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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
1. The energy contained in a volume dV is

U
(
,
T)
d
V=ν νθ
U
(
,
T)
r2
d

s
i

dd

when the geometry is that shown in the figure. The energy from this source that emerges
through a hole of area dA is


d

(,
T)=

(,
T)d
d
Ac
o
π
V 2
4
r

The total energy emitted is

c∆t π/2 2π dA
E(ν,T)=∫ d
d r∫ dθ∫ dϕU(ν,T)sinθc
osθ
0 0 0 4π
dA π/2
= 2πc∆tU(ν,T)∫ dθsinθc sθ
o
. 4π 0

1
= c∆td
AU (ν,T)
4


By definition of the emissivity, this is equal to Et
d
A . Hence

c
E
(ν)=U
,T ν
(,T
)
4

2. We have

λ ννλλ π cc 8h
c1
w
(
,T
)=
U(
,T
)|
d
λλ
/
d =
|U()=
2 λ
5h
c
/
ek
T
−1

This density will be maximal when d


w
(,
T)/
d =
0 λλ
. What we need is

 Aλ A
/
d1 1  1 1e 1
λ
λ
e
d5Aλ
/

=

1

(5−
6 5
eAλ
/


(2
1 e
)Aλ
/
λ
−λ
=
1
0
λ
=
Where Ah
c/
k
T =
. The above implies that with xAλ
/ , we must have

− =x
5x5e

A solution of this is x = 4.965 so that


λT
m
a
x=
4
h
c
.
9
6
5
=
k
2.
8
9
8 ×
1
0 m −
3

In example 1.1 we were given an estimate of the sun’s surface temperature


as 6000 K. From this we get

λ × 4
2
8.
9
8 1
0m
K −
= = × =
s
u
n 7
4.
8
3 1
0m4
8
3n
m
m
a
x
6×1
0K 3

3. The relationship is

ν
h=
K+
W

where K is the electron kinetic energy and W is the work function. Here

ν

× ×
3
4 8
h
c(
6.
6
2
6 1
0J.
s)
(
31
0m/
s)
λ

= = = × =
1
9
h 5
.6
81
0J 3
.
5e
V
3
5
0×1
0−
9
m

With K = 1.60 eV, we get W = 1.95 eV

4. We use
h
c h
c
− =K1−K
λ
1 λ
2
2

since W cancels. From ;this we get

1 λλ
h= 1 2 (K1−K2)=
cλ2−λ1

(2
00× 0−9m
1 )
(28×
5 10−9m)
= ×(2
.3−0
.9)e
V×(1
.6
0×0−19)J/e
1 V
(3×1
0m8
/s)
(58×1−9
0 m )
=6
.6
4×0−34J.s
1

5. The maximum energy loss for the photon occurs in a head-on collision, with the
photon scattered backwards. Let the incident photon energy be hν, and the backward-
scattered photon energy be hν'. Let the energy of the recoiling proton be E. Then its
recoil momentum is obtained from E = + . The energy conservation
2 2 2 4
p c m c
equation reads

+
hν ν
m
c=
2
h+
'E

and the momentum conservation equation reads

ν h
h ν'
=− +p
c c
that is
ν
h=
−ν
h+
' p
c

+
We get E−
p
cm
c=
2
2h ν
from which it follows that
2
c+
22
p =
4
m
c(
2−
h+
p
c2
m
c2
) ν
so that

4
hν+
22
4
hνc2
m
c=
p
4
hν+2
mc2

The energy loss for the photon is the kinetic energy of the proton
K = E − m
c 2
. Now hν = 100 MeV and m c 2= 938 MeV, so that

p
c=
1
82M
e
V
and

−= =
2
E
m
c K1
7
.
6M
e
V

6. Let hν be the incident photon energy, hν' the final photon energy and p the outgoing
electron momentum. Energy conservation reads

+
hν ν
m
c=
2
h+
' 2
p
c+
2 2
4
m
c

We write the equation for momentum conservation, assuming that the initial photon
moves in the x –direction and the final photon in the y-direction. When multiplied by c it
read

i
(
h)=
j
(
hνν
'
)+(
i
p
x+
cj
p
yc
)

Hence p c
x=h
;p
c
y=ν

h' ν
. We use this to rewrite the energy conservation equation as
follows:

νν
(
h+
m
c−
22
h'
)=+
2
4
m
c2
c+
2
(
p
x
2
p
y=
)
m2
c+
(
h+
4 2 2
)(
h
') νν
From this we get

 c2 
ν
h'=ν
h m 
hν+m
c2

We may use this to calculate the kinetic energy of the electron



 c2 
m  h ν
h
K=ν−
h ν
h'=ν
h −
1 2 =ν
 hν+m
c ν+m
h c2
(
10
0kV)2
e
= =
16.4
ke
V
1
0
0ke
V+ 5
1
0ke
V

Also

=
p
c
i(
1
0k
e
V+
)−
j
(
8
3.
6k
e
V)

which gives the direction of the recoiling electron.

7. The photon energy is

3× 0− ×
3
4 8
h
c ( 6.6 1 J.s)
(3 1
0 m /s
)
ν
h= = =63×
.6 0−
1 1
7
J
λ 3×
10×6
1 −
9
0m
6 3×
.6 0−
1 1
7
J
= − = 4 4×
.1 0−
1 4
M
eV
0× 1
9
1
.6 1
0 J/e V

The momentum conservation for collinear motion (the collision is head on for maximum
energy loss), when squared, reads


h
+
ν
 2
+
p2
2
 
h
p =
h 2
'
+
'+
p2
h
'
p'f
νην
2
νη

c 
c i 
c 
c

Here η i = ±1, with the upper sign corresponding to the photon and the electron moving in
the same/opposite direction, and similarly for η f . When this is multiplied by c2 we get

(
h
)+ν ν
(
p
c
)+
2 2
η
2
(
hν ν
)
p
c=
i(η
h
'
)+
2 2
(
p
'
c+
)2
(
h'
)
p'
cf

The square of the energy conservation equation, with E expressed in terms of


momentum and mass reads

+
22
(
h
)(
p

+
)
m2
4
c+
2
E
h=
(
h
'
)+
22
(p
'
c
)++
2
4
m
c2
E'
h' ν
ν ν
After we cancel the mass terms and subtracting, we get

h
(
E−ν
p
c
iηνη
=
)h'
(E−
' p
f'c
)

From this can calculate hν' and rewrite the energy conservation law in the form
E −η c 
ip
E−'=
E ν
hE −
1
 '−
p'cηf 

The energy loss is largest if


η
i=−;η
1 f=1
. Assuming that the final electron momentum is
2 2
(
mc )
not very close to zero, we can write E+ p
c = 2E a
ndE '−p =
'c so that
2E '
 2E × 2 E'
E −E '= hν
( 22 
c) 
m
1 1
It follows that = + 16h νwith everything expressed in MeV. This leads to
E ' E
E’ =(100/1.64)=61 MeV and the energy loss is 39MeV.

8.We have λ ’ = 0.035 x 10-10 m, to be inserted into

λλ

× 3
4
h h 6.
6
3 1
0J
.
s −
− = − == = × 0 1
2
' (
1c
o
s6
0) 1
.
231
0m
mc 2
mc×
2(
0
.

91
0 k
g
)

31
0m
/
s) e

3
0 8

Therefore λ = λ ’ = (3.50-1.23) x 10-12 m = 2.3 x 10-12 m.

The energy of the X-ray photon is therefore

ν

× ×
3
4 8
h
c(6
.6
31
0 J
.
s)
(
3 1
0m/
s)
=
λ
= − = ×5
h 5.
4 1
0
eV
(
2.
3×1
01
2
m)
(1

61
0−
1
9
J/
e
V )

9. With the nucleus initially at rest, the recoil momentum of the nucleus must be equal
and opposite to that of the emitted photon. We therefore have its magnitude given by
p =hν /c , where h ν = 6.2M e
V. The recoil energy is

p2
= =
E νh
h
ν= 6.
2Me
V
= × −
3
2 (
6.
2Me
V ) 1
.
5 1
0 M
e
V
2
M2 Mc 2×1
4×(9
4
0M
eV)

10. The formula =λ θ


2as
i
n /n implies that / s
i
nλθ ≤ 2 a/3 . Since λ = h/p this leads to
p ≥ 3h /2
a s
i
n θ
, which implies that the kinetic energy obeys
2 2
p 9h
= ≥ 2 2
K
2m8mnθ
as
i

Thus the minimum energy for electrons is



×3
4 2
9
(6
.
6
3 1
0 J.
s
)
=
K =3.
3
5e
V
8(
0

9−
3
0
1
0k
g)
(
0.
3
2 ×
1
0−
92
m)(
1.
6×−
1
9
1
0J/
e
V )
− −
× × = ×
2
7 3
0 3
For Helium atoms the mass is 4
(
1
.
6
71
0k
g)
/(
0
.
91
0k
g)7
.
4
21
0larger, so
that

3
3.5
e
V −
= = × 3
K 4
.
5 1
0 e
V
7
.
42×3
1
0
2 2
p h
11. We use K= = 2 with λ = 15 x 10-9 m to get
2
m2 mλ

×3
4 2
(
6
.6
31
0 J
.
s) −
= = ×3
K 6.
7
8 1
0e
V
2(
0

9−
3
0
1
0k
g)
(
1
5×−
92
1
0m)
(1
.
6×−
1
9
1
0J
/e
V
)

For λ = 0.5 nm, the wavelength is 30 times smaller, so that the energy is 900 times
larger. Thus K =6.10 eV.

12. For a circular orbit of radius r, the circumference is 2πr. If n wavelengths λ are to fit
into the orbit, we must have 2πr = nλ = nh/p. We therefore get the condition

=
p
rn
h/
2 =
h
n π
which is just the condition that the angular momentum in a circular orbit is an integer in
units of h.

13. We have a = n λθ
-10
/
2 s
i
n . For n = 1, λ = 0.5 x 10-10 m and θ = 5o . we get
a = 2.87 x 10 m. For n = 2, we require sinθ 2 = 2 sinθ 1. Since the angles are very
small, θ 2 = 2θ 1. So that the angle is 10o.

14. The relation F = ma leads to mv 2/r = mω r that is, v = ω r. The angular momentum
quantization condition is mvr = n h, which leads to mω r2 = n. The total energy is
therefore

=
E
1212
v+
m m
2 2
2
r=2
m2
r=h
n ωω ω
The analog of the Rydberg formula is

hω ω
ν
(
n→n
'
)

E
h
E
= =
(
n
h
−n
'
)
=(
n−n
'
)

n n
'

The frequency of radiation in the classical limit is just the frequency of rotation
ν l=
c ω / π
2 which agrees with the quantum frequency when n – n’ = 1. When the
selection rule ∆ n = 1 is satisfied, then the classical and quantum frequencies are the
same
for all n.
15. With V(r) = V0 (r/a)k , the equation describing circular motion is
k
V 1  
2
v d r
m= | |=k
V
r dr r 
0 
a

so that
k/2
Vr
k
v= 0 
mk

The angular momentum quantization condition mvr = n reads


k+2
r2
=n
h
2
m
akV0 
a

We may use the result of this and the previous equation to calculate
k

 1  h2
k k
12   1  +
2 k2
r r n
=
Ev+
m V =(k+
1
)V = (k+
1
)
V 2 
2 
0
a 2 0 2 0
a m
ak
V 
0

In the limit of k >>1, we get


k

1 h2
k+
2 2 k
h2 2
→ +
) →
+
2k
)2
a
k2 2
E (k
V 0(
n 2n
2 
m  2
m
a

Note that V0 drops out of the result. This makes sense if one looks at a
picture of the potential in the limit of large k. For r< a the potential is
effectively zero. For r > a it is effectively infinite, simulating a box with
infinite walls. The presence of V0 is there to provide something with the
dimensions of an energy. In the limit of the infinite box with the quantum
condition there is no physical meaning to V0 and the energy scale is
provided by h2/ 2ma 2
.

16. The condition L = n implies that

n2h2
E=
2I

In a transition from n1 to n2 the Bohr rule implies that the frequency of the
radiation is given
ν − 2 h h 2 2
2
EE
= =( − =( −
π
1 2 2
1
2 n1n)
2 nn)
h 2 I
h 4I1 2

Let n1 = n2 + ∆ n. Then in the limit of large n we have (− → ∆


2 2
n1n)
2 2
n
2n, so
that

hn
ν
1
1
2→ ∆
2
πI 2
2
n
1L
= ∆
πI
n

Classically the radiation frequency is the frequency of rotation which is


ω = L/I , i.e.
ωL
νcl =
2π I

We see that this is equal to ν12 when ∆ n = 1.


17. The energy gap between low-lying levels of rotational spectra is of the order of
h2 /I= (
1 /2π )hh/ M
R 2
, where M is the reduced mass of the two nuclei, and R is their
separation. (Equivalently we can take 2 x m(R/2)2 = MR2). Thus

c 1 h
h
ν
h= = h 2
λ2πMR

This implies that

h h (
1λ λ
.
0
5 ×
1
0−
3
4
J.
s)
(
1
0−3
m)
= = =
R
2M
c m
c (
1
.π π π
6
7×−
1
02
7
kg)
(
3×1
08
m /
s)
=
2
6n
m