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Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on SIGNAL


University of Cambridge, UK
February 20-22, 2010

Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering

A Series of Reference Books and Textbooks

Published by WSEAS Press ISSN: 1790-5117 ISBN: 978-960-474-157-1
Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on SIGNAL

University of Cambridge, UK
February 20-22, 2010

Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering

A Series of Reference Books and Textbooks

Published by WSEAS Press
Copyright © 2010, by WSEAS Press

All the copyright of the present book belongs to the World Scientific and Engineering Academy and
Society Press. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Editor of World Scientific and Engineering Academy
and Society Press.

All papers of the present volume were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers. Acceptance was
granted when both reviewers' recommendations were positive.
See also:

ISSN: 1790-5117
ISBN: 978-960-474-157-1

World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society


Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on SIGNAL


University of Cambridge, UK
February 20-22, 2010
Prof. Lotfi A. Zadeh, University of Berkeley, USA
Prof. Janusz Kacprzyk, International Fuzzy Systems Association, POLAND
Prof. Nikos Mastorakis, Technical University of Sofia, BULGARIA
Prof. Angel Kuri-Morales, Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, MEXICO
Prof. Pierre Borne, Ecole Centrale de Lille, FRANCE
Prof. Leonid Kazovsky, Stanford University, USA

International Program Committee Members:

Cuauhtemoc Rodriguez, UK
Gehan A.J. Amaratunga, UK
Lotfi A. Zadeh, USA
Katia Sycara, USA
Olga Martin, ROMANIA
Marketa Mazalkova, CZECH REPUBLIC
Lina Vasiliauskiene, LITHUANIA
Javier Bilbao, SPAIN
Maria Boile, USA
Naim Sidek, USA
Roberto Revetria, USA
Andrzej W. Ordys, UK
Dalibor Biolek, CZECH REPUBLIC
Metin Demiralp, TURKEY
Vincenzo Niola, ITALY
Akshai Aggarwal, CANADA
Aydin Akan, TURKEY
Valeri Mladenov, BULGARIA
Zoran S. Bojkovic, SERBIA
Jurij Krope, SLOVENIA
George Stavrakakis, GREECE
Nikos C. Tsourveloudis, GREECE
Fumiaki Imado, JAPAN
Simona Lache, ROMANIA
Blagovest Shishkov, BULGARIA
S.A. Selouani, CANADA
Isak Taksa, USA
Anping Xu, P. R. CHINA
Victor-Emil Neagoe, ROMANIA
This year the 9th WSEAS International Conference on SIGNAL PROCESSING, ROBOTICS
and AUTOMATION (ISPRA '10) was held at the University of Cambridge, UK, February 20-
22, 2010. The conference remains faithful to its original idea of providing a platform to discuss
signal processing, fast algorithms, higher order spectrum analysis, speech production and
perception, psychoacoustics, machine vision, computed imaging, evolutionary computation,
robotics, kinematics, dynamics and control of robots, teleoperation, man-machine systems,
cybernetics, automation, circuits and electronics for control, chemical processes control, virtual
reality for automation, machines and mechanical engineering, unmanned vehicles etc. with
participants from all over the world, both from academia and from industry.

Its success is reflected in the papers received, with participants coming from several countries,
allowing a real multinational multicultural exchange of experiences and ideas.

The accepted papers of this conference are published in this Book that will be indexed by ISI.
Please, check it: as well as in the CD-ROM Proceedings. They will
be also available in the E-Library of the WSEAS. The best papers will be also promoted in many
Journals for further evaluation.

A Conference such as this can only succeed as a team effort, so the Editors want to thank the
International Scientific Committee and the Reviewers for their excellent work in reviewing the
papers as well as their invaluable input and advice.

The Editors
Table of Contents
Plenary Lecture 1: Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Distributed Parameter Systems Based on 13
Sensor Networks and Artificial Intelligence
Constantin Volosencu

Plenary Lecture 2: New Approach for Pre-processing and Efficient Archiving of Scanned 14
Roumen Kountchev

Plenary Lecture 3: On the Mechanical Systems Processed by Infrared Thermography 15

Combined with Wavelet Transform
Vincenzo Niola

Plenary Lecture 4: Correlated and Interconnected Analyses for Human Walking and Standing 17
Biomechanical Behavior
Mihaela Ioana Baritz

An Automation for Data Transmission through Power Lines 19

Saeid Rafizadeh, Haleh Kangarloo, Siamak Baradaran K.

New Architecture of Wavelet Packet Transform Using Parallel Filters 23

Hossein Amiri Farahani, Majid Mashayekhi Nezamabadi

Optimized Implementation of a Fast Wavelet Packet Transform Architecture with Hardware 27

Hamid Reza Ghozatloo, Mohammad Noori

Time-Frequency Localisation Analysis for Extracting Fatigue Damaging Events 31

S. Abdullah, T. E. Putra, M. Z. Nuawi, Z. M. Nopiah, A. Arifin, L. Abdullah

Design of ECG Instrumentation and Implementation of Digital Filter for Noise Reduction 36
Mahesh S. Chavan, R. A. Agarwala, M. D. Uplane, M. S. Gaikwad

LQR Optimal Control for Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer 40

H. E. A. Ibrahim

Uncertainty Propagation using Polynomial Chaos and Centre Manifold Theories 46

L. Nechak, S. Berger, E. Aubry

Statistical Analysis of Speech Signals by Weighted ASMDF 52

Roudra Chakraborty, Sagnik Sinha, Debapriya Sengupta

Model Reference Adaptive Temperature Control of the Electromagnetic Oven Process in 57

Manufacturing Process
Jiraphon Srisertpol, Supot Phungphimai

An Extraction of Fatigue Damaging Events by Using Running Damage Extraction (RDE) 62

Z. M. Nopiah, M. N. Baharin, S. Abdullah, M. I. Khairir, A. Ariffin

Dynamic Mill's Deflection for High Feed Machining on Orthogonal Directions 69

Laurentiu-Aurel Mihail
Automatic Iron Cutting Device using IEC61499 FBs Editor 74
Maryam Sadeghi

Wall-Following Exploration with two Cooperating Mobile Robots 80

Mohammad Al Khawaldah, Salvatore Livatino

Time Series Identification Methodology Using Wireless Sensor Networks 86

Daniel-Ioan Curiac, Ovidiu Banias, Constantin Volosencu

Image Content Protection Based on Multi-Layer Decomposition 91

Roumen Kountchev, Vladimir Todorov, Roumiana Kountcheva

Weight Parameters Tuning for Frontier-based Cooperating Robots Exploration 97

Mohammad Al-Khawaldah, Salvatore Livatino, David C. Lee

Hardware Implementation of the Fuzzy Fingerprint Vault System 103

Sung Jin Lim, Seung-Hoon Chae, Hae-Min Moon, Sung Bum Pan

Simulation Studies of Position Control System for Estimation of DC Motor Load Torque 107
Chanyut Khajorntraidet, Jiraphon Srisertpol

A Model-Based Sliding Mode Controller for Extensible Continuum Robots 113

Apoorva D. Kapadia, Ian D. Walker, Darren M. Dawson, Enver Tatlicioglu

Objective Video Quality Assessment for Tracking Moving Objects from Video Sequences 121
E. Mendi, Y. Zhou, M. Milanova, J. Talburt

A Novel Receiver Diversity Combining Technique for Internet-Based 4G Wireless 127

Jihad Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Philip Jreije

Measurement Assisted Automated Robotic Edge Deburring of Complex Components 133

Nirosh Jayaweera, Phil Webb

Kinematic Analysis of a Two-Link Object for Whole Arm Manipulation 139

Zakarya Zyada, Yoshikazu Hayakawa, Shigeyuki Hosose

Preserve Robustness for Image Data Hiding 146

D. B. Satre, R. V. Pawar

Seven State Kalman Filtering for LEO Microsatellite Attitude Determination 151
A. M. Si Mohammed, M. Benyettou, A. Boudjemai, Y. Hashida

Recognition of Handwritten Arabic (Indian) Numerals using Radon-Fourier-based Features 158

Sabri A. Mahmoud, Marwan H. Abu-Amara

A New Approach for Better Document Retrieval and Classification Performance using 164
Supervised WSD and Concept Graph
Reza Soltanpoor, Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Morteza Mohaqeqi

Time Complexity Analysis of the Genetic Algorithm Clustering Method 171

Z. M. Nopiah, M. I. Khairir, S. Abdullah, M. N. Baharin, A. Arifin

Use of Information Technology for Data Management in Public Service – Case Study 177
Valter Luiz Vendramin, Eduardo Mario Dias
Enablers and Inhibitors of Integration between IT and AT 185
Claudia Tomie Yukishima Zuge, Sergio Luiz Pereira, Eduardo Mario Dias

Face Detection Technique based on Skin Color and Facial Features 192
Khalid M.Alajel, Wei Xiang, John Lies

Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Distributed Parameter Systems Based on Sensor Networks 200
and Artificial Intelligence
Constantin Volosencu

Design and Fabrication of an Automatic Window Cleaning Robot 208

A. Albagul, A. Asseni, O. Jomah, M. Omer, B. Farge

Mobile Robot Fault Tolerant Control. Introducing ARTEMIC 213

Cristian Axenie

Ant Colony Optimization for Image Edge Detection 220

Anna Veronica Baterina, Carlos Oppus

Autonomous Motion of Unmanned Ground Vehicles in General Environment 226

Petr Stodola, Jan Mazal

Identification of Parameters of a System with Fractional Damping 232

Liviu Bereteu, Gheorghe. E. Draganescu, Dan V. Stanescu

Correlated and Interconnected Analyses for Human Walking and Standing Biomechanical 236
Mihaela Baritz

Research on Optimizing Automatic Dosing Systems 244

Cristea Luciana, Manescu Mihai, Repanovici Angela, Rogozea Liliana

Infodocumentary Automatization Systems: RFID Technology 248

Angela Repanovici, Luciana Cristea, Diana Cotoros

Analysis by Strain Gauges of the Strains in a Composite Material 254

Anca Stanciu, Diana Cotoros, Mihaela Baritz, Liliana Rogozea

Retinal Image and Oculo-Motor Equilibrium Analyze using Recordings of Human Body 258
Mihaela Baritz, Luciana Cristea, Diana Cotoros, Anca Stanciu

Ethics, Robotics and Medicine Development 264

Liliana Rogozea, Florin Leasu, Angela Repanovici, Mihaela Baritz

Nonlinear Backward Tracking Control of an Articulated Mobile Robot with Off-Axle Hitching 269
Plamen Petrov

Proposal for the Integrated Automation of the Brazilian Subway System Rectifier Substations 274
Eduardo Mario Dias, Sergio Luiz Pereira, Carlos Alberto De Sousa

Simulation Strategies Walking Mechatronic System Mero 282

Ion Ion, Curaj Adrian, Marin Alexandru, Doicin Cristian, Vasile Aurelian
Rate Control and Mode decision Jointly Optimization in H.264AVC 288
Siavash Eshaghi, Hassan Farsi

Evaluation and Detection of Defects of Industrial Surfaces and Welds, using Radiographic 292
Images and Euler's Number
Alireza Zendebudi, Seyed Alireza Hashemi

Image Segmentation Using a Generalized Fast Level Set Method 298

Dang Tran Vu, Jin Young Kim, Seung Ho Choi, Seung You Na

Various Speech Processing Techniques for Multimedia Applications 304

Jalal Karam

Two Big Dreams in Space will Come True 310

Hironori A. Fujii

Reachability Judgment in P/T Petri Nets by Approximate Algebraic Approach 318

Tadashi Matsumoto, Masahiro Osogami, Seiichiro Moro

Nonlinear Model & Controller Design for Magnetic Levitation System 324
Ishtiaq Ahmad, Muhammad Akram Javaid

Design and Feasibility Tests of Flexible Gripper for Handling Variable Shape of Food Products 329
Rosidah Sam, Samia Nefti

Arabic Letters Compression using New Algorithm of Trapezoid Method 336

Ali Abdrhman Ukasha

Authors Index 342


Ethics, robotics and medicine development

Transilvania University of Brasov

Abstract: The humanity was more and more dissatisfied with its skills, especially because they think that our
possibility to see, hear or use our sense has limits. In that context, in the XX century were developed a lot of tools for
sustaining the medical care. The application of robots in medicine is a new way of developing medicine and could
assure a lot of new facilities for humanity. But, of course, for developing robots with high performance a lot of
resources are needed and in that way is a privilege for the rich countries. The paper tries to analyze the ethical
implication, not only of using the robots in medicine, but, in the same time, of developing the intelligence robots. In
respect to this, we will try to pay attention to the ethical dilemma and, of course to correlate the technical problems
with patients’ needs and rights, with health care services and hospital facilities.

Key Words: ethics, robots, health

1. Introduction
In this paper we reflect how the ethical problem must
be involved in use and development of the robots and
why we should reconsider the idea of developing this
kind of ethical subjects in the students’ curricula.
According to The International Foundation of
Robotics Research the goal of this representative
association“is to promote the development of robotics as
a scientific field establishing the theoretical foundations
and technology basis for its ever expanding applications,
with emphasis on its potential role to benefit humans.”
Robots are defined by Encyclopedia Britannica like
“any automatically operated machine that replaces
human effort, though it may not resemble human
beings in appearance or perform functions in a Figure 1.
humanlike manner. By extension, robotics is the
engineering discipline dealing with the design, The first appearing of robots is connected with the
construction, and operation of robots” personality of Isaac Asimov’s science-fiction story
Runaround (1942), where a mention also the famous
Professor Lee Dai Gil also tries to find a connection
Three Laws of Robotics:
between human and robots, and conclude that “Human
beings may be thought as direct-drive robots where “1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, through
inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
many muscles play a role of direct drive motors.
However, contradictory to science fiction, humans are 2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human
beings except where such orders would conflict with the
much superior to robots in the structural point of view
because the densities of muscles and bones of humans First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such
are one order lower than steel or copper, which are the
major structural materials for robots and electrical protection does not conflict with the First or Second
motors. [6].
Considered one of the best “imagination” of the world
Robots are used in our day in a different field, like is
Asimov was not the first who described the robots, but
show in the next figure.
we could consider that he is the most impressive mind,

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and his great success could be explain by his own our entire environment.
words: “In the 1920's science fiction was becoming a The main area where the robots could be used are:
popular art form for the first time ..... and one of the
stock plots .... was that of the invention of a robot ....
Under the influence of the well-known deeds and
ultimate fate of Frankenstein and Rossum, there seemed
only one change to be rung on this plot - robots were
created and destroyed their creator ... I quickly grew
tired of this dull hundred-times-told tale .... Knowledge
has its dangers, yes, but is the response to be a retreat
from knowledge? .... I began in 1940, to write robot
stories of my own - but robot stories of a new variety ......
My robots were machines designed by engineers, not
pseudo-men created by blasphemers" [3]

2. From past to future

Developing the robots it was a dream of the humanity,
even from antiquity, when a god could breathe over a
figurine and brought it to life, in some countries like:
Egypt, Babylon, Sumer or Greece. Some reference
points were Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: The Modern Figure 3.
Prometheus (1818), the Asimov stories, and the Czech
playwright Karel Çapek who in 1918 in R. U. R., which In respect to that, robots must “learn” and achieve the
stood for “Rossum's Universal Robots” used the term capabilities to decide. Of course they must use an
robots. algorithm and the problems is who have the
Now the robots are really common in few fields, but responsibilities when is right the program, how many
the future is to have robots for own use. [2, 4] For details and option could have and what can a robot do
achieving these goals it is necessary to achieve a high when “normal” condition are not assured.
level of autonomy and some properties like in the next Developing robots capable to do real task for human is
figure. not only a dream, is also a reality. [1, 5]
If we compare (using World Robotics 2009 sources)
the field where service robots for professional are used it
is clear that medicine in not in the top – the most
important field where robots are sales are: defense,
security. (fig. 4).

Figure 2.

3. Medical or technical responsibilities

It is clear for us now that, in near future robots will be
Figure 4.
involved more and more in our life: in homes, offices, in

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The medical robots are used especially for: diagnostic But the most important ethical challenge of using
systems, assisted surgery or therapy and rehabilitation, robots is related to the new idea that robots are a new
The medical robots used in research are humanoid species, “with their rational mind and unshaken
robot research platform on bipedal locomotion robot and morality” [14]
robot arm-and-gripper test beds that allow research on The field involved in medical robots bioethics are:
manipulating real objects.
Design criteria for developing a robot are according
with their scope and operational criteria and must assure
the following characteristics of the entire system: human
safety, robustness and payload.
But design and technical development are not enough,
even if “One of the most ambitious aims of Robotics is
to design an autonomous robot that could reach - and
even surpass -human intelligence and performance in
partially unknown, changing, and unpredictable
environments.” [15]
It is very clear that medicine, and medical doctor must
be involved in that development for assure a high
performance of robots in an ethical way.

4. Ethics in robotics used in medicine– an

interdisciplinary field Figure 6.
We knew now that ethics in robotics are border areas
develop according to the intrinsic ethical dimension of As it could be seen in figure 6, robots could be
the robots. More and more robots are used in services analysed using tools coming from engineering, IT,
and it’s well accepted that are 8 fields where the robots sociology, law, philosophy or medicine.
could be used: medicine, rehabilitation, construction; The robots could increase the quality of life and
public relations, environment, agriculture; trade, human performance and in our world with more and
transportation; hotels and restaurants; safety and security, more patients with disabilities, who needs continuum
radiation protection and disaster; households, hobby and care using robots could be one of the ways of reducing
leisure. [11, 12] the expenditure in health. In that context increasing the
Using the robots and automation in this fields have a role of bioinformatics and electronic evidence and
lot of advantages and disadvantages, like in figure 5. developing new concept of e-Health and evidence based
medicine are connected with the development of robots,
and with the necessity to assure the privacy, accuracy,
intellectual property and access. [10, 13]
Ethics about robots in medicine put robots in medicine
in antagonist, but, in the same way complementary
connection with medicine; more and more robots
underwent a process of anthropomorphization and
humanization and they could provide technological
addiction and have an environmental impact of
Could robots have consciousness, self-consciousness,
sense of dignity, emotions? It could be any sign of
danger that the robots could became our slaves? Is there
any reason to consider that we need a special ethical
code for assuring the dignity or the rights of robots?
What are the other possible dilemmas?
Robots could assist humans to increase their
performance and for the old people could be the
opportunity to enable people to continue to lead an
active and productive life.
Figure 5 Ethical multidisciplinary approach is available also for

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tele-robots and autonomous robots. in ethics to think about this and to try to start discussion
The surgical tele-robots could be not only an extended between specialists from different field and to develop a
of human reach but also, a vital link between a surgeon's guidelines from this field.
hands and a patient's health.
The ethical analysis of tele-robots is somewhat similar 8. Conclusion
to that of any technical system where the moral praise or Robo-Ethics is not only a theoretical way to do what is
blame is to be born by the designers, programmers, and right or to analyze in different aspect of developing and
users of the technology. Since humans are involved in using robots in medicine. Are the robots our surround
all the major decisions that the machine makes, they also environment? Could the robots become our neighbors
provide the moral reasoning for the machine for assure and friends? The robo-ethics must be involve in
not only the replacement of human but also resolve the developing the products, especially in medicine and to
psychological problems and assure the safety, security become part of university curriculum, even if the ethical
and privacy. problems are not so different that the dilemma in other
bio-engineering fields.
5. Ethics and robots – an educational Robots could help doctors to improve the quality of
approach medical services, to do a better diagnosis and to find a
Developing the knowledge in robotic and automation modern an efficient way to treat few diseases.
is not only a opportunity for students, the start must be Ethical issue does not seem to be an obstacle for using
done in middle school, including by using the internet robots in medicine, maybe also because the development
and data-bases special created for them. [7, 9 of the filed is not very high, the used of the robots are
The curriculum must be design based by thematic, not included in the health insurance package, and, in that
competencies and level of knowledge. The competencies context is not very accessible for more people.
achieve after that are connected with practice – labour l
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