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SIMPLE

C 8

SERIOUS

PRINTED IN JAPAN COPYRIGHT TAMAYA '82

BY

TAMAYA DIGITAL

**Semidiameter (S.D.) of the Sun and Horizontal Parallax (H.P.) of Venus and Mars.
**

For Sextant Altitude Corrections

January FebruarY March April May

September

16.2 16.3

SIMPLE

DIGITAL

I0cr 22

Dec. 14

- Des. 13'0.2 - Oec. 31.0.1

**BY TAMAYA DIGITAL NAVIGATION COMPUTER NC-77
**

TABLE 1

Contents

lntroduction PART ONE: ASTRO-NAVIGATION BY NC-77 CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER I I CHAPTER I I I Fundamentals of Astro-Navigation Taking Sight with a Sextant

Introduction

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With TAMAYA NC-77 DIGITAL NAVlGATlON COMPUTER we can digitally solve most navigational problems with scientific accuracy and incredible speed in a very easy way. However, it i s a fallacy to believe that computers will do everything for us. Safety at sea always depends on our sound judgement, whatever tools we may use to facilitate our work. For this reason, this textbook not only explains how to use NC-77 Computer but also refers to the principles and fundamentals of navigation. In PART ONE determining our position by Astro-Navigation is expounded fully from the principle to the actual steps of computation. I n PART TWO Basic Navigation Computations for Dead Reckoning and Piloting are explained with examples and illustrations. The text is very easy, and no special knowledge of computer programming or mathematics is required. I n the course of learning in this textbook. if any question arises about the meaning of keys and dialogue symbolsof NC-77 we can refer to the Appendix where full explanation i s given with itlustrations. For further study on navigation, it is recommended t o read such classical textbooks as "American Practical Navigator" by Bowditch or "Dutton's Navigation and Piloting" by Dunlop and Shufeldt, with NC-77 computer at hand. comprehension of these textbooks is greatly advanced because with NC-77 we can save a lot of time otherwise spent unnecessarily on acquiring techniques on mechanical computations. Consequently, we can concentrate on understanding of more important fundamentals and principles of navigation.

4

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Finding the Geographical Position of Heavenly Bodies (Greenwich Hour Angle and Declination}

CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V CHAPTER V I

**. . , 10 Computation and Plotting for Fix . . . . . . . . 15 Sextant Altitude Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . 24
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Identification of Unknown Star

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32

34

CHAPTER VI1 Fix by Noon Sight and Other Sextant Applications . . . . . .

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PART TWO:

BASIC NAVIGATION COMPUTATIONS FOR DEAD RECKONING AND PILOTING BY NC-77 Mercator Sailing and Great Circle Sailing .

CHAPTER I CHAPTER I1

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38

**. . . . . . . . . . . 42 CHAPTER ll I Tide and Stream (Tidal Current) . . . . . . . . . 46
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CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V APPENDIX Speed, Time, Distance Time and Arc.

Plane Sailing and Nav~gation through Current and Wind . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

49

50

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EXPLANATION OF NC-77 DIGITAL NAVIGATION COMPUTER

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our ship must be somewhere on it. Obviously.4. the spot that it would hit on the earth's surface is its GP. This i s called a Position Circle because our ship must be somewhere on it.000 miles by computation. in practice. 5 Position Circle and Position Line .q * 3000 ml s ie - Now. Moon. draw another position circle with a radius of 8 miles and B as center. The next thing we must know i s the distance from our ship to the GP. to draw a 3. For instance. would touch the earth's surface. PRINCIPLE OF ASTRO-NAVIGATION When we know the distance from two points. the same principle. Suppose the distance from our ship is 6 miles t o Lighthouse A and 8 miles to Lighthouse B. In other words. See Fig. [The distance from our ship P to the GP of a heavenly body = {90°. Draw a circle with a radius of 6 miles and A as center. 3. .altitude) x 60 miles].000 miles radius position circle on a chart. Therefore. planets and stars. 4 Position Circle Since it is not feasible.000 miles and the GP as center. GP i s the point where a line. the Sun. Now.Azimuth \ i of the sighted body from our ship /Position Circle I inn / . we must always have at least two known points. Circle In Astro-Navigation. 5. and instead of lighthouses we use heavenly bodies. The principle of modern Astro-navigation is just this simple. the intersection of the two position circles is our ship's position. we can determine our ship's position. 3 Distance from ship to GP of star A. drawn from center of the heavenly body to the center of the earth.Pnci+irm Fig.CHAPTER I Fundamentals of Astro-Naviuation 1.. is used to determine the ship's position. Fig. Fig. I . + !. This is calfed Position Line or Line of Position. if a star fell down directly toward the center of the earth. if we drew a position circle with a radius of 3. how do we know the position of any of these heavenly bodies? W will express their position in terms of their Geographe ical Position (GP). See Fig. It can be determined by measuring the altitude of the heavenly body above the horizon. if we observed a star at the altitude of 40 degrees we can figure out the distance t o its G as 3. 2 GP of a heavenly body + Fig. the positions of which are already known. See Fig. By drawing another position circle with another heavenly body whose GP and distance are known we can determine our ship's position at their intersection. and supplementary note on page 33. See Fig.position circle method. Then. and a t this point we would see the star directly overhead. only a necessary part of it is drawn as a straight line in the manner explained in Chapter IV.

g.. Measure the altitude of the heavenly body (Sun. the departing port. 6.. Record the exact Greenwich Mean Time IGFvlTi of the sght. Fig.. . BASIC STEPS AND TOOLS FOR ASTRO-NAVIGATION It takes some steps and tools to determine our ship's position by Astro-Naviga ion as summarized in Fig. 6 1. TOOLS: Sextant Quartz Watch FiNDlNG GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION (GP) Of THE SIGHTED BODY: The GP is the point on the earth directly beneath the heavenly body. Moon. and i t is expressed by Greenwich Hour Angle (GHAI and Declination (DEC). v- Plotting Instruments . and the DR posltion..They are computed by NC-77 or found in the Nautical Almanac... planet or star) above the hori. iA ship's position determined by applying the cource and distance travelled from some known position. is called Dead Reckon~ng Position.) Compare the computed Altitude ( F l l with the actually observed True Altitude ( & I . e. TOOLS: or DEC GHA ". DR Long 6 0 ° i NC-77 Computer Q Nautical Almanac 3. Plot two LOP'S t o derermlne our ship's position at their intersec tion (FIX).- SEXTANT. or compute ~tdigitally by NC-77. . COMPUTATION BY NC-77 AND PLOTTING: Compute the Azimuth i:) and Altitude IF?)of the same body by NC-77 using the factors found i n Steps ( 1 ) a n d (21..2. TAKING SIGHT WITH A . From the above factors we can plot a line of position (LOPI on the chart or plotting sheet. zon at your position..

. .. - In a high quality sextant the altitude can be read by degrees.. .. minutes. LMTcan be easily converted to GMT. n l n Index Mirror Fig. If we ~ ~ go eastward. the altitude of the body is measured by adjusting the angle of the index mirror until the reflected image contacts the horizon (Fig. Zone Time in New York..- . image of the body to the horizon mirror. 7 . i s 9 hours after GMT. record the altitude af the body measured by the sextant and the exact Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) of the sight.CHAPTER. With this principle in mind.. based on LMT at 7 5 ' ~long. 8 2. The horizon mirror i s so constracted that one can see the horizon at the same time he sees the reflected image of the whole body. 7 and work on the same principle.. II . QUARTZ WATCH In Astro-Navigation it is necessary to read hours. is 8 hours before GMT.. Four seconds of time is equivalent to one minute of longitude (one nautical mile at latitude 0'). and Zone Time in San Francisco based on FMT a t 1 2 0 long. Therefore.. SEXTANT Taking a sight means to measure the vertical angle or altitude between a heavenly body and the horizon in order to ascertain the s ship's position a t sea. The sextant is used a a tool to accomplish this aim. and seconds of time.. 8). Greenwich Mean Time is the time a t longitude 0'. One minute of the sextant reading is equivalent to one nautical mile. minutes and 1/10 minute. Thus. S e x t a n t arc a n d r s a d ~ n g Fig. Takino Siaht with a Sextant 1. so the digital quartz watch having the seconds display is very convenient for such reading of accurate time. Local ~ Mean Time (LMT) wilt depart 1 hour from GMT for every 1 5 of longitude. i s 5 hours before GMT. The index mirror reflects the . All marine sextants have two mirros arranged as shown in Fig.. When a sight is taken. Tokyo based on LMT a t 1 3 5 ' ~long.

0 0 34. and it i s expressed in terms of Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) and Declination IDEC).7 25.2 20.6 421 59.0333 GHASun E w s t i o n of Time Repeat d and K GHA Sun [Dialogue Symbol : X ) 38'02'.8 / Alphord Al Na'ir Alnilorn 166 153 28 276 218 126 358 62 353 112 44. Avior 234 28.4 N56 04.1 175 0 4 4 37. Find the GHA and DEC of the Sunat GMT 14h 35m 43s on Jan.A. 1978 by NC-77 KW Find the GHA and DEC of the Moon at GMT 0 5 ~ 25m18s on Jan.3 0 44. I n Astro-Navigationwe use the Sun. Saturn and selected navigational stars as reference bodies. We can obtain GHA and DEC of the Sun by NC-77 Almanac mode.0 1 Alphecco Alpheratr Ankoa Antorer Altoir .8 06.1 DEC is measured like latitude.0 15 1 4 1 29 46. G. is equivalent t o GHA 270'. we will find the following data in the 1978 Nautical Almanac for Sunday. Display j Y 0.2 73 2 2 1 87 54.7 11. We need Nautical Almanac to find GHA and DEC of the Moon.8 131 29. Moon. from the equ*.8 S 0 24.6 0 13.. Naval observatory or equivalent authorities in other countries.5 0 54.0 57.8 22.1 4 6 2 .2 1 46.0 16. 1. 6' Therefore.T. January 1. STARS HI.7 568 59.2 44 18. Findina The Geoaraahical Position of . on.2 1 56.7 56. " Heavenly Bodies (Greenwich Hour Angle and Declination) The Geographical Position is the point on the earth directly beneath the heavenly body.2 42. I.9 11.8 56. g: :.1 33..M.2 22. Mars.9 N26 N28 N8 542 526 47. It should be noted that GHA and longitude are not expressed exactly the same.4 160 33. As an example. NC-77 greatly facilitates the procedure of deriving the required information from the Nautical Almanac.:.025 -0.2 58 50.0 102 25.1 547 04.H.7 108 25.6 13. MOON G.9 116 57. GHAand DEC are like longitude and latitude that are used to designate positions on the earth.2 17. planets and stars. / Name SHA. Problem 1. 1978.5 2 06.7 56.3 559 26.5 DEC Sun (Dialogue Symbol : d ) 522' 59'.2 27. 5 .2 5 1 13.5 N49 25.9 We will make use of GHA Aries (Xo I later in the star problem. Whereas longitude is measured from the Greenwich meridian (longitude 0' line1 to 180' east and to 180' west. D~C.9 Bellotrii 279 00.4 N 6 19.6 146 01.6 5 0 03.1 5 8 33.7 Betelgeuse 271 29.9 57. Let us work on examples. longitude 90' east.7 56. Jupiter.9 ! j: 12 56. : 218 21 I 233 2 2 1 247 2 3 : 262 20 39. / Note: Year Month Day : S 06 1 07 I 08 09 @ 0 @ Answer: x to 38.7 14. Venus. Nautical Almanac is published every year by the US. GHA is measured only westward up to 3 0 from it.7 2 17. TABLE 2 (Continue to page 12) .CHAPTER Ill Problem 2.6 56.2 34. for instance. and Equation of Time ( t o ) in the noon sight problem.or to 90' north and 90' south.9 N 7 24.6 56.3 48.6 56..8 1 05.3 58. For the other bodies we use NC-77 and the Nautical Almanac. 3 N19 17. See Table 2 -Excerpt from Nautical Almanac.0 I I53 N0 0 0 N 0 Alioth Alkoid 56.

9 82 55.1 143 05. GHA and DEC are found in the same manner.6 44. Answer GHA 6"49'.3 44.0 113 00.9 27.- GMT GHA DEC 14n 3 ' 7 3 523'37. 45.4 29.4 15 14.0 44. 5 115 130 145 160 175 20.2 JUPITER G.421 h d 5 n 49.3 41 06. Answer GHA 45O551.1 Problem 3. 3 1 Find the GHA and DEC of Venusat GMT 1 4 ~ 4 5 ~ 5ZS on Jan.7 86 14.4 NL2 44. Problem 2 Moon GMT LO.1 N O 37. GHA DEC Dec.6 45.H.8 DEC N 0°43'. TABLE 2 . For other plants.2 44.1 N12 44.0 From Naurical Almanac (Table 21 325 54 5 340 56. Mars. NC-77 in the following manner.4 1 01.3 45.1 DEC ~33'7 2'7.7 From Nautical Almanac (Table 2) .9 44.1 128 02.1 0°42'.9 523 37.2 45. VENUS I n order to find the GHA and DEC of the Moon at GMT 0 5 ~ 2 5 ~ 1BS.8 56 09.3 205 34. 1.8 44.7 N12 45.9 1 26 04.4 24.1~0047'.8 22 44. SATURN G.0 22.ARIES G.5 52. we first find the data for GMT 0 5 and 0 6 ~and feed them to ~ .7 352 39.8 220 37.7 250 265 280 295 310 0 5 ~ 06 42 2 44. 15 49 26. 1978.H.A.7 42.1 Key Display Key Display Interpolation is unnecessary as DEC in this case does not :hawe during one hour.6 32234.7 337 37.6 47. . Problem 3 Venus 307 32.A.2 1 DfC GHA Key Display MC ( Key Display GHA 235 39. 0 .A.0 97 57.8 190 32.9 67 52. * . 1 i . Jupiter and Saturn.3 7 1 11. .8 37 47.2 0.1 . * Oec.9 52 50.5 44.9 355 59.H.7 7 42.

we will correct our DR position so that there will be no difference beween the two altitudes.) If there i s a difference between the two altitudes the assumption was wrong by the amount of the difference (Altitude Intercept). Computation and Plotting for Fix Now we are ready to compute and pfot our position. DR Lat. (4) Obtain "FIX" by two Lines of Position. Then. tract 360' to express i t within one round of the earth. and SHA's GHA Aries i s computed by NC-77 of fifty-seven navigational stars are found in Nautical Almanac.203 Xo Problem 1 @ J 78. Required: (1) Compute the Altitude and Azimuth of the Sun.074 Ho 146. Arcturus. See Chapter V Sextant Altitude Corrections.277 131. So.277 date GM I GHA Aries SHA Arcturus * 1 GHA Arcturus "2 The DR position of a vessel is 30"22'. The GHA and DEC at GMT 1 4 ~ 3 5 ~ 4 3 ~ onoJan. 1978.203 3 @ a El * 1. 1. and DR Long.5 and ~22~59'9. (2) Compute Altitude Intercept. s "2. in the blanks so designated. SeeTable 2 . and the latter i s the altitude measured by sextant at the actual position. COMPUTATION OF ALTITUDE ( 8 1 AND AZIMUTH ( i ) BY NC-77 A convenient NC-77 LOP COMPUTATION CARD has been prepared t o assure the proper order of input data. we plot only a necessary part of the position circle as a straight line. the rule to compute GHA star is: GHA Star = GHA Aries + SHA Star. Aries Star GHA Ar~es i s a reference meridian for establishing celestial longitude of Stars. in the appropriate blanks with these Fill data.Probelm 4. If $HA becomes negative it i s also common practice to add 360 to express i t a a positive value.5~ a t GMT 1 4 ~ 3 5 ~ on3Jan. See the enclosed card and Table 3. i s found by adding SHA of Arcturus (Sidereal Hour Angle) to the GHA Aries. I t is constantly changing. Enter the date. SHA Arcturus i s found in Nautical Almanac. 1978.0101 h 16. The lower 4 ~ limb of the Sun is sighted by the sextant at this monent. It is best to follow the actual steps to understand this principle. (True Altitude i s obtained by adding corrections to the direct sextant reading. Find the GHA and DEC of Arcturus at CHAPTER IV 16hl6m39S on Jan. and expressed in terms of westward angle from the Greenwich meridian. (See Table 21 a s ~ 1 17:7. and call i t a Line of Position [LOP).1639 146. SHA Star is the westward distance of the particular star from this meridian. 1. DEC of Arcturus i s found in Nautical Almanac. LOP is obtained by comparing the computed altitude and the actually observed true altitude.8~69"35'. When GHA becomes greater than 360' we customarily sub- 1.1639 Ho 345. It does not change for the whole day. follow the steps shown on page 16. GMT. name of body. So. 1. F H A of the Star. 1978 have been obtained in Chapter I l l Problem ( 1 ) as 38 02' . 0 360 0 h'o 497. 9 ~ Answer: GHA 131°27:7 DEC ~19'17:7 . The former i s the altitude cornputed on the assumption that our DR i s correct. As mentioned in the Principle of Astro-Navigation.0101 16. So. (3) Plot the Line of Position. mode. Key Display 78. Greenwich Meridian . and the true altitude ( Ro I after sextant altitude corrections is 28'3216. it is impractical to draw a position circle with radius of hundreds or thousands miles on the chart.

but the dialogue symbol does not change from H to LH until [LOP) mode key i s pressed. COMPUTATION OF ALTITUDE INTERCEPT The intercept is simply the difference between the observed true altitude ( Ro 1 and the computed altitude ( R ).431 D 30. LX 88.0.599 @ Answer ' Computed Altitude 28*37:8 Azimuth 146'43:l T (measureddoc kwise LA'-69. In such a case we may enter LHA 3~8~27'. L : DR tat. 9 is solved by the following equations to obtain computed Altitude ( . This computation may be made in either InLM) or @ mode.2 miles). The observed true altitude is obtained by adding corrections to the direct sextant reading.) Since these equations are programmed in the ~ ~ . 9 Spherical Triangle d 0.228 @ I @ @ L 8 ( Rand !can he repeated by @key) *l GHA and LHA: mode from @ mode do not When continuing directly to confuse H and LH.q ) and Azimuth ( z: NC-77 symbol -) *2Some navigators are accustomed oto expressing :HA always as a positive value by applying 360 : LHA = 360 . The end result is the same. LHA = GHA t DR Longitude. d -22. are easily computed by NC-77. For purposesof this problem.0 instead of -31°33'.7 mode A 7 m and Z are computed simply by feeding d. A = sin-' [ cos h-cosd. H stands for Greenwich Hour Angle (GHA) and LH for Local Hour Angle (LHA).28"37!8) = -512 (5.31'339 = 328°27'.0.025 I1 Fig.228 28. L and h. and are explained separately in CHAPTER V Sextant Altitude Corrections (See problem 1 on page27).025 & 69. .cosL sind -sinA-sinL Z = cos-'[ cos**cosL Where d: declination + sind-sinl ] 1 A: Computed Altitude 2 : Computed Azimuth h: LHA (obtained by GHA t DR Long. Since @ key changes the sign to negative this rule is automatically observed if we always add Longitude. 2.355 E 'l @ 22.355 '1 from north1 LX -3 1. consisting of multiple factors. These altitude corrections. S Mathematics for Altitude and Azimuth Computation The spherical triangla as formed on Fig.599 L Q 30.378 146. just take 28'32'6 as the observed true altitude. and the Intercept (Ro .330 ' 2 Lh' 0.Key @ Display 38.R ) = (28'3216 .

can w i l y traced hy this way.378 d -0.052 d 2. Rofmtlrn aomobd Jt Bun dght Sun* Somldlammr 16:3 Lovvr limb 201 AWtdelntrrcrptBoep~~e Dota Dota Soume Key 028. L Computed AH. Computed bv NC-77 Compuard by NC-77 08. It e is recommendable. ma8wro Continued from above Reaell ~ ~ r n o 1 y r Chaptar IV Problam (1) Computed by NC-77 Computed byNC-77 KW Db* LHA ~ e c OR LAT ~omputldAldtudn True AzimUth @ Bi)aSl @3.30.- ma -- For '1 and *2 R. to write down the data in LOP Computation Chart whenever they become available.pa@ & 4.3% mlpla~ Ro 28. h e : W may use memory key.It. howaver.328 f 28378 l " .431 Data 8r.228 22.2 026 $ LH 313% d L t .1 SaxUnt rudlng 2 P n 1 lndex wmr V. 1 1978 . Data Souror Kw m78. for tha data used repeatedly.609 - laa76 148.378 B d 28. Errors.SEQUENCE FOR LOP COMPUTATION Data hn.6 too low lndex error oornoted alt.2 836 True Alt. P M Line o Podtbn or Compute Fix by NC-77 with dab 1 2 3 4 f .. ifthere was any.0101 I Chapter Ill ~ r o b l r m (1) cannumion of Aldtu& and Azimuth (6ramw 16 1 . Height of aye 3m Dlp t o w t a d .SUMMARY OF NG77 KEY .

10) Looking at the illustration in Fig.2 miles 1 146'43'. Azimuth 1 6 4 : . RUNNING FIX If the " f i x " must be made only by Sun sights. we can figure out that when Ro (the true altitude) is greater than 8 (the computed altitude with the assumption that our DR position is correct). 10 Plotting a Line of Position . we should shift our position from the DR position towards the Sun along the Azimuth line. I n this case. PLOTTING A LINE OF POSITION 4. 69" 35:5W and Intercept-5 2 . 11 Direction of Intercept 20 . 4'3l W take the intercept 5:2 from the latitude e scale of the chart by marine dividers and rranfer it onto the azimuth line. 5:2 of latitude is 5. &- Jan. The line crossing the azimuth line at right angle at this point is called Line of Position (LOP).3. F I X BY TWO LOP'S Now. The intersection of the two LOP'S called "fix" is the ship's position (Fig. At GMT 1 4 ~ 3 5 ~ 4 3 ~ Fig. The crossing point of the advanced LOP and the second LOP is the ship's position at the time of the second sight (Fig. / 5. The opposite should be done if RO i s less than 8 . 30°22:8N. we should obtain two LOP's by allowing a time interval between the two sights as the Sun changes i t s azimuth in a day moving from east to west at a considerable speed. a ship's position can be determined only after at least two LOP's are obtained. In the theory of Astro-Navigation as explained at the outset. 11. (Fig. 6 on page 6 ). 12 Running Fix M a from the DR away from the Sun w Move from the DR towards the Sun Fig.1 Let 30~20' I n Fig. 12) This i s called Running Fix.2 nautical miles on the earth's surface. 1 1978 . the first LOP is advanced along the ship's course by the amount of the distance run between the two sights. we can plot the Line of Position on the chart or ptotting sheet with our DR Lat. \ \ I use NC-77 mmx*).

Input. compute the new DR position applying the course and distance. 5 miles away Azimuth (21 21 1 18!1 ' @ I 146. Intercept ( 2 ) @ 5.and a Line of Position can be plotted from one DR position as illustrated in Fig. (This is also true with running fix.In order to advance LOP1.14!7W : F i x a t GMT i8h38m03s) Fig. Ifwe take sights of two bodies in a very short time interval we can consider it as a simultaneousobservation. Before taking a sight the azimuth and altitude of the desired star may be precomputed using the approximate time of the sight to be taken. 69. L 30. In this way the star can be found very easily. the Moon and a star.2 d 0.5 0 211. the answer will become " E M a tan 90" or tan 270" includs 0 ed in the program produces "E". Intercept 11) 0 69.) For star sights. 211. suitable stars to make an ideal fix can be selected from the list of fifty-seven navigational stars. For this computation see Dead Reckoning by Mercator Sailing by NC-77 on page 3 8 .: 0.5 miles away.160m .166 I 69'76!OW Lar. 13. Suppose we took the second Sun sight at this new DR position and computed the azimuth 21 1' 18:l and intercept 6.431 @ 6. 12 O R Lat.235 @ ::-69. The intersection of the advanced LOP1 and LOP2 is our ship's position.147 I @ Repear L and :: Note: [n @ mode. 13 Fix by Two Stars FIX BY TWO CELESTIAL BODIES Alt. or plotting sheet. two different stars etc. Polaris and four planets in the Nautical Almanac.431 r 0. first. DIGITAL FIX BY NC-77 While we are able to read the plotted fix position from the chart. . :/-69. 6 ~ a@ 30. The position "fix" has the best reliability when the two LOP'Sare at righr angle to each other. d-6.581 E 1 L @ 0. 0 1-5.50 d 0. Key Display Answer - 30' 1 6 ' . 106. D R Long.2 6 .181 30. However. Dats from fig.2 miles away Azimuth ( 1 ) 146'4311 Alt. a 9' or 270' can be accepted as the second az irnuth.166D : 0. A t this position plot the advanced LOP1 repeating the same procedure. 30' ~ 3 : s ~ Long. it may be digitally computed more precisely by NC-77 as follows.160 5. This result is also plotted on the chart as LOP2. if 9' or 270" i s entered as the first azimuth 0 We may take sights of two different celestial bodies like the Sun and Moon.

and see how much the reading is off the"0". (4) Dip correction Dip is the discrepancy in altitude reading due to the height of the observer's eye above sea level. 14). move the index arm slowly until the horizon line is in alignment. Apparenc Position (3) fl EARTH Fig. I n this case the semidiameter of the disk of the body must be subtracted from or added t o the measured angle (Fig. ( I ) index correction Index error is the error of the sextant itself. an error exists caused by the lack of parallelism of the two mirrors. 16 Refraction Horizon in alignment Horizon out of alignment l ndex error present Semidiameter correction When measuring the altitude of the Sun or Moon by sextant it is customary t o observe the upper or lower limb of the body because the center of the body cannot be easily judged. Fig. Fig. (2) . The corrections t o be made are (1) tndex correction ( 2 ) Dip correction (3) Refraction correction (4) Semidiameter Correction. 17). This error can be checked by looking at the horizon with the sextant with its reading set at 0~00:0 If the reflected image of the horizon in the horizon mirror does not form a straight line with the directly viewed horizon through the clear part. This amount should be added to or subtracted from the sextant reading depending on the direction of the error (Fig.CHAPTER V ~ e x t a n t ~ l t i t u dCorrections e After taking a sight of a celestial body we must make necessary corrections t o the direct sextant reading to obtain the true altitude. 15 Dip \. 11. 15).and (5) Parallax correction. H o r i z o n viewed from above sea Refraction correction Refraction is the difference between the actual altitude and apparent altitude due t o the bending of the light passing through rnedia'of varying densities (Fig. If we could c a s u r e the altitude of a body with our eye at the sea water level this correction would not be neccessary {Fig. 16).. Then.

. (sncl is used t o make altitude corrections under the standard temperature and atmospheric pressure (l0'C. While the angle must be measured from the center we can view the body only from the surface. In NC-77 the Sun's Parallax correction is made in combination with its semidiameter correction. . rection. . . . . 28'20'5 . Venus and Jupiter. @ i s used when the corrections under varying temperature and pressure are desired. select NC-77 lows. . . Horizon Fig. . . (5) Then. . The height of eye above sea level is 3 meters. . These factors affect the refraction correction. On the other hand. . . . + 0. .92 in. . Moon. or 5 0 ' ~ .25rnb. and it is best t o solve them by NC-77 programs. but the other corrections are based on rather complex equations. 1978. 29. It i s easy t o make the first lndex correction mentally. . . 18 Parallax This correction is applied t o the Sun. and make computation as fol- Fig. and the difference must be adjusted (Fig. . . Sextant Reading . The sextant reading of the lower limb of the Sun is 28'2015 on Jan. Find the true altitude of the Sun. The sextant reads 0:5 too low because of the index error.5 Index Correction 28'27 . [sncl mode. make the index correction.). the Moon's semidiameter correction is made together with i t s parallax cor.1.O Parallax correction Parallax is the difference in the apparent position of the body viewed from the surface of the earth and the center of the earth. . . . . .I mirror SEXTANT ALTITUDE CORRECTIONS BY NC-77 NC-77 has @ (Standard Altitude Corrections) and (Variable Altitude Corrections) modes for sextant altitude corrections. . First. . . . 1013. . 181. . 17 Semidiameter STANDARD ALTITUDE CORRECTIONS Problem 1.

of the truealtitude.3 (Jan. Choose upper or lower limb by W or key depending on which side was sighted. It varies from 15'3 to 1W. Before entering the data make sure whether computation is made in meter or feet. made as for the stars. I f S.Problem 1 SUN(1owsr limb of the Sun) 1 Sextant Altitude (Index error corrected) 2d21'.- Display Answer I 1 SBXfanf A l t i t u d e (Index error corrected) 34'20'.5 ht @ @ a ai R Rn 6.5 18. 0'. the program blocks it and asks the re-entry of the correct information without having to go back t o the very beginning. 28'32'. The summarized data is given in TABLE 1.3 fil H. Compute the true altitude with the following data.5 Height of Eye 6.P.6. So. 28.9 The true altitude i s 28'37. KEY Display R. therefore. or H.3 (Ssp.210 O.March). corrected alt 0.589 p~ hP hP hP Ra 0.D. (Horizontal Parallax) at every hour of the day is found in the Nautical Almanac.189 1 Trus altitude 119"18'. 1978) 6.8 . Compute the true altitude with the following data.6 5d 1 Sextant Altitude (Index corrected) 18'46'. data). which have no H.5 m e t e r 121.589 H.5 meters (21.420 18. 3.163 Semidiameter of the 5d O' Sun (iower limb) Ro 28.P.P. (Semidiameter) is given in the Nautical Almanac. D Problem 2 M O O N 8 (upper limb) Answer @ @ @ a 0. 15. is entered with a wrong decimal point position.3 ffl H. a The Moon's H.391 0.5 1l a error 1 Heighr of E v e 6.1V.9 (Jan. Altitude corrections for these two planets are. Key Problem 3 VENUS . 1.589 -0. The Sun's S. 1 @ 28. 0. and 1W.3 in any year (15.161 Refract.P.3 October .P. Problem 3.16303 Rn Height of eve 28. Jupiter and Saturn.210 I @ 3 R ht ht RP 28.1 .0 Height of eye 3.2for the second '1 six months and be within 0 .P. 16.P. 1 The Moon's upper limb i s sighted. 1978) Key Display RI 0 Answer problem 2.1W. There is no H. 25.179 Dip corrected alt.3 instead of 0. ' Venus is sighted.163 in the above case.0 April September and 16'.326 True slt.D.P.84 frl Semidiameter 16'. for the other navigational planets.Moon 19. 5W.P.9 for the first. . for instance.0 m e t e d 9. we could safely use the average 1V. (Horizontal Parallax) applies only to Venus P and Mars d (See TABLE 1 of this booklet for H. 1978) H. checking the side selector switch.

W. Saturn and Stars Rn equals the True Altitude since there i s no Horizontal Parallax or Semidiameter to be taken into consideration.Pc.776 dheight of. @ 58. Venus or Mars VARIABLE SEXTANT ALTITUDE CORRECTIONS When a low altitude body i s sighted refraction becomes a relatively significant factor in computing the true altitude.162 Fie 4.pi?e?: . Bessel's terrestrial refraction theory.157 D I P corrected alt. Radau's mean refraction table is simulated by the program. planets and stars...s u n .3 ft. temperature and pressure factors Should be introduced for more precise computations. Compute the true alr~tude . :986 p 986. : .499 .. ) S.279 58. MIV 1 Dway Ju~iter. For astronomical refraction R . There is no significant difference in accuracy between the various refraction theories..eye in meters = -0l.228 attitude /58' 22'. Compute the true akitude using the measured temperature and pressure.234 58.5 meters (21. Refraction corrected alt.! 5'05'. KOY Ihspley : Maon. Disptay Answer ARCTURUS Sextant Altitude (Index Prnhlrm 5 .9 True a l t .D. I n such a case. say.9 Height of Eye 6.: Key.5 @ @ St Rr Rn 0.Problem 4 Arcturus is sighted..-. Display VFWU. @ mode computes the True Altitude by Var: 3le Sextant Altitude Corrections when the use of varying temperature and atmospheric pressure i s desired.9 .5 58..162nr 5d -0. Kev Disolav -. correction for dip = -1l. 0. 4'4y.279 ht S U N (Upper limb) Sextgnr I corrected) 58O27'..) Altirude (Index @ R 0..8 rue (21. 6. In the case of Jupiter.P. . : :@. with the following data.. . 1 2 i n .. less than 10' of altitude. is the true altitude. .6O F) Pressure986rnb ( 2 9 . .. Accuracy: In [sac] @ mode programs. !j015'7 Since there is no H.98 dheight of eye in feet is used based on F. Problem 4 Key error problem 5.. Moon. @I 6. The upper limb of the Sun is sighted. d t u E 8 5 S - Kay -- Kcy Owlay The key sequence for @ until Refraction Correction is uniform for all Sun. ) ~ e r n p e r a t u r e 3 ' ~ (26.3 f t . . for the stars. 0 @I Sd 0. the refraction corrected altitude R.2 hL % 6..--. Answer . 16'. Rt Sextant Altitude Rr Dip Corrected Fln Refraction Corrected So True Altitude h t Height of eye So' Sun's Semidiameter hP Horizontal Parallax of Moon.5 5.

3 on page 5. another name of which is Arcturus. .363 L 0. . . 37. A t GMT19h32m16son Jan.6 145 49 0 "2 "3 Entering Star table on Pages 268-273 of the Nautical Almanac with SHA 145"49'. The ship's DR position i s 1 2 ~ 4 0 ' ~ 152'22'~. ship and GP. . . cannot be found in the Star table. 7 ) . . . . is illustrated a supplement to Fig. and the SHA values of the four navigational planets at the bottom of the STARS table of the daily pages also should be checked.206. Subtract GHA Aries for Igh32rnl6s (GHA) Jan. . Approximate declination Z 332. and want to find out what star it is.40 R 19. . . . . star with the closest the values is found to be a: Bootis (SHA 146"20'. . 1. it is possible that the body observed was actually a planet. Subtract DR longitude of ship .0 and DEC 1 9 ~ 2 8 ' . . Required: Identity of the star *3 If the answer becomes negative. star No.1978 an unknown star is observed a t altitude 62O3w. . Problem 1. L 12. . The more theoretical presentation. 6 ~ . . . . . . subtract J60° Key @ 72 @ I 62.CHAPTER VI *I Add if longitude is west. 3. .363 Q 12.6 . rn the event that a reasonably close match of the computed SHA and DEC values. .40 @ Q @ Display H 0. . . Identification of Unknown Star If we know the altitude and bearing of a star. 1. : iH 72. If the answer i s greater than 360 . . Greenwich hour angle of star (GHA) .152 22 OE '1 179 58 6 -3400g1. zdd 360' to get SHA. . *2 See Chapter I II for how to find GHA ARIES by NC-77 InLM] mode. a t the expense of difficulty in comprehension of the relations among the star. . . 1978 Sidereal hour angle of star (SHA) .3 and approximate azimuth 7 2 ' ~ . . . .. Local hour angle of star (LHA) .286 . . . .2 DEC ~ 1 9 ~ 1 7 ' . d 0. . 332'201. . . s Then compute the following in ARC mode. d 62. NC-77 is used in the following manner. . . . . Approximate local hour angle Note on Fig.

This is called Meridian Passage. indicate if the Sun was due North or South at noon. (1) If DR latitude and declination have contrary names. w i t h Equation of Time.584m @ @ /h RO h 0.7 Declination of the Sun Key Display ti^^ ~22'58'.9N (90'-~lt.0~ > < - "1 Problem 1.4238 B 34.3 42 GMT of Meridian Passage Greenwich Noon Difference in time Equation of time for Jan. Ro -34. ~ e a r i nsouth ~ g 34. 32'41'.) .dec. to -0. 21.dec. 1978 at GMT 21h42m38s computed by NC-77 @ mode *I Total difference i n time Time t o Arc conversion (use NC-77) Longitude of our ship : 144'44:oW = Fix by Noon Sioht and Other Sextant Applications 1. Since for convenience we use a fictitious constant Mean Sun as the basis for measurement of time the True Sun is not necessarily at the highest altirude at noon by the Mean Sun. This is the basic principle of finding longitude by Sun's Meridian Passage.4 32.7 55'40. computed b y NC-77 is accompanied by (-1 minus sign when Mean Sun isfasterthan True Sun. It is computed by NC-77 @ mode or found in the Nautical Almanac. If we were not on the Greenwich line (longitude 0') we would observe the Sun reach i t s highest altitude at a different time. Equation o f time is 3"'4ZS. 90' -3401gr. Problem 1 GMT of Meridian Paasage 21h42m38r N O O ~ l t i t u d e .) b) When Lat. Latitude: After measuring the highest true altitude of the Sun by sextant our latitude can be determined b y the following rules. For instance. FIX BY NOON SIGHT We can find our latitude and longitude at the same time if we measure the Sun's highest altitude of the day and record the time.Alt. we can judge from the Sun's speed that our longitude is two hours (or 30' o f Arc) west of the Greenwich line. the same computation can be automatically made by NC-77 @ (Meridian Passage) mode as follows. and we observe the Sun due South or North.7 at GMT 21 h4zm38S. Longitude: The Sun travels from east t o West at an equatorial speed of 15 miles per minute. Alt. an adjustment. The Sun's meridian passage (the highest altitude) was observed as 34'19'.) 38 56 144'44:o / Latitude: I n thiscase Lat. must be introduced to obtain our exact longitude because the earth's rotation is not truly at a constant speed. O @ 121.03420 . i f we observed the Sun's meridian passage at GMT 1 4 o'clock. *2 Here.4 and we are in north latitude.22.3 . + (90' . 1 1978 0. = dec.41. however.197 d 0. dec.4 of r i m e for J-". I n this case make input with the (-) minus sign here.Mean Sun). Lat. Eqn. Lat.197W2 @ 22.CHAPTER VII Step by step Computation 21 h42m38s -12 00 0 0 9 42 38 .584 to 0. It crosses the Greenwich meridian at GMT 12 o'clock. dec. .1gr.9N : Long. Lat.58.419 / Repest L and 1: ~ n ~ w e rLat. Declination of the Sun is S2Z058'. .) . 1. A t this moment on theGreenwich line the Sun has reached its highest altitude of the day. of T. = dec. Noon Altitude Declination of the Sun Latitude of our ship Noon Latitude and Longitude Computation by NC-77 If it is difficult t o remember the rules. = (90' 12) If DR latitude and declination have the same name (North or South) a) When Lat.0342 - GMT21h42m38~ -3rn42r '1 C 32. 144'44'. Equation of time is the difference in time between the True Sun and the Mean Sun. d -22. Equation of Time is (True Sun .(90' Alt.4238 0.

any index error. 15. 1 ~ ship. Note that (1: (dip corrected angle) is automatically computed. if we enter sextant altitude and height of eye.000246 )2+----- H-h 0. which i s the longitude of the 42m38s as ? 4 4 " 4 4 ' .000246 where D H h = = distance to object in nautical miles = height of object beyond horizon in feet height of the observer's eye in feet above see level = dip corrected sextant vertical angle 2. 1978. ht Select meters or feet by the selector switch before entering the data. (the error of sextant itself) must be corrected before entering 8.. 1000. APPLICATION OF MARINE SEXTANT IN MEASURING IY DISTANCE The marine sextant may be used to measure the vertical angle subtended by the height of an object. 0.1~) in the example is accounted for by rounding to one decimal place in IMPS] computation.98 d 1 - Fig.Noon Longitude by NC-77 Longitude alone can be obtained quickly by NC-77 in the course of computing Equation of Time by [ntMi mode. One tenths of a rnininute (O1. The answer i s always given in nautical miles. The altitude of a mountain top was measured by sextant. DEC Sun and Eqn. 144'44'. of Time are derived by NC77 @ mode or taken from the Nautical Almanac.0'. Note: Time of meridian passage can best be determined by plotting on cross-section paper a series of observed altitudes versus times (GMT) of observation. Problem 2. the time of maximum altitude can be established. 1. ) Display Answer 15 1000 hk hi ht 0.200' = 160"). GMT2l h{H-I 44. the ship's position is 1 6 0 " ~ For instance. the ship i s in east longitude. if GHA of Sun is 2 0 0 ~ . Compute the distance to it with the following data.2ft. Needless to say. 19 Distance to Object .74736 - tan a 0. Distance to the object is then computed by the equation shown in Fig. In the above example before the Equation of Time (-3m42s). (Dip i s . If GHA of Sun exceeds 180°. Height of E v e 15 meters (49. 1 Height of t h e mountain $000 meters ( 3 2 8 1 f t .441). 19 on page 37 which i s programmed in the NC-77 @ mode. (360' . commencing several minutes before estimated local apparent noon (based on the DR longitude) and continuing until several minutes after meridian passage. NC-77 [ALM] mode computes the GHA of Sun at Jan. Equation: D 0. From a curve faired through the plotted points.l) difference between the longitude computed by NC-77 @ mode and @ mode (144"44'.0W vs.

R.on the same great circle track beyond the arrival point is computed.5n. 3.405 O d 3480. I n this case the earth is considered as a sphere. initial great circle course 302'37'.08182). ::-125. .2240 ~ L 35. Dead Reckoning by Mercator Sailing Dead Reckoning mode computes the latitude and longitude of the point of arrival. The vertex is computed between the departure and the arrival point. O ! I I: 125. Problem 3 Departure point Long.m. Answer Course made good Lac E m 3 ~ ~ 2 ? . d 280.8 n. Display &nswer 3 r e a t circle distance 4488. D e w r a r e P o i n t Long. The principle of (DR] and The oblate spheroid characteristics o f earth (flattened at the poles and bulged at the equator) is taken into consideration in the programming.n Francisco) : L d 0.m. i s being used t o guarantee the utmost accuracy.0N YerTex ~ o n g . 1S. Lat.9 Yertex Lat.2~ Arrival Point Lat. Note on Accuracy: computation is Mercator Sailing.5 Repeat c a n d d Note: I n computing the great circle distance the earth is considered as a sphere.082 D 203.346 1 34.8~ DePalNre Point Course Long.5~ Great Circle Sailing mode computes the great circle distance between two points and also the initial course from the departure point. 125'08'. Problem 2 Departure P o i n t Kev Display L 0. 48'19. Great Circle Sailing @ Answer D.CHAPTER I Mercator Sailins and Great Ciicle Sailins 1. If there is no vertex t o be found between them the next vertex. : 0.5 Distance 3480.2~ D.8 L 30.224 203'40'. i Arrival Point Long. The program continues t o compute the latitude and longitude o f the vertex. 30'34'. 37. Long. . A r r i v a l Point Long. Course and Distance by Mercator Sailing Course and Distance mode computes the course and dis tance from the departure point t o the arrival point.082@ :: 0. World Geodetic System 1972 spheroid (Eccentricity =0. Problem 1 Departure P o i n l Lat.4208 2. 435. 280. When the course is exactly 090' or 270' the program automatically switches to Parallel Sailing.5200 A r r i ~ a point Lat.342 ::-123.508 0. and the latitude at any selected longitude on the great circle track. The most up-to-date WGS-72. 123'34'. 8 Repeat Land :: 139. 168'38'.R.8 :: 0.

l c ' A . If such a course is desired. taking advantage of the fact that for short distances a great circle and a rhumb line almost coincide. it can be computed by NC-77 with the equations and key sequence shown inthe example below. find the composite track with the maximum limiting latitude of 45'~. and rhumb lines are followed from point to point. no attempt is customarily made to follow i t exactly.8~. Composite Sailing: When the great circle would carry a vessel to a higher latitude than desired. Rather. 1 2 2 ~ 2 5 ' 5 ~ d Yokohama 34'52'. The Great Circle track is the shortest distance between any two points on the earth. problem: an Between San Francisco. Vertex 48' 1 9:ON.0~. tan Equations: DLOVI = cos'l (-tan L 1 tan m . 13g042'. It makes the same angle with all meridians i t crosses. a number of points are selected along the grear circle. and are 180° apart in longitude. Composite Sailing . 8 ~ Yo k o h a m a . sonal preference). 1 la 21:ZE 8 Point t o paint planning: Since a great circle is continuously changing direction as one proceeds along it.0~. and a great circle tangent to the limiting parallel and through the destination.0E. which is 161°26'.Mercator Sailing and Great Circle Sailing: The course obtained by Mercator Sailing is a rhumb line. at which the limiting parallel is reached i s 39 0U. a course llne along the parallel. 37'50'. and maintains constant true direction. which is 174"28'. appearing as a straight line on the Mercator chart. may be used to good advantage. but contrary names. The comparison of rhumb line and great circle track is shown in the illustration. These points are selected every ' of longitude 5 for convenience {the number of points to use i s a matter of per.0 east of the arrival point.4~. ' V1: The longitud. p m Francisco Answer: .s. ' a -) DLOVZ = COS-' ( L2 I tan Lrnax MERCATOR CHART Vertex: Every great circle lies haff in the northern hemisphere and half in the southern hemisphere. and the corresponding latitudes are computed by NC-77 as in problem 3. The composite track consists of a grear circle from the point of departure and tangent to the limiting parallel. Any two points 780' apart on a great circle have the same latitude numerically. On the Mercator chart a great circle appears as a sine curve extending equal distances each side of the equator.9 west of the departure point. Vertex 4 0 14:O. The point of greatest latitude is called the vertex. a modification of great circle sailing called composite sailing. 1 6 8 ' 3 8 ' . V2: The longitude at which the limiting parallel should be left is 45°50'.

d 2. 4 knots d 0.320 d 14. c 185. Finding the Course and Speed Made Good through a current Current 1 mode computes the course made good and speed made good when the course steered and speed through water are given. 170 @ Current 2 mode computes the course t o steer and speed through water when the course t o make good and speed to make good are given. @ Repeat c and d 3. c 0. and set and drift are known. d 15. and set and drift are known. and set and drift are known. d 12. c 276. d 0. @ Course to make good 265' Key 80 Display Answer 0.8 Repeat c and d .4 Repeat c and d Course to steer 8 ' 3 32' 5 .1 knots @ d *I Always reverse the sign of "drift" input in solving the 2 . c 80.8 knots @ 185 @ @ 30 @ d-3. d 10. c 0. 27@32'. @ and @ programs are common. c 0.CHAPTER I I problem 2 Course t o Make Good 26s0 Speed to M a k e Good 15 knots set (toward) 185' oriftml 3knots Key Dispiav c Answer Course t o Steer Plane Sailins and Naviuation throuah Current and Wind 1.235 d 12. Answer Course t o ~teer83'23:5 Speed Made Good 1 2 . d 0. Finding the Course t o steer at a given speed t o make good a given course through a current @ Current 3 mode computes the course t o steer and speed made good when the course t o make good and speed through water are given.569 @ problem.5 c c @ @ @ 83. t 9 2.0 Speed through Water d 0.5 170. but the drift is entered with the reversed sign in The latter. c D r i f t 2 knots @ 10 @ 13' 0.9 Speed Made Good Course 11. Problem 1 Course steered 080' Speed through Water 10 knots S e t (toward) 140' 0. 14. Problem 3 Key 2.5 knots a @ 3 Display c 0. Made Good 88O56'. c 95. 88. 265 0 15 c 265. Finding the Course to steer and Speed to use (through water) t o make good a given course and speed through a current Course t o Make Good 095' @ Speed through Water 12 knots95 @ Set (toward) 170' 12 Drift 2.

@ @ @ d Repeat c snd d d 48.3 c 0. 44 .5n.7 c 142. d 48.7 43.5 c 162'24'. Note: NC-77 solves the current and wind problems by plane Sailing. In such a case the output becomes E 5.118 c Answer Single Equivalent Course and Distance d d c 0.9 knots @ @ 16 115030@ c 0. 115.5 d 0 . d 16.9 158 161"29'. d 15. d 0. c 158.m.3 142. d 33. 16. c 135. @ 6. 162. d 0. as might result from a sailing vessel beating into the wind.3 d 48. Traverse Sailing @ Current 1 mode is also used for the solution of Traverse Sailing. A traverse is a series of courses. Problem 5 Shirr course 17 5" Ship Speed 6. Traverse Sailing is the finding of a single equivalent course and distance. KW Distance Key Display Answer l~rue Wind Direction 1 115 1c c 0 .5 Repeat c and d " 1 Ship course + Apparent Wind Direction should be entered here. c c I More courses may be added by repeating the same process.000 '1 Problem 4 Course Display 0.247 I Id 43.5 c 0. c 259.1 : 161. d 0. 145.0 True Wind Speed 30.240 10. Use (+) when the apparent wind is blowing from starboard and (-) for port.Note: The desired course (course t o make good) cannot be made when ship's speed i s not sufficient t o overcome the drift.5 knots Apparent Wind Direction 30' starboard Apparent Wind Speed 16 knots 4.718 142. Finding the Direction and Speed of True Wind @ Wind Direction and Speed mode computes the True Wind Direction and True Wind Speed when a ship is taking a certain course at a certain speed. d 6.118 d 0. or a track consising of a number of course lines.

Problem 2 Key Qrplay Answer Where H HI T : Height at selected time : Height of high tide Tlme of Slack 0 1 ~ 4 2 ~ f i m e of Max. Slack 1 0 ~ 0 0 ~ the selected time and BhOom. 04'43~ Velocity a t Max. and Slack time. 2.1 3.5ft. 4.CHAPTER Ill Tide and Stream (Tidal Current1 1. Time of High Tide 0 9 ~ 0 Heightof High Tide 11. 1. Note: The local information on TlDE and STREAM is given in TlDE TABLES and TIDAL CURRENT TABLES by the US. input 1 0 ~ 0 first.HEIGHT OF TlDE AT ANY TIME" to derive . Height of Tide 9.8 ' Conrinue Make sure t h e ricie selector switch i s set on "it". "1 V = Vm .5 knots 1 1. Continue h' If the selected time is between the Max.5 1@ d 0. Key Display h Problem 1 Time of Low Tide 01h45"' Height of Low Tide O. Finding the Velocity of Stream (Tidal Current) Stream Mode computes the velocity of stream (tidal cur@ rent) at any selected time.7 knots Toward 2 4 5 ' ~ I ~ e l o c l t ya t 03h30m Hz : Height of low tide : Selected time T1 : Time of High T2 : Time of Low It is essential to check if the tidal curve i n the areas you plan t o sail would conform to the standard theoretical movement.7 h' 0. 46 where V Vm T To Tm : Velocity at selected time : Velocity at maximum : Selected time : Time of slack : Time of maximum Height of Tide at any intermediate time between high and . for example Max.42 I I/ h h o 1. sin (90 T-To Tm . Departmentof Commerce or the equivalentauthorities of the other countries. (See the formulas below). 0 ~ Then enter BhOom t o obtain the corresponding sbeam. The roughness of approximation will vary as the tide curve differsfrom a cosine curve. (See the formulas below). Oec.A R L E 3.9ft. and then 5h00m and its velocity. -~ the intermediate height based on the same cosine curve.35 B d 10. I n such areas the tidal curve for the particular port contained i n the Admiralty Tide Tables should always be used.To 1 Caution 1. Selected Time 0 7 ~ 3 5 ~ (Sesrtle.42 / 3. . Answer 1.S.05 1977) @ 11. Finding the Height of Tide @ Tide mode computes the height of tide at any selected time. D 2. TlDE TABLES By U. Department of Commerce includes " T.30 d' 3. Wash. Verooity of Tidal Current Selected Time 03h3om . / Height of Tide a t 07h3~m low tides is computed on the assumption that the rise and fall conform t o simple cosine curves. Therefore the heights obtained will be approximate. For European waters the ADMIRALTY TlDE TABLES VOL 1 by the Hydrographer of the British Navy gives the tidal curves for the areas where the curves are seriously distorted.45 5~ @ 0. 5h00m. The velocity of current at any intermediate time between the slack and maximum currents is also computed on the assumption that i t changes i n accordance with simple cosine curves.35 h' 7.9 B 7.

5@(3 @ Answer: tih48%os A Ship travels a t a speed of 18. minutes.35 Q Answer: 22.) Problem 1.CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V Speed.8 I.5 knots? 125 @ 21. TAMAYA NC-77 follows the customary navigation rule of expressing seconds in termsof 1/10 of a minute in arc mode. and 1/10 minute computation. Problem 3 Arc 35'41'.5923 h 0.3 knots for 5 hours and 45 minutes.: d@t Time and Arc TlME and ARC Computations Time mode makes hours.2 knots How long will it take to travet 125 nautical mikz-a t .ship speed of 21.3 @ 5.45 ( I Answer: 105. Time.ms) distance (n.0000 h 14. Problem 3..- : s t Problem 2. Distance Speed.PRC] I.5923 Problem 2 (38O2918+ 3g048!81 4 2 = 3' 09:3 9 Key Display a@ 38.288 d 0. minutes. Speed (Knots) Time (h. and 1/10 rninu. minutes and 1/10 minute. mode converts degrees. speed? 35. What is the distance traveled? 18.te into hours.6103 $ 57*45'. GQ Key Displav 0 @ 0 m 14. Problem 1 ( 1 4 ~ 5 9 ~+215h01"'595) 3 ~ f 2 = 15h00m4lS @m : d@s (qq@ (-hhh](T) .m.298 @ d 38. A ship travels 35. Time and Distance are computed by the following key sequence. What i s the shir. and seconds into degrees. minutes.457 .20'1. ARC mode makes degrees.2 n.TME] Key I Display 35.418 a@ h Problem 3 {bl Time 3h51m03s Key 3.000 d 38.418 2.5923 h 14.2 nautical miles in 1 hour and 35 minutes. selecting [mode in the beginning. minutes and seconds. minutes. seconds computation.m. .2247 1 2h22m475 35.5103 @ Display 3.7 - d 57.298 ARC 2 TlME Conversion mode converts hours.

tan. ' SCIENTIFIC FUNCTION KEYS 8 [slnll [cosl @ J Icosl) [ianlJ Trigommetric function keys inverse trigonometric function keys Square root computation key NAVIGATION MODE KEYS mode key computes the GHA ARIES. sin. I . FIX. mode key makes the computation of proportional parts.P.I . DEC SUN. RM2. CD. AC Adaptor Connecting Terminal Dialogue Symbol Display Numeral Display a DUAL FUNCTION KEY key pressed before each dual func~ionmode key sets the 2nd mode i. Moon. etc. It i s applied in pin-pointing the GHA and DEC of the Moon and planets without using the INCREMENTS AND CORRECTIONS table of Nautical Almanac. mode key computes the Great Circle Distance and the Initial Course.. Minus Key Plus Key Equal Key . mode key computes the Altitude and the true Azimuth of the Sun.APPENDIX: EXPLANATION OF NG77 DIGITAL NAVIGATION COMPUTER EXTERNAL FEATURES MODE SELECTORS AND KEYS NORMAL CALCULATION MODE KEY key clears the programmed navigation mode and sets the normal calculation mode. mode key computes the Course and Distance by Mercator Sailing or Parallel Sailing. mode key computes the latitude and longitude of fix by two Lines of Position. P. R M I . The program continues to compute Latitude and Longitude of the Vertex... Cos. and the Latitude at any selected Longitude on the Great Circle track. GHA SUN and Equation of Time at any moment through the year 1999. planets and the navigational stars to obtain a Line of Position in celestial navigation.e.S~W C h a n ~ Key K~~ 0 Multiplication Key ~ e c a i Key t mode key computes the Dead Reckoning Position by Mercator Sailing or Parallel Sailing.

seconds into degrees. key sets the computation in hours. The above two keys are used in Speed.). This key also converts hours. MEMORY KEYS mode computes the True Altitude by the standard sextant altitude corrections a t loOc. error. 1/10 hour. Completes the addition. minutes.92 in. minutes. Numeral keys t o enter a number. Time and Distance computations. etc. mode key computes the Height of Tide a t any selected time. the Sun. 1/10 hour and 1 /I 00 hour. planers and the stars. E l 0 @ . minutes and seconds. minutes and seconds into hours. key converts hours.) key converts hours. mode key computes the Course to Steer a t a given speed to make good a given course through a current. @ [MZj Memory keys (G] FZJ memory keys Recall OTHER KEYS Clears all the computation registers. This key is also used for the solution of Traverse Sailing. Changes the sign of a displayed number. a a @ Ifj Sets the order of each function. (ARC to TIME or TIME to ARC conversion is made by the above two keys. key designates North in latitude and East in longitude.25mb ( ~ o ' F . mode computes the True Altitude at variable temperature and atmospheric pressure. [CE) @ +@ Clears only displayed register. In ISAC] and @ mode means the sighting of the lower limb and means the sighting of the upper limb of the Sun or Moon.mode key computes the True Wind Direction and True Wind Speed. mode key computes the Distance to an Object by the vertically measured angle. Both @ and @ compute the True Altitude for the Sun. Moon. minutes and 1/70 minute. minutes and seconds. subtraction. Designates the decimal point of a set number. key designates South in latitude and West in longitude. key sets the computation in degrees. Moon. multiplication. Resumes the beginning of the program in the navigation programs. This key also converts degrees. mode key computes the Course to Steer and the Speed to Use to make good a given course and speed through a current. mode key computes the Latitude and Longitude by noon sight (Sun's meridian passage). mode key computes the Velocity of Stream (Tidal Current) a t any selected time. 1/10 minute into hours. starts the programmed computation or recalls the programmed memory. mode key computes the Course and Speed Made Good through a current. These keys are used in connection with (sac] and [vncl to specify the celestial body. Enters a number. minutes and seconds. 1013. minutes and 1/10 minute. division functions. Venus or Mars in making the sextant altitude correction. 1/100 hour into hours. 29.

METRlClFEET SELECTION SWITCH SAC V A C Sx t e. GC. Arc 1 Lat. Eqn.P. I n [oro) mode it selects the input by meters or feet. Corrected Alt. Arc Selected Time Carres. automatically cieared and ready for operation in normal calculation mode. Height o f Eye Rr Dip Corrected Alt. DIALOGUE SYMBOLS AND THE MEANING Dialogue system makes the operation very easy b y telling you at each step what data t o feed in. inch m. E: -: sign after :indicates South latitude sign after : indicates West longitude : overflow error symbol minus symbol . d' Corres. Fahrenheit and inches of mercury.1 C ? t o Steer S eed Made Good NC-77 DIALOGUE SYMBOLS CD. n Alt. d :uF 1 f. Celsius (temperature) and millibars (pressure). DR. ::u I True Wind Speed - True Wind Direction t Starboard ' Port Vertex Lat. com&ted ~ l t . 5d hP & */ 1 I Correr.1 d' STRM Time of L o . The answers are also accompanied by the symbols which specify the meaning. Ht. Azimuth v -+ % . of Time .1 S eed Made Good Course t o Steer Speed Thru Water . TIDE . of Low Tide Time of H i h . Vertex Long. Ht. 1 cyrse M& GOO^ . t Temperature P Pressure efract. (1 1 Time of % ( 2 ) Time of Max.POWER SWITCH When the power switch is in "ON" >osition the computer is powered. P.% * nun J 8 -. RQ Fah. Vel. Semidiameter Hor~zontal Parallax i ft. at Max. or feet. I n @ and @ mode the switch selects the input by meters.

WDS. where there are two answers to be recalled alternatively.255 . FIX. and MPS. 3. Chuo.398345637 2.255 .236067977 5. 0.0533 . and ARC as Degrees.5 Enter 180. 1978 lzh 0as Enter 78.1533 .8 a@ + 53.236067977 8. Minutes. Minutes.0102 12. B-<home.944271 908 0 2. to greatly increase the flexibility of computations. NOTE ON DECIMAL POINT In NC-77 TlME i s always expressed as Hours. month and day are entered as follows.0033 . DR. 1/10 minute t o follow conventional navigation practice. They can save you keystrokes by storing long numbers that are to be used several times.5 5'.ku.236067977 2.0003 ARC 180°25'. Use of the memory keys does not affect the displayed number or computation i n progress. CU1. M2 and RM1.236067977 I 10 C f J 0 @ 3 @ ma am 0 4 @ a m@ Besides M I .005 Inputloutput of trigonometric and inverse trigonometric computation follows the same rule as ARC. 2. The decimal point should be entered as follows. ALM January 2nd.0608 . RM2 two extra memories are provided internally for the output of ALM.MEMORY CAPABILITIES NC-77 has two user-accessible memories. CD. LOP. Key 5 Display 2. Ginza.5 0'. so 'they can be used at any point in a computation. Seconds.1533 .5 2Y.055 . TlME 1 2 ~ 15m 15 5 33s 33 33 33 3 Enter 12. M I M2 and RMl RM2. Tokyo 104 Japm In ALM (Almanac) mode the year. The same rule applies to the reading of the displayed outputs.078 is read as 53'0773 TAMAYA & COMPANY LIMITED 5-8.

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