596 views

Uploaded by S.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna

A preliminary exploration of perimeter and area and how you can 'compare' the 2. Author S.Srinivasan

- NMAT
- BEMF Dido Libretto
- pasgi
- Growing Shapes
- 2014 Gr 5 Competition Test Solutions CC
- Space - From Euclid to Einstein
- Math in Focus Curriculum Map 1
- area perimeter lesson plan
- Grade 10 tn1.docx
- Graph
- mathematicsforen01roseuoft.pdf
- Module 1 Maths
- Mathematicians
- Modul JUJ Tahun 2010
- 3rdgrade_GAMES_8.22.14
- Summer Assignment Part 1
- Physics-Conversion method
- 2.1 Cirlces
- Third Periodic Test in Math 6 2017-2018
- LESSON Accommodated Lessson One Volume

You are on page 1of 27

A Walkabout on Some Ideas we are Familiar with – or we think we are

S. Srinivasan

3/11/2010

Gabriel’s Horn

October 21, 2009/October 31, 2010

Perimeters and Areas

-S.Srinivasan1

If somebody asked you, when is a perimeter greater than area, you will dismiss it as a

useless question. Why does the question not make any sense? Firstly we are comparing

unequal things, like apples and oranges, or like comparing distance and speed; or weight

and height. Obviously you cannot say anything if you are asked which is greater: distance

100 km or the speed value 200 km per hour? Or is a 100 kg man greater than a 6 ft

woman?

But my dear young reader, do ask ‘useless’ questions. For example, can we have negative

perimeter and positive area? Or positive perimeter and negative area? For example, when

length and/or breadth of a rectangle is negative, the previous situations can be possible.

By the way, can area and perimeter be both negative? The typical response of your

friends to such questions will be, ‘Brother/Sister, which world are you living?’ You can

ignore such ‘friends’ (who needs enemies?), and explore such questions regardless – you

may find gems along the way, and even if you do not find, the journey itself is

interesting.

Now who says, length cannot be negative? In our imagination anything is possible. You

do not have to be Alice in Wonderland for that. You can have negative markings in

exams, negative energies, negative bank balance (which may be positive sometimes) and

negative attitude to negative personalities (that is positive often). So why not negative

lengths and negative perimeters and areas?

1

When normally one puts one’s name, the reader gets the impression that it is the original work of the

author. In my case, I have mostly compiled available information which I found interesting. My role is of

the tourist guide, “Look! Here is a Taj Mahal/a Mount Everest!”

2

True I myself do not know what is the meaning of negative perimeter and length – at

least a meaning I can convince you with. But I welcome suggestions. Meaning is

something you give to things.

I have done some exploration of the useless question when is perimeter greater than area

– but since I am not sure your editor will publish it, I invite you to look at this link

http://www.scribd.com/doc/40702778/Perimeter-Greater-Than-Area where I have

uploaded it.

Now let us ask a useful question so-called: When is a long perimeter not desirable?

For instance when it is a country or a farmer who has to keep off intruders. Or when I

want a variety of landscape.

Such a misconception is held by geographers who infer the size of a city from the

length of its walls. And the participants in a division of land have sometimes misled

their partners in the distribution by misusing the longer boundary line; having

acquired a lot with a shorter boundary and so, while getting more than their fellow

colonists, have gained a reputation for superior honesty.

(G. R. Morrow, Proclus: A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid’s Elements, Princeton University

2

Press, Princeton, 1970)

In fact, it is an interesting exercise to consider: if you are given a fixed amount of area

to choose from, but the length of perimeter is your choice. How long a perimeter will

you choose? How long can the perimeter be? It can be pretty long theoretically – even

as long as the distance to the moon and back. But we can say for sure one thing: that

if you choose a circle with the given area, then that will have the shortest perimeter!

2

Quoted in Viktor Blasjo. “The Evolution of ...The Isoperimetric Problem,” The Mathematical Association

of America Monthly 112, June–July 2005.

3

Similarly, if you are given the perimeter length, and asked to choose an area, how big

or small an area will you choose? Again of the various choices, only a circle with the

given perimeter will have the largest area!

We summarise the above in two equivalent statements that can be proved though

‘obvious’:

a) Among all planar shapes with the same perimeter the circle has the largest area.

b) Among all planar shapes with the same area the circle has the shortest perimeter.

Figure above: All same perimeters – but the circle has the largest area

The above 2 facts were recognized by the Greeks but the proof took almost 1500 years

including with two of the Bernoulli brothers fighting on the issue. Queen Dido’s problem

is of a similar nature (see box).

In fact the relationship between the perimeter p and area A of a simple closed curve on a

plane is often represented by the inequality:

p2/4A ≥ π or p2/4π ≥ A

4

with the equality holding only for the circle. (Area of circle = πr2 and perimeter = 2πr.)

In fact this is the famous isoperimetric inequality.

Similar facts can be proved in 3 dimensions: the sphere has the greatest surface area if the

volume is fixed.

Dido is known best as the queen of Carthage who died for love of Aeneas. The famous

Dido’s problem is based on a passage from Virgil's Aeneid:

"The Kingdom you see is Carthage, the Tyrians, the town of Agenor;

They met together, all those who harshly hated the tyrant

Or keenly feared him: they seized some ships which chanced to be ready...

They came to this spot, where to-day you can behold the mighty

And purchased a site, which was named 'Bull's Hide' after the bargain

By which they should get as much land as they could enclose with a bull's hide."

(italics author’s)

5

Dido was the daughter of the king of the Phoenician city-state of Tyre. The legend tells

us that when the king died, Dido's brother, Pygmalion, killed Dido's wealthy husband,

Sychaeus. Then the ghost of Sychaeus revealed to Dido what had happened to him. He

also told Dido where he had hidden his treasure. Dido, knowing how dangerous Tyre was

with her brother still alive, took the treasure, fled, and wound up in Carthage, in modern

Tunisia. Dido bartered with the locals, offering a substantial amount of wealth in

exchange for what she could contain within the skin of a bull. When they agreed to what

seemed an exchange greatly to their advantage, Dido showed how clever she really was.

She cut the hide into strips and laid it out in a semi-circle with the sea forming the other

side. Dido then ruled Carthage as queen. The Trojan prince Aeneas met Dido on his way

from Troy to Lavinium. When he left her to fulfill his destiny, Dido was devastated and

committed suicide. Aeneas saw her again, in the Underworld in Book VI of the Aeneid.

To find the figure bounded by a line, which has the maximum area for a given perimeter

– this is called Queen Dido’s problem after the story above. The solution is a semicircle.

A whole lot of isoperimetric problems (isoperimetric means of equal perimeter) are

fashioned after this ancient problem. One of which we mentioned above: among all

planar shapes with the same perimeter the circle has the largest area.

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DidosProblem.html

1. Among all triangles with the same perimeter, the equilateral one has the largest

area.

2. Among all quadrilaterals with the same perimeter, the square has the largest area.

3

This summary is from the website http://www.cut-the-knot.org

6

3. Among all rectangles with the same perimeter, the square has the largest area.

(follows from 2 above).

4. This latter fact is equivalent to √ab ≤ (a+b)/2, geometric mean of two numbers is

not greater than their arithmetic mean.

5. Among any finite number of regular polygons with the same perimeter, the one

with the largest number of sides has the largest area.

That is if a hexagon and a pentagon have the same perimeter, the hexagon will

have the greater area.

6. Among all polygons (with number of sides fixed) with the same perimeter the

regular one has the largest area. (This is known as Zenodorus’ Theorem).

That is if two octagons with the same perimeter are given, one with all sides equal

and the other all sides not equal, the one with all sides equal will have the greater

area. Naturally of all polygons of the same perimeter, the circle will have the

greater area – as a circle is a polygon of infinite sides.

7. Each of the statements above has an equivalent where the area is given.

8. Among all plane curves of fixed length with fixed endpoints, a circular arc

encloses a maximum area between it and the line joining its endpoints (see figure

below as example)

Figure above: Arc DEF and ABC are equal but it is the semicircle which has the

greater area

7

The Wisdom of Bees

Bees, then, know just this fact which is useful to them, that the hexagon is greater than

the square and the triangle and will hold more honey for the same expenditure of material

in constructing each. But we, claiming a greater share of wisdom than the bees, will

investigate a somewhat wider problem, namely that, of all equilateral and equiangular

plane figures having the same perimeter, that which has the greater number of angles is

always greater, and the greatest of them all is the circle having its perimeter equal to

them

Is it possible to have infinite perimeter but a finite area? Or zero area but infinite

perimeter? Both seem impossible but are actually possible. Here is how. (I do not know

any case of infinite area and finite or zero perimeter – suggestions welcome from

readers.)

The Koch Snowflake was created by the Swedish mathematician Niels Fabian Helge von

Koch, in his 1904 paper entitled "Sur une courbe continue sans tangente, obtenue par une

construction géométrique élémentaire."

4

The rather clear presentation format in Tables 1 and 2 form is due to ‘Series Ideas Add Up to Interesting

Mathematics’ by Tim Howard, Columbus State University. Thanks also to http://www.cut-the-knot.org

8

Niels Fabian Helge von Koch

Step 1: Start with a triangle - a collection of 3 line segments each of length, say, 1. The

initial perimeter is 3 and the initial area is √3/8. (Area of triangle of side a = half the base

multiplied by height. Here base = a; height = √3a/2. Area = √3 a2/8 = √3/8 for a = 1.)

Figure Koch 1

Step 2: The total length of the 3 sides of the triangle – or its perimeter – is 3. Divide each

side into 3 equal parts. Keep the extremes as it is. And replace the middle one by a

"tent" formed by the sides of the equilateral triangle formed on that middle segment as

the base (see figure Koch 2 below). Now you will see that each of the smaller segments

are of length 1/3; we created 4 lengths of 1/3 each from one of the sides – therefore their

9

total length will be 4/3. For all 3 sides together and the whole curve that now consists of

12 segments has the length of 4. The area increases by 1/3rd of the original triangle.

[Each new tent adds √3/72 and there are 3 new additions of area – therefore the total

addition to the area is √3/24 which adds thus 1/3rd more to the original area√3/8. And

incidentally the above figures are called Koch snowflakes.]

Therefore at the end of iteration 1, we have Perimeter: 4 (times initial side length);

and Area: 4/3 (times initial area)

Figure Koch 2

Step 3: On the next iteration we apply the same procedure to each of these 12 segments.

There are going to be 48 (= 12×4) of the smaller ones, each of length 1/9. The total length

of the curve is then 48×1/9 = 16/3. So at the end of Step 3: we have the Perimeter =

16/3 (times initial side length) and Area = 40/27 (times initial area).

10

Figure Koch 3

The process continues. On iteration number n, the curve consists of 3×4n line segments,

each of length 1/3n, to the total perimeter at stage n = 3×(4/3)n. Since 4/3 > 1, the total

length grows without bound. The limit curve (which does exist) known as Koch's

snowflake does not have a finite length even though it is located in a bounded region

around the original triangle.

Step 4:

Koch snowflake

Iterations: 3

Perimeter: 64/9 (times initial side length)

Area: 376/243 (times initial area)

11

Figure Koch 4

Step 5:

Koch snowflake

Iterations: 4

Perimeter: 256/27 (times initial side length)

Area: 3448/2187 (times initial area)

12

Figure Koch 5

Step 6:

Koch snowflake

Iterations: 5

Perimeter: 1024/81 (times initial side length)

Area: 31288/19683 (times initial area)

13

Figure Koch 6

As n moves towards infinity, Perimeter tends to infinity and Area becomes 8/5 (times

initial area).

We summarize:

Sides

3 P0 = 3

3 A0 =

4

A1 = A0 + 3 A0 (1 / 3) 2 P1 = 4(3)(1 / 3)

4x3

= A0 [1 + 1 / 3] = 3(4 / 3)

14

2

A2 = A1 + 4(3) A0 (1 / 3) 4 P2 = 4 2 (3)(1 / 3) 2

4 x 4 x 3 = 4 (3)

[

= A0 1 + (1 / 3) + 4(1 / 3) 3 ] = 3(4 / 3) 2

1 + 1 / 3 + 4(1 / 3) 3 + L

Stage n 4n x 3 A0 Pn = 3(4 / 3) n

+ 4 n−1 (1 / 3) 2n −1

2 3

Snowflake ∞ ∞

5

2 3

How did we arrive at the area of snowflake as ?

5

1 + 1 / 3 + 4(1 / 3)3 + L

In summing up the series, A0 we use the property of an

+ 4 n−1 (1 / 3) 2 n−1 + ...∞

infinite geometric series:

...

Sum of 1 + r + r2 + r3 + r4 + + rn + … as n tends to infinity = 1/(1-r) with the proviso

|r|<1.

∞

1

∑

=0

i

r i

=

1− r

1 1 1 1

For instance, 1 + + + +L = = 3 / 2 as here, r = 1/3.

3 9 27 1 −1/ 3

1 + 1 / 3 + 4(1 / 3)3 + L

A0

+ 4 n−1 (1 / 3) 2 n−1 + L ∞

The term in the brackets is rewritten as: 1 + 1/3[1 + 4(1/3)2 + 42(1/3)4 + 43(1/3)6 +

44(1/3)8 + … + 4n-1 x (1/3)2n-2+ … to infinity]

= 1 + 1/3[1/(1- 4/9)] = 1 + [(1/3) x (9/5)] = 1 + 3/5 = 8/5 [as here r = (1/3)2x 4 =4/9]

15

Therefore,

2 3

A0 x (8/5) = (√3/4) x (8/5) =

5

4. The Sierpinski Gasket (also called the Sierpinski Triangle): A Case of Zero Area

but Infinite Perimeter

The Sierpinski Gasket is named after the Polish mathematician Wacław Sierpiński who

described it in 1915. One of his students said of him: “Sierpinski had an exceptionally

good health and a cheerful nature. ... He could work under any conditions. ... He did not

like any corrections to his papers. When someone suggested a correction he added a line

to it: 'Mr X remarked that ...' He was a creative mind and liked creative mathematics. He

was the greatest and most productive of Polish mathematicians.”

Waclaw Sierpinski

Here is how we construct the triangle named after him. We begin with a black equilateral

triangle and repeat the process. At each stage, we remove an equilateral triangle formed

by connecting the midpoints of the sides of each blacktriangle.

16

Figure 1: Constructing the Sierpenski Triangle

We will see that the figure so generated will have area approaching zero – indeed its area

is zero, while the perimeter is infinite – the infinite series (below) with each term 3/2

times bigger than the previous one tends to infinity. We assume the side of the first black

triangle is equal to one unit length.

17

Figure Area (of the Black Shaded Part) Perimeter

3

A0 = P0 = 3

4

3 P1 = 3 + 3(1/2)

A1 = A0

4 = 3 + 3/2

2 P2 = 3 + 3/2 + 3(3) ¼

A2 = (3 / 4) A0

= 3 + 3/2 + (3/2)2

3

A3 = (3 / 4) A0

P3 = 3 + 3/2 + (3/2)2 + 9(3)(1/8)

= 3 + 3/2 + (3/2)2 + (3/2)3

n n

Stage n An = (3 / 4) A0 Pn = 3 + 3 / 2 + L + (3 / 2)

Sierpenski triangle 0 ∞

Table 2: Area and Perimeter of Sierpenski Triangle

18

5. An Object of Finite Volume and Infinite Surface Area5

Our first reaction is how this is possible. We will show below how this indeed can be so.

5

This explanation is due to Julian F. Fleron, ‘Gabriel’s Wedding Cake’, The College Mathematics Journal,

January 1999, Volume 30, Number 1, pp. 35-38. Normally the calculations are for Gabriel’s Horn (see

picture below) but that involves calculus and is not convincing as much as the cake!.

19

Another View of Gabriel’s Cake

Firstly what is the object? Each layer is a cylinder. And cylinders of narrower sizes

stacked one upon the other infinitely. But the height of all the cylinders is the same.

20

In Gabriel’s cake above, each layer or a step is a cylinder. The height is one unit of length

(cm or meter or foot). The radius of the bottom most cylinder is 1. For the cylinders

which are stacked above, the height remains the same that is one unit; but the radius

reduces thus: 1, ½, 1/3, ¼, 1/5 … 1/n… on endlessly.

Volume of cylinder 2nd from bottom = π x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1 = π/4 = π/22 (as r = 1/2, h =1)

Volume of cylinder 3rd from bottom = π x 1/3 x 1/3 x 1 = π/9 = π/32 (as r = 1/3, h =1)

Volume of cylinder nth from bottom = π x 1/n x 1/n x 1 = π/n2 (as r = 1/n, h =1)

So total volume of all cylinders = π (1+ 1 /22 +1 /42 + 1/52 + 1/62 + 1/72 + 1/82 + 1/92 + …

+1/n2 + … till infinity) = π x (π 2 /6) = π3/6.

The last result [that is 1+ 1 /22 +1 /42 … +1/n2 + … till infinity = π2 /6] is due to the magic

of the great Euler - we are not deriving it here however - a result all the more remarkable

because it leaves you gaping how on earth a set of numbers got related to something to do

with π which we know as the ratio of circumference to the diameter of a circle!

21

Calculating the Areas

Now the ‘uncovered’ area of only the top part of the bottom most cylinder (let us call it

cylinder 1) is π x 1 x 1 minus area of the bottom part of the cylinder immediately above

(that is cylinder 2) which is π x 1 /22 which gives us π x (1- 1 /22).

Similarly for the next cylindrical top of cylinder 2 (that is the one above the bottommost

one), the uncovered area will be π x (1 /22 - 1 /32).

So the uncovered area of the nth cylinder from the bottom is π x [(1/(n2) - (1/(n+1)2].

Adding (you may notice that the 2nd term in the expression for the lower cylinder cancels

out with the first term of the one above), you get total area of the top uncovered parts of

the infinite object = π. In a way you could have guessed it as if you flatten all the

cylinders, the uncovered area of the tops of the cylinder would be just the area of the top

parts = the area of the top part of the bottom most cylinder!

Now let us calculate the areas of the curved surfaces of the cylinders.

The area of the curved surface of the bottom most cylinder, that is cylinder 1, = 2πr x h =

2π x 1 x 1 = 2π. And for the cylinder 2 that is immediately above (remembering the height h

=1 in all cylinders), the area is 2π x ½; and of the one further above, cylinder 3, the area is 2π x

1/3; and the area of the curved surface of the nth cylinder above is 2π x 1/n. Thus adding up the

areas of the curved surface of all cylinders equals 2π x (1 + ½ + 1/3 + ¼ + 1/5 + 1/6 + …+ 1/n

+ … onwards to infinity). The series (1 + ½ + 1/3 + ¼ + 1/5 + 1/6 + …+ 1/n + … onwards to

infinity) can be easily shown (see box below) to be infinite. So the sum of all areas of the curved

surfaces of the stacked cylinders is infinite!

So total area, of the entire object, the area of the top parts of which is π, plus area of the

curved surfaces, is also infinite.

So here we have an infinite solid object which has finite volume but infinite surface area!

You will not have trouble eating it but you will have problem covering the cake, sides

and all, with icing or chocolate!

22

The above series can be grouped as

which is

The last expression 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + ... diverges (grows towards infinity). So does

the harmonic series.

We said in the beginning of this essay, comparing areas and perimeters is like comparing

apples and oranges. However we can compare square of the perimeter and area – they at

least have the same units. We have already noted the relationship between the perimeter p

and area s of simple closed curve on a plane can be represented by the famous

isoperimetric inequality:

p2/4A ≥ π or p2/4π ≥ A

In school geometry we say two figures are congruent if they have the same shape and size

– if you place one figure on the other, they will totally match.

Congruent Triangles

23

Congruent?

We introduce another category: isoparametric figures – figures with the same area and

perimeter but not necessarily congruent or similar.6

6

The discussion below is with grateful thanks to: Tom M. Apostol and Mamikon A. Mnatsakanian.

‘Isoperimetric and Isoparametric Problems.’ The Mathematical Association of America, Monthly 111,

February 2004.

24

Above figures have same perimeter and same area but they are different in looks –

that is not congruent – but they are isoparametric (Source: Apostol et al, op.cit.)

More Examples of Incongruent Isoparametric Regions (Source: Apostol et al, op. cit.)

25

1) We define the contour ratio for a closed figure as k = p2/4A where p is the perimeter

and A is the area. The above pairs of figures all have the same contour ratio k because

they have the same perimeter and area. That is isoparametric contours have the same

contour ratio k. Obviously!

But not the other way around. Figures with same contour ratio need not have same

perimeter and area. But they can be scaled (that is their size increased/decreased) so that

their areas and perimeters match.

figures but with the same area and perimeter. And also we can have figures with same

contour ratios but with different shapes (that is not congruent even after adjusting for

size) and different areas and perimeters.

3) But it is not possible to have a figure which does not have the same shape as the circle,

that is non-congruent to it, and yet have the same area and perimeter.

This is because of the isoperimetric inequality: for the circle, k = π, has the largest area

among all shapes in the plane with the same perimeter. (Or alternatively, among all

shapes in the plane with the same area the circle has the shortest perimeter.)

4) Similarly a regular n sided polygon can be shown to have a contour ratio k which has a

factor n [in fact, k = n tan (π/n)].Hence regular polygons with different number of sides

cannot be isoparametric, that is cannot have the same area and perimeter. (Please note a

regular and irregular polygon of different sides can be isoparametric – as in the figures

above. Therefore we see that totally different non-congruent contours can have the same

contour ratio.)

5) Similar contours - that is same shape but not same size - will have same contour ratio

as the scaling factor cancels out in k = p2/4A.

have a higher contour ratio. Can you say why?

8) All equilateral triangles have the same contour ratio: 3√3 = 5.1961.

9) Of all triangles, the equilateral triangle has the lowest contour ratio – can you say

why?

10) All isosceles right angle triangles have k = 3+2√2 = 5.2824. But all Pythagorean right

triangles (of say sides 3, 4, 5) have larger k. Can you think why?

11) Can contour ratios be high, say in double digits? Yes, an obvious candidate is a star

26

polygon like the one here below. The Koch snowflakes and Sierpinski gaskets have

infinite contour ratios ultimately.

There are several other questions we can ask of contour ratios. But we will rest here for

the time being.

In this essay, we have asked the question whether perimeters and areas can be compared

and seen how we can do it meaningfully, how we can have maximum areas possible

given fixed perimeters and how we can have zero or finite areas and infinite perimeters;

and finite volumes and infinite surface areas.

27

- NMATUploaded byBHUSHAN
- BEMF Dido LibrettoUploaded byJimmy Wilson
- pasgiUploaded byDevonna
- Growing ShapesUploaded byiaindowner
- 2014 Gr 5 Competition Test Solutions CCUploaded byChiang
- Space - From Euclid to EinsteinUploaded bysaifuddin_arief
- Math in Focus Curriculum Map 1Uploaded byJames Hightower
- area perimeter lesson planUploaded byapi-425063439
- Grade 10 tn1.docxUploaded byChandra Sekar
- GraphUploaded byNlightener
- mathematicsforen01roseuoft.pdfUploaded bydanirial
- Module 1 MathsUploaded byJose Gouveia
- MathematiciansUploaded byJesse Bihasa Jr.
- Modul JUJ Tahun 2010Uploaded byCahaya Ilm'
- 3rdgrade_GAMES_8.22.14Uploaded byRivka Share
- Summer Assignment Part 1Uploaded byADVITH CHEGU
- Physics-Conversion methodUploaded byDave Banaag
- 2.1 CirlcesUploaded byLance Archael Espiritu Santo
- Third Periodic Test in Math 6 2017-2018Uploaded byMaryHazelClaveBeniga
- LESSON Accommodated Lessson One VolumeUploaded bySteve Keller
- K-12 Math Crosswalks 7Uploaded byestabloid1169
- Lp- Keliling, Luas Lingk Dan PenerapannyaUploaded byNurul Isma
- books_2943_0.pdfUploaded byEmmanuel Ogunwusi
- heading exam paper smkbj .docxUploaded byAmmar Azhar
- IDP Math for WebsiteUploaded byAnonymous 3WeN5hF
- 1.1 FunctionsUploaded byRie Li
- FINALEXAMPracticeTest+KEYUploaded byHuấn Lê
- arc length .pdfUploaded byMR éxypnos
- Differentials NotesUploaded bydaedelus1987
- Lesson Plan 2Uploaded byPavitra Kannadass

- Chapter 6 Pharmaceutical Policy (PP) 2002 and National Health Policy (NHP) 2002: Discordance In Perspectives and ContentUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Nuclear Power and Its Consequences by Jashbhai PatelUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 2 Anarchy in Retail PricesUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Contents and List of Drug Profiles in the book Lay Person's Guide to MedicinesUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 4 Pharma Pricing in India: a failure of the Market(s)?Uploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 3 Drug Price Control in India: Principles, Problems and ProspectsUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Section 2 of Lay Person's Guide to MedicinesUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Section 3, Lay Person's Guide to MedicinesUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 9 Price Comparison DPCO vs MRP-Sep 04Uploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 10 Costing and Pricing of a Drug FormulationUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Book Reviews_ Volume 18 Number 3 of the NMJIUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- EpilogueUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 5 Drug Costs in Treatment of Common and Important Illnesses and Affordability of Treatment CostsUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 4 Marketing of DrugsUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Documents 1-4Uploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 12 Prevention is Better Than CureUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 1 Missing the Wood for the Trees: Drug Price Control and Pharmaceutical Policy 2002Uploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 8 Drugs Likely to go out of Price Control after PP 2002 and the ones remainingUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 11 Anomalies in Drug PricingUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 7 Revised DPCO 1995 and IrrelevanceUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 8 Women and MedicinesUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- CHAPTER 7 Pricing and DrugsUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 0 Drug Pricing Title Page and IntroductionUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Perimeter Greater Than AreaUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 6 Patents and MedicinesUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 5 Drug Promotion, Clinical TrialsUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Pharma Web LinksUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 9 What is to Be DoneUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna
- Chapter 3 Rationality of DrugsUploaded byS.Srinivasan ('Chinu'); Renu Khanna

- Pre-test Grade 9Uploaded byPaul Tasic
- Maths General FunDASUploaded byVinod Chintalapudi
- 3D GeometryUploaded byHimanshu Gupta
- Ge8152 Gc a & b QuestionsUploaded byBalaChandar
- 5 - Finding Reference AnglesUploaded bycajaro
- Autolisp ProgramsUploaded byAmit Mishra
- ENGN.2050-011_Assignment_04_Solution.pdfUploaded byJecris Velarde
- Cambridge Year 7 Maths Chapter 2Uploaded byAlly
- XII Maths DPP (01) - Prev Chaps - Conic Section.pdfUploaded byNibha Pandey
- USA AMC 10 2012Uploaded bydreamsheikh
- Army Basic Mathematics III Area and VolumeUploaded bySpace_Hulker
- SH GeometryUploaded byVlad Vizconde
- Engineering-Graphics.ppsxUploaded byNo Shieela
- Enlargements WorksheetUploaded byMarisa Vetter
- Sslc Maths 5 Model Question Papers English MediumUploaded byRajendra Kumar
- MATH2412-double angle, power reducing, half angle identities.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Agus Nur Sholeh
- Circles Ex.3(a)Uploaded bySushil Meshram
- Engineering SyllabusUploaded byankit kumar
- Area of TrapeziumUploaded byNivpree
- Em Mid-II Question Paper FinalUploaded bySyed Muzzamil Shah
- Maths in Focus - Margaret Grove - ch10Uploaded bySam Scheding
- Complex Number Theory_EUploaded bythinkiit
- 2009 Maths Paper AUploaded byAbdul Rehman
- biomekanik.firhUploaded byAmalia Maghfirah
- III SolidsUploaded bymuthupecmec4908
- Area & Perimeter _ CRACK SSC.pdfUploaded bySai Swaroop Attada
- 13Uploaded bySaransh Goyal
- Curs Rapid de Topo Ing. (Din UK)Uploaded byFiciuc Raluca MAria
- MathsWatch Worksheets Interleaved Q+AUploaded byGiles Thornton
- Cadet7-8 enUploaded byCassandra Johnson