Cell Biology / Cell Biochemistry BIOL 4374 / BCHS 4313 Exam 1 (Yellow) Sep 15, 2010 Read each question

carefully. Chose the single best answer to each of the following questions. In some cases, key words are emphasized in bold italics font 1. Which of the following is NOT one of Prof Rea’s “5 Essential Characteristics of Living Cells? a. Capable of protein synthesis b. Bound by a lipid-rich plasma membrane c. Capable of coordinated movement d. Capable of autonomous replication e. All of the above are on Dr Rea’s list 2. The Three Domain Model of Life is based primarily upon similarities and differences among organisms in the macromolecules that mediate which of the following processes? a. transcription d. development b. translation e. mitosis c. metabolism 3. Which of the following is an important model organism for the study of vertebrate development? a. Drosophila melanogaster b. Danio rerio c. Saccharomyces cerevisae d. Arabidopsis thaliana e. Caenorhabditis elegan 4. Which category of molecules comprises the largest percentage of the dry weight of a typical animal cell? a. inorganic ions b. sugars and precursors c. nucleotides and precursors d. fatty acids and precursors e. macromolecules 5. The Endosymbiosis Hypothesis seeks to explain the origin of which of the following organelles in eucaryotic cells. a. chloroplasts and mitochondria b. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus c. nuclei and mitochondria d. mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum e. all of the above 6. Which of the following is the smallest intracellular feature that can be resolved by microscopy using visible light ? a. microtubule d. mitochondria b. ribosome e. Golgi apparatus c. nucleus 7. The apparent change in the direction of propagation of light as it crosses the air-water interface is called … a. reflection d. contraction b. refraction e. retraction c. diffraction

Which of the following optical techniques is best suited for the observation of unstained. transmission electron microscopy e. from highest to lowest)? a. a light-weight data storage device b. none of the above 9. living cells in culture? a. light microscope? a. a diffraction pattern d. between the specimen and the objective lenses c. technological state-of-the-art 14. confocal laser scanning microscopy b. What is an "Airy Disk"? a. differential interference microscopy d. multiphoton laser scanning microscopy c. water > air > glass 11. magnifying power of the microscope e. Where would you find the condenser lens group on an upright. the purity of the light d. between the ocular and objective lenses b.8. brightfield microscopy 12. the wavelength of the light c. scanning electron microscopy . a high performance Frisbee c. confocal fluorescence microscopy b. air > water > glass d. the number of elements in the lens group d.e. the magnification b. between the light source and the specimen d. the light gathering ability c. laser scanning microscopy c. air > glass > water e. differential interference microscopy d. Which of the following optical techniques employs a pinhole to restrict light detection to photons originating from the focal plane? a. phase contrast microscopy e. glass > water > air b. the brightness of the light b. a refraction pattern e.. between a rock and a hard place 10. the amount of image distortion e. none of the above c. The “numerical aperture” describes what characteristic of a lens? a. Which of the following are arranged in order of decreasing refractive index (i. The spatial resolution of optical microscopy is ultimately limited by … a. none of the above 13.

differential interference microscopy d. they fold independently of other domains on the same protein d. it is stabilized by hydrogen bonds c. The green fluorescent protein was isolated from which of the following? a. they contain secondary structural elements b. amino acids with hydrophobic side chains are gathered together during the folding process to form . e. hydrogen bonds c. phase contrast microscopy e. chaperone proteins 21. scanning electron microscopy 16. all of the above are true about the alpha helix 22. b. some are amphipathic e. they are often evolutionarily conserved and incorporated into new proteins as “modules” e. they reflect visible light above a certain wavelength c. all of the above are true regarding structural domains .. a non-polar core c. laser scanning microscopy c. van der Waals forces e. they only allow fluorescent light to pass b. In many soluble proteins. Which of the following is false about structural domains of proteins? a. jellyfish d. they change the color of light that reflects off of the mirror e. each turn of the helix involves 3. they reflect visible light below a certain wavelength d. they form during translation of the protein c.15. mushroom e. the catalytic site d. glow in the dark 17. Fluorescence microscopy is based on the ability of certain molecules to… a. c. sea cucumber b. none of the above 20.. confocal fluorescence microscopy b. firefly c. a. continuously emit light of a constant wavelength. beam splitting mirrors are not used in fluorescence microscopes 19. a. absorb light of a given wavelength and then emit light of a longer wavelength. d.. absorb light of a given wavelength and then emit light of a shorter wavelength. Which of the following is false about the alpha helix? a. absorb light of many different wavelengths. a beta sheet e. arabidopsis thaliana 18. a ligand binding domain b. Elements of secondary structure are stabilized primarily by . Which of the following optical techniques provides the highest resolution image of the surface features of a specimen? a. the amino acid side chains are oriented outward from the axis of the helix d. Beam splitting (dichroic) mirrors are useful devices in fluorescence microscopes because … a..6 amino acid residues b. ionic bonds d. disulfide bonds b.

they are docking sites for viruses c. resulting in autoimmune diseases e. phosphatidyl choline d. all of these are uncharged at neutral pH c. Which phospholipid is negatively charged at neutral pH? a. cholesterol c. they include phosphoglycerides and sphingolipids b. they require ATP hydrolysis to dissociate from the nascent polypeptide e. What is a "molten globule"? a. ribosome e. a liposome composed of phospholipids with highly unsaturated fatty acid residues d. Why are prions pathogenic? a. none of the above 24.. position 2 c. they join together to form large channels in the plasma membrane b. phosphatidyl choline d. they frequently flip-flop across to the opposite leaflet d. they undergo rapid lateral diffusion c. a partially folded protein b. Which of the following is false regarding membrane phospholipids? a. tertiary structure of the chaperone protein d. sphingomyelin b. position 1 b. positions 2 & 3 . All of the information required to direct the proper folding of proteins is contained in the .. endoplasmic reticulum 26. phosphatidyl serine e. phosphatidyl ethanolamine 29. a conformation obtained when a soluble protein is warmed beyond the critical temperature c. positions 1 & 3 e. 5' untranslated region of the DNA sequence that encodes the protein b. sphingomyelin b. primary structure of the polypeptide c.23. all of the above are true 27. they bind to the nascent polypeptide in the cytoplasm c. they bind to charged amino acids in the nascent polypeptide d. In membrane phosphoglycerides.. phosphatidyl serine e. an integral membrane protein e. a. position 3 d.. prions are not pathogenic 25. all are amphipathic e. a. all of the above are true 28. phosphatidyl ethanolamine 30. The most common phospholipid in the plasma membrane of most eucaryotic cells is . they catalyze the misfolding of specific proteins d. Which of the following is false regarding chaperone proteins a. they are highly immunogenic. they assist in the proper folding of proteins b. unsaturated fatty acids are most commonly found at which position(s) along the glycerol moiety? a.

Which of the following is NOT considered a component of the endomembrane system? a. During the folding of an enzyme. the growth the polyubiquitin chain targets the protein for degradation by the 20S proteasome d. endoplasmic reticulum c. increased cholesterol content b. autophosphorylation of a serine residue d. the active site is usually assembled by bringing together which of the following? a. a. alpha helix d. the c-terminal of the first ubiquitin molecule is enzymatically attached to the ε-amino group of a lysine residue on the target protein b. on both the plasma membrane AND the nuclear envelop e. increased saturation of fatty acid tails d. hydrophobic core 34. all of the above are components of the endomembrane system . leucine zipper c. prosthetic groups 35. Glycolipids are found . autophosphorylation of a tyrosine residue c. both the ubiquitin and the target protein are degraded in the 20S proteasome e. dephosphoryation of a phosphotyrosine residue b. two of the above e. transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins are most frequently folded into a(n) … a. exclusively on the extracellular leaflet of the plasma membrane c. non-adjacent amino acids e. binding of an activating protein e. nuclear envelope b. exclusively on the intracellular leaflet of the plasma membrane b. beta sheet e. In eucaryotes. non-polar amino acids b. Golgi apparatus d. all of the above 33. lysosome e. coiled coil b.. modified amino acids d.. on both sides of the plasma membrane d. The first step in the activation of the src kinase is … a. Which of the following statements about ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is false? a. dissociation of an activating protein 36. all of the above are true 37. ubiquitination requires ATP hydrolysis c. Which of following phospholipid modifications would result in decreased membrane fluidity? a.31. aromatic amino acids c. none of the above 32. increased chain length of the fatty acid tails c.

the hydrocarbon tails are sticky b. Viral capsid self-assembles spontaneously . phosphotyrosine residues b. the hydrocarbon tails are thermodynamically excluded from water d. Phosphorylation of capsid proteins c. Small GTPases are activated by the exchange of GTP for GDP. This is an example of which of the following? a. phosphatidyl ethanolamine d. phosphatidyl choline c. positive cooperativity b. sphingomyelin 41. substrate recognition & binding c. ATP hydrolysis b. they are none of the above 40. Which of the following is NOT one of the five most common components of the lipid bilayer in biomembranes? a. domain switching e. ubiquitin activation d. What are flippases? a. none of the above 39. SH2 domains contain high affinity binding sites for which of the following? a. they are enzymes that catalyze cis-trans isomerizations b. ubiquitin ligation e. what is the role of the F-box protein? a. GTP binding d. ubiquitin e. cholesterol e. GTP hydrolysis e. they are transcription factors that reverse the order of transcription of genes c. calcium ions c. phosphatidyl inositol b. What causes the assembly of viral capsids? a. adaptor protein b. they are factors that reverse the orientation of membrane proteins e. amphipathic alpha helices d. none of the above 42. convergent evolution d. phospholipids all contain a phosphate group e. allosteric regulation c. GTP 44. In the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex.38. most phospholipid head groups are positively charged c. good judgment 43. they are membrane proteins that move phospholipids across the lipid bilayer d. The phospholipid bilayer spontaneously assembles from an aqueous suspension of phospholipids because … a.

cholesterol segregates together with certain phospholipids to form aggregates within the plasma membrane that may serve to organize signaling proteins at the cell surface. coated pits c. lipid rafts 49. electron microscopes are much more expensive than visible light microscopes . The immunogold labeling technique is frequently used in conjunction with which of the following? a. two proteins d. GPI anchors b. transmission electron microscopy b. What are Quantum Dots? a. lipid receptors d. atomic force microscopy 48. a beta barrel b. Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a process by which energy is transferred between which of the following? a. fluorescent semiconductor crystals c. a coiled coil e. electron microscopy uses powerful magnets to focus the electrons. fluorescent organic compounds d. none of the above 47. an SH2 domain d. a dimerization domain c. electrons are more energetic than photons b. two musical instruments c. two phospholipids e. two fluorescent molecules b. The resolving power of electron microscopy is 10000 times greater than that of visible light microscopy.45. while visible light microscopes use only glass lenses c. a phospholipid and a protein 50. excited singlet electrons e. In biomembranes. differential interference microscopy d. confocal laser scanning microscopy e. phosphorescent particles 46. What is the name of these structures? a. Why is this so? a. electrons travel faster than the speed of light d. lipid tethers e. The green fluorescent protein is folded into which of the following tertiary structures? a. electrons vibrate at much higher frequencies than visible photons e. scanning electron microscopy c. very small dots b.

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