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Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 1

This print-out should have 16 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on 002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
the next column or page – find all choices If a child of mass 37.4 kg sits in a seat, what is
before answering. the tension in the chain (for the same angle)?

Amusement Park Ride Correct answer: 475.433 N.


001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points Explanation:
An amusement park ride consists of a rotating
circular platform 10.2 m in diameter from M = 37.4 kg
which 10 kg seats are suspended at the end
of 2.52 m massless chains. When the system From the first part we have
rotates, the chains make an angle of 12.3◦ with T cos θ = (m + M ) g
the vertical.
(m + M ) g
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . T =
cos θ
d (10 kg + 37.4 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )
=
cos 12.3◦
= 475.433 N .
l
θ
Barrel of Fun 01
003 10.0 points
As viewed by a bystander, a rider in a “barrel
of fun” at a carnival finds herself stuck with
her back to the wall.

What is the speed of each seat?

Correct answer: 3.47052 m/s.


Explanation:
In the vertical direction we have
T cos θ = m g , ω
where T is the tension in the chain. In the
horizontal direction we have Which diagram correctly shows the forces
m v2 acting on her?
T sin θ = .
r
Since
d 1.
r = " sin θ +
2
10.2 m
= (2.52 m) sin 12.3◦ +
2
= 5.63684 m , 2. None of the other choices

we have
!
v = g r tan θ
3.
"
= (9.8 m/s2 ) (5.63684 m) tan 12.3◦
= 3.47052 m/s .
Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 2
A ball rolls around a circular wall, as shown
in the figure below. The wall ends at point X.
D E
4. C
B X

A
5.

When the ball gets to X, which path does


6. correct the ball follow?

1. Path B
Explanation:
2. Path E
The normal force of the wall on the rider
provides the centripetal acceleration neces-
3. Path A
sary to keep her going around in a circle. The
downward force of gravity is equal and oppo-
4. Path C correct
site to the upward frictional force on her.
Note: Since this problem states that it is
5. Path D
viewed by a bystander, we assume that the
free-body diagrams are in an inertial frame. Explanation:
As soon as the ball reaches point X the
Centripetal Acceleration centripetal force is removed, so the ball moves
004 10.0 points in a straight line (tangent to the circle at oint
A car rounds a curve while maintaining a X).
constant speed. Path C is the correct answer.
Is there a net force on the car as it rounds
the curve? Serway CP 07 19
006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
1. It depends on the sharpness of the curve A 69.6 kg ice skater is moving at 6.27 m/s
and speed of the car. when she grabs the loose end of a rope, the op-
posite end of which is tied to a pole. She then
2. No – its speed is constant. moves in a circle of radius 0.659 m around the
pole.
3. Yes. correct The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Find the force exerted by the rope on her
Explanation: arms.
Acceleration is a change in the speed and/or
direction of an object. Thus, because its Correct answer: 4.15201 kN.
direction has changed, the car has accelerated
Explanation:
and a force must have been exerted on it.

Circle Jerk Given : m = 69.6 kg ,


005 10.0 points v = 6.27 m/s , and
Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 3
r = 0.659 m . What is the tension in the string?
The force exerted by the rope is the cen- Correct answer: 13.034 N.
tripetal force keeping her moving in a circle,
so Explanation:
mv 2
T = m
r
(69.6 kg) (6.27 m/s)2 1 kN r
= ·
0.659 m 1000 N
v
= 4.15201 kN .

007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points Mg


Find the ratio of this tension to her weight. Since the suspended mass is in equilibrium,
the tension is
Correct answer: 6.08728.
T =Mg
Explanation: = (1.33 kg) 9.8 m/s2
# $

= 13.034 N .
m v2
T
= r
W mg 009 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
v2 What is the horizontal force acting on the
=
rg puck?
(6.27 m/s)2
= Correct answer: 13.034 N.
(0.659 m) (9.8 m/s2 )
= 6.08728 . Explanation:
The horizontal force acting on the puck is
the tension in the string, so
Serway CP 07 25
008 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points Fc = T = 13.034 N .
An air puck of mass 0.129 kg is tied to a string
and allowed to revolve in a circle of radius
1.17 m on a horizontal, frictionless table. The 010 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
other end of the string passes through a hole What is the speed of the puck?
in the center of the table and a mass of 1.33 kg
is tied to it. The suspended mass remains in Correct answer: 10.8727 m/s.
equilibrium while the puck revolves.
Explanation:
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
m v2
0.129 kg Fc =
r
1.17 m %
Fc r
v=
v & m
(13.034 N) (1.17 m)
=
0.129 kg

1.33 kg = 10.8727 m/s .


Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 4
Since the centripetal acceleration of a per-
Serway CP 07 20 son is inward (toward the Earth’s axis),
011 10.0 points Fc = m g − Wa
A sample of blood is placed in a centrifuge of
radius 19.7 cm. The mass of a red blood cell is Wa = m g − m ac
3.9 × 10−16 kg, and the magnitude of the force = m(g − ac )
acting on it as it settles out of the plasma is = (48.3 kg) 9.8 m/s2 − 0.034 m/s2
# $
2.9 × 10−11 N.
At how many revolutions per second should = 471.698 N .
the centrifuge be operated?
013 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Correct answer: 97.7808 rev/s. What is his apparent weight at the poles?
Explanation: Correct answer: 473.34 N.
Explanation:
Given : r = 19.7 cm = 0.197 m , At the poles, the rotating velocity is zero,
m = 3.9 × 10−16 kg , and so
Fc = 0 = Wa − m g
Fc = 2.9 × 10−11 N .
Wa = m g = (48.3 kg) 9.8 m/s2 = 473.34 N .
# $
The centripetal force gives us the angular
velocity:
Car on a Banked Curve 01
v2 014 10.0 points
Fc = m = m r ω2 A curve of radius 50.3 m is banked so that
%r a car traveling with uniform speed 62 km/hr
Fc
ω= can round the curve without relying on fric-
mr tion to keep it from slipping to its left or right.
&
2.9 × 10−11 N The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
' (
1 rev
=
(3.9 × 10−16 kg)(0.197 m) 2 π rad
= 97.7808 rev/s .

Serway CP 07 49 Mg
012 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points 1. 7
Because of Earth’s rotation about its axis, 0
a point on the Equator experiences a cen- µ≈ θ
tripetal acceleration of 0.034 m/s2 , while a
point at the poles experiences no centripetal
acceleration.
What is the apparent weight at the equator What is θ?
of a person having a mass of 48.3 kg? The
acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Correct answer: 31.0356◦ .
Explanation:
Correct answer: 471.698 N.
Explanation: Let : m = 1700 kg ,
v = 62 km/hr ,
Let : ac = 0.034 m/s2 and r = 50.3 m , and
m = 48.3 kg . µ ≈ 0.
Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 5
Basic Concepts: Consider the free body The component of this force parallel to the
diagram for the car. The forces acting on incline is
the car are the normal force, the force due to
% # = m g sin θ
)
gravity, and possibly friction. F
N cos θ y = Fnet cos θ
v2
N µN = m cos θ .
r
x
N sin θ
In this reference frame, the car is at rest,
which means that the net force on the car
(taking in consideration the centrifugal force)
mg
is zero. Thus the component of the net “real”
To keep an object moving in a circle re- force parallel to the incline is equal to the
quires a force directed toward the center of component of the centrifugal force along that
the circle; the magnitude of the force is direction. Now, the magnitude of the cen-
v2
trifugal force is equal to Fc = m , so
v2 r
Fc = m ac = m .
r
v2
F# = Fnet cos θ = Fc cos θ = m cos θ
Also remember, r

% = %i .
)
F F F# is the component of the weight of the car
i parallel to the incline. Thus

Using the free-body diagram, we have v2


m g sin θ = F# = m cos θ
r
) v2
Fx N sin θ − µ N cos θ = m (1)
r
i
) v2
Fy N cos θ + µ N sin θ = m g (2) tan θ =
gr
i
(m g)# = m g sin θ (3) (62 km/hr)2
=
(9.8 m/s2 ) (50.3 m)
v2 (2 ' (2
m a# = m cos θ (4)
'
r 1000 m hr
×
and, if µ = 0, we have km 3600 s
v2 = 0.601706
tan θ = (5) θ = arctan(0.601706)
gr * +
180 deg
Solution: Solution in an Inertial Frame: = (0.541673 rad)
π rad
Watching from the Point of View of Some- ◦
= 31.0356 .
one Standing on the Ground.
The car is performing circular motion with
a constant speed, so its acceleration is just
Car on a Banked Curve 02
v2
the centripetal acceleration, ac = . The 015 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
r A car rounds a slippery curve. The radius of
net force on the car is
curvature of the road is R, the banking angle
v2 with respect to the horizontal is θ and the
Fnet = m ac = m coefficient of friction is µ.
r
Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 6
Using the free-body diagram, we have

) v2
M Fx N sin θ − µ N cos θ = m (1)
r
i
)
µ θ Fy N cos θ + µ N sin θ = m g (2)
i
(m g)# = m g sin θ (3)
What should be the car’s speed in order v2
that there is no frictional force between the m a# = m cos θ (4)
r
car and the road? and, if µ = 0, we have
! v2
1. v = g R tan θ = (5)
gr
!
2. v = g R cos θ
Solution: If the car is not slipping, then
!
3. v = g R sin θ its acceleration is just the centripetal acceler-
ation that keeps it in a circular motion.
!
4. v = g R tan θ correct This acceleration is directed inward and
parallel to the horizontal.
!
5. v = µ g R tan θ When there is no frictional force, the hori-
zontal component of the normal force is what
generates the centripetal acceleration. Since
%
g sin θ
6. v = there is no acceleration in the vertical direc-
R
tion, we will have N cos θ = mg, where m is
mg
%
gR the mass of the car. Thus, N = . New-
7. v = cos θ
cos θ
ton’s equation in the horizontal direction will
Explanation: v2
Basic Concepts: Consider the free body be N sin θ = m , and then
R
diagram for the car. The forces acting on
the car are the normal force, the force due to
R
gravity, and possibly friction. v2 = N sin θ = g R tan θ
m
N cos θ y
N !
µN ⇒v= g R tan θ .
x
N sin θ

016 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


mg What is the minimum speed required in order
for the car not to slip?
To keep an object moving in a circle re- &
quires a force directed toward the center of g R (cos θ + µ cos θ)
the circle; the magnitude of the force is 1. vmin =
µ sin θ − cos θ
v2 &
Fc = m ac = m . g R (sin θ − µ cos θ)
r 2. vmin =
µ sin θ − cos θ
Also remember, &
% =
)
%i . g R (sin θ + µ cos θ)
F F 3. vmin =
i cos θ − µ cos θ
Version PREVIEW – circular motion – van dusen – (3141) 7

&
g R (sin θ + µ cos θ)
4. vmin =
µ sin θ + cos θ
&
gR
5. vmin =
µ sin θ + cos θ
&
g R (sin θ − µ cos θ)
6. vmin = correct
µ sin θ + cos θ
!
7. vmin = g R (sin θ + µ cos θ)
Explanation:
Since we want to calculate the minimum
speed in order for the car to not slip, we need
to consider the case in which the frictional
force is Ff = µ N and is directed up the
incline.
Once again, there is no acceleration in the
vertical direction and thus

N cos θ+Ff sin θ = N cos θ+µ N sin θ = m g .

Solving for the normal force, we get


mg
N = .
µ sin θ + cos θ
In the horizontal direction we have

N sin θ − Ff cos θ = N (sin θ − µ cos θ)


v2
= m min ,
R
and then using the expression we obtained for
N,
2 g R(sin θ − µ cos θ)
vmin =
µ sin θ + cos θ
&
g R (sin θ − µ cos θ)
⇒ vmin = .
µ sin θ + cos θ