.

-

GEMINI PROJECT COPY FEES
DATE 18 _
REV IBED

J-96_

PROJECT

GEMINI MANUAL

FAMIL_IZATION FOR

sPAcsc_.:_ #:

REPORT

SEDIR

:300

SERIAL NO.

I

/

Mc, DONNELL _

__

SUBMITTED UNDER

COI_"_R_.CT

NO.

NAS

_-170

PREPARED

BY

_'

?t,

APPROVED

BY

_/J///F_"

_'/x-_._/

(_S A

REPRESENTATIVE I _ C

SEDR 300

INDEX OF EFFECTIVE

PAGES

The pages of this Manual currently in effect are listed below in nu-_rical order.

Page No. A B C D i-i 2-1 thru 3-1 thru 4-1 thru 5-1 thru 6-1 thru

Issue Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic

2-16 3-4 4-3 5-2 6-35

A

SEDR 300

================================ ......................................................................................................................... _::.:.:.::.:._:..._::..._:,:,_._._

,iiI ,!' i',iiNNOjECT,, ,, QEM

FOREWORD

The purpose of this _nual

is to present, clearly and concisely, the description

and operation of the Gemini spacecraft systems and major components as installed in spacecraft number one. The pr_y usages of the _ual are as a familiarion

zation-indoctrinetio_ aid, and as a ready reference for detailed _nfo_s_ion a specific system or component.

The _-_uual is sectionalized by spacecraft systems or major assemblies.

Generally_

each section contains a system index illustration and a detailed word descripti_ of the system, its operation and its _-_Jorcomponents.

F.

The inforw_tion contained in this _nual one and is accurate as of iO July 1963.

is applicable only to spacecraft n-tuber The m_nual will be revised periodically

or as required by changes to the spacecraft.

5EDR 300

II

II

I

I

III

IIiiiiii i

II

I

I

II

I

II

I

IIII

PAGE SECTION I SPACECRAFTMISSION ......................................... l_l SECTION II MAJOR STRUCTURALASSE_IES SECTION llI CABIN INTERIOR ARRAN_ SECTION IV ENVIRO_2AL SECTION V COOLING SYSTEM ............................................. 5-1 SECTION Vl INS_ATIC_ AND CC_B_JNICATIONYSTEM ................... S 6-1 CO_W_ROL SYSTEM ............................... _-i ................................. 3-1 ................................ 2-i

C

SEDR 300

I

I_fRODUCTI_

Initiated by the NASA and _p.lemented by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, Project Gemini is the next logical step in the field of ms,ned space exploration. Closely

allied to Project Mercury in concept, and utilizing the knowledge gained fro_ the Mercury flights, Project Ge_Ini will eventually orbit a two-._u spacecraft considerably more sophisticated than any employed so far.

The normally configured Gemini spacecraft is w_euverable

within its orbit and is Depend-

capable of rendezvousing with and connecting to a second orbiting vehicle.

ing upon the specific mission objective, it can stay in orbit up to fourteen days. Finally, upon re-entry, the re-entry portion of the spacecraft can be controlled in a relatively conventional landing.

Spacecraft number one, however, with which this _nual will perform a considerably less complex mission. perfon_nce

is specifically concerned,

Equipment requirements and

capabilities are therefore relatively l_ted.

D

SPACECRAFT MISSION

_iiiiiiiii_iiiiiiiiii_

TA B L E O F CO N T EN TS

...................... ..................... • ..................... .......................... ...........................
°°o*o°°°*°°°°_°**.H°°o_*° °°°°°°°°.°°o°°°°°_*_*°_*° °°°°°°°°°°°_°*_°*_._**°_ °°°°°°°°°°°°°°.°°°°°°°_.°_ °°°°°°°°**o,°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°o°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° ° ...... °°°°°o°°°°o°°°°°°°.o _HIHHHHH_IIIHHHI_ .... °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°o°°°°_o °°°°°°°°°°°°**o.°°°°°°°°°°° .... °o°°°°°°_o°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°,°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°o°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°,°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°H°°°*°*°°° ..... °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°. °°°°°°°°°°°°°°o°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°_°°°°°°,°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°. °°°°°°°°°°°°.°°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°° .......... °°°°°°.°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°° .......... °°°°°o° ..... °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° .... °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°° ......... °°°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°.°° ....... °°°°°°°°°°°°° °°°°°°°°°°° ........... °°°°° °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° ........ °°° HIHHHHIHIHHHHHH ..... °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° ........... °°°o°°°°°°°°°°°° HHHH_HHHHHHHHH HHHH_HH_IHH_HHHI _HHHHHHHHHHHHH °°°. ................ °°°°°°° HHHIH_HIIH_HH_HIH HHHHHHHHHHHHH_ HHHHHIIHIHHH_HH; ...... °°° .................. .......... °°°°°°°..°.°°°°°° ................ °°.°°°°°°°° ............ °.............. .............. °°°°°° .......

TITLE MISSION DI_SCRIPTION $PACI_CRAFT DESCRIPTION
.... ° ..... ° ......

PAGE 1l 11
_

.....

.

........

............... ................ .............. .......

,° .......... °.......... ° ............

° ...................

_

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigiiii
_HHHH:H_HHH:_H

_.

" "_, i.:_i_" "

SECTI0_ I

SPACECRAFT MISSION

_¢_ION

DESCRI_TIO]_

Gemini spacecraft n-m_er one will perform an unmanned orbital mission. craft will not be separated from the launch vehicle.

The space-

Recovery will not be attempted.

The pr4_y

objective of the mission will be to de_nstrate
/

the structural integrity of one orbit.

of the spacecraft and launch vehicle through launch and a mln_,m

Telemetered data eoncernin8 structural integrity, temperature, pressure and vibratin- will be obtained throughout the mission.
/

SPACE_

DESCRIPTION

Spacecraft adapter.

number

c_e

conslb_s

of production

structure

for

the

re-entry

module

and

Within the spacecraft, the following equipment is accurately si_-_ated

with regard to size, shape, weight, center of gravity and method of attachment: Co_mter IGS Platform RCS Thrusters
/

OAMS Thrusters (except _

for_
/

firing thrusters) / only with regard to _e_ight,c_nter of

_11 other internal equlpcent is si_ted gravity and method of attac_ut.

/

MAJOR

STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

::::::::.':::=:....._-:_ •""!_'.:=...:::.j -_..._._

TITLE GENERAL INFORMATION ................ RE-ENTRY MODULE .................... RENDEZVOUSAND RECOVERY SECTION...... RE-ENTRYCONTROLSYSTEMSECTION ....... CABIN................................. ADAPTER ............................... RETROGRADE SECTION..................... ADAPTEREQUIPMENTSECTION.............

PAGE 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-7 2-7 2-12 2-14 2-14

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i i i i !i i i i i i i i i iiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiii!iiiiii
................ °.... .... ...° ............... ................ .......................... ...... ...° ° .......... °

f"

::ii::iiii:::_iii!i::::iliiiiiiii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SEDR 300

" ; %!:

!!

SECTION

II

MAJOR STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES

GENERAL

INFORMATION

The Gemini Spacecraft is basically of a conical configuration, (Figure 2-1), consisting of a re-entry module and an adapter as the two major assemblies. craft construction is semi-monocoque utilizing titanium for the primary Spacestructure.

It is designed to shield the cabin pressure vessel from excessive and meteorite penetration, (Figure 2-2). During spacecraft

heating, noise

flight, the spacecraft

adapter is aft with respect to flight path. craft orientation.

See Figures 2-3 and 2-4 for space-

TY is considered to be the top fo the spacecraft.

BE-ENTRY

MODULE

The re-entry module

(Figure 2-5) is separated into three primary sections which and recovery section (R & R), re-entry control system Also incorporated in the re-entry module

include the rendezvous

section (RCS) and the cabin section.

is the heat shield which is attached to the cabin, and a nose fairing which is the forward section of the rendezvous and recovery section.

RENDEZV0_S AND RECOVERY SECTION

The rendezvous and recovery section (R & R), (Figure 2-5), the forward section of the spacecraft, is a truncated cone in shape and is attached to the re-entry control system section With twmnty-four bolts. The R & R section utilizes rings,

stringers, b,11_headsof titanium for its priw_ry structure and the external surface is composed of beryllium shingles.

?-I

SEDR 300 --. ,, _ "" _ _ _! _:_ ._._!_i_:_:_:_._i_ i_!_!_:_i_!_iii _._:i!i_._ _ii !_!_!_! _:_:.': ! ._!!!___ ._._ i_:_.._i_:i_:_:_ _. ii_._ __._ :_.

'_

SPACECRAFT

ADAPTER

_

_

RE-ENTRYMODULE

ADAPTER MATING SECTION _ ADAPTER CABIN SECTION SECTION SECTION RENDEZVOUS

RADAR

i

2
MATING RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTION MATING LINE RE- ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION/ CABIN MATING LINE RE-E NI"RY MODULE/ADAPTER MATING LINE -- SPACECRAFT/LAUNCH VEHICLE MATING LINE

AIRING _ LINE

Figure

2-1

Spacecraft

General

Nomenclature
FMGI-25

2-2

SEDR 300 *_..._.!.:::::::_:_:_::_:;.._:.:_:_:::_:_:_:::_:_::.:_::::_:_::::_:_::.::_.:::_:_::::_:::_:_i_i_i_:._ _ _" _i:_::;:_.:;::::_:_:""::: "" ":'"":""""':"::::"" _i ..I::_: " _'_:_ " "':" "" :"'"" :::_: ": " .::.._!_!!:!:!_:..::_ .... _ " "• ':""::" .... .. ..... : "":': '":" i!" ^"" ____LW_ " x_

/

/

/

/ /

/

/

/
! \\
'\ _

"
_ _J

/

\

\

,.,

/

/

j
,

Figure

2-2 Cabin

Pressure

Vessel

FMG,-23

2-3

(LAUNCH

22667 AND Of'BIT CONFIGURATION)

120,00 DIA.

BY

Figure 2-3 Spacecraft
2-4

Dimensions

FMGI-26

_TOPI TV

--._a t

i,)

J i

BY

Figure

2'-4 Stations 2-5

Diagram
FMGI-27

SEDR 300

iNGRESS-EGRESS

RE-ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION

DOCKING BAR BASE HOLE AND PLUG

RETAINING

STRAP _

RENDEZVOUS

AND

(TYPICAL FAIRINGS 3 PLACES)

RECOVERY SECTION

OBSERVATION

WINDOWS NOSE FAIRING

/--CABIN/ADAPTER

__

EQUIPMENT ACCESS

BAY

SMALL PRESSURE

DUMMY CH

R.C.S.

THRUST

HEAT SHIELD

-E.C.S.

EQUIPMENT

DOOR

i_ DOCKING POINTS

(TYPICAL 2 PLACES)

(TYPICAL 3 PLACES)

Figure 2-5

Re-entry

Module

Structure
FMGI-20

2-6

--

_

$EDR 300

RE-EI_IRYCONTROL SYS_

SECTION

The re-entry control system (RCS) section is located between and mated to the rendezvous and recovery section and cabin section of the spacecraft, (Figure 2-5). This section is cylindrical in shape and is constructed of a center meg-

nesium cylinder, eight strln_ers, two bulkheads and eight beryllium shingles for its outer skin.

CABIN

The cabin (Figure 2-_), similar in shape to a truncated cone, is mated to the re-entry control system section and the adapter. +/+-_ The cabin has an internal

pressure vessel shaped to provide an adequate crew station with a proper water flotation attitude. This shape also allows space between of equipment. Structural it and the outer cc_idesign for the pressure

cal shell for the installation vessel is 12.0 psi ultimate

(burst) and S.O psi ultimate (collapsing).

Outlining the basic cabin and equip_nt of ring segments,

bays is a heli-arc welded fr-_ Employing

section

stringers and iongerons °

titanium as a ma_or struc-

tural _aterial, _h_ cabin incorporates unbeaded skins, seam welded to beaded outer skins and reinforced by longitudinal and vertical stringers on the surface. The outer circumferential surface is covered by Rene' _I shingles. Pressure b,,_k-

heads are attached to each end of the cabin.

On the top side of the cabin, two

regular hatches are provided of sufficient size to permit normal ingress and egress for spacecraft checkout and instrumentation setup.

2-T

j___._

SEDR 300

°

,J

F_

0

0

o

o

_.

z _-

_ _ o

z _z

Figure2-6

Access Doors (Sheet 1 of 2)

FMG_-22

2-8

SEDR 300

_'____

f--_

/
/

Figure

2-6

Access

Doors

(Sheet

2 of 2)

FMG,-22

2-9

SEDR 300

SILL STRUCTURE _.

SILL STRUCTURE

(I'YPICAL 12 Pk_CES)-I LATCFI ASSEMBLY

L
VIEW I_OTATED IS0 ° S_CTION A-A

Figure

2-7

Spacecraft

Ingress/Egress

Hatches

EMG_ - _

2-10

SEDR 300

El

Equipment of, side neath of the the

Bays. pressure

The equi_ent vessel in the vessel vessel not

bays cabin,

are

located (Figure

outside 2-5).

of,

and on the are located

flat

sides c_ each he-

Two bays bottc_ side

of the the

pressure

and three floor.

bays

on the are

of the designed having

cabin_ for

pressure

The bays pressurizatic_

structurally or ccm_onents

mounting

equipment

requiring

8elf_ontained

pressurization.

Door_____s. enclose To vided on each side

the of

four the

equil_nent (Figure

bays, 2-6).

two hinged, These

structural provide

doors access

are to

prothe

cabin

doors

components installed in the equll_nentbays. closed by one door s_ on each side of the cabin.

The main land_-_ @ear _ays are enThe doors, inoperative on spaQe-

craft number one, are attached to the structure by a total of i_9 bolts.

On the bottom of the cabin, equidistant from the centerline end _etween the lending gear doors, two additional doors are installed. The forward door allows ac-

cess into the unpressurized compartment and the aft door provides access to the ECS cc_tment which is a protion of the pressure vessel.

Hatches. the are cabin located

Two large structural hatches, (Figure 2-7), are incorporated for sealing ingress on the or egress top side openings. of the cabin The hatches section. are Each s_trically hatch is spaced man,,nlly and operated

by means of a handle and mechanical latching meachnism and is hinse_ on the outboard side. An external fitting is incorporate so a handle can be inserted for

latching and ,,nl arching by ground personnel.

2-11

SEDR 300

|
Windows. Each of the 2-8). is ingress/egress Each window a single flat sensors hatches consists incorporates of an inner inner a visual and outer panel observation glass assembly. consists and inner window I (Figure The outer of two flat

assembly panes.

pane and the are installed

assembly the outer

Two heat

between

glass assembly. _rlndow.

The heat sensors will _n_itor the thermal radiation on the outer

Heat Shield.

'fheheat shield is a dish-shaped structure co_posed of silicc_e Xt is an ablative device, inches. The heat shield is ther,_ of to conditions spacecraft the struc-

elastlsuer impregnated phenolic fiberglass honeycomb. 90 inehas in diameter with a spherical radius of l_ basically f_ during n,m_er heat ture designed re-entry one, shield. into to protect the the the re-entry module the

from extreme particular from the

atmosphere. adapter is will

Due to not

mission cabin

however,

separate large

expose cabin

The device

attached

to the

diameter

end of the

by utilizing eighteen 1/4 inch bolts.

Shingles. shingles.

The external surface of the spacecraft is made up of beaded Rene' 41 The shingles protect the spacecraft structure from excessive heat and The shingle outer surfaces will be covered with a

provide additional rigidity.

black oxide film to preserve thermal balance.

AD_

In the spacecraft n,1_er one configuration, the adapter functions only to mate the spacecraft to the launch vehicle.
f_

2-12

SEDR 300

i f--_

IJ

J OUT F.RGUkSS

I

|

GASKET FP, ht_ A PANE_

_,/.---GAS KET _ SRAME --O'.RING

DETAIL A-A

HATCH OUTER ML _EF)

OUTER WINDOW

ASSY INNER ML _EF)

OUTER WINDOW

ASSEMBLY
INNER WINDOW GLASS PANES ASSY

ZI_6.50

OBSERVATION WINDOW

ASSEMBLY

MIDDL

INNER WINDOWASSEMBIY
STAT-O-SEAL

BOLT

_£gure

2-8.

Observation

Window

FMGt-_0

2-13

SEDR 300

Imir___

i_::_::_!/i_i_i_i_i_ii_i_ii!__._muaam'_"__

ial

I

The adapter, (Figure 2-1), is a truncated cone shaped, semi-monocoque structure consisting of circumferential aluminum rings spliced together with extruded magnesium alloy stringers to form the basic structure. The forward end of the adapter

is coupled to the aft end of the re-entry module by utilizing three titanium retaining straps_ (Figure 2-9). The skin is formed of magnesium sheets which ere These loops serve no function other

integral with the magnesium coolant loops. than structural on spacecraft n,,m_erone.

RE_OGRAI_

SECTION

The retrograde section is the smaller diameter end of the adapter and is mated to the cabin section. An alm,_uum alloy "I" beam is used for structural rigid-

ity and for mounting the d,,,..y retrograde rockets in this section.

ADAP_R

E_IPM_

SECTION

The adapter equipment section is the larger diameter end of the adapter.

This

section utilizes al,,m_numalloy tubing in a truss beam arrangement for mounting of equipment •

Spacecraft - Launch Vehicle Mating.

The spacecraft is mated to the Titan II

launch vehicle through a continuous, machined al-mlnum alloy ring, (Figure 2-10). This ring, 120 inches in diameter3 mates with the launch vehicle mating ring. Twenty bolts secure the rings together. To provide for ali£_-_nt, the launch

vehicle incorporates one steel 3/16 inch diameter alignment pin and four index marks.

2-1k

":_a'_i __._._..J. i:_i _ _::i.i!!.._.i..i._._, _::_ ._,'_ __ I_,}t i_._i!_. :::i:_!.L._,._.ii:_i:ii::_ :'_i._. .:o._ _:_!: :_: :#::: !.: i: i. _. _'_:_._._..':_ _ i::i._.,_:';. ::: i i_ !. !..

....

SEDR 300

%,

/

"'"-.,.-

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SHAPED CHARGE ASSEMBLY (REF) INERT

(TITANIUM)

PICKUP

\

\.
"_.. "\_. %

SPHERICAL WASHER SPACER

"_.

ii iiiii
--% NUT (REP) \_ "-.... i ---.Q ........ _ ...... ............. i.'" ..... S •,. (REP)

....
FAIRING

A

/
.... "_" (TITANIUM) STRAP

"--_

!

- . .... .
" "

-_"_-"

""'_...

""

":-, "-._;

'_'" \

RE-ENTRY MODULE"

REP)

J i

i"//_(FAIRING

(REF)

STRAP ASSEMBLY

SHAPED CHARGE

RE N,RYMODOLEJ • E ..........................
STRAP ASSEMBLY (TYP2 PLACES) (REE)

RETAINING

STRAP ASSY

,_

ADAPTER (REP)J__ HEAT SHIELD (REF)J

/

I

S_"CTIO N A-A Figure 2-9 Re-entry Module-Adapter Retaining Straps
FM_I-19

2-15

:_ :__*
I II I

SEDR 300 ii
BB

" "i_._

_ ._!i'_.,..ii__l__ _ " I_ }i
it ii

/ / OXI01ZER TANK (REF)

QUAD 2 QUAD 4 /

_\ _'

/

QUAD 1

_.

VEHICLE

--E.

"Z 2-- " _/- ;-

y__

SPACECRAFT TO ATTACHMENT HOLES BOLT

T LAUNCH VEHICLE

FIBERGLASS FAIRIN G-_ TION SECTION

MATING

SEPARATION ASSEMBLY

RX J

!'b

LX

sj SPACECRAFT

QDAD 1

AO 2

- ..... LAUNCH VEHICLE RING ATTACH BOLT --

M/_TING

LiNE

o

BY

SECTION

A-A

(TYPICAL 20 PLACES)

p_

Figure 2-10 Spacecraft

Laurrch Vehicle

Mating

FMa_-,S

CABIN INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE :::::""==::"="=-iiiiiiii_i}i:-'Hiii_._'_"_ _!_ff_ff_ff_F_ !iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:_ili!._ i_iiiiiiiiiiiiiii_iiiiiiiii
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

PAGE 3 1 3 -1 3-1 3-4

GENERAL PA LLETS ................................ STATIC SYSTEM .......................... PITOT SYSTEM
.......................

i!i !i }i i i }i i i i }i}! i i i i !i i !i!i i i i iH
_ii _i i !_ii i i!i i i i
::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ......................... o. ...... o...... o....°.....,.. ...,...°...o..°..°,°°°,°.°o °..°....°°°,.°.°.o, ........ ......... ° ....... • ......... ........... ° ............... ................ . .......... .... °...... ....°°o.°....o.,,,.. ,.° ..... o....... ....... .................... .°,o.oo ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

G

SEDR300

SECTION III

CABIN I_TERIOR ARRANGE_

The instrumentation acceler_neters will will allow flight are

paJ_ets, installed data to

pressure in the

transducers, cabin. to

temperature

sensors

and

The instrumentation the ground station.

equipment The cabin

_e telemetered prior to launch.

be purged

and sealed

p_T.TRTS

The left and right pallets (Figure 3-1) are essentially platforms on which instrumentation and oowm_nioation equipment is mounted. The pallets and a bal-

last assembly are installed on the seat rails, which are located on the large pressure bulkhead. The pallets are restrained fr_ an upward or downward motion

by a single point attac_-_nt located on the floor of the cabin beneath the pallets •

STATIC SYS_

The static system is used for an altitude sensing source up to approximately i00,000 feet for the static transducers, located on the s_l head in the cabin. pressure bulk-

The atmospheric pressure is sensed by four static ports

(Figure 3-2), sy_netricall¥ spaced around the forward end of the conical section of the spacecraft. station. Through telemetry, the altitude is transmitted to a ground

3-1

SEDR 300

RIGHT I

-LEFT

iNSTRUMENTATION

PALLET

f_ CABIN PURGE FITTINGS

OUTER MOLD

LINE

Figure

3-1.

Cabin

Equipment

EMGN5

3-2

SEDR 300

**":." " ' ..... _: ." _l " _ii ":: '" "'_'. _,.:: _ .., ....._ ::_::_..'._:: _.

DETAIL A.-A

SMALL PRESSURE

__1

BULKHEAD

\\

\

-

DETAIL B-B

\

-

i

/
System

/

i/
FMGI-28

STATIC PORTS (TYPICAL 4 pLACES)-

Figure 3-2 Static and Pitot

3-3

SEDR 300

The pitot system cabin. is

system installed

(Figure but

3-2)

is

not

used at

for the

this small

particular pressure

mfssicm. bulkhead

The in the

will be plugged

34

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE

PAGE

ii[ii::_._."_'_:_ _ '_::_2'_ !ii_!ii_...:i:#-_!i_i_ iHiiiiiiiiii_!_i_'_-_

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .................. SYSTEM OPERATION ................... SYSTEM UNITS ........................

4-1 4-1 4-2

.......

°,°°_°°°°,_°°°°°°+..

......... ...... ..°°..

°...... °..°°°°,,_° • ...... °°.°..,°°.°,.° .....................

ii!iiii_iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil iiiiiigiiiiig_iiiiiiiiiii!i °
.......................... .................... ....................... ............... °...°.. .°.. ° ...........

..°. .......................

SEDR 300

I

SECTI_

IV

ENVIROR_ENTAL CONTROL S_

SI_

rR.SCRIPTION

The Envlrom-_+ntal Comtrol System (ECS), as reflected in spacecraft c_e

func-

tions cml¥ to establish and maintain a differential pressure of approximately 5.5 psl between the interior of the cabin and ambient atmosphere. _s pressure is No pro-

required during launch to prevent structural da-mge to the spacecraft.

vlslcn is made to replenish or to clvoulate the gaseous contents of the cabin.

The differential pressure is established as the spacecraft ascends, reaching the specified pressure at appraximately 25,000 feet. _ the aetiun of the cabin pressure relief valve. The pressure is established by

During prepsratious for launch, the cabin is sealed with cabin pressure equal to -m_lent atmospheric pressure. The cabin is then purged with oxygen. During ini-

tial spacecraft ascent, cabin pressure is automatically relieved to match the decreasing atmospheric pressure. _hen the spacecraft reaches approximately 25,000

feet_ however, where atmospheric pressure is apprc_w_tely pressure relief valve closes. tained throughout the reminder

5-5 psia, the cabin

Except for normal leakage, that pressure is mainof the _ssiou.

4-1

SEDR 300

CABIN PRESSURE REr.'r_' VALVE

(seeFigure4-1)
_e Each cabin pressure duplicate This the relief valve c_tains has element within duplicate circuits for poppet all i_nctic_s. by

of the

circuits servo pressure

a spring-loaded-closed controls a diaphra_ a spring-loaded chaz_r

controlled valve

a servo which

element. determines

metering the

behind

poppet,

thus

controlling poppet positlo_. to the diephra_ to the cabin is c_-_er uncovered

A s,_11 inlet bleed orifice aR_ts

cabin pressure

at all t_s. thus ensuring

After the poppet opens, a larger orifice quick closing of the poppet.

CABIN _

FIT_NGS

An inlet and an outlet fitt_ _nt.

is installed in the lo_er portion of the ECS com-

These fittlnKs are used to purge the spacecraft cabin prior to launch.

The fittings are self-sealing.

4-2

I___

• ':_'._4_.._."._ : _ ._:.

, SEDR 300 ,:"_!: ;i _ ':._i_ :._i_.::_!. :_ _ • :.

I
CABIN PRESSURERELIEF VALVE

SPRING (TYP} SENSING

METERING

VALVE (TYP) _ NSING CHAMBER (TYP)

CABIN PRESSURE(TYP) AND FILTER (TyP)

CHAMBER (TYP)

[ABIN OIAPHRAGM

(EYP)

SERVO ELEMENT (TYP} '\-POPPET VALVE POPPET VALVE

I

ABIN

I

AMBIENT

--\

SCREEN ASSEMBLY

MANUAL

SHUTOFF VALVE

Figure

4-1.

Cabin

Pressure

Relief

Valve

FMG]-30

COOLING

SYSTEM

TABLE
_oo+o°o+°++_::::::

OF

CONTENTS

ii_i-_ -_ -_:: _÷Z. _ .7 _ -_ iiiiiiiiiiii._iii:._._-_-i i_iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiq iiiiiiiiii_i_i_iiiiiiiiiiii

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ..................

PA G E 5-1

'

iiiiii!ii_!!_iiiiii_H_iii

_ __!_!!_!_ii i _ _i_i_i_ i_i_i_Ii_°_ _ • :_:_ _i_i_i_!_i_!_!_lii _ _i_i_ _!_

SECTION COOLING V SYSTEM

SYS_

E_SCRIPTION

(See Figure

5-i)

The cooling system consists of a series of coldplates installed on the instrumentation pallets in the cabin. ly on the coldplates. Equipment reT,_ing cooling is mounted direct-

During launch preparation, coolant is circulated through At launch,

the coldplates from an external source to obtain maximum pre-cooling. the external source of coolant is disconnected.

Cooling is then obtained only by

transfer of heat from the equipment to the pre-cooled coldplates.

5-1

SEDR 300

I

Figure

5-1. Spacecraft

Cooling

System

EMG_-3_

5-2

INSTRUMENTATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

"--"=::_ - "-" .........
o°°..o**_°.°°°_**°_**_

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .................. SYSTEM OPERATION ................... SYSTEM UNITS ........................

PAGE 6-1 6-7 6-8

iiiiiiiii_!i _i_.-.'-'#a_-i !iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii-i iiiiiiii_ii_iiiii_iiii_ii_
.oo°oo°°o°oo..°oo.°°°o°oo°° :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

!iiiiiiiiiiiii

°o°...°.°o°°°°°oo.°°°oo°°°°

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.°.°o.°...... .............. ....... °..° ................ °.° ........................ ....... ° ................... ..° ........................ ...................... ..°°.°.° ................... °.._.

SEDR 300

SECTICR VI

INS_TION

AND CC_ICATION

S_

_SCRIPTION

The Instrumentation and C_ication

System (Flgures 6-1 and 6-2) serves as A

the only co._=u_cation link between the ground and the Gemini Spacecraft. block dia6ram of the Instrumentation and C..m-_nicationSystem is shown in Figure 6-3, and the location of the components in the spacecraft is shown in Figures 6-1 and 6-2.

The system-my

be divided into three sub-systems:

Communication, Instrumenta-

tion, and Electrical Power.

The Cv.._._ieationsub-system, consisting of a C-

Band Radar Beacon, Phase Shifter, DC-AC Inverter, three C-Bend Ante---e, three Telemetry Transmitters, _Au_Iriplexer,-nd a UHF Stub Antenna, serves as an instx--._ntationsignal ,,d spacecraft position data l_n_ between the spacecraft and ground.

The C-Band Radar Beacon, with its Power Divider, Phase Shifter, Inverter, and Antennas, facilitates ground radar tracking of the spacecraft during its entire mission.

The Telemetry Transw_tters, in conjunction with the _A_driple_er and the U_ Stub Antenna provide a means of transmitting the data monitored by the instrumentation sub-system to the ground station for evaluation and analysis.

6-1

SEDR 300 " _i_i::!_ _. ."':::: ! :! :::::"_:_!. ._"--:_ _::_ :,_

Figure

6-1.

Instrumentation

and Comm_

_ication

System

FMGI-13

6-2

SEDR 300

TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER (MID FREQUENCY)DC-AC (HIGH FREQUENCY)

"c"_AND _._.DAR
jJ

,, ij'"_
• ;_M

..':;:_7;:";S;'.

tt

t!

(LOWFR£QUENCY

/'f

IZ / ;..'f ,

e i

/
DC-DC CONVERTER NOo2 /

RELAy PANEL

"' /

/
BATtlERY

SWITCH AND CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

Figure

6-2

Spacecraft

Left

Pallet

(Sheet

1 of 2)

eMGI-1

6-3

SEDR 300

SPECTRUM ANALYZER (SYSTEM NO1

HIGH LEVEl. C

SPECTRUM ANALYZER (SYSTEM NO.

LOW LEVEl.

.\ ).

\

INSTRUMENTATION ASSEMBLY NO 1

_1

ASSEMBLY NO 2 INSTRUMENTATION

ASSEMBLY O 3" N

\x

\

\ \ I_V_OCOUPLE RBEE I_:NCE

\
PACKAGE NO I

JUNCTION

Figure

6-2

Spacecraft

Right

Pallet

(Sheet

2 of 2)

FMG|-]A

6-4

SEDR 300 ____*_:_:._,._::::_ _ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :_ _:_'_ ._--'_..,._._:_::_, _ _,_"_

z_

0

_,_-

r
__a Zo_ _

,
,--a

1TI
-

_

_o

Z

Z _o _ ....

z_? _._0 _

z>__
_0

_

_,_.

z_oZ _,< u_ <

T"_z
O_

--F'-F
z
O_ _

_

u

_

Z_.

z_

Qz_

_

eo:

_

o

_

_

_

_

_

_

ZzO _

_
Figure 6-3

_
Instrumentation

o
& Communication

_
S,'stem

o
Block

_
FMGI-29

Diagram

6-5

$EDR 300

_he

Znstz,-_%ion _11)_ti(m

su'_-syste:, pick-ups,

con_)_.n_ a_e].e _z_m_ters,

_w._at;u:e

sensors,

In'essuze In'ovt(les

_-ens-

(lucers,

an(1 microphones,

a means _ese

Of _o_Litorlngthe physical co_itio_s

and reactions of the spacecraft.

signals are fed to various Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCO) which =o_ulate the tele_try static. craft. transmitters that transmit the obtai_ data to a suitable

_he instru_enta%ion pick-up _evices are located throushout the space-

_e

Electrical Power sub-system _asic_ly

consists of _e

_i_

_atter_, several

control relays an_ interconnecting wiring. plies _r
f_

The electrical power sub-syste_ supinstrumentation an_ c_,-Ication

_irectly, o_ indirectly, for _

c_nts.

6-6

SEDR 300 • ._._*_._}_._i_i!!_i_i_i_i_ii_i_i_:_::_:_:_i!_ii_i_:..:_!}_`_.._ _ ' ..,.. ._

S_S_

OPERA_O_

The Instrumentation and C_cation

System is _uall_

actuated prior to launch.

From the beginning of the Pre-Lau_ch Phase of the spacecraft mission through umbilical release the lustx, r_ntation fr_a the blockhouse. and Communication System may be controlled to turn the telemetry transmitters

Capability exists:

and the C-Band Radar _eacon on and off; to apply main power either fro_ the spacecraft's win i_put po_r, battery or from the blockhouse, and to monitor C-_a_d _eacon The blockhouse control and _o_i-

bus power, and battery current.

tar feature is _de various power c_trol

available by the Re-Entry module umbilical connector and relays in the spacecraft.

Prior to sealing the h-tch al_ circuit breakers are placed in the on position. Prior to lift-off power is applied from the blockhouse and the C-_ _eacon and telemetry transmitters are turned on. Radar

At -m_ilical release the battery power.

power source is switched from blockhouse power to spacecraft _in _ata c_er_i_ c_ti_uously

spacecraft temperatures, pressures, vibrations and accelerations, _itore_ by the i_stz,_-_ntati_ system, is transmitted throughout

the spacecraft's mission.

entire system, i_stx,,_ntati_

and cr_._...t_icatlons, be operat_-_ throughwill by the _attery life. Pri-

out the entire misslo_ of the spacecraft or as l_ted importance of data acquisition and trac_-_ i_ starti_ with lauach and ending with i_serti_

capability is placed on the perof the spacecraft into its

6-7

SEDR 300


.SYS_ UNITS

%.

CO_RUNICATION

C-Band Radiatin_ Elements.

Purpose:

The C-_

Radiating R3ements are used to The an-

provide radiation coverage and reception for the C-Band Radar Beacon.

tennas are located at the swatI end of the conical section of the spacecraft forward of the small pressure bulkhead.

Physical Characteristics:

The physical representation of the C-Band Radiating location in the spacecraft is sho_n in Fi@ure 6-4.

Elements and their approx_te

The radiating ele=ents are mounted flush with the outside skin of the spacecraft and spaced has tor 120° apart. vertical the The antenna dimension antennas of to unit 3.41 the is appr_imately Each 2.18 element inches has lc_g and

a maximm for

inches. shifter

a TNC connecEach

connecting

phase

and power divider.

radiating element weiEb_ approx_w_tely 3.5 ounces.

Electrical Characteristics: coded signal from a ground triggers

The C-Band Radiating Elements receive a properly tracking the station transmitter which, when found with acceptable kilowatt by the peak

C-Band Radar

Beacon_

to reply

a _

pulse modulated ing Elements.

signal at a frequency of 5765 MC by means of the C-Bana RadiatThe combination of the three antenna elements gives a radiation

pattern which extends in a1_ directions except forward and aft of the SpaceCTCft.

Phase Shifter.

Purpose:

The Phase Shifter compensates for areas of low_ or no lobes of the three C-__nd Ant_---_ radiation patterns.

radiation coverage het_en _

The Phase Shifter, Power Divider, and the three radiating elements cc_prise an

SEDR 300

i_:._._,,_,_,,___.:..i::::-..: .......... 'i"i.,_,_i_i! ........':'._..'.......'i....... _,_ :_ii.._...°_-:.
_":_'_:: ::::_i::"": :" _ _ _'_-_._'_._._i!_.i.".._#_::_ _ :_!_i!ii::_::_:_::_:_:::::::_:::_::!_i_ii_!..`.!_!_._.._.:.%_ '"

f_

Figure 6-4 C Band Radiating

Elements

_M¢-_-_

6-9

SEDR 300

antenna attitudes.

system

which

provides

essentially

complete

coverage

for

all

orbital

Physical Characteristics:

The physical representation and approximate location The phase shifter is located on

of the Phase Shifter is shown in Figure 6-5.

the small Pressure b,1_head outside the cabin and has a total length of approximately 4 3/4 inches and a diameter at the small end of about 1 1/2 inches. ph_e The

shifter contains three connectors to connect the phase shifter to the power The phase

divider, to a C-Band Radiating Element, and to a DC to AC inverter. shifter weighs apprc_tely 20 ounces.

Electrical Characteristics: Figure 6-5. inverter, is

The sehe-_tic of the pbA-e shifter is shown in

A 26 VAC 400 eps input to the phase shlfter, obtained from a DC-AC half wave rectified and applied across a coil wound around a Due to the characteristics of the ferrite material, the RF

ferrite material.

signal from the power divider is delayed 0 to 180° +-200 at the rate of _00 cycles per second. The changing phase shift of the RF power on one of the C-

Band Radiating Elements with respect to the other two shifts the lobe of that antenna by approxlwately + 45 degrees; thus, giving the effect of an -1-_st ideal circular radiation pattern around the longitudinal axis of the spacecraft.

DC to AC Inverter. Phase Shifter.

Purpose:

The DC to AC Inverter is used to power the C-Band

Physical Characteristics: inverter is approx1_tely

The DC to AC Inverter is shown in Figure 6-6.

The

1.7 incheshigh, 1.5 inches wide, and 3 inches i_.

6 -i0

_'O C BAND RADIAIING ELEMENt

O
2.5:1

STEP-UP

_

TO POWER DIVIDER

Figure

6-5 Phase

Shifter

FMG1-2

6-11

SEDR 300

I

R4 YEL 1"1 BRN

i

RS _

R

IO PHASE SHIFTER

,
I B ORN _ RI I i II ,_ I BLU /

R3

G YEL _,, BRN

GRN 13

RED

_._ :_ c_T BRN
_ R6 BLU

,0
_
RT 1 J RI2

_ c_

12

RED

Q4

_

C4 I(

YEL

CR2

R8

RII

,_

BENDIX PT1M-I 0-6P(101)

Figure

6-6 DC-AC

Inverter

FMG1-5

6-12

SEDR 300

The inverter is _unted

on the left hand pallet of the spacecraft.

One s_ngle

connector is used for both input and output vol_es. ter is appro_mtely 0.6 pounds.

The weight of the inver-

Electrical Characteristics:

A DC input voltage is supplied to the inverter main battery. The inverter provides a 26 phase shifter. The inverter

(Figure 6-6) frc_ the spacecraft

VAC, 400 cps output required for operation of _

is designed to work into a capacitive load; therefore, a two _icroforad capacitor is inductive placed input across of the the output terminals of the inverter to co_ensate for the

phase

shifter.

Power Divider.

Purpose:

The Power Divider is used to give equal power distri-

bution to the three C-Baud Radiating Elements.

Physical Characteristics: shown in Figure 6-7.

The physical representation of the power divider is

The paver divider is located on the small pressure bulk-

head outside the cabin and measures fro_ the left side antenna connector to the beacon co_ncector approx_tely screws is approx4_tely _nts, 3.8 inches. _he distance between the two

4 inches.

The power divider coatai_s two t, m4,_ ad_ust-

and 4 connectors of which one connects to the C-__nd Beacon, two connect

to the left and top antenna, and the fourth oue c_m_eets to the phase shifter that is in series with the right a_te_na. The power divider weighs appr_ctmately

6._ pounds.
Electrical Characteristics: splitter. The power divider is basiea_ly a cavity type power

Dur_n_ beacon transmission the power is delivered to the power divider.

6-13

$EDR300

TO PHASE SHIF1BR (RIGHT ANTENNA TUNING STUB CAPS

RADAR BEACON

Figure

6-7 Power Divider

PMG_-9

6-14

SEDR 300

"" _*:_._:_:_::i::_._ _: _i!i _!_ '""" - ":::::""'"::'" '' _?':'_!_'_'_!_:_'i_'_'':" ........................_ _:::_:__i!::!il___:.... _;_: ........._iii!i:iii:_ :_:_:!i!:!ii:_:_i ""_:_'_:: _ _ __

_

I
I

The power amount for the

divider

then of the

splits

the

power

in

such a re,net

as to

deliver

the

same

to each loss

C-Band Radiating due to curtains the phase a double

Elements. shifter stub

The power divider in series tuning with the

compensates right antenna. for Phase

of power also the

The power _smatch Shifter. underneath

divider _etween

feature

to ccenpensate Elements and

C-Band Beacon

and the

C-Band Radiating

T_nin_ is accc_pllshed by means of a self-lo_kin_ tuning shell lo_a%ed each ten_ng stub cap.

C-Band Radar Beacon. bility of the spacecraft

Purpose: during

The C-Band Radar its entire mission.

Beacon

provides

tracking

cape-

Physical apprc_mtely has power,

Characteristics: 7.6_ antenna, x 6.1_ and

The C-Bend Radar x 3.02 test inches.

Beacon

is

a sealed to Figure rear

unit 6-8,

and measures the beacon beacon are

In reference Located

connectors.

on the

of the

various adjustments for transmitter, pre-selector, and local oscillator tuning. Solid state modular circuitry is used throu6hont the beacon with the of the transmitter magnetron and the local oscillator cavity. •punted on the left cabin pallet and weighs apprn_-tely exception

The beacon is

8.3 pounds.

Electrical Ch-racteristics:

Basically, the C-Band Radar Beacon is a transp(mder

which upon reception of a properly coded interrogation signal from a ground radar tracking station, transmits a pulse modulated sis_ml back to the tracking station. By measuring the elapsed time between transmission and reception at the track_ station, and compensating for the t_e spacecraft '_ 6-9. can be detez_...:ned. delay of the beacon, the position of the of the beacon is shown in Figure

The block diagram

The si_ml

arriving at the antenna is routed by means of the directional

6 -15

SEDR300 • • ... .:::.<_ :

[_

PRESELECTOR

TDNING

TUNING

Figure

6-8

"C" Band

Radar

Beacon

FMG;--_

6-16

SEDR 300
...... 4 ._.%._:_:_:_:_:_: _:::: _:::_'_:!:'_::::':::::_8:::: :.:: _ _._:':i:_::_:_:: ..... : :: : : ...................... :_::_i¢i:_ !_ !!:i!_ _: =::::::: __i :_ _i:_ '_ _

ANTENNA

PEAK POWER

DIRECTIONAL COUPLER

PEAK POWER AMPLIFIER

-RECEIVER_

TRANSMITTER PRF RECEIVER O TRANSMITTER PRE TEST POINTS

\
@ MONIToRPEAK POWER I

TRANSMITTER

AND

LOCKOUT

OVER [NTERRO -OATION

@

TRANSMITTER FI_QUENCY

OVER '_ INTERROGATION

I
I i

,
CIRCULATOR (DIPL_XER) MIXER I.F. -_ AMP DECODER DELAY COINCIDENCE DELAY

PRE-SELECTOR

CIRCULATOR (MIXER)

I
SLOPE #]

IMMUNITY

RECEIVER FREQUENCY

®®@

l
LOCAL OSC. VARIATION CORRECTION VARIATION CORRECTION

®_CE_VER FREQUENCY

_;

,%
SLOPE #2

_l

LINE FILTER

POWER SUPPLY

VARIOUS VOLTAGES

Figure

6-9 "C" Band

Radar

Beacon

Block

Diagram
FMGI-7

6-17

SEDR 300 ._:: ..._.:..'_ ._ ........... :::::::: ........:.......:........:::::.., ...:..... .:.. ." _ _: _.

coupler to one half of a dual ferrite circulator. ferrite circulator thus, providing are

The characteristics

of the

such as to isolate the transmitter from the receiver; of utilizing a single antenna, or antenna system

the capability

for both reception and transmission.

The beacon utilizes a superheterodyne reThe receiver is tunable by maans of a The assigned reis combined

ceiver to provide the required reception.

three stage pre-selector over a range of 5600 MC to 5800 _C. ceiver center frequency is 5690 MC.

The output of the pre-selector

with the local oscillator frequency in the crystal wd_er which pro_ucee an o_tput IF frequency of 80 MC. cavity type and the _xer local oscillator, f_ The local oscillator is of the metal-ceramic triode contains a ferrite circulator for isolation _et-_een the The output of the mixer is then amp-

mixer, and pre-selector.

lified by three tuned

IF amplifier stages followed by a video detector an_ a

video pre--mD_lifier. Additional amplification is obtained by a pulse =-_.lifier. The purpose of the decoder is to initiate triggering correctly coded signal has been recelved. of the transmitter after a

The system delay in co, unction with

the delay variation correction circuitry provides for a constant fixed delay use_ in determinin_ the exaot position of the spacecraft. CW immunity circuit that prevents the transmitter fr_ noise. The beacon incorporates a being triggere_ by rand_

The noise level is reduced below the triggerin_ level of the transmitter The tran-_itter utilizes a mag-

by controlling the gain of the pulse amplifier.

netron and provides a One kilowatt peak l_,l,emodulated signal at a frequency of 576_ MC to the power divider. The beacon is powered by a I)C-DCconverter employ_e converter pro-

ing a magnetic amplifier and silicon controlle_ rectifiers.

vides voltage regulation for input voltage variations between 18 and 32.5 VDC.

G-8

$EDR 300

,_

_

_7__.:._._._.

_'+_:::::::::::::::: _:. :::::_::::..._:::: : ::::::::::::::::::::::: :::_:::! _:::::::_:::_:: _:!:::_:::::_:_:_:_ _.._:_ _._._._._

_ __ _

_ __k_ • __,=_,_

The input to the converter is filtered by a pi-type filter to mi_Ize voltage disturbances.

any line

Tele_etr_ Transmitters.

Purpose:

The three telemetry transmitters provide a

radio frequency (RF) link from the spacecraft to ground co-H-_nicationfacilities for transmission of various data obtained by the instrumentation sub-system.

Physical Characteristics :

The three telemetry transmitters are identical exThe physical construction and approx_-_te The

cept for the operating frequency.

location of the transmitters in the spacecraft is shown in Figure 6-10.

transmitters are approximately 2.75 inches high, 2.25 inches wide, and 6.5 inches long. _ The three trs_smitters are mounted on the left cabin pallet. a DC power connector, a RF outEach transmitter weighs

Each transmitter contains three connectors :

put power connector, and a video input power co_ector. approximately _I ounces.

Electrical Characterist_cs : and

The three FM transmitters are frequency modulated

operate continuously to provide an output po_ _"of a minimum of two watts. operating at 2_0._ MC, transmits data concerning

The low frequency tran_tter,

vibration, acceleration, acoustic noise, pressure, and scanner fairing breakwire continuity. Temperature and vibration data is tran_Itted by the mid fre-

quency transmitter at 2_6.S _.

The high frequency transmitter transmits data

concerning vibration, te_perature_ acoustic noise, pressure and scanner fairin_ brea_-wire continuity at a frequency of 259.7 _C.

6-19

,,:._.:.:,:,,,:.,,:.:.:,:,:,:

..............

.

....

, . _:.:.:

,,:

Figure

6-10 Telemetry

Transmitter
FMGI-]4

6-20

SEDR 300

IJl I

.

UPIFQuadri_lexer.

The UHF Quadriplexer provides isolatic_ between three teleantenna.

metry transmitters operating simultaneously into a c_

Physical Characteristics:

The physical representation and approximate location The quadriplex_r is mounted on the

of the quadriplexer is shown in Figure 6-11.

left cabin pellet and is approximately 6.7 inches wide, _.12 inches high, and 5 inches deep. The quadriplexer contains five connectors: the UHF stub antenna frequency telemetry

connects to JS, the mid frequency, low frequency, and _gh transmitters connect to Jl, J2_ and J_ respectively. in the spacecraft number one configuration. three pounds.

Connector J3 is not used

The quadriplexer weighs approximately

Electrical Characteristics:

Figure 6-11 shows the schematic of the qua_riplexer.

Basically, each channel consists of a high Q cavity tuned to the corresponding transmitter frequency. All channels are isolated from each other without appreit. Each channel has the capa-

ciably attenuating the RF signals passing throu_

bility of being retuned in case the transmitter frequencies or the functio_ of the quadriplexer change. Jl, _2 and _ thus eliminating The outputs of the telemetry transmitters are fed into

of the quadriplexer and brought out with a sin@le antenna connector the need for an antenna for each transmitter.

UHF Stub Antenna. tion coverage for

Purpose: the three

The U_F Stub telemetry

Antenna

provides

s_w_taneous

radia-

transmitters.

6 -21

SEDR 300

__11111__¢__i_-__

;..

_

u

/tt_"
, _ L II O J_
MID TM

LO TM

R&RUHF STUB ANTENNA

J_ 0

[

_J_,_

T /

I_

0

J3

_

II

oJ_

Figure

6-11 UHF

Quadriplexer

FMG,-_

6-22

"_!i;_'_i.:.,:_ii_!__!::__:_i _i_i_ ;!!:i_i____ii:_i_i_ _ _::___ _!!!!!! _i_:_ _!_ _i_ _'_:_:_ii!
_(: : :!:i:_:_:_:i:!:!:i:_:!:_:!:_:_:_:_!_!_i_i:i:::!:3!;

""

Physical Characteristics:

Figure 6-12 shows the UHF Stub Antenn- and its approxiThe ante_, from the is mounted c_ the R & R nose is fairing. and is the major the

mate locatio_ o_ the nose of the spacecraft. _ section and extends has about six slot in inches forward

spacecraft

The antenna approx_tely portiou output

an ann,_!ar inches

in which 0.63

a variable inches cont-_s

capacitor in diameter,

_ounted for

11.2

length,

and is

of the of the

length

hollow.

The antenna

one connector

to mate

with

quadriplexer.

Electrical tion coverage

Characteristics: for the three

The D_F Stub telemetry

Antenna

provides

sim_taneous

radiaplaced The

transmitters.

The v_riable

capacitor

across the annular slot provides broad-band tuning capability of the antenna. radiation pattern of the antenna is identical to that of a q,,-rterwave stub. INS_ATION

Te_rature

Sensors.

Purpose:

Resistive element temperature sensors and ther-

mocouples are provided to sense various spacecraft temperatures and to convert these temperatures into proportional electrical signals.

Physical Characteristics:

A basic thermocouple is shown in Figure 6-13.

Although

various physically different terminations are used, the basic construction consists of two elements of which one is AI,-._I,and the other Chr_nel. The three different The

types of resistive element temperature sensors are also shown in Figure 6-13.

0 - 300° F sensor measures_ excluding the mounting flange, approx_-_tely 0.4 inches high, 0.75 inches wide, and 1.5 inches long; the 0 - _00O F sensor is appr_x1._tely

6-23

,4_,

$EDR 300

PLUG

"IUNING

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RESIN

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Figure

6-12 UHF

Stub

Antenna

IMGI-3

6-24

SEDR 300

I

I

I

0.5

inches

hi_h,

0.5

inches

_rlde,

and 2 inches

long;

and the

0 - 600 ° F sensor Figures

is apprc_w_tely

0.3 inches high, 0.7_ inches wide, and 1.5 inches long.

6-13 _hru 6-15 identify and show the location of all thermocouples and resistive element perature temperature sensors. The sensing element of the resistive element tem-

sensors are made of pure platinu_ wire encased in ceramic insulation.

Electrical Characteristics:

_asic-_ly, the resistive element tez_erature pick-

up consists of a bridge circuit which is energized by the +_ VDC regulated output of _._ DC-DC converters. One leg of the bridge is made of platinum wire.

The characteristics of the platinum wire causes a proportional resistance change for a c_ in temperature; thus, unbalancing the bridge and providing an outTwo resistive element temperature the

put proportional to the change in temperature.

se_so_s provide a reference temperature for all thermocouples by _itorlng temperature of the reference Junction.

Ther_oco_ples are used for measurements of temperatures exceeding I0000 F where rapid response to a large temperature change is necessary. The outputs of the

ther_ocouples and resistive element temperature sensors are 0 - 20 millivolts and are supplied to the low level c_tator for sampling.

Pressure Transducers.

Purpose:

Two types of pressure transducers are provided

to sense various spacecraft pressures and convert these pressures into proporti_l electrical outputs.

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Physical Characteristics:
f

The pressure transducers ere

shown in Figure 6-13.

The transducers are appr_x4mtely inches long.

1.25 inches high, 1.25 inches wide, 1.75

The mechanical portion of the transducer is a bellows which is The transducer weighs ap-

physically attached to a wiper of a potentic_eter. prcad_ately O.31 pounds.

Figures 6-13 thru 6-15 with their corresponding charts

show the ne_e and location of all pressure transducers.

Electrical Characteristics:

The pressure transducer potenti_eters

are powered

by the +_ VXX_regulated output of the DC-DC converters. pressure causes the bellows either to contract or expand

Basically, a change in by a proportional a_nt

which moves the _riper of the potentio_eter that is physically connected to the bellows; thus, providing ranges an ontput fr_n voltage proportional supplied to a pressure high chan_. level cc_-

The derived

output

0 - 5 VDC and is

to the

mltator input for s--_14-_.

The ran@es of the pressure transducers

are 0 - 15

PSlA and 0 - 6 _S_.

Vibration .Pick-U_s. Purpose: type accelerc_ters

Force _alance servo accelero_eters and crystal

are provided to monitor various structural spacecraft vi-

bratic_s and to convert these vibrations into proportional electrical signals.

Physical Characteristics:

Low and high frequency vibration pick-ups are provided.

The low vibratio_ pick-up consists of a force balance servo acceler_neter end a filter shown in Figure 6-13. The accelerometer is appr_Imately 3 inches lon_,

1.2 _nches wide, and 1.2 inches high; and the filter bias unit is approximately 1.8 inches high, I.I inches wide, and 2 inches loz_. _ The high vibration pickBoth

ups consist of a crystal type acceler_neter followed by an a_plifier.

6-z9

....

SEDR 300

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_

units are shown in Figure 6-13. at the bott_

The accelercm_ter is 0.625 inches hexagon shaped 1 _neh

and 0.785 inches high; and the a_pllfier is appro_-_tely

high, i.I inches wide, and 2.5 inches ic_. approx1_tely 1.1 ounces, and the

The _eight of the acceler_meter is 3 ounces.

Amplifier weighs apprn_tely

Electrical Characteristics: 1 to 30 cps, are acco_lished The acceler_ter

Low frequency vibrati_

measurements, ran_

from

by a force balance servo accelero--ter and a filter.

together with the filter offers a frequency response from i to _ne accelerc_eter is esaential_y

_0 cps with an _n_inite attenuatic_ at 0 cps.

a torque balance closed loop system utilizing a pendulous mass supported by an extremely low frictice_Jmeel bearing. _ rector of the servo erator i_ notes the slightest _ov_nt _asically, a elect_tic of the _ass, caused by a c_uge electrical is applied to posltlc_ dein velocity signal a _r_e to a gen-

spacecraft, a_lifier.

and applies The Output

a directly of the servo

proportional a_li_ier

which tends to restore the mass to its equilibrium position.

B_ measur-

the amount of current required for the mass to reach its equilibrit_ position, Since the primary interest in this case is

the acceleration may be determined.

low frequency vlhratic_s, the output of the accelerometer is fed through a i to 30 cps filter. The c_tput of each filter is applied to a VCO. The output of of vibracpe)

the accelercm_ter is 0 - 5 VDC, directly prol_ic_al ti_. T_e mid (20 cps to 600 cps) and high frequency

to the a_llt_de vibrations

(up to 2000

are monitored by a crystal type accelerc_eter fo_

by an a_lifier.

crystal accelerc_eter provides an electrical si_..1 Output proportional to the _mount of acceleration. _he output of the aecelerc_eter is then a_lified to a

6-3o

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sufficient amount to drive the various voltage controlled oscillators. bratio_ pick-ups are pop,red by the DC-DC converters.

A?] vi-

Accelerom_ters.

Purpose:

Three

acceler_meters are provided to measure space-

craft axis accelerations and to convert "g" forces into a proportional electrical signal.

Physical Characteristics:

The physical characteristics of the acceler_m_ters

are identical to the force balance servo accelerameters described under vibration pick-ups.

Electrical Characteristics:

The operating characteristics of these accelero-

meters are identical to th_ force balance servo accelerometers described under vibration pick-ups except that the response is extended to 0 cps.

Acoustic

Noise Pick-Ups.

Purpose:

Two microphones

are ,itilized to pickup any

acoustic noise in the spacecraft tional electrical signals.

cabin and to convert this noise into propor-

Physical ChAracteristics:

The acoustic noise pickup system consists

of two The

mlcrophones, 2 amplifiers, 2 low-pass filters, and 2 spectrum analyzers. spectrum analyzers For location

are located on the right cabin p_llet of the spacecraft.

of the other ccm_oonents refer to Figure 6-1.

Electrical

Characteristics : Noise picked up by the microphones

in the cabin is

amplified and then fed to a spectrum analyzer.

Each spectrum analyzer consists

6-31

_-_

SEDR 300

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -:::::::::. ................................. ............... ................ ::.:.........: . :::..........: ::......._.._...._ . ..:.._,,.
I

of nine filters of which each passes an octave band of frequencies between 37.5 cps and 9.6 tional Kcps. The outputs of the spectrum analyzer are converted to propor-

0 to 5 VDC signals and supplied to the high level co,.,,,_tator input for

sampling.

Scanner Fairin_ Break Wires.

Purpose :

Two break wires are utilized to _w__itor

the environmental cc_ditio_ of the horizon scanner scanner.

Physical Characteristics:

This monitor, or sensing system, consists of two pieces The characteristics of

of wire attached to the structure of the scanner fairing.

the wires are such that they will break in the event of excessive elongation or vibration of the scanner fairing.

Electrical Characteristics :

0_e end of each wire is placed across an E_

of ap-

prox1,_tely _.2 VDC obtained from a voltage divider In the Instrumentatic_ package. The other end of the wire is continuously sampled by the high level o....... _tator. A broken wire will be detected by the high level co_._,-,tator the form of no inin

put voltage.

DC-DC Converter.

Purpose:

The two DC-DC converters supply regulated DC voltages

to the instrumentation components and reference voltages to the high and low level c_tators.

Physical Characteristics : trically.

Both DC-DC converters are identical physically and elec-

The conVerters are mounted o_ the left cabin pallet of the spacecraft.

Each converter is approximately 5.5 inches high, 5.5 inches wide and T inches long. ._ Each converter has a test cc_nector and a connector for input and output voltages and weighs approx_w_tely 7 pounds.

6-32

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SEDR 300 _: ._._._._i_!i!i!i!._i_i_i_:_i_!_i_:!i!i;i:_i!i!_i!i_::_::i:_:_:!i!:_i_i_!i_i_!_ii!i!_ii_!_ii_!_!_i_!_i_ii!_!_i_!_ii!_!_!_i._i_._:i_._ _._i_ .......

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Electrical Characteristics : lators. _0._ +_ VDC.

The DC-DC converters are essentially voltage regu-

The converters operate on main bus voltage variations between 18 and Each converter provides three different regulated outputs, -2_ VDC_

VDC, and + 5 VDC.

The DC-DC converters apply power to all instrumentation

sub-system components.

C_,_tators.

Purpose:

A low and high level commutator provide a _eans of s-wDlsignals.

in_ various _-st_tati_n

Physical Characteristics: pallet of the spacecraft.

Both c_._,tators are located on _? The low level c_tator The _gh

right

cabin 3.9 inches

is appro_tely

high, 5 inches wide, and 5-9 inches long. pro_tely

level c_._!_._,ta_or weighs ap-

2.9 pounds, and the low level c_,_._,_atoreighs abont 6.7 pounds. w

Electrical Characteristics : Each co._.-,tator pulse amplitude modulated and is has the capability of _._Itoring 88 inputs at the rate of I i/_ samples per sec_. _he low level commutator samples input signals between 0 and 20 _i_63 th_ocouple To _-_-_ze outputs and 16 resistive element temperature sen-

volts; _ly, sor inputs.

errors due to c_.._...._ disturbances, the l_w level mode is, the inputs are balanced to a the _h and low signal input wires.

c_,_,tator accepts a double ended input; _t c_ return and read the difference between

The high level c_,tator

samples input signals between O _

5 VDC, these are:

pressure transducer signals, acoustic noise si_mls, si_mls, and main bus power.

scanner fairing break wire

The high level commutator accepts a single ended return.

input_ that is, the input is referenced to a co_

6-33

SEDR 300
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Instrumentation output frequency

Assemblies. variatiun

Purpose: for

The instrumentation input voltage

assemblies variation.

proviae

an

a correslx_ding

Physical tation

Characteristics: assembly contains amplifier. and 0.8

In reference 7 volta6e

to Figure

6-1,

the

number

3 instrumen_e _r,

controlled

oscillator is

(VCO) modules; 1.3 inches

and one hardline 1.6 tains inches high,

Each VCO module inches deep.

approximately

wide, con-

_he number 2 inst_---_ntation

assembly

_ VCO modules 3 o_e mixer I and one h-rdline amplifier.

The number 1 instru-

mentation assembly c_-e

9 VCO modules, one m4wer_ and o_e h-rdline amplifler. cabin psllet

All three instz,,w_ntatlonassemblies are locatea on the right of the spacecraft. Each VCO m_ule weighs appr_4_-tely

2.2 ounces.

Electrical C_-racteristies:

The _er

3 instrumentation assembly accepts 6 vi-

_ratic_ pick-up signals3 and the output of the low level c_.,._-,,tator. Each of the inputs to the inst_-_ntation assembly is fed to a VC0. The VCO's provide an outThe VCO, frequency with

put frequency variation for a corresponding input voltage variation. operat_-_ at an assigned center frequency deviates from this center

a deviatio_ in input voltage. the output of which is used to

The outputs _f the VCO's are cc_bine_ in a m_er, modulate the mid frequency telemetry transmitter.

The outputs of the VCO's are also applied to a _-r_llne amplifier used during _round checkout of the spacecraft. The mm_er 2 instrumentation assembly receives the low level c_.-_tator, the high

an ix_mt for each c_e cf its _ VCO modules frc_ level c_tator, and 2 vibration pick-ups.

The outputs of the VCO's after mlxin6 A har_line amplifier is also

modulates the high frequency telemetry transmitter.

SEDR 300

provided asse_l_

for

the

number 2 _nstr_ntatic_ its VCO _puts fro_

assembly. _ vibration

The D,_er pickoups,

I ins_r_nentati_n and

receives

_ acceler_ters,

the high level cow,tator.

The m_ed

VCO outputs _f the _,1_er 1 inst_-_-ntati_n

assembly is used to modulate the low frequency telemetry transmitter; a hardline a_plifier provides capability for ground checkout.

Electrical Power,

Purpose:

The Electrical Power Sub-System supplies power disystem cn_!x_nents.

rectly, or indirectly to all instx-_-_ntationand co_mication

Physical Characteristics:

The _aJor components of the electrical power sub-system,

a battery, relay panel_ and switch and circuit breaker panel, are located on the left cabin pallet of the spacecraft. The battery is approx_wtely 5.9 inches

high, 6.38 inches wide, and 8.3 inches lo_g and weigh, appr_-_tely

17 pounds.

Electrical Characteristics :

A _5 aw_ere_our

16 cell battery, having a n_-al

terminal voltage of 24 VDC, serves as the only power source for the spacecraft. The switch and circuit breaker panel c_tains a main power switch used to arm,

or disarm the power bus, and 7 circuit breakers to provide circuit protectio_ for the DC-DC converter _i and _, Baud Radar Beacon, and the Telemetry Transmitters _i, _ and _, the C-

DC-AC Inverter.

The relay panel's main power re1_y The

and four control relays are utilized for ground control prior to launch. _,

power relay, when energized frc_ the blockhouse, disconnects the battery

fr_n the power bus; thus, making it possible to utilize blockhouse power prior to launch. The four control relays provide cape_ility of controlling the on-off

functions of the three telemetry transmitters and the C-Band Radar Beacon fro_ the blockhouse.