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CHAPTER 1

1. The energy contained in a volume dV is

U

(

,

T)

d

V=ν νθ

U

(

,

T)

r2

d

rθ

s

i

nϕ

dd

when the geometry is that shown in the figure. The energy from this source that emerges

through a hole of area dA is

sθ

d

Eν

(,

T)=

Uν

(,

T)d

d

Ac

o

π

V 2

4

r

c∆t π/2 2π dA

E(ν,T)=∫ d

d r∫ dθ∫ dϕU(ν,T)sinθc

osθ

0 0 0 4π

dA π/2

= 2πc∆tU(ν,T)∫ dθsinθc sθ

o

. 4π 0

1

= c∆td

AU (ν,T)

4

∆

By definition of the emissivity, this is equal to Et

d

A . Hence

c

E

(ν)=U

,T ν

(,T

)

4

2. We have

λ ννλλ π cc 8h

c1

w

(

,T

)=

U(

,T

)|

d

λλ

/

d =

|U()=

2 λ

5h

c

/

ek

T

−1

w

(,

T)/

d =

0 λλ

. What we need is

Aλ A

/

d1 1 1 1e 1

λ

λ

e

d5Aλ

/

−

=

1

−

(5−

6 5

eAλ

/

−

−

(2

1 e

)Aλ

/

λ

−λ

=

1

0

λ

=

Where Ah

c/

k

T =

. The above implies that with xAλ

/ , we must have

−

− =x

5x5e

λT

m

a

x=

4

h

c

.

9

6

5

=

k

2.

8

9

8 ×

1

0 m −

3

as 6000 K. From this we get

−

λ × 4

2

8.

9

8 1

0m

K −

= = × =

s

u

n 7

4.

8

3 1

0m4

8

3n

m

m

a

x

6×1

0K 3

3. The relationship is

ν

h=

K+

W

where K is the electron kinetic energy and W is the work function. Here

ν

−

× ×

3

4 8

h

c(

6.

6

2

6 1

0J.

s)

(

31

0m/

s)

λ

−

= = = × =

1

9

h 5

.6

81

0J 3

.

5e

V

3

5

0×1

0−

9

m

4. We use

h

c h

c

− =K1−K

λ

1 λ

2

2

1 λλ

h= 1 2 (K1−K2)=

cλ2−λ1

(2

00× 0−9m

1 )

(28×

5 10−9m)

= ×(2

.3−0

.9)e

V×(1

.6

0×0−19)J/e

1 V

(3×1

0m8

/s)

(58×1−9

0 m )

=6

.6

4×0−34J.s

1

5. The maximum energy loss for the photon occurs in a head-on collision, with the

photon scattered backwards. Let the incident photon energy be hν, and the backward-

scattered photon energy be hν'. Let the energy of the recoiling proton be E. Then its

recoil momentum is obtained from E = + . The energy conservation

2 2 2 4

p c m c

equation reads

+

hν ν

m

c=

2

h+

'E

ν h

h ν'

=− +p

c c

that is

ν

h=

−ν

h+

' p

c

+

We get E−

p

cm

c=

2

2h ν

from which it follows that

2

c+

22

p =

4

m

c(

2−

h+

p

c2

m

c2

) ν

so that

4

hν+

22

4

hνc2

m

c=

p

4

hν+2

mc2

The energy loss for the photon is the kinetic energy of the proton

K = E − m

c 2

. Now hν = 100 MeV and m c 2= 938 MeV, so that

p

c=

1

82M

e

V

and

−= =

2

E

m

c K1

7

.

6M

e

V

6. Let hν be the incident photon energy, hν' the final photon energy and p the outgoing

electron momentum. Energy conservation reads

+

hν ν

m

c=

2

h+

' 2

p

c+

2 2

4

m

c

We write the equation for momentum conservation, assuming that the initial photon

moves in the x –direction and the final photon in the y-direction. When multiplied by c it

read

i

(

h)=

j

(

hνν

'

)+(

i

p

x+

cj

p

yc

)

Hence p c

x=h

;p

c

y=ν

−

h' ν

. We use this to rewrite the energy conservation equation as

follows:

νν

(

h+

m

c−

22

h'

)=+

2

4

m

c2

c+

2

(

p

x

2

p

y=

)

m2

c+

(

h+

4 2 2

)(

h

') νν

From this we get

c2

ν

h'=ν

h m

hν+m

c2

c2

m h ν

h

K=ν−

h ν

h'=ν

h −

1 2 =ν

hν+m

c ν+m

h c2

(

10

0kV)2

e

= =

16.4

ke

V

1

0

0ke

V+ 5

1

0ke

V

Also

=

p

c

i(

1

0k

e

V+

)−

j

(

8

3.

6k

e

V)

3× 0− ×

3

4 8

h

c ( 6.6 1 J.s)

(3 1

0 m /s

)

ν

h= = =63×

.6 0−

1 1

7

J

λ 3×

10×6

1 −

9

0m

6 3×

.6 0−

1 1

7

J

= − = 4 4×

.1 0−

1 4

M

eV

0× 1

9

1

.6 1

0 J/e V

The momentum conservation for collinear motion (the collision is head on for maximum

energy loss), when squared, reads

h

+

ν

2

+

p2

2

h

p =

h 2

'

+

'+

p2

h

'

p'f

νην

2

νη

c

c i

c

c

Here η i = ±1, with the upper sign corresponding to the photon and the electron moving in

the same/opposite direction, and similarly for η f . When this is multiplied by c2 we get

(

h

)+ν ν

(

p

c

)+

2 2

η

2

(

hν ν

)

p

c=

i(η

h

'

)+

2 2

(

p

'

c+

)2

(

h'

)

p'

cf

momentum and mass reads

+

22

(

h

)(

p

cν

+

)

m2

4

c+

2

E

h=

(

h

'

)+

22

(p

'

c

)++

2

4

m

c2

E'

h' ν

ν ν

After we cancel the mass terms and subtracting, we get

h

(

E−ν

p

c

iηνη

=

)h'

(E−

' p

f'c

)

From this can calculate hν' and rewrite the energy conservation law in the form

E −η c

ip

E−'=

E ν

hE −

1

'−

p'cηf

η

i=−;η

1 f=1

. Assuming that the final electron momentum is

2 2

(

mc )

not very close to zero, we can write E+ p

c = 2E a

ndE '−p =

'c so that

2E '

2E × 2 E'

E −E '= hν

( 22

c)

m

1 1

It follows that = + 16h νwith everything expressed in MeV. This leads to

E ' E

E’ =(100/1.64)=61 MeV and the energy loss is 39MeV.

λλ

−

× 3

4

h h 6.

6

3 1

0J

.

s −

− = − == = × 0 1

2

' (

1c

o

s6

0) 1

.

231

0m

mc 2

mc×

2(

0

.

e×

91

0 k

g

)

(×

31

0m

/

s) e

−

3

0 8

ν

−

× ×

3

4 8

h

c(6

.6

31

0 J

.

s)

(

3 1

0m/

s)

=

λ

= − = ×5

h 5.

4 1

0

eV

(

2.

3×1

01

2

m)

(1

.×

61

0−

1

9

J/

e

V )

9. With the nucleus initially at rest, the recoil momentum of the nucleus must be equal

and opposite to that of the emitted photon. We therefore have its magnitude given by

p =hν /c , where h ν = 6.2M e

V. The recoil energy is

p2

= =

E νh

h

ν= 6.

2Me

V

= × −

3

2 (

6.

2Me

V ) 1

.

5 1

0 M

e

V

2

M2 Mc 2×1

4×(9

4

0M

eV)

2as

i

n /n implies that / s

i

nλθ ≤ 2 a/3 . Since λ = h/p this leads to

p ≥ 3h /2

a s

i

n θ

, which implies that the kinetic energy obeys

2 2

p 9h

= ≥ 2 2

K

2m8mnθ

as

i

−

×3

4 2

9

(6

.

6

3 1

0 J.

s

)

=

K =3.

3

5e

V

8(

0

.×

9−

3

0

1

0k

g)

(

0.

3

2 ×

1

0−

92

m)(

1.

6×−

1

9

1

0J/

e

V )

− −

× × = ×

2

7 3

0 3

For Helium atoms the mass is 4

(

1

.

6

71

0k

g)

/(

0

.

91

0k

g)7

.

4

21

0larger, so

that

3

3.5

e

V −

= = × 3

K 4

.

5 1

0 e

V

7

.

42×3

1

0

2 2

p h

11. We use K= = 2 with λ = 15 x 10-9 m to get

2

m2 mλ

−

×3

4 2

(

6

.6

31

0 J

.

s) −

= = ×3

K 6.

7

8 1

0e

V

2(

0

.×

9−

3

0

1

0k

g)

(

1

5×−

92

1

0m)

(1

.

6×−

1

9

1

0J

/e

V

)

For λ = 0.5 nm, the wavelength is 30 times smaller, so that the energy is 900 times

larger. Thus K =6.10 eV.

12. For a circular orbit of radius r, the circumference is 2πr. If n wavelengths λ are to fit

into the orbit, we must have 2πr = nλ = nh/p. We therefore get the condition

=

p

rn

h/

2 =

h

n π

which is just the condition that the angular momentum in a circular orbit is an integer in

units of h.

13. We have a = n λθ

-10

/

2 s

i

n . For n = 1, λ = 0.5 x 10-10 m and θ = 5o . we get

a = 2.87 x 10 m. For n = 2, we require sinθ 2 = 2 sinθ 1. Since the angles are very

small, θ 2 = 2θ 1. So that the angle is 10o.

14. The relation F = ma leads to mv 2/r = mω r that is, v = ω r. The angular momentum

quantization condition is mvr = n h, which leads to mω r2 = n. The total energy is

therefore

=

E

1212

v+

m m

2 2

2

r=2

m2

r=h

n ωω ω

The analog of the Rydberg formula is

hω ω

ν

(

n→n

'

)

−

E

h

E

= =

(

n

h

−n

'

)

=(

n−n

'

)

2π

n n

'

The frequency of radiation in the classical limit is just the frequency of rotation

ν l=

c ω / π

2 which agrees with the quantum frequency when n – n’ = 1. When the

selection rule ∆ n = 1 is satisfied, then the classical and quantum frequencies are the

same

for all n.

15. With V(r) = V0 (r/a)k , the equation describing circular motion is

k

V 1

2

v d r

m= | |=k

V

r dr r

0

a

so that

k/2

Vr

k

v= 0

mk

k+2

r2

=n

h

2

m

akV0

a

We may use the result of this and the previous equation to calculate

k

1 h2

k k

12 1 +

2 k2

r r n

=

Ev+

m V =(k+

1

)V = (k+

1

)

V 2

2

0

a 2 0 2 0

a m

ak

V

0

k

1 h2

k+

2 2 k

h2 2

→ +

) →

+

2k

)2

a

k2 2

E (k

V 0(

n 2n

2

m 2

m

a

Note that V0 drops out of the result. This makes sense if one looks at a

picture of the potential in the limit of large k. For r< a the potential is

effectively zero. For r > a it is effectively infinite, simulating a box with

infinite walls. The presence of V0 is there to provide something with the

dimensions of an energy. In the limit of the infinite box with the quantum

condition there is no physical meaning to V0 and the energy scale is

provided by h2/ 2ma 2

.

n2h2

E=

2I

In a transition from n1 to n2 the Bohr rule implies that the frequency of the

radiation is given

ν − 2 h h 2 2

2

EE

= =( − =( −

π

1 2 2

1

2 n1n)

2 nn)

h 2 I

h 4I1 2

2 2

n1n)

2 2

n

2n, so

that

hn

ν

1

1

2→ ∆

2

πI 2

2

n

1L

= ∆

πI

n

ω = L/I , i.e.

ωL

νcl =

2π I

17. The energy gap between low-lying levels of rotational spectra is of the order of

h2 /I= (

1 /2π )hh/ M

R 2

, where M is the reduced mass of the two nuclei, and R is their

separation. (Equivalently we can take 2 x m(R/2)2 = MR2). Thus

c 1 h

h

ν

h= = h 2

λ2πMR

h h (

1λ λ

.

0

5 ×

1

0−

3

4

J.

s)

(

1

0−3

m)

= = =

R

2M

c m

c (

1

.π π π

6

7×−

1

02

7

kg)

(

3×1

08

m /

s)

=

2

6n

m

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