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In physics and chemistry, plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. The basic premise is that heating a gas dissociates its molecular bonds, rendering it into its constituent atoms. Further heating leads to ionization (a loss of electrons), turning it into a plasma: containing charged particles, positive ions and negative electrons. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma, therefore, has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases and is considered to be a distinct state of matter. Like gas, plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume unless enclosed in a container; unlike gas, under the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments, beams and double layers. Some common plasmas are stars and neon signs.
Plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. The colors are a result of relaxation of electrons in excited states to lower energy states after they have recombined with ions. These processes emit light in a spectrum characteristic of the gas being excited.
Plasma was first identified in a Crookes tube, and so described by Sir William Crookes in 1879 (he called it "radiant matter"). The nature of the Crookes tube "cathode ray" matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson in 1897, and dubbed "plasma" by Irving Langmuir in 1928, perhaps because it reminded him of a blood plasma. Langmuir wrote: Except near the electrodes, where there are sheaths containing very few electrons, the ionized gas contains ions and electrons in about equal numbers so that the resultant space charge is very small. We shall use the name plasma to describe this region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons.
Plasmas are by far the most common phase of matter in the universe, both by mass and by volume. All the stars are made of plasma, and even the space between the stars is filled with a plasma, albeit a very sparse one. In our solar system, the planet Jupiter accounts for most of the non-plasma, only about 0.1% of the mass and 10−15% of the volume within the orbit of Pluto. Very small grains within a gaseous plasma will also pick up a net negative charge, so that they in turn may act like a very heavy negative ion component of the plasma (see dusty plasmas).
Inductively Coupled Plasmas (ICP). • jets The ionosphere • • Inside a corona discharge ozone generator • • • • • • • • • Fusion energy research The electric arc in an arc lamp. typically produced using microwaves as a resonant coupling method • • The polar aurorae Most flames • • • . neon signs Rocket exhaust and ion thrusters  • • Ball lightning • St. including TVs • • Inside fluorescent lamps (low energy lighting). formed typically in argon gas for Optical Emission Spectroscopy or Mass Spectroscopy Magnetically Induced Plasmas (MIP). elves. found when high power lasers interact with materials. an arc welder or plasma torch Plasma ball (sometimes called a plasma sphere or plasma globe) Arcs produced by Tesla coils (resonant air core transformer or disruptor coil that produces arcs similar to lightning but with alternating current rather than static electricity) Plasmas used in semiconductor device fabrication including: Reactive Ion Etching.Plasma (physics) 2 Common forms of plasma Artificially produced Terrestrial plasmas • Lightning • Space and Astrophysical plasmas The Sun and other stars (plasmas heated by nuclear fusion) The solar wind The interplanetary medium (space between planets) The interstellar medium (space between star systems) The Intergalactic medium (space between galaxies) The Io-Jupiter flux tube Accretion discs Interstellar nebulae • Those found in plasma displays. surface cleaning and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Laser-produced plasmas (LPP). Sputtering. Elmo's fire • • The area in front of a spacecraft's heat shield during reentry into the atmosphere • Sprites.
e. helium. "Λ" (the Greek letter Lambda). The average number of particles in the Debye sphere is given by the plasma parameter. When this condition is valid. the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero). The faint yellow area shown above the north pole represents gas lost from Earth into space. It is important to note that although they are unbound. When this criterion is satisfied. and as a result. showing oxygen. 2.  A definition can have three criteria:  1. and hydrogen ions which gush into space from regions near the Earth's poles. Plasma frequency: The electron plasma frequency (measuring plasma oscillations of the electrons) is large compared to the electron-neutral collision frequency (measuring frequency of collisions between electrons and neutral particles). 3. these particles are not ‘free’. where plasma energy pours  back into the atmosphere. This criterion means that interactions in the bulk of the plasma are more important than those at its edges. electrostatic interactions dominate over the processes of ordinary gas kinetics. the plasma is quasineutral. When the charges move they generate electrical currents with magnetic fields. . where boundary effects may take place.Plasma (physics) 3 Plasma properties and parameters Definition of a plasma Plasma is loosely described as an electrically neutral medium of positive and negative particles (i. rather than just interacting with the closest particle (these collective effects are a distinguishing feature of a plasma). Artist's rendition of the Earth's "plasma fountain". The plasma approximation: Charged particles must be close enough together that each particle influences many nearby charged particles. Bulk interactions: The Debye screening length (defined above) is short compared to the physical size of the plasma. they are affected by each other’s fields. The plasma approximation is valid when the number of charge carriers within the sphere of influence (called the Debye sphere whose radius is the Debye screening length) of a particular particle are higher than unity to provide collective behavior of the charged particles. the green area is the aurora borealis. This governs their collective behavior with many degrees of freedom.
Plasma (physics) 4 Ranges of plasma parameters Plasma parameters can take on values varying by many orders of magnitude. The term "plasma density" by itself usually refers to the "electron density". but the properties of plasmas with apparently disparate parameters may be very similar (see plasma scaling). Density increases upwards. Typical ranges of plasma parameters: orders of magnitude Characteristic Size in meters Lifetime in seconds Density in particles per cubic meter Temperature in kelvins Terrestrial plasmas 10−6 m (lab plasmas) to 102 m (lightning) (~8 OOM) 10−12 s (laser-produced plasma) to 107 s (fluorescent lights) (~19 OOM) 107 m−3 to 1032 m−3 (inertial confinement plasma)  Cosmic plasmas 10−6 m (spacecraft sheath) to 1025 m (intergalactic nebula) (~31 OOM) 101 s (solar flares) to 1017 s (intergalactic plasma) (~16 OOM) 1 m−3 (intergalactic medium) to 1030 m−3 (stellar core) 102 K (aurora) to 107 K (solar core) ~0 K (crystalline non-neutral plasma to 108 K (magnetic fusion plasma) 10−4 T (lab plasma) to 103 T (pulsed-power plasma) ) Magnetic fields in teslas 10−12 T (intergalactic medium) to 1011 T (near neutron stars) Degree of ionization For plasma to exist. the number of free electrons per unit volume. The free electrons in a metal may be considered an  electron plasma.e. and is controlled mostly by the temperature.. response to magnetic fields and high electrical conductivity). ionization is necessary. α is defined as α = ni/(ni + na) where ni is . Even a partially ionized gas in which as little as 1% of the particles are ionized can have the characteristics of a plasma (i. The degree of ionization of a plasma is the proportion of atoms which have lost (or gained) electrons. temperature increases towards the right. The following chart considers only conventional atomic plasmas and not exotic phenomena like quark gluon plasmas: Range of plasmas. The degree of ionization. that is.
even when there is a significant deviation from a Maxwellian energy distribution function. (for example 1%). plasma ionization is determined by the "electron temperature" relative to the ionization energy. 5 Temperatures The kinetic energy of a plasma particle is considerably higher than its potential. A plasma is sometimes referred to as being "hot" if it is nearly fully ionized.. In most cases the electrons are close enough to thermal equilibrium that their temperature is relatively well-defined. For this reason. Plasmas utilized in "plasma technology" ("technological plasmas") are usually cold in this sense. The electron density is related to this by the average charge state <Z> of the ions through ne = <Z> ni where ne is the number density of electrons. the electrons come to thermodynamic equilibrium amongst themselves much faster than they come into equilibrium with the ions or neutral atoms. (normally room temperature). or "cold" if only a small fraction. Thermal plasmas have electrons and the heavy particles at the same temperature. In particular. the "ion temperature" may be very different from (usually lower than) the "electron temperature". the electron temperature is still typically several thousand degrees Celsius. i. Even in a "cold" plasma. Non-thermal plasmas on the other hand have the ions and neutrals at a much lower temperature. Temperature controls the degree of plasma ionization. plasmas are classified as "thermal" or "non-thermal". This is especially common in weakly ionized technological plasmas. but other definitions of the terms "hot plasma" and "cold plasma" are common.e. or strong electric fields. due to UV radiation. then the plasma state would be destroyed as the ions and electrons would want to clump together into bound states—atoms. where charged particles travel at high speeds. Plasma temperature is commonly measured in kelvins or electronvolts and is an informal measure of the thermal kinetic energy per particle.Plasma (physics) the number density of ions and na is the number density of neutral atoms. they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. in a relationship called the Saha equation. energetic particles. for example. Because of the large difference in mass. (and more weakly by the density). If the potential were greater than the kinetic. where the ions are often near the ambient temperature. of the gas molecules are ionized. Based on the relative temperatures of the electrons. ions and neutrals. This is why plasmas typically arise at very high temperatures. whereas electrons are much "hotter". .
is called the "plasma potential". i. independent of the question of how it can be measured. The dynamics of plasmas interacting with external and self-generated magnetic fields are studied in the academic discipline of magnetohydrodynamics.Plasma (physics) 6 Potentials Since plasmas are very good conductors. an object which separates charge over a few tens of Debye lengths. The potential as it exists on average in the space between charged particles. It is possible to produce a plasma which is not quasineutral. A common example is to assume that the electrons satisfy the "Boltzmann relation": Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface. An electron beam.000 amperes at up to 100 million volts. . This can and does cause extremely complex behavior. But the existence of charged particles causes the plasma to generate and can be affected by magnetic fields. has only negative charges. In the special case that double layers are formed. which says the density of negative charges is approximately equal to the density of positive charges over large volumes of the plasma (ne = <Z>ni). Debye screening prevents electric fields from directly affecting the plasma over large distances. X-rays and even  gamma rays. This results in the important concept of "quasineutrality". . such as the generation of plasma double layers.000 kelvin and electron densities may exceed 1024 m−3. and emits light. If an electrode is inserted into a plasma.. electric potentials play an important role. radio waves. The magnitude of the potentials and electric fields must be determined by means other than simply finding the net charge density. The good electrical conductivity of plasmas causes their electric fields to be very small. for example. greater than the Debye length. lightning discharges 30.e. Typically. otherwise it will be dissipated by the repulsive electrostatic force. its potential will generally lie considerably below the plasma potential due to what is termed a Debye sheath. or it must be very small. or the "space potential". The density of a non-neutral plasma must generally be very low. but on the scale of the Debye length there can be charge imbalance. Differentiating this relation provides a means to calculate the electric field from the density: . the charge separation can extend some tens of Debye lengths. Plasma temperatures in lightning can approach ~28. In astrophysical plasmas.
meaning that their properties in the direction parallel to the magnetic field are different from those perpendicular to it. liquid. with very few relatively fast particles. and B is the magnetic field).e. influenced by gravity and by collisions with one another. ωce/νcoll > 1. allowing phenomena such as new types of waves and instabilities. the electric field associated with a plasma moving in a magnetic field is given by E = −v x B (where E is the electric field. While electric fields in plasmas are usually small due to the high conductivity. i. and is not affected by Debye shielding. or organized motion of plasma. One All gas particles behave in a similar way. the conductivity of a plasma may be treated as infinite. Although it is closely related to the gas phase in that it also has no definite form or volume. with different bulk velocities and temperatures. Interactions Collective Waves. ions. protons and neutrons can be distinguished by the sign and value of their charge so that they behave independently in many circumstances. It is distinct from other lower-energy states of matter. where ωce is the "electron gyrofrequency" and νcoll is the "electron collision rate". it differs in a number of ways. most commonly solid. Often non-Maxwellian Collisional interactions are often weak in hot plasmas and external forcing can drive the plasma far from local equilibrium and lead to a significant population of unusually fast particles.Plasma (physics) 7 Magnetization Plasma in which the magnetic field is strong enough to influence the motion of the charged particles is said to be magnetized. Comparison of plasma and gas phases Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter. Gas Usually very high For many purposes. Binary Two-particle collisions are the rule. including the following: Property Electrical Conductivity Very low Air is an excellent insulator until it breaks down into plasma at electric field strengths above 30 kilovolts per  centimeter. It is often the case that the electrons are magnetized while the ions are not. A common quantitative criterion is that a particle on average completes at least one gyration around the magnetic field before making a collision.. . and gas. v is the velocity. three-body collisions extremely rare. Plasma Independently acting species Two or three Electrons. Velocity distribution Maxwellian Collisions usually lead to a Maxwellian velocity distribution of all gas particles. Magnetized plasmas are anisotropic. are very important because the particles can interact at long ranges through the electric and magnetic forces.
but does not generate an electric field outside the layer. and have shell shown in blue is X-ray emission by high-speed electrons. subsequently been recognized throughout the universe. The spontaneous formation of interesting spatial features on a wide range of length scales is one manifestation of plasma complexity. like the plasma ball (image to the right). At high powers. because they are very sharp. The tighter focused laser has a higher peak brightness (irradiance) that forms a plasma. the nonlinear part of the index of refraction becomes important and causes a higher index of refraction in the center of the laser beam. The features are interesting. which causes a large potential difference across the layer. and supernova remnants. . Double layers involve localized charge separation. The plasma has an index of refraction lower than one. and are often found in current carrying plasmas. Double layers separate adjacent plasma regions with different physical characteristics. electric arcs. and the interaction with the magnetic field can form a magnetic rope structure. or have a fractal form. causing a feedback that focuses the laser even more. the aurora. for example. and the defocusing plasma makes the formation of a long filament of plasma that can be micrometers to kilometers in length.Plasma (physics) 8 Complex plasma phenomena Although the underlying equations governing plasmas are relatively simple. and causes a defocusing of the laser beam. Such systems lie in some sense on the boundary between ordered and disordered behavior and cannot typically be described either by simple. (See also Plasma pinch) Filamentation also refers to the self-focusing of a high power laser pulse. They accelerate both ions and electrons. plasma behavior is extraordinarily varied and subtle: the emergence of unexpected behavior from a simple model is a typical feature of a complex system. smooth. or by pure randomness. solar flares. spatially intermittent (the distance between features is much larger than the features themselves). mathematical functions. . High power microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure also leads to the formation of filamentary structures  . a huge ball of expanding plasma. lightning. The interplay of the focusing index of refraction. Shocks or double layers Plasma properties change rapidly (within a few Debye lengths) across a two-dimensional sheet in the presence of a (moving) shock or (stationary) double layer. They are sometimes associated with larger current densities. Many of these features were The remnant of "Tycho's Supernova". where the laser is brighter than at the edges. Examples of complexity and complex structures in plasmas include: Filamentation Striations or string-like structures are seen in many plasmas. The outer first studied in the laboratory.
by a plasma instability. As has been seen in every region of space which is accessible to in situ measurements. magnetic-field-aligned electric currents (which are sometimes generically referred to as "Birkeland currents"). or. which may lead to complex behavior. there are a number of 'cell walls'.Plasma (physics) 9 Electric fields and circuits Quasineutrality of a plasma requires that plasma currents close on themselves in electric circuits. resulting in cell-like regions. which is. density and temperature. which divide space into compartments with different magnetization. sheets of electric currents." Critical ionization velocity The critical ionization velocity is the relative velocity between an ionized plasma and a neutral gas above which a runaway ionization process takes place. Electric currents. with the behavior in each plasma region dependent on the entire circuit. temperature. composed of only a single species. and should the circuit be disrupted. are also observed in the Earth's aurora. but are quickly heated through a process known as disorder induced heating (DIH). These circuits must generally be treated as a strongly coupled system. and then using another laser to ionize the atoms by giving each of the outermost electrons just enough energy to escape the electrical attraction of its parent ion. A plasma which has a significant excess of charge density. . triggering the phenomenon known as the resonance cascade. Such circuits follow Kirchhoff's circuit laws and possess a resistance and inductance. By adjusting the wavelength of the ionizing laser. Non-neutral plasma The strength and range of the electric force and the good conductivity of plasmas usually ensure that the densities of positive and negative charges in any sizeable region are equal ("quasineutrality"). and in plasma filaments. the kinetic energy of the liberated electrons can be tuned as low as 0. and heliospheric current sheet. an electron cloud in a Penning trap and positron plasmas. the inductive energy will be released as plasma heating and acceleration. for example.1 K. in the extreme case. a limit set by the frequency bandwidth of the laser pulse. The critical ionization process is a quite general mechanism for the conversion of the kinetic energy of a rapidly streaming gas into ionization and plasma thermal energy. heliosphere. One advantage of ultracold plasmas is their well characterized and tunable initial conditions. Cellular structure Narrow sheets with sharp gradients may separate regions with different properties such as magnetization. inherit the millikelvin temperatures of the neutral atoms. Electrical circuits in plasmas store inductive (magnetic) energy. the most important new space research discovery is probably the cellular structure of space. In such a plasma. Examples include the magnetosphere. This is a common explanation for the heating which takes place in the solar corona. is called a non-neutral plasma. It is this strong coupling between system elements. etc. Critical phenomena in general are typical of complex systems. which forms upon condensation of excited atoms. and in particular. and may lead to sharp spatial or temporal features. together with nonlinearity. Examples are charged particle beams. The ions. electric fields play a dominant role. to temperatures of 1 mK or lower. This type of non-equilibrium ultracold plasma evolves rapidly and has been observed to fold exponentially in this manner. Hannes Alfvén wrote: "From the cosmological point of view. Ultracold plasma Ultracold plasmas are created in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) by trapping and cooling neutral atoms. including size and electron temperature. density. One of the metastable states of a strongly nonideal plasma is Rydberg matter.
A plasma containing larger particles is called grain plasma. they can neither capture velocity space structures like beams or double layers. a gyrokinetic approach can substantially reduce the computational expense of a fully kinetic simulation. Because fluid The complex self-constricting magnetic field lines and current paths in models usually describe the plasma in terms of a  a field-aligned Birkeland current which may develop in a plasma. single flow at a certain temperature at each spatial location. . magnetohydrodynamics. we would need to write down all the particle locations and velocities and describe the electromagnetic field in the plasma region. where the ions and electrons are described separately. However. The Vlasov equation may be used to describe the dynamics of a system of charged particles interacting with an electromagnetic field. nor resolve wave-particle effects. There are two common approaches to kinetic description of a plasma. Mathematical descriptions To completely describe the state of a plasma. like density and averaged velocity around each position (see Plasma parameters). treats the plasma as a single fluid governed by a combination of Maxwell's equations and the Navier–Stokes equations. One simple fluid model. known as the particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. plasma physicists commonly use less detailed descriptions.Plasma (physics) 10 Dusty plasma and grain plasma A dusty plasma is one containing tiny charged particles of dust (typically found in space) which also behaves like a plasma. One is based on representing the smoothed distribution function on a grid in velocity and position. includes kinetic information by following the trajectories of a large number of individual particles. Fluid models are often accurate when collisionality is sufficiently high to keep the plasma velocity distribution close to a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. it is generally not practical or necessary to keep track of all the particles in a plasma. The other. Kinetic models are generally more computationally intensive than fluid models. A more general description is the two-fluid plasma picture. A kinetic description is often necessary for collisionless plasmas. In magnetized plasmas. Therefore. Kinetic model Kinetic models describe the particle velocity distribution function at each point in the plasma and therefore do not need to assume a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. of which there are two main types: Fluid model Fluid models describe plasmas in terms of smoothed quantities.
partially ionized. • The magnetization of the particles within the plasma. one principle is common to all of them: there must be energy input to produce and sustain it. which shows a discharge tube to be considered as a simple example (DC used for simplicity). non-thermal or "cold" plasma (Te >> Tion = Tgas) • The electrode configuration used to generate the plasma. weakly ionized. plasma is generated when an electrical current is applied across a dielectric gas or fluid (an electrically non-conducting material) as can be seen in the image below. fully ionized. moderate pressure (~ 1 Torr or 100 Pa). For this case. Magnetized (both ion and electrons are trapped in Larmor orbits by the magnetic field). • The degree of ionization within the plasma. atmospheric pressure (760 Torr or 100 kPa). non-magnetized (the magnetic field is too weak to trap the particles in orbits but may generate Lorentz forces). vacuum pressure (< 10 mTorr or 1 Pa). . Plasma generated in a laboratory setting and for industrial use can be generally categorized by: • The type of power source used to generate the plasma.Plasma (physics) 11 Artificial plasmas Most artificial plasmas are generated by the application of electric and/or magnetic fields. RF and microwave. • The pressure at which they operate. DC. however. partially magnetized (the electrons but not the ions are trapped by the magnetic field). there are several means for its generation. • The temperature relationships within the plasma: thermal plasma (Te = Tion = Tgas). • Its application Generation of artificial plasma Just like the many uses of plasma.
 • Inductively coupled plasma (ICP): similar to a CCP and with similar applications but the electrode consists of a coil wrapped around the discharge volume which inductively excites the plasma. this forms a luminous electric arc (essentially lightning) between the electrodes. Examples are helicon discharge.Plasma (physics) 12 The potential difference and subsequent electric field causes the bound electrons (negative) to be pulled toward the anode (positive electrode) while the nucleus (positive) is pulled to the cathode (negative electrode). the current stresses the material (by electric polarization) beyond its dielectric limit (termed strength) into a stage of electrical breakdown. Cascade process of ionization. electrical energy is given to electrons. neutral atoms ‘o’. which ionizes more gas molecules (where degree of ionization is determined by temperature). Therefore. Electrical resistance along the continuous electric arc creates heat. in: industrial and extractive metallurgy.56 MHz. the gas is gradually turned into a thermal plasma. but is heated by both electrostatic and electromagnetic means. which is to say that the temperature is relatively homogeneous throughout the heavy particles (i. create more ions and electrons (as can be seen in the figure on the right). electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). typically 13. while even playing a part in supersonic combustion engines for aerospace engineering. where the material transforms from being an insulator into a conductor (as it becomes increasingly ionized). . and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR). plasmas find applications in many fields of research. molecules and ions) and electrons. A thermal plasma is in thermal equilibrium. For example. Low-pressure discharges • Glow discharge plasmas: non-thermal plasmas generated by the application of DC or low frequency RF (<100 kHz) electric field to the gap between two metal electrodes. but generated with high frequency RF electric fields. this is the type of plasma generated within fluorescent light tubes. These are widely used in the microfabrication and integrated circuit manufacturing industries for plasma etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. where collisions between electrons and neutral gas atoms. due to their great mobility and large numbers. are able to disperse it rapidly and by elastic collision (without energy loss) to the heavy particles. This is a stage of avalanching ionization. As the voltage is increased. Electrons are ‘e−’. and as per the sequence: solid-liquid-gas-plasma. These typically require a coaxial magnetic field for wave propagation. surface treatments such as thermal spraying (coating). etching in microelectronics. These differ from glow discharges in that the sheaths are much less intense. mainly due to a small mean free path (average distance travelled between collisions).  Examples of industrial/commercial plasma Because of their sizable temperature and density ranges. atoms. the number of charged particles increases rapidly (in the millions) only “after about 20 successive sets of collisions” . The first impact of an electron on an atom results in one ion and two electrons. This is so because when thermal plasmas are generated. With ample current density and ionization. technology and industry. and cations ‘+’. which. • Capacitively coupled plasma (CCP): similar to glow discharge plasmas.e. as well as in everyday vehicle exhaust cleanup and fluorescent/luminescent lamps. Probably the most common plasma. • Wave heated plasma: similar to CCP and ICP in that it is typically RF (or microwave). marked by a spark. metal cutting and welding.
 13 Fields of active research This is just a partial list of topics. It is commonly used in metallurgical processes. A more complete and organized list can be found on the web site for Plasma science and technology. glues and similar materials to adhere.000 K). 13.g. .. • Corona discharge: this is a non-thermal discharge generated by the application of high voltage to sharp electrode tips. It is commonly used in ozone generators and particle precipitators. The application of the discharge to synthetic fabrics and plastics functionalizes the surface and allows for paints. It can be generated using various power supplies. Such discharges are commonly stabilized using a noble gas such as helium or argon. The electric field in a plasma double layer is so effective at accelerating ions that electric fields are used in ion drives. It is also widely used in the web treatment of fabrics. • Capacitive discharge: this is a nonthermal plasma generated by the application of RF power (e. Hall effect thruster. it is used to melt rocks containing Al2O3 to produce aluminium.Plasma (physics) Atmospheric pressure • Arc discharge: this is a high power thermal discharge of very high temperature (~10. It is often mislabeled 'Corona' discharge in industry and has similar application to corona discharges.56 MHz) to one powered electrode. with a grounded electrode held at a small separation distance on the order of 1 cm. For example. • Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD): this is a non-thermal discharge generated by the application of high voltages across small gaps wherein a non-conducting coating prevents the transition of the plasma discharge into an arc.
e. 30th April 1897.1073/pnas. p. Berlin: Springer. which is also a plasma. A.8.Plasma (physics) 14 • Plasma theory • Plasma equilibria and stability • Plasma interactions with waves and beams • Guiding center • Adiabatic invariant • Debye sheath • Coulomb collision Plasmas in nature • • • The Earth's ionosphere Northern and southern (polar) lights Space plasmas. Earth's plasmasphere (an inner portion of the magnetosphere dense with plasma) • Astrophysical plasma Industrial plasmas • • • • Plasma chemistry Plasma processing Plasma spray Plasma display • • • Plasma sources Dusty plasmas Plasma diagnostics • Thomson scattering • Langmuir probe • Spectroscopy • Interferometry • Ionospheric heating • Incoherent scatter radar Plasma applications • Fusion power • Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) — tokamak. so that it radiates primarily as X-rays. on Friday. A.627. The current scientific consensus is that about 96% of the total energy density in the . . 138. lemoyne. 2.g. 1897. Gurnett. H Fichtner. p. Most of the ordinary (or baryonic) matter in the universe.. Acad. html. is found in the intergalactic medium. . all of the visible light from space comes from stars. 14: 628. Cambridge. google. com/ ?id=irHgIUtLi0gC& pg=PA138). magnetic mirror. edu/ ~GIUNTA/ thomson1897. Essentially. google. Proc. http:/ / web. but much hotter. Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications (http:/ / books. g. com/ mall/ more/ 315rm. dense plasma focus • Inertial fusion energy (IFE) (also Inertial confinement fusion — ICF) • Plasma-based weaponry Ion implantation Ion thruster Plasma ashing Food processing (nonthermal plasma. com/ ?id=VcueZlunrbcC& pg=PA2). convert waste into reusable material with plasma. org/ wcpa/ top3mset/ 5dcb9349d366f8ec. ISBN 0521364833. tfcbooks. which are plasmas with a temperature such that they radiate strongly at visible wavelengths. html) (http:/ / www. reversed field pinch. htm)  Announced in his evening lecture to the Royal Institution on Friday. for example. Langmuir (1928).  Crookes presented a lecture to the British Association for the Advancement of Science.S. 22 August 1879 (http:/ / www. B Heber (2005). Cambridge University Press. "Oscillations in ionized gases". Dentistry ) • • • • • • • • • • See also • • • • • • • • • • Hannes Alfvén Prize Plasma channel Plasma parameters Plasma nitriding Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Electric field screening List of plasma physicists Important publications in plasma physics IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society Quark-gluon plasma Notes  Sturrock. Space Weather: The Physics Behind a Slogan (http:/ / books.  It is often stated that more than 99% of the material in the visible universe is plasma. See.. UK: Cambridge University Press. and K Scherer. Plasma acceleration  Plasma medicine (e.14. U. D. Sci. ISBN 3540229078. and published in Philosophical Magazine 44: 293. Nat. stellarator. (1994). Peter A. Bhattacharjee (2005).  I. Plasma Physics: An Introduction to the Theory of Astrophysical. however. Geophysical & Laboratory Plasmas. worldcatlibraries. in Sheffield. doi:10. aka "cold plasma") Plasma arc waste disposal.
Geophysical Research Letters 30 (6): 71. com/ ?id=S1C6-4OBOeYC).  The material undergoes various ‘regimes’ or stages (e.  Chen. "Advances in Numerical Modeling of Astrophysical and Space Plasmas" (http:/ / adsabs. L.  Across literature. com/ facts/ 2000/ AliceHong. Cheeseman. ucsd. nasa.  Hubble views the Crab Nebula M1: The Crab Nebula Filaments (http:/ / seds. J. F. National Academies Press. .. ISBN 0521471281. doi:10. edu/ teaching/ plasma/ lectures/ node10. National Academies Press. . 22. 93P). . Lett.high=42ca922c9c27030).1103/PhysRevLett.: R423–R438. pp.L.870693.017. ac... San Diego  Nicholson. "Filamentary Structure in Solar Prominences. (2004). . ph. Magnetized plasmas (http:/ / farside. snu. J.. pdf). Tinkle. 832D& link_type=ARTICLE& db_key=AST). arizona. press release: Solar Wind Squeezes Some of Earth's Atmosphere into Space (http:/ / pwg. D. A. it is enough to say that at 2000°C the gas molecules become atomized. Phys. The Astrophysical Journal 141: 251. . Kersten.1007/BF00645112.(PRL) 104 (1): 015002.1029/2002GL016362. "Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation" (http:/ / icpr. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 22: 832.. Yan-An. "Dielectric Strength of Air" (http:/ / hypertextbook. (2006). L. "What we know and what we do not know about plasma arc cutting".. gsfc.jhazmat. there appears to be no strict definition on where the boundary is between a gas and plasma. "Monte Carlo model for analysis of thermal runaway electrons in streamer tips in transient luminous events and streamer zones of lightning leaders". ISBN 9027711518. Introduction to Plasma Physics. or?" (http:/ / adsabs.R. . . (1984).R. Spacecraft-Environment Interactions. Dordrecht. gov/ vision/ universe/ solarsystem/ rhessi_tgf. Schoenbach. Nevertheless.S. doi:10. R.  Doherty. htm#250). . Phys.  National Research Council (U.  IPPEX Glossary of Fusion Terms (http:/ / ippex.  See The Nonneutral Plasma Group (http:/ / sdphca. 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"Plasma Processing of Municipal Solid Waste". edu/ cgi-bin/ nph-bib_query?bibcode=2002ChA& A. html)  Zhang. D: Appl. Journal of the Korean Physical Society 49: 281. where some heavy ones remain ‘cold’.  Grydeland.04. Surko (1994). "Creation and uses of positron plasmas". glow. utexas. "Interferometric observations of filamentary structures associated with plasma instability in the auroral ionosphere". and thus the temperature is not dispersed evenly among the particles. Plasma Dynamics (http:/ / books. Introduction to Plasma Theory. 442Z& amp. or non-equilibrium plasmas are not as ionized and have lower energy densities. html)  Hazeltine. ISBN 0198520417. html)  Richard Fitzpatrick.. H. . Rani.  See Evolution of the Solar System (http:/ / history. V.. The Framework of Plasma Physics.data_type=HTML& amp.  National Research Council (1991). Gregory D. edu/ cgi-bin/ nph-data_query?bibcode=1990BAAS. C. (2003). Menzel. 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PMID 18930244. & B. Virginia Space Grant Consortium..org/) • Plasma on the Internet (http://plasma-gate." (http:/ / www-spof. Vac. doi:10. pp. W. gov/ MajResProj/ rfcell/ Publications/ MAS_JVSTB16_1. David P. vsgc. htm)  "High-tech dentistry – "St Elmo's frier" – Using a plasma torch to clean your teeth" (http:/ / www. (2008).A.1063/1. "Atmospheric air plasma treatments of polyester textile structures". Stern.a list of plasma related links. plasmas.il/directories/plasma-on-the-internet/) .062. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 328 (2): 412. Langan & Felker. Retrieved 12 April 2010.gov/CPEP/Chart_Pages/5.Hutchinson (http://silas. The Economist print edition.1016/j.  F. Retrieved 2009-09-07.  Web site for Plasma science and technology (http:/ / www. doi:10. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 20: 939–957. html). doi:10. M.edu/) • How to make a glowing ball of plasma in your microwave with a grape (http://c3po.ph. M.  J. 16 References External links • Free plasma physics books and notes (http://www.net/Physics/Plasma-Physics-Books. nist.  Dr. (2006).plasmas.A. .ac.F.jcis. Leroux et al. Jun 17th 2009. "Discharge phenomena of an atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive plasma source".mit.org/plasma/) • How to make plasma in your microwave with only one match (video) (http://video.G.ne.1163/156856106777657788. • Introduction to Plasma Physics: Graduate course given by Richard Fitzpatrick (http://farside.barnesos. Schetz.  F.I.freebookcentre.  Sobolewski.Plasma (physics)  Peretich. nasa.net/homepage/ lpl/grapeplasma/)| More (Video) (http://stewdio. gsfc. pdf). "The Fluorescent Lamp: A plasma you can use. Plasma torch power control for scramjet application (http:/ / www. . cfm?story_id=13794903& fsrc=rss).utexas.1323753. Technol.psfc. com/ displaystory.Plasma4StateMatter.google. Electrical optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber cleaning plasmas (http:/ / physics.T. Introduction by I. edu/ src/ SRC07/ SRC07papers/ Mark Peretich _ PaperFinal Report.. "Polypropylene film chemical and physical modifications by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure".A. gov/ Education/ wfluor. 173–182.weizmann. pdf).edu/ introplasma/index. J. html) • Plasma Science and Technology (http://www.uiuc.H. odu. (1997). J.. J.2008.edu/ teaching/plasma/lectures/lectures. Sci. .html)| M. 16. (2007). Leroux et al. Journal of Applied Physics 89: 20. economist.09. Park et al. O’Brien. .com/ videoplay?docid=6732382807079775486&hl=en) . Retrieved 2010-05-19.pppl. com/ topics.S. B. (2001).html) • Plasmas: the Fourth State of Matter (http://fusedweb.html) • Plasma Material Interaction (http://starfire.
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