 12 12 10 10
4.50 20 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 12 12 12 10 10
4.75 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10
5.00 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10
5.25 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10
5.50 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10
5.75 20 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10
6.00 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10
6.25 18 18 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10
6.50 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10
6.75 18 16 14 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10
7.00 18 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10
7.25 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10
7.50 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 THICKNESS
7.75 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 20 0.0358
8.00 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 18 0.0474
8.25 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 16 0.0598
8.50 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 14 0.0747
8.75 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 12 0.1046
9.00 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 0.1345
9.25 12 12 12 12 10 10 10
9.50 12 12 12 10 10 10
9.75 12 12 12 10 10 10
10.00 12 12 10 10 10 10
10.25 12 12 10 10 10
10.50 12 12 10 10 10
10.75 12 10 10 10
11.00 12 10 10 10
1” (25 mm) fillet welds
11.25 12 10 10 @ 12” o.c. pour stop slab
11.50 10 10 10 depth
11.75 10 10
12.00 10 10

2” (50 mm) min.


see note 5

NOTES: This Selection Chart is based on following criteria:

1. Normal weight concrete (150 PCF).
2. Horizontal and vertical deflection is limited to ¼” maximum for concrete dead load.
3. Design stress is limited to 20 KSI for concrete dead load temporarily increased by one-third for the construction live load of 20 PSF.
4. Pour Stop Selection Chart does not consider the effect of the performance, deflection, or rotation of the pour stop support which may
include both the supporting composite deck and/or the frame.
5. Vertical leg return lip is recommended for all types (gages).

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Attachment C3

SI Units Conversion Tables


in to mm 25.4 (exact)
LENGTH ft to mm 304.8 (exact)
ft to m 0.3048 (exact)

AREA in2 to mm2 645.16 (exact)

ft2 to m2 0.092903

lb to kg 0.453592
2000 lb to 1000 kg 0.907185
MASS lb/ft to kg/m 1.48816
lb/ft3 to kg/m3 16.0185
lb/yd3 to kg/m3 0.593276

lb to N 4.44822
kip to kN 4.44822
lb/in to N/m 175.127
FORCE lb/ft to N/m 14.5939
kip/ft to kN/m 14.5939
psf to kN/m2 47.880

lb/in2 to kPa 6.89476

PRESSURE lb/ft2 to kPa 0.04788
kip/in2 to MPa 6.89476

SECTION in3 to mm3 16387.1

MODULUS in3/ft to mm3/m 53763.5

MOMENT OF in4 to mm4 416231

INERTIA in4/ft to mm4/m 1365587

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Attachment C4

Strength and Serviceability Determination of Composite Deck-Slab
Unless composite deck-slabs are angle, , shall be limited to ultimate moment without shear
designed for continuity, the load values between 55° and 90° and studs.
affects are assumed to act on the webs shall have no
φMnf = φAsFy(d - a/2)
simple spans. reentrant bends in their flat
width. The steel section depth, where
C4.1 Strength for Bending
dd, is limited to 3 in. (75 mm). As = steel deck area per unit
This section is used
The concrete design width of steel deck
to determine the bending
compressive strengths shall be AF
strength of the composite a = s y = developed depth
between 2500 psi (17 MPa) and 0.85f ' b
deck-slab. c of concrete in the
6000 psi (40 MPa). The minimum
A. SDI Method - With No Shear concrete thickness above the steel compression zone
Studs on Beams deck shall be 2 inches (50 mm). b = unit width
This method is used if there are d = distance from the top of the slab
The usable slab capacity is to the centroid of the steel deck
no shear studs present on the
limited to decks with thickness Fy = steel yield strength, not to
beam supporting the exceed 60 ksi (415 MPa)
0.0474 inches (1.20 mm) unless
composite steel deck. Mnf = nominal (ultimate) moment
sufficient test data is available to
The resisting moment, Mno, of capacity with studs on beam
support the use of the method
the composite section is φ = 0.85 and is the resistance factor
with deck of greater thickness.
determined based on a cracked
2) Continuity Over Supports This method is limited to
section analysis. Refer to
In continuous slabs, those constructions where the number
attachment C5 for calculation
sections subjected to negative of shear studs present equals or
of the transformed section
moments shall be designed as exceeds Ns, the minimum number
 conventionally reinforced of shear studs per foot of deck
Icr 

 
φMno = φFy = φScFy concrete slabs. In composite width to develop the full cross
h - ycc slabs, moments and shears shall section of the steel deck.
be calculated by an analysis or, if Fy  
where Awebs

 
applicable, by the coefficients of Ns = As – – Abf , studs/unit width
Fy = yield stress of steel Qn 2
deck ≤ 60 ksi Chapter 8 of ACI Building Code
h = slab depth Requirements for Reinforced
Icr = cracked section Concrete, ACI 318. where
moment of inertia Abf = deck bottom flange area per
3) Allowable Stress Design unit width of steel deck
Mno = nominal resisting moment
Allowable stress design (ASD)
Ycc = distance from top of slab
to neutral axis of cracked is acceptable as an alternate Asc = cross-sectional area of stud
section design method. See the SDI shear connector, in2 (mm2) 1/2”
φ = 0.85 and is the resistance Composite Deck Design and 3/4” diameter studs are
factor acceptable
1) Limitations Awebs= deck web area per unit width
B. SDI Method - With Shear of steel deck
The “SDI Method” shall be Studs on Beams
limited to galvanized or topside This method is to be used if f c' = concrete strength, ksi (MPa)
uncoated steel decks with there are shear studs present
embossments. The embossment Ec = modulus of elasticity of
on the beam supporting the
patterns shall be typical of the q
concrete = q
composite steel deck in
manufactured steel deck with sufficient quantity to develop w c ,
f c' ksi (0.043w c1.5
f c' , MPa)
the depth of the embossment q
the ultimate capacity of the f c' Ec < 0.75AscFu
not less than 90% of the tested 0.5Asc
Qn =
section in bending, or if tests on
embossment depth. The web a particular deck profile = nominal strength of one
have shown that the deck is stud shear connector in
capable of developing the full solid concrete
American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Attachment C4

The value, Ns, is to be installed thickness; concrete weight, C4.3 Deflection
along each beam. At butted end strength, and type; shear The deflection of the composite
laps, studs shall be staggered to transfer devices; method of slab shall not exceed span/360
arrest both ends of the deck at loading; etc.) are considered. under superimposed load. The
the common joint. At perimeter These analyses can include deflection can be predicted using
conditions or openings (where nonlinear relationships between the average of the cracked and
slabs are discontinuous) all various parameters. Sufficient uncracked moment of inertia as
studs must engage the deck end. tests shall be made to establish determined from the transformed
The value, Qn, is subject to the method-test variability. section method of analysis.
reduction when considering
C4.2 Strength for Shear
composite beam action and
This section is used to determine
the stud is installed through
the shear strength of the
deck. Reduction does not apply
composite deck-slab.
to the determination of Ns. q
f c' c
Vn = Vc+ VD ≤ 4 A
The following is to be used when
the shear studs are present on
the beam supporting the
composite steel deck, but are where q
not present in sufficient quantity Vc = 2βc
f c' Ac , shear resistance of
to develop the ultimate capacity concrete per unit width

of the section in bending. VD = shear strength of the steel deck
N s' section per unit width
Mnp = Mno+ (Mnf – Mno ) <≤ Mnf calculated per AISI
Ac = concrete area available to
Use φMnp for the factored resist shear, see Figure C1
resistance in design.
βc = 1.0 if concrete density exceeds
where 130 lbs/ft3, 0.75 otherwise
Mno is determined from Section C4.1.A

Mnf as determined from Section C4.1.B
Mnp = useable nominal moment
capacity at stud density = N s'
N s' = the number of shear studs
actually present along the
beam per unit width of steel
deck – 1/2” and 3/4” diameter
studs are acceptable
N s' is determined from Section C4.1.B

φ = 0.85 and is the resistance factor

C. Alternate Methods
Other rational methods for
establishing composite slab
strength can be used if the
pertinent parameters
contributing to composite
slab strength (including deck
cross section; steel Figure C

American National standards institute/ steel deck institute

® C1.0 - 2006 Attachment C5

Section Properties of Composite Deck - Slabs
C5.1 Transformed Composite Neutral Axis If ycc > hc use ycc = hc.
The distance ycc from the extreme compression fiber of
the concrete to the neutral axis of the transformed The cracked moment of inertia Ic is
composite section shall be determined from ycs = d – ycc (Use ycc from Equation C5-1.)
Figure C5.1 and Equation C5-1. b (C5-2)
Icr = ycc3 + Asycs2 + Isf

Isf is the moment of inertia of the full (unreduced)
steel deck per unit slab width.

C5.3 Moment of Inertia of Uncracked Section

For the uncracked moment of inertia
0.5bhc2 + nAsd + Wrdd (h – 0.5dd)
Cs (C5-3)
ycc =
bhc + nAs + Wrdd

Figure C5.1-Composite Section The uncracked moment of inertia is

Note: 1. Section shows non-cellular deck. Section shall be ycs = d – ycc (Use ycc from Equation C5-3.)
either cellular, a blend of cellular and non-cellular
deck, or non-cellular deck 3  
Iu = bhc + (y
bhc 2 Wr bdd dd2
cc – 0.5hc) + Isf + Asycs + + (h – ycc – 0.5dd)
2 2

2. C.G.S. = centroidal axis of full cross section of steel 12n n nCs 12

3. Cs = pitch
4. N.A. = neutral axis of transformed composite C5.4 Moment of Inertia of Composite Section
section The moment of inertia of composite section considered
5. Wr = average rib width effective for deflective computations is given by

C5.2 Moment of Inertia of Cracked Section I +I

Id = u cr (Transformed to steel) (C5.4)
When ycc is equal to or less than the depth of concrete, hc , 2
above the top of steel deck, that is, ycc <≤hc , then
q 
ycc = d 2ρn + (ρn)2 – ρn (C5-1)

ρ = s
As = area of steel deck per unit slab width
b = unit slab width (12 inches in imperial units)
d = distance from top of concrete to centroid of steel deck
Es Es = 29500 ksi
n = modular ratio =
Ec q
Ec = γ1.5 f c' ksi
γ = concrete density, lbs/ft3
c' = concrete strength, ksi