A Seminar Report On ³AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING´
SUBMITTED BY DHAVAL SHETH (07EC098) HARDIK BHALODIA (08EC205)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
It is with great enthusiasm and learning spirit that I bring out this seminar report. I also feel that it¶s the right opportunity to acknowledge the support and guidance that came in for various quarters during the course of completion of my seminar. I express my gratitude to Head of Department (E.C.) for rendering me all facilities and guiding me right through the end for the successful completion of the work. I express my gratitude to J.P.AJMERA LEACTURER IN E.C.department for guiding me right through the end for the successful completion of the seminar. Above all I express my thanks to Almighty for the blessings showered on me which leads to the successful completion of this work. Despite the best efforts put in by me, it is possible that some unintentional errors might have eluded me. I shall acknowledge with any such errors if pointed out.
Thus audio spotlighting helps us to control where sound comes from and where it goes. The ultrasound beam acts as an airborne speaker. Holosonic Research Labs invented the AudioSpotlight that is made of a sound processor. Navy and military applications. It uses a non-linear acoustics for its working. an amplifier and the transducer.
. This use ultrasound based solutions to beam sound into a focused beam. specific listeners can be targeted with sound without others nearby hearing it. museum displays etc. Being the most recent and dramatic change in the way we perceive sound. This acoustic device comprises a speaker that fires inaudible ultrasound pulses with very small wavelength which act in a manner very similar to that of a narrow column. audio spot light technology can do many miracles in various fields like. The targeted or directed audio technology is going to a attain a huge commercial market in entertainment and consumer electronics and technology.ABSTRACT
Audio spot lighting is a very recent technology that creates focused beams of sound similar to light beams coming out of a flashlight. By µshining¶ sound to one location. Audio spotlight can be either directed at a particular listener or to a point where it is reflected. But it is real and is better than any conventional loud speaker. Home theatre audio system.
THEORY TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 3.
. HYPERSONICS SOUND TECH.1 RECENT TECHNOLOGY 2.1 PROPERTIES OF AUDIBLE SOUND 6. 6.PAGE INDEX
ACKNOWLEDEMENT ABSTRACT 1.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TECHNOLOGY 4. 3. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORY 3. ULTRASOUND IN THE AIR 7.1 BERKATY¶S EQUATION 8. 5. RANGE OF HEARING WORKING DIRECTING THE SOUND 6.2 FOCUSED NARROW BEAM 7.
ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY 9.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS FUTURE OF AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING CONCLUSION REFERENCE BIBLIOGRAPHY
TRANSDUCER TECHNOLOGY BEAM DISPERTION COMPONENT OF AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING MODES OF LISTENING 13.1 SIGNAL PROCESSING 9. 16.2 PROJECTED MODE
14.1 DIRECT MODE 13. 11. 13.2 ENVELOP OF DSB
2. 6. 10.JOPESH AT MIT LAB CONVENTIONAL SPEAKERS AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING RANGE OF HEARING AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING EMITTER DIRECTIVITY BEAM DISPERTION BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SYSTEM PARAMETRIC LOUDSPEAKER DIRECTED & PROJECTED AUDIO PAGE
. F. 5. 9. 8. 4.FIGURE INDEX
FIGURE NO 1. 3. 7.
This gives rise to audible components that can be accurately predicated and precisely controlled.whether it dynamic . electrostatic or some other transducer based design engineers have struggled nearly for a century to produce a speaker design with the ideal 20Hz-20KHz capability of human hearing and also produce a narrow beam of audible sound.The audio spotlighting developed by American corporation uses ultrasonic energy to create extremely narrow beam of sound that behave like of light.and as the beam moves through the air gradual distortion takes place in a predictable way. The ultrasound column act as a airborn speakers.e.it makes use of nonlinearity of air. to focus into a coherent and highly directional beam.This source can projected about an area much like a spotlight and creates an actual specialized sound distant from a transducer. Specific listeners can be targeted with sound without others nearby hearing it i. resulting in extremely directive and beam like sound.1.1 RECENT TECHNOLOGY
Audio spotlighting is a very recent technology that creates focused beam of sound similar to light beam coming out of a flash light. A device know as parametric array employs the non linearity of the air to create audible by products from inaudible ultrasound. Audio spotlighting exploits the property of no-linearity of air.
Hi-fi speakers from piezoelectric tweeters to various kinds of mid range speakers and woofers which generally rely on circuit ant enclosures to produce quality sound.
If the source loud speaker can be made several times bigger than the wavelength of the sound transmitted then a finely focused beam can be created.In fact the beam angle of audible sound is very wide just about 360 degree. The problem here is that this is not a very pratical solution.A large loudspeaker will focus the sound over a smaller area.thus the low beam angle can be achieved only by making the wavelength smaller and this can be achieved by making use of ultrasonic sound.phase distortion. The audible potions of sound tends to spread out in all directions from the point of origin._
.This effectively means of sound you hear will be propagated through the air equally in all directions.magnetic structure. In order to focus sound into a narrow beam.Some aspects of their mechanical aspects are mass.They do not travel as narrow beams. more focused sound.JOSEPH POMPEI AT THE MIT LAB.
FIG 1 :F. enclosure design and cone construction..crossover distortion etc.2.inter-modulation distortion.you need to maintain low beam angle and hence. PROPAGATION OF SOUND BEAM FROM AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING DEVICE.harmonics distortion. THRORY
The regular loudspeakers produce sound by directly moving the air molecules.The beam angle is also depeds on apeature size of speaker.Conventional loudspeakers suffer from amplitude distortion.
In 1990 Woody Norris a Radar technician solved the parametric problems of this technology.movie theaters and automobile-everywhere. in1960.In 1975 an article cited on nonlinearity of air. several large companies including Panasonic and Ricoh attempted to develop a loudspeaker using this principle.Over the next two decades.These tones make useof non linearity property of air to produce new tones that are within the range of human hearing which results in audible sound.1 HISTORY
The technology of using nonlinear interaction of high frequency waves to generate low frequency waves was originally pioneered by researchers developing underwater sonar tech.
3.cones or enclosures.The result is Sound with a potential purity and fidelity we attined never before.The sound is created indirectly in air by down converting the ultrasonic energy into the frequency spectrum we can here.Sound quality is no longer tied to speaker size. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
FIG 2: CONVENTIONAL SPEAKERS
.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING
Audio spotlighting works by emitting harmless high frequency ultrasonic tones that human here cannot here.Ultrasonic sound is that sound which have very small wavelength-in the millimeter range. It uses ultrasonic energy to create extremely narrow beam of sound that behave like beam of light.This sound system holds the promise of replacing conventional speaker in home.They were successful in producing some sort of sound but with the higher level of distortion(>50%).3. In an audio spotlighting sound system there are no voice coils.
FIG 3: AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING
FIG 4: RANGE OF HEARING
. RANGE OF HEARING
The human ear is sensitive to frequency rangefrom 20 Hz to 20KHz.If the range of human hearing as a percentage of shift from the lowest audible frequency to the highest it spans a range of 100. Using this technology it is possible to design a perfect transducer which can be work over a with range of frequency which is audible to human hear.No single loudspeaker element can operate efficiently over such a wide range of frequency.4.000 percentage.
The original low frequency sound sound wave such a human speech or a music is applied into an audio spotlight emitter device.The output of the modulator will be the modulated from of original sound wave.Since the wavelength is smaller the beam angle will be around 3 degree.Since ultrasonic frequency is used the wavelength of the combined signal will be in the order of few millimeter.
FIG 5: AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING EMITTER
.as a result the sound beam will be a narrow one with a small dispersion.5.This low frequency signal is frequency modulated with ultrasonic ranging from 21kHz-28KHz.
we can predict exactly what new frequency will be added into the sound wave by the air itself.Thus in an audio spotlighting there are no actual speakers that produce the sound but the ultrasonic envelope acts as the airborne speaker.new sounds are formed with in wave.Therefore if we know how the air affects the sound waves.If there is a change in a sound wave.
.the nonlinearity property of air comes into action which slightly changes the sound wave.The new sound signal generated within the ultrasonic sound wave will be corresponding to the original information signal with a frequency in the range of 20-20KHz will be produced within the ultrasonic sound wave.While the frequency modulated signal travels through the air.Since we can not hera the ultrasonic sound wave we only here the new sound s that are formed by non-linear action of the air.
Beam angle .This technology is similar in that you can direct the ultrasonic emitter towarda a hard surface.more accurately called a transducer.or 5 meter in the air.The new sound produced virtually has no distortion of sound is freed from bulky enclosers. a wall for instance and the listener perceives the sound as coming from the spot on the wall. which is why you don¶t need to be right in front of a radio to hear the music. Wavelength varies between 2cm to 17m.The mounting hardware is constructed with a ball joint so that the audio spotlighting are easly aimed wherever the sound is desired.it is recommended that the audio spotlight speaker.The listener does not perceive the sound as emanating from face of the transducer. in all directions. listeners ears.but only from the reflection from the wall.There are no woofers or crossovers. just about 360 degrees. This means the sound that you hear will be propagated through air equally.For the maximum volumn that trade show use demands. The beam angle of audible sound is very wide.
6. DIRECTING THE SOUND 6.1 Properties of audible sound:
The human hearing ranges from a frequency of 20Hz to 20 KHz.360 degrees.is mounting no more than 3 meters from the avg.
The audible portion of sound tends to spread out in all directions from the point of origin.
Except for very low wavelength. just about the entire audible spectrum tends to spread out at 360 degrees.6.
.2In order to focus sound into a narrow beam the requirement is: 1. Properties of ultrasound:
The frequency ranges above 20 KHz The wavelength is less than 2crn Small beam angle hence highly coherent and directional. If the source loudspeaker can be made several times bigger than the wavelength of the sound transmitted. A low beam angle -The smaller the wavelength. But this is not a very practical solution. then a finely focused beam can be created. Large aperture size
A large loudspeaker will focus sound over a smaller area.
This is where the ultrasound came to the rescue. The human hearing ranges from a frequency of 20Hz to 20 KHz. Therefore the audible sound is mixture of signals with varying wavelength between 2cm to 17m. the lesser the beam angle and hence more focused the
but predictable mathematical way. sound propagation in air is just as non-linear.O. Dr. the air spontaneously converted the inaudible ultrasound into audible sound tones. ULTRASOUND IN AIR
Researchers discovered that if short pulses of ultrasound were fired into water. H. and having them interfere to produce audible tones is that the audible component created are nowhere similar to the complex signals in speech and music which contains multiple varying frequency signals.
7. but can be calculated mathematically.7. Dr. He uses the concept of modulation envelope. As the beam moves through the air gradual distortion takes place giving rise to audible component that can be accurately predicted and precisely controlled. Orhan Berktay established that water distorts ultrasound signals in a nonlinear. The problem with firing off ultrasound pulses. Berktay assumes the primary wave has the form
P1 (t) = P1 E (t) sin (Wct) Where we is the carrier frequency and E (t) is the envelope function which in this case is the speech or music signal The secondary wave or demodulated wave is given by P2 (t) =d/dt2E (t)
. which interfere to produce sound and distortion. The air demodulates the modulated signal and the demodulated signal depends on the envelope function.1BERKTAY¶S EQUATION In 1965. the pulses were spontaneously converted into low frequency sound. It was later found that similar phenomenon happens in air also. hence proving that as with water. When inaudible ultrasonic sound pulses are fired into the air. Berktay published the first accurate and more complete theory of distortion of ultrasound signal in air.
it creates complex distortions that give rise to two new frequency sets. than the hybrid wave. So. Modulate the amplitude to get the hybrid wave Calculate what the berktay¶s equation does to this signal And do the exact opposite
. Joseph Pompei. These two sidebands interfere with the hybrid wave and produce the two signal components . An MIT Media labs researcher. HYPERSONIC SOUND TECHNOLOGY
The ultrasound signal is used as a carrier wave and the audible speech and music signal are superimposed on it to create a hybrid wave similar to the amplitude modulation. But the problem that arises is that the volume of the original sound wave is proportional to that of the ultrasound. a slight increase in the volume drowns out the original sound wave as the distorted signal becomes predominant. This is the fundamental expression for the output resulting from the distortion due to air. This sideband component is a badly distorted component.This is called berktay¶s far field solution.the normal and the distorted components. The berktay¶s solution states that the demodulated signal is proportional to the second time derivative of the envelope squared. The technique to create the audio beam is simple. (i) One slightly higher than the hybrid wave. This sideband is identical the original sound wave (ii) Slightly lower. managed to crack the problem by studying current technique and he realized that the focused should have been on the signal¶s distorted component. As this wave moves through the air. while the volume of the signal¶s distorted component is exponential. The resultant hybrid wave is then broadcast.
In short. whether you stand in ³its path or in the path of a reflection from an acoustic mirroring surface. This is known as projected audio. so that people in the path of the audio reflection can hear the sound. unlike ordinary speakers. When this wave is passed through air and what you get is the original sound wave component.In other words distort it before the distortion by air takes place. If you step away from the
. you will hear the sound only if you disrupt the sound beam. But this time (a) The volume of the original sound wave component is exponentially related to the volume of the ultrasound beam (b) The distorted component volume now varies directly as the ultrasound
You could also bounce the beam off a reflecting surface.
other than the ultrasound modulation technique. reduction of bandwidth Allows high modulation index for good efficiency Allows the lowest possible ultrasound operating frequency for greater output
.to focus and direct sound. One is the parabolic dish approach that essentially uses antennae . it acts as a point source. Alternative technology:
There is another alternative approach to creating targeted audio.path of the sound. you will hear nothing.
9. When the loudspeaker generates the sound signal.e.1 SIGNAL PROCESSING
In order to convert the source program material to ultrasonic signals. but the invisible ultrasound beam that generates it.
9. The sound¶s source is not the physical device you see. but the size of the parabolic dish required to accommodate the longer wavelengths of lower frequencies is too large. In addition error correction is needed if distortion is to be reduced without loss of efficiency. a modulation scheme is required. This is very much in use. emitting waves that reflect off the parabolic dish that is pointed towards a particular direction. The type of modulation adopted also has importance the requirement is for a method for modulation and distortion reduction mat Is able to minimize distortion by creating output that matched the ideal modulation envelope while simultaneously Does not increase bandwidth requirements i. Here a relatively omni-directional loudspeaker is placed at the focal point of a parabolic dish pointing towards it. The goal is to produce the audio in the most efficient manner while maintaining acceptably low distortion levels.
Therefore there is considerable freedom in choosing the modulation scheme. Referring back the Berktay¶s equation it can be seen that the demodulation due to the medium gives an output that is the two-time derivative of the envelope square. Double integration and Square rooting The two time derivative operations Berktay¶s solution translates to a 12db/octave high pass slope in the output which can be corrected independent of the modulation scheme. 2. Not the spectrum.Preprocessing:
There should be necessary preprocessing for reducing the distortion due to air. Square rooting the audio before the modulation gives the proper envelope for a DSB system. Single sideband amplitude modulation (SSB) . The two modulation schemes used are 1.so that the interaction between the sidebands are eliminated. Double sideband amplitude modulation (DSB) with square root
preprocessing . The Berktay¶s solution says that the audio signal will be proportional to the envelope.which results in many sidebands 2. Comparing the envelopes of DSB with square rooting:
. Therefore the necessary preprocessing required are 1. with an equalization factor.
The following is the waveform both put together for comparison.9.2 The envelope of DSB with square rooting-
The envelope of SSB-
It can be seen that both the schemes result in a waveform that has the same envelope.
ultrasonic energy must be emitted into the air. In a point source the wave fronts are expanding spherically around the source. 4. To cover a certain frequency range. 2. The frequency response of a transducer designed for 500Hz to 20 KHz flat audio response is much more realistic. A bandwidth from around 20 KHz to infinity. TRANSDUCER TECHNOLOGY
1. 3. and a falling output level with frequency to provide a measure of self-equalization in the system. To have a certain dispersion pattern which In order to make this technology work. SSB is vastly superior to DSB.The blue is the DSB line. A sharp dispersion pattern that gives a collimated beam of ultrasound 5. SSB also gives a controlled measure of self equalization to the demodulated audio thus eliminating the effect of the 12db/octave roll off.
. Electrical signals are converted into these acoustic signals by means of an ultrasonic transducer. These will be output below 500Hz just not at the same level as the rest of the bandwidth. a resonant peak where the carrier will be placed. It can be seen that though they are of different values they result in the same envelope.
Hence SSB gives a distortion free signal with no preprocessing or additional signal conditioning so in case of no preprocessing. What is practically possible is a usable bandwidth of 20 KHz for use with SSB modulation giving 20 KHz of audio bandwidth. so the intensity falls as the surface area of the sphere grows. The red gives the SSB waveform. Acoustic transducers or emitters can be designed Is sharp. because the overall performance will be much better. Collimated beam is a must. Unlimited output capabilities.
Planar magnetic emitters 5. Monolithic dim ultrasonic transducers 2. The film needs to have a conductive electrode material applied to both sides in order to achieve a uniform electric field through it. Pressure based PVDF In the thin film transducers the piezo film generates the greatest ultrasonic output per unit area while providing easily scalable singular structures of any diameter desired for a given application. Piezoelectric film 4. the film must be polarized or activated. The only losses in intensity occur due to molecular friction. The attenuation grows with increasing frequency so lower operating frequencies are desirable for minimizing losses. Piezoelectric Film Transducer The most active piezo film is Polyvinyl dine diflouride or PVDF for short. the wave front do not spread appreciably and a collimated beam results.
Some of the emitters used are:
1.With a plane wave source where the radiating surface area of the diameter is much greater than the wavelength being emitted.
. The attenuation is gradual over distance. In order to be useful for ultrasonic transduction. Electrostatic 3.
the film will not create effective motion in the z direction unless it is curved or distended so that the expansion and contractions can be converted into z axes movement and create displacement generating acoustic output. a sheet of PVDF is taken and it is laid over a metal late witn an array of holes in it. each with the diameter of the hole under it. A schematic cross-section of such a device is shown below
. For use as an emitter. In one of the simplest implementations of the concept.The piezoelectric films operate as transducers through the expansion and contraction of the x or y axes of the film surface. Pressure or vacuum can be applied to one side of that plate to create an array of PVDF diaphragms.
Greater than 140db ultrasonic output capability. Repeatable. the current emitter is stable. repeatable and very practical device to manufacture. Therefore there is flexibility in calibrating the resonant frequency. It has the following advantages:
Very high efficiency Attenuated. simplified construction.The size of the hole is related to the resonant frequency of the carrier signal. which is the first purpose built transducer. self equalization slopes at the sideband frequency Adjustable resonant frequency Correct bandwidth needed to reproduce the widest band audio. Inherently low distortion
. Through the use of a new type of proprietary PVDF film.
11. BEAM DISPERTION
FIG 7: DISPERSION OF SOUND BEAM
Power supply 2.Modulator 4. Microcontroller 6. Transducer
FIG9: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AN AUDIO SPOLIGHTING SYSTEM
. Audio signal processor 5.12. Ultrasonic amplifier 7.Frequncy oscillator 3. COMPONENT OF AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING SYSTEM
.1.000 Hz to 28. By using a DSB modulator the modulation index can be reduced to decrease distortion. In the future version.
5. Frequency oscillator: The frequency oscillator generates ultrasonic frequency
signals in the range of (21.signal processing.
4. the audio spotlighting system works off DC voltage. double side band
modulation and even switch mode power supply would be effectively taken care of by a single embedded IC. Ultrasonic amplifier requires 48V DC supply for its working and low voltage for microcontroller unit and other process management. error correction is needed to reduce distortion without loss of efficiency. Power Supply: Like all electronic systems. 2.
Modulator: In order to convert the source signal material into ultrasonic signal a
modulation scheme is required which is achieved through a modulator. Microcontroller: A dedicated microcontroller circuit takes care of the functional management of the system. it is expected that the whole process like functional management.
Audio signal processor:
The audio signal is sent to electronic signal processor
circuit where equalization and distortion control are performed in order to produce a good quality sound signal.000 Hz) which is required for the modulation of information signals. In addition.
Transducer: It is 1.
FIG10: PARAMETRIC LOUDSPEAKER
. It can be wall.6. It has the ability of real time sound reproduction with zero lag. overhead or flush mounted. It is capable of producing
audibility up to 200 meters with better clarity of sound.27 cm thick and 17´ in diameter. These transducers are arranged in form of an array called parametric array in order to propagate the ultrasonic signals from the emitter and thereby to exploit the nonlinearity property of air.
1 Direct mode 13.13.MODES OF LISTENING
There are two modes of listening
FIG11: DIRECTED AUDIO AND PROJECTED AUDIO
7.1Direct mode:Direct mode requires a clear line of approach from the sound system unit to the point where the listener can hear the audio.
.so the emitter is pointed at the spot where the is to be heard.To restrict the audio in a specific area this method is appropriate. A virtual sound source creates an illution of sound source that emanates from a surface or direction where no physical loudspeaker is present.For this mode of operation the sound beam from emitter is made to reflect from a reflecting surface such a wall surface or a diffuser.2Projected or virtual mode:This mode requires an unbroken line of approach from the emitter of audio spotlighting system.
There is no lag in reproducing the sound. Can reduce or eliminate the feedback from microphone.ADVANTAGES:
1. 4. Highly cost effective as the maintenance required is less as compared to conventional loud speakers and have longer life span. Can focus sound only at the place you want. Ultrasonic design is based directly on emitter diameter. Ultrasonic emitter device are thin and flat and do not require a mounting cabinet. Directivity directly depended on the length of the ultrasonic column.14. Dispersion can be controlled very narrow or wider to cover more listening area. 5. 3. 6. The focused or directed sound travels much faster in a straight line than conventional loudspeaker. Requires only same power as required for regular speakers. 8.
15. Greater modulation index increases gain Single sideband envelope is equal to square rooted envelope for a single tone. 7.
. 2. Lower modulation index decreases distortion.HYPERSONIC SOUND SYSTEM: FACTS AND LIMITS
The output is proportional to the area of the ultrasonic column.
1.Public announcement: Highly focused announcement in noisy environment such as subways.
. 6.Retail sales: Provide targeted advertising directly at the point of purchase.airport.traffic intersections etc.Safety officials: Portable audio spotlighting device for communication with a specific person in a crowd of people. 4.
5.Automobiles: Beam alert signal can be directly propagated from an announcement device in the dashboard to the driver ..Presently Mercedes Benz buses are fitted with audio spotlighting speaker so that individual travelers can enjoy the music.Emergency rescue: Rescue can communicate with endangerd people far from reach.Entertainment system: in home theatre system tear speaker can be eliminated by the implementation of audio spotlighting and the properties of sound can be improved.
7.Military applications:Ship to ship communication and shipboard announcements.so that the order person standing in front of another object will not be able to here the description.
.Sound bullets:Jack the level 50 times the human threshold of pain and an offshoot of audio spotlighting sound technology become a nonlethal weapon.Museums:In museums audio spotlighting can be used to describe about a particular object to a person standing in front it .forma single central device without the need for headphone.
8. 10. 9.Audio/video conferencing: Project the audio from a conference in four different language.
Audio spotlighting system holds the promise of replacing conventional speakers.It allows the user to control the direction of propagation with sound.
.17. FUTURE OF AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING:
Even the best loudspeaker are subject to distortion and their omni directional sound is annoying to the people in the vicinity who do not wish to listen. Audio spotlighting really ³put sound where you want it´.
Audio spotlighting is really going to make a revolution in sound transmission and the user can decide the path in which audio signal propagate. Audio spotlighting system is going to shape the future of sound and will serve our ears with magical experience. Due to the unidirectional propagation it finds application in large number of fields.
spherically spreading sound beams. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. John T. and Mark F. Jacqueline Naze Tjotta and Sigve Tjotta. Joseph Pompei. The use of airborne ultrasonics for generating audible Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. Nonlinear interaction of two collinear. 3. J. Westervelt. Post.
. Kite. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. F. Parametric array in air: Distortion reduction by preprocessing. Parametric acoustic array. 2. P. Hamilton. Thomas D.REFERENC E 1.
za ± Silent sound y y y www.howstuffworks.BIBLIOGRAPHY y www.co.com ² Audio spotlighting www.silentsound.Sound from Ultrasound www. 40 January 2008
y www.techalone.holosonics.wikipedia.org .com y Electronics For You ² Vol.