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Seminar Report On “SIX SIGMA” Submitted to: Mr. Ashish Srivastav Mr. Vivek Jain Submitted by: Ashish Kumar Bharti Mechanical 3rd year,Sec-“A” Roll No.-0812840014 BIT, Meerut
This is to certify that the seminar report entitling “SIX SIGMA” was prepared & presented by ASHISH KUMAR BHARTI (Mechanical III year) of B tech. Mechanical Engineering, BIT Meerut during the academic year 2010-2011 (Semester Vth) Date- 13th November 2010 Place- Meerut
there will be sincere and valuable suggestions and cooperation of eminent people and I do take immense pleasure to acknowledge them. . I thank the Mechanical Engineerig Department. their thoughts and guidance are reflected in every page of my report. The seminar would not have taken shape without the guidance of our respected. My special thanks to them. Ashish Kr Bharti Mechanical – III year Roll no. I would express my affectionate thanks to my parents.0812840014 . I would like to thank all the staff of Mechanical engineering department for their valuable cooperation in this undertaking. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to my college Bharat Institute of Technology Meerut.Vivek Jain and Mr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Behind the success of any task. without which I would not have been able to give this seminar. for providing the required facilities. friends and all those who have directly or indirectly helped me during this course. for providing infrastructure.Ashish Srivastava who all are a constant source of inspiration & rendered valuable help in channelizing my efforts in right direction. Mr. Last but not the least.
Effect of six sigma on ford motors 10. Six Sigma-Introduction 2. Calculation of six sigma 7. Historical Overview 3. Six sigma versus three sigma 8.Benefits of six sigma 13. What are the key success of the six sigma? 12.What makes six sigma different? 11. Organisation adopted six sigma 9. Methods of implementing six sigma 4.CONTENTS 1. DMADV 6. DMAIC 5.Bibliography .
or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability inmanufacturing and business processes. "Green Belts". specifically terms associated with statistical modelling of manufacturing processes. and this goal became a byword for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3.4 defects per million). . etc. although its use is not without controversy. including statistical methods. The term six sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield. USA in 1981. As of 2010. it is widely used in many sectors of industry. Motorola set a goal of "six sigmas" for all of its manufacturing operations. A six-sigma process is one in which 99. It uses a set of quality management methods.SIX SIGMA INTRODUCTION: Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction or profit increase).) who are experts in these methods. and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts".
used to describe the state of zero defects or as close to it as possible.It is a statistical concept.4 parts per million falling outside the specification limits.not zero. A defect is anything that causes customer dissatisfaction. Standard deviation measures the variation of a result from the process average. A process with Six-Sigma capability implies having twelve standard deviations between the upper and lower specification limits. Galvin. Six-Sigma is "near perfection". Essentially. . process variation is reduced to no more than 3. According to Robert W. Chairman of the executive committee of the Motorola Management Board. but pretty close. Sigma is a letter in the Greek alphabet used to denote the standard deviation of a process.4 defects per million opportunities . A performance level of Six-Sigma equates to 3. the lesser the defects as the graph indicate. The higher the Sigma number.
TQM. reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success. Six Sigma doctrine asserts that: Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i. but its application was subsequently extended to other types of business processes as well. It is used to drive out waste and improve quality. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW: Six Sigma originated as a set of practices designed to improve manufacturing processes and eliminate defects.e. In Six Sigma. Like its predecessors. and Zero Defects. Six-Sigma has now evolved into a philosophy. Bill Smith first formulated the particulars of the methodology at Motorola in 1986. cost and time performance of any business. Juran. Taguchi and others. or that could lead to creating an output that does not meet customer specifications. Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control. a defect is defined as any process output that does not meet customer specifications.Apart from being a statistical concept. based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart. Deming. Ishikawa.. a goal and a methodology. .
4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach." "Black Belts. particularly from top-level management. The term "Six Sigma" comes from a field of statistics known as process capability studies. A special infrastructure of "Champions. Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization. A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data. analyzed. Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better." "Green Belts". some practitioners have combined Six Sigma ideas with lean manufacturing to yield a methodology named Lean Six Sigma. Other early adopters of Six Sigma who achieved well-publicized success include Honeywell (previously known as AlliedSignal) and General Electric. where Jack Welch introduced the method. it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. rather than assumptions and guesswork.Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured. Originally. etc. An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support. By the late 1990s. Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include: A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma project. about two-thirds of the Fortune 500 organizations had begun Six Sigma initiatives with the aim of reducing costs and improving quality." "Master Black Belts. Processes that operate with "six sigma quality" over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3. In recent years. improved and controlled. . Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola Inc. As of 2006 Motorola reported over US$17 billion in savings from Six Sigma.
Determine what the relationships are. composed of five phases each. DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability. These methodologies. DMAIC The DMAIC project methodology has five phases: Define the problem. and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. and standard work to create a new. future state process. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation. . Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments. Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. the voice of the customer. specifically.METHODS Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-CheckAct Cycle. DMADV is pronounced as "duh-mad-vee". poka yoke or mistake proofing. bear the acronyms DMAIC and DMADV. DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process. DMAIC is pronounced as "duh-may-ick". and the project goals. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data.
· Develop a detailed process chart. · Identify Champion. · Draw up a detailed data collection plan. The key steps in this phase are: · Define customers and their Critical To Quality requirements. · List out the resources. · Assess important organisational support. · Initiate data collection. · Validate the measurement system. unit and metrics for measurement. MEASURE The measure phase involves the assessment of the current level of process performance and quantifying the problem. process owner and project team.production boards. · SIPOC Diagram . · Process Flowchart . goals and final benefits. The key steps in this phase are: · Define defect. Implement control systems such as statistical process control. · Evolve problem fact sheet. Various tools are used in this phase. Some important tools are · Project Charter. · Draw up a process map of relevant areas. DEFINE The define phase involves clearly laying down project goals. opportunity. Some important tools are: · Process Flowchart . · Evaluate capability of the current process and current sigma level. · Start developing y=f (x) relationship. and visual workplaces. apart from specifying and listing deliverables to internal and external customers. and continuously monitor the process. Various tools are used in this phase. · Work out a project plan and its milestones.Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. .
· Scatter Chart .· Data Collection Plan. · Check out potential improvement by pilot scale tests. · List out non-value added and value added processes. ANALYSIS This Phase involves the systematic analysis of all causes to arrive at the root cause of the defects. IMPROVE This phase involves enhancing the process by eliminating all defects. · Benchmarking. · Evolve potential solutions. · Pareto Chart . · Time Series/ Run Chart . · Cause and Effect Diagram . · Determine the vital few versus many relationships. Some tools used in this phase are: · Histogram . · Pinpoint sources of variation. · Regression Analysis. · Find out the root cause(s). The key steps in this phase are: · Carry out DOE. · 5 whys. · Process Sigma Calculation. Tools used in this phase include: . · Measurement System Analysis. · Define the tolerance levels of the potential system. The key steps in this phase are: · Define the proposed performance objectives. · Process Map Review And Analysis. · Statistical Analysis.
also known as DFSS ("Design For Six Sigma"). create a high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design. DMADV or DFSS The DMADV project methodology. · Evolve clear cut procedures and lay down standards. · Mistake Proofing . Various tools are used in this phase. · House of Quality. CONTROL This phase involves ascertaining future control of performance. · Control Charts . and risks. The key steps in this phase are: · Define and validate control procedures and monitoring methods. · Simulation Software . · Use SPC effectively. · Design of Experiments . Some important tools are: · Process Sigma Calculation. · Cost Savings Calculations. · Evolve a transfer plan to the client. · FMEA . product capabilities.· Brainstorming . Analyze to develop and design alternatives. · Pugh Matrix. · Assess process capability. Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality). . · Control Plan. features five phases: Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. production process capability.
500 minutes Defects measured were : 600 minute 4. 1. Compute The Yield: The formula to calculate the process yield is 5. and plan for design verification. 2. implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s). This phase may require simulations. The following is a simple illustration for calculating sigma levels of a process in a power company. In the case of the power company in the year 2002: Opportunities measured were : 650.61. Verify the design. CALCULATION OF SIX SIGMA Most companies are in awe of the idea of Six-Sigma and the perfection it stands for. The process sigma for the power company was found to be 4. for ease of understanding let us consider an opportunity for the power company as One Minute Of Continuous Power Supplied. Companies can identify such defects through expert group surveys. However.Design details. Define what a process opportunity means: Many processes and activities in a power company combined together help bring power to the customer. Another means to calculate the process sigma is the use of the sigma calculator. Quantify The Process: The next step is to measure and quantify the number of opportunities in the process within a stipulated time. Quantifying opportunities and defects may require standard statistical data collection methods. For a power company a defect is assumed as Every one minute for which power was down. set up pilot runs. optimize the design. While calculating Six-Sigma certain statistical assumptions like sigma shift are made depending on the data collected. They have always been inquisitive about the sigma levels their processes operate upon. and Voice Of the Customer. operators' surveys. . 3. Calculate Process Sigma: Once the yield is calculated the process sigma can be determined by referring to the SixSigma table. This can be changed in the sigma calculator for appropriate readings. Define what a process defect means: Ideally a defect is something that a customer notices as influencing the process performance. there are bound to be various kinds of defects and opportunities. Hence.
CALCULATOR SHEET .
such as counts of things gone wrong. as illustrated in Figure 3. Six Sigma benefits others besides customers. When employees become more productive their pay can be increased. was less than the engineering tolerance. This is accomplished by converting the Six Sigma requirement to equivalent conformance levels. Six Sigma requires that processes operate such that the nearest engineering requirement is at least Six Sigma from the process mean. As such it falls into the category of a process capability technique. It was applied only to manufacturing processes. where Six Sigma requires the process standard deviation be no more than one-twelfth of the total allowable spread. Six Sigma also applies to attribute data. By addressing all business processes. plus and minus Three Sigma. Six Sigma is.SIX SIGMA VERSUS THREE SIGMA The traditional quality model of process capability differed from Six Sigma in two fundamental respects: 1.3. availability. The second point also has implications that are not obvious. it removes the narrow. 2. When operations become more costeffective and the product design cycle shortens. Six Sigma's broad scope means that it provides benefits to all stakeholders in the organization. while Six Sigma is applied to all important business processes. The traditional quality paradigm defined a process as capable if the process natural spread. basically. . this Three Sigma quality level translates to a process yield of 99. technical support. service. These differences are far more profound than one might realize. and a host of other items are also important. A later refinement considered the process location as well as its spread and tightened the minimum acceptance criterion so that the process mean was at least four sigma from the nearest engineering requirement. Under the assumption of normality. where sigma is a statistical measure of variability in a process (see Chapter 7).73%. frequency of updates and enhancements. financing terms. owners or investors benefit too. Customers care about more than just how well a product is manufactured. Price. Also. inward focus of the traditional approach. It stipulated that a "capable" process was one that had a process standard deviation of no more than one-sixth of the total allowable spread. style. a process quality goal. Six Sigma not only treats manufacturing as part of a larger system.
Modern business requires near perfect quality levels. even if we assume zero drift.5 sigma in either direction. For processes with a series of steps. Motorola correctly pointed out that modern technology was so complex that old ideas about "acceptable quality levels" could no longer be tolerated. it is . the old Three Sigma quality standard of 99. Note that the overall yield from processes involving a series of steps is always less than the yield of the step with the lowest yield. if a special normal distribution table is consulted (very few go out to Six Sigma) one finds that the expected non-conformances are 0. or PPB). to a discussion of parts-per-million or even parts-per-billion.4 PPM represents a very conservative upper bound on the nonconformance rate. See Appendix Table 18. if we had a simple two step process where step #1 had a yield of 80% and step #2 had a yield of 90%. the overall yield is the product of the yields of the different steps. For example. Since control charts will easily detect any process shift of this magnitude in a single sample.73% translates to 2. The area of a normal distribution beyond 4. One of Motorola's most significant contributions was to change the discussion of quality from one where quality levels were measured in percent (parts-per-hundred). In contrast to Six Sigma quality.72 = 72%.002 PPM (2 parts-per-billion.Figure 3.4 parts-per-million (PPM) non-conformances. Sigma levels and equivalent conformance rates.5 sigma from the mean is indeed 3. However.674 defects per million! Considering that the complexity of modern processes is usually far greater than ten steps.3.700 PPM failures. the quality level at the end of the process will contain 26.8 x 0.97% yield) are obtained from every step in a ten step process. If Three Sigma quality levels (99.4 PPM. the 3. The difference occurs because Motorola presumes that the process mean can drift 1.9 = 0. then the overall yield would be 0. One puzzling aspect of the "official" Six Sigma literature is that it states that a process operating at Six Sigma will produce 3.
540.900 US Savings bonds would be lost every month.050 invoices would be sent out incorrectly each month by a modest-sized telecommunications company. 54. 3M AB Dick Adolph Coors Advanced Micro Devices Allied Signal Alcoa Aeropspace Corp Abbotts Labs Apple Computer Bank of USA Beatrice Foods Bell Helicopter Boeing Bristol Myers Squibb City of Dallas Campbell Soup Chevron Citicorp Clorox Danon Dow Fidelity Intel Ford General Dynmics GE HP Honeywell Kaiser Aluminium Kraft General Foods Lear Astronics Lockheed martin McDonnell Douglas Microsoft Motorola NASA Northrop Corp Pentagon Parkview Hospital Rockwell Int Rohm and Haas Seagate Sony Star Quality Texaco Texas Instruments TRW US Army US Air Force United Technologies UPS Xerox Effect of six sigma on ford motors . Consider what Three Sigma quality would mean if applied to other processes: • • • • • • • Virtually no modern computer would function.000.000 erroneous call details would be recorded each day from a regional telecommunications company.000 checks would be lost each night by a single large bank.000 healthcare claims would be mishandled each year. Six Sigma arose in response to this realization. 10.easy to see that Six Sigma quality isn't optional. The requirement of extremely high quality is not limited to multiple-stage manufacturing processes. it's easy to see that the modern world demands extremely high levels of error free performance.000 (270 million) erroneous credit card transactions would be recorded each year in the United States. Large organizations that have adopted six sigma These are some the large US corporations referenced by Motorola Inc that have used Six Sigma. There are thousands more all over the world. it's required if the organization is to remain viable. 4. With numbers like these.800. 18. 270.
behind only General Motors and Toyota. Ford fell from second to third in US annual vehicle sales for the first time in 56 years.3 billion. directly behind Volkswagen Group.S. Ford occasionally outsells Toyota in shorter periods (most recently. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover were sold to Tata Motors of India in March 2008.532 million automobiles and employed about 213. By the end of 2009. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16. However. a suburb of Detroit. during the summer months of 2009). Ford is currently the second largest automaker in the U. and the fourth-largest in the world based on number of vehicles sold annually. Michigan. Ford was the third largest automaker in Europe (behind Volkswagen and PSA Peugeot Citroën). Ford produced 5.The Ford Motor Company (NYSE: F) is an American multinational corporation based in Dearborn. Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK. Henry Ford's methods came to be known around the world asFordism by 1914. In addition to the Ford. based on global revenues in 2008 of $146. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. 1903. Lincoln. In 2007.000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities . Ford will discontinue the Mercury brand at the end of 2010. Ford is the seventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2008 Fortune 500 list. and Mercury brands. In 2010 Ford sold Volvo to Geely Automobile. In 2008.
Henry's first attempt under his name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3. Despite the adverse conditions. Henry Ford was 40 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company.7 billion. Ford's vice president of quality." says Louise Goeser. In North America . Why six sigma chosen Nasser(Ford CEO) knows that improving customer satisfaction translates directly into improvements in the bottom line. Groups of two or three men worked on each car from components made to order by other companies. D. one and a half points of customer satisfaction drive about one point more loyalty. HISTORY Henry Ford The Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28.817 million in 2009. Michigan. Power and Associates than any other automaker.worldwide. Five of Ford's vehicles ranked at the top of their categories] and fourteen vehicles ranked in the top three. During its early years. Ford's worldwide unit volume dropped to 4.000 in cash from twelve investors. most notably John and Horace Dodge (who would later found their own car company). "In fact. Ford received more initial quality survey awards from J. the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years. as well as being one to survive the Great Depression. 1901. "Our data show that customers who are highly satisfied remain loyal. Ford ended 2009 with a net profit of $2. which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. During the automotive crisis. 1902. which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22. Starting in 2007. the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit.
" says Mike Stock. To achieve Nasser's vision of becoming a consumer products company and gain the coveted increase in customer satisfaction. Ford's Consumer Driven 6-Sigma provides the tools to find the right solution and a lasting cure. "The data it produced allowed us to identify all of the key contributors. this translates into more than $2 billion in incremental revenue and roughly $100 million in profit.alone." explains Stock." MEASURE AND ANALYSE The Consumer Driven 6-Sigma team assigned to the problem relied on three main tools to identify the areas that were making the hoods hard to close. they had to drop the hood from as high as 20 inches in order to get it to latch. pioneered by Motorola and made famous by Jack Welch's General Electric.“ Throughout the production assembly of any vehicle component. "Consumer Driven 6-Sigma allowed us to look at the interactions between all of the components to find the true root cause. a Ford Master Black Belt. "They like to get under the hood. "But in some cases. Although this approach can treat symptoms and provide a quick fix. and how much each truly impacted the overall issue. The program. Ford turned to Six Sigma.4 defects per million. DEFINE Many Ford Mustang owners expressed dissatisfaction with the amount of effort it took to close the hoods on their vehicles. QS-9000 and other quality initiatives. utilizes many of the same tools as TQM. Its name derives from its goal: to enable processes to produce results with no more than 3. . issues that arise are frequently treated on the spot or through rework after assembly. The team used design of experiments to simulate how parts could be changed and what their effects would be.
Process mapping and assembly evaluation also showed variation in the way hood latches were installed. and dropped the hood to study the effect. margins and fits. IMPROVE AND CONTROL One of the major trouble spots in the Mustang hood-closing system involved the angle at which the latch and striker met. The hood latch was changed so that it will only fit one way. Process mapping enabled the team to walk the entire manufacturing process to see where any variance occurred and where components were not matching specifications. The coordination fixture showed where each component is located in relationship to another. The team found the solution by changing the geometry of a support bracket to allow for expected variations. the team altered the height of the hood latch bumper. or changed the angle and position of the latch relative to the hood-mounted striker. and you improve the quality of the product at the same time. The team also used a component search analysis. The team measured hood-drop heights with a gage that showed the effects of closing from various distances. which included changing and studying the locations of components on the actual vehicle assembly line. "That's when you can see hidden sources of variation that you might have overlooked before.For example. Such "line trials" identified other areas where variations in product occur." explains Stock. "One of the objects of Consumer Driven 6-Sigma is understanding precisely what the process is and the material flow through the plant. Then you can begin cutting costs by reducing the variations. making it impossible to install the latch improperly." . Much of the testing was done on a "coordination fixture." a representation of the vehicle that was used to measure the suspected gaps.
SIX SIGMA RESULT ON FORD MOTORS Although Ford is still calculating final customer satisfaction figures on the adjusted hoodclosing system. "Consumer Driven 6-Sigma lets us separately identify each of the elements." notes Stock.000 a year in reduced scrap. rework and “non value-added activity” caused by the hood issue and vehicle-warranty work. Additionally. Ford stands to save $283. 75 % application) Creating a dedicated organisation for problem solving (85/50 Rule). "That leads to better processes. ." WHAT MAKES SIX SIGMA DIFFERENT Versatile Breakthrough improvements Financial results focus Process focus Structured & disciplined problem solving methodology using scientific tools and techniques Customer centered Involvement of leadership is mandatory. Training is mandatory. as well as the interaction of the elements. customer satisfaction with the Mustang gets a boost. the team expects a 97-percent drop in related reported vehicle concerns. to achieve a result that addresses the entire issue. better products and greater customer satisfaction. Action learning (25% class room.
WHAT ARE THE KEY SUCCESS TO THE SIX SIGMA (1) Get the top managers involved. Participation of all employees in the Six Sigma efforts is essential for a Six Sigma success. (2) Keep the message simple and clear. the true importance of the initiative will be in doubt and the energy behind it will be weakened. it is also important to balance the push for short-term results with the recognition that those gains must lay the foundation for the real power of Six Sigma. focusing on short-term results at the beginning is a good strategy. beware of the possibility of alienating some people by the strange terms and jargon that could create “classes” in a Six Sigma environment. (3) Focus on short-term results and long-term growth. It is very stimulating to have initial achievements in the first four to six months. However. Until senior managers of the corporation or business unit. Since Six Sigma is a new management strategy. really accept Six Sigma as part of their jobs and as the company’s management strategy. Hence. While new vocabulary and skills are obviously part of the Six Sigma discipline. Creation of a . the core of the system and your company’s vision for Six Sigma should be simple. clear. meaningful and accessible to everyone. and request the participation of all employees.
if your company’s culture suits this. projects. and admit setbacks. (6) Link customers and your processes. however intensive.more responsive. there must be a way to link customers and your processes efficiently to build an excellent Six Sigma system. if there are any. (7) Make learning an ongoing activity. Setting up a “Six Sigma Day” each month to evaluate the progress of Six Sigma. Be ready to continuously improve and even redesign your Six Sigma processes as you progress. Recognize and celebrate successes. priorities. the habits and existing . training. Develop your own style toward Six Sigma based on your company’s culture and habits. and make an investment to make it happen. Customer satisfaction is one of the core elements of the Six Sigma approach.Without time. and successful company for the long-term is the major source of Six Sigma success. won’t cement all the new knowledge and skills needed to sustain Six Sigma. Don’t expect that Six Sigma will work perfectly in your company. customer-focused. support and money. (4) Publicize and award results. To ensure customer satisfaction. Making learning a continuous and ongoing activity is necessary. A few months of training. (5) Develop your own style toward Six Sigma. and to publicize and reward results is a good idea. Your themes. but pay equal attention to challenges and disappointments. structure – all should be decided based on what works best for you.
Wikipedia.com/sept01/html/ford.html 2. . http://www. You have to make an investment to make it happen.html 3. Promotes learning across boundaries. Case study on six sigma.html 4. Scribd. BENEFITS OF SIX SIGMA • • • • • • Generates sustained success Sets performance goal for everyone Enhances value for customers.qualitydigest. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Executes strategic change. Accelerates rate of improvement. the free encyclopedia/six sigma.processes in your business won’t change much.com/Six sigma.
M Creveling. Design for Six Sigma by C. Slutsky .J.LAL 6. Total Quality management by H.L.5.
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