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TAU 401 AGRO-INDUSTRIAL TIE-UP PROGRAMME (0+1)
• Aravind goat farm
Thulir mushroom production unit
• Visit to red lady papaya field • Vermicompost unit at javadu • Cultar application in mango • Apiculture unit by self help group • Aravind tray nursery • Conlusion
INTRODUCTION The first day of our Agro Tie-up Programme begin at Aravind farm . The programme is for the period of 17 days from 27/07/10 to 13/07/10.We visited the stall fed goat farm of Mr.Aravind who is the successive entrepreneur of goat farming at Thirupattur. The goat farm was started on 2008 . In the begining of his business he bought the tellicherry breed from kerela. Goat is a multi functional animal and plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. Goat rearing is an enterprise which has been practiced by a large section of population in rural areas. Goats can efficiently survive on available shrubs and trees in adverse harsh environment in low fertility lands where no other crops can be grown. In pastoral and agricultural subsistence societies in India, goats are kept as a source of additional income and as insurance against disaster. Goats are also used in ceremonial feastings and for the payment of social dues. In addition to this, goat has religious and ritualistic importance in many societies. These are the factors that motivated the owner to choose the goat farming in his village.
ARAVIND GOAT FARM: The major breeds in Aravind farm are: Tellichery-50 nos
Jamunapari-5 nos Bengal black-2nos Shed construction • Dry and raised ground • Avoid water logging
10ft high ,good ventilation
• Bucks –individual pens • Dispose of dung urine • Proper shade and cool drinking • Fencing
13ft from ground level
• Stage made of coconut tree –cheap cost • Tata drawn sheets\
FEED Green fodder concentrate Dry fodder
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AGE Adult Kid Adult Kid Adult
QUANTITY 3-4kg 1-2kg 300-400g 150g 400g
Goat pellets( a tractor load Rs 2000/-) Deworming (albendazol 10 ml/lit) Vaccination (21 days interval)
• Health tonic(brutone) • Health injection(Nerobinfortin)
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Bank loan-Rs 10,00,000 total investment Rs.600,000 lakh for shed construction Government subsidy-25% Rate of interest 13%
Advantage of goat farming are : The initial investment needed for goat is very low.
Due to small body size and docile nature, housing requirements and managemental problems with goats are less.
Goats are friendly animals and enjoy being with people.
Goats are prolific breeders and achieve sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 months gestation period in goats is short and at the age 16-17 months it starts giving milk .Twinning is very common and triplets are rare.
In drought prone areas risk of goat farming is very much less compared to other livestock species. Unlike large animals in commercial farm conditions both male and female goats have equal value.
Goats are ideal for mixed species grazing. The animal an thrive well on wide variety of thorny bushes,weeds,rop residues agricultural by-products consumption. unsuitable for human and meat
Under proper management, goats slaughter consumption prevalent in the country.
Slaughter and dressing operation and meat disposal can be carried without much environmental problems. The goat meat is more lean and relatively good for people. Goat milk is good for people.
Goats are 2.5times more economical than sheep on free range grazing under semiarid conditions.
Goat creates employment to rural people.
Goats are termed as walking refrigerator for storage of milk.
SCOPE FOR GOAT REARING AND ITS NATIONAL IMPORTANCE; The country has 115.278 million goat as per 1992 livestock census has increased to120.8 million in 1997 and ranks first in the world. Goat meat production stands at the level of 0.47 million tonnes. The slaughter rate of goat is at the level of 39.7% as compared to 31.8% for sheep and buffaloes respectively. Goat also produce 2.55million tones of milk and 0.1288mt of skin as per FAO 189 records 2002 reports. Goat make a valuable contribution to the livelihood of economically weaker section of the society. Amongst the livestock owners goat rearers are the poorest of the lot. Realizing the importance of goat in the agrarian economy of the country, various developmental activities have been taken by govt of India.the central govt had established central institute for research on goats makhdoom, farah, mathura dst, uttar Pradesh. Objectives: To produce 1000 stud bucks per yr for the distribution among goat rearers.
To improve yield of milk and chevon through selective breeding of regular breeds like jamnapari, beetal, barbari, jakhrana, jhlawadi.
Cross breeding of non pashmina goats with angoragoats to produe mohair in jammu and Kashmir, himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. To conserve germplasm of regular breeds like jamnapari, beetal, barbari black Bengal etc.
BANKS/NABARD FOR GOAT REARING: NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating topolicy, planning and operation in the field of agriculture credit. It serves as refinancing agency for the institution providing investment and production credit for agriculture and rural development. It promotes development through a well organized technical services department at the head office and technical ells at the regional officers. Loans from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available for starting goat farming. For obtaining bank loan, the farmers hold apply to the nearest branch or a commercial or cooperative or regional bank in their area in the prescribed
application farm which is available in the branches of financing banks. The technical officers attached to or the manager of the bank an also help/guidance to the farmers in preparing the project report to obtain bank loan. For goat rearing schemes with very large outlays, detailed reports will have to be prepared. The items of finance world include costs of assets like development of land, construction of sheds, purchase of equipments, breeding stocks, rearing cost of animals till it generates income etc.. the cost of land is not considered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up a goat farm its cost can be treated as party’s margin as per the norms. SCHEME FORMULATION: A scheme can be prepared by a beneficiary after consulting local technical persons of State animal husbandry department, commercial farmers etc. If possible the beneficiaries should also visit progressive goat rearers and government /military agricultural university farms in the vicinity and discuss the profitability of goat rearing .A good practical training and experience in goat rearing will be
highly desirable . Nearness of the goat farm to a veterinary aid centre and breeding centre shold be ensured.
scheme should include information about land ,
livestock markets , availability of water ,feed,fodder and the type of assistance available from state government.
The schemes should also include information on number and types of animals to be purchased, their breeds production performance, cost and other relevant input and output cost with their description . Based on this, the total cost of the project ,margin money to be provided by the bank
THULIR MUSHROOM PRODUTION UNIT The Thulir mushroom production is maintained in Aravind farm. Milky mushrooms are mainly cultivated. Mr. Hari skilled labour explained us about mushroom cultivation practiced in that unit. Thulir unit was started on 2007 with an investment of Rs.53000. mushroom seeds (spawn) are obtained from chennai (JAI AGRO INDUSTRIES) with the help of agents. The initial cost for seed Rs.4000,(90/-per kg) No charges for the raw materials. It is highly beneficiary for small and medium farmers . Low maintenance cost Less labour equirement Requires moisture (23%)
Shed construction 50,000/- 25ftdown from ground level
Requirement of a good project Sanction of bank loan and its disbursement : After ensuring technical feasibility and financial viability, the scheme is sanctioned by the Bank. The loan is disbursed in stages against creation of specific assets, purchase of equipments and animals . The end use of the loan is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.ms: Unit cost: Each regional cost of various investments once in six months. Regional office of NABARD has constituted a state level unit cost committee under the chairmanship or RO-in-charge and with the members from development from agencies, commercial banks and cooperative banks to review the unit cost of various investments once in 6 months. The same is circulated among the banks for their guidance. Interest rate for ultimate borrowers : Banks are free to decide the rate of interest within the overall RBI guidelines . However, for working out the finacing viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12% p.a. Repayment period of loan: Repayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loans will be repaid in suitable half yearly /annually instalments usually within the period of about 5-6years with a grace period of one year. ECONOMICS OF GOAT FARMING sn 1 ITEMS Shed SPECIFICATIONS Does 10s ft /animal Buck 20s ft/animal PHYSICAL UNITS 50 2 UNIT TOTAL(Rs) COST 35 28.450
Kids-4s ft/animal 2 3. Equipment -Cost of Does animals 4 5 6 7 8 9 insurance Verterinary aid Fodder buck Does buck
68 62 50 2 50 2 52 10 1600 2200 44 20 520 80000 44000 3200 176 1.040 9000 5 1250 16 5063 15000 520
Per reason for two 2
cultivation acres and for 3 seasons Supplementa Does 6-7kg/month 50 ry Labour charges Water,electri city other and 1 52
expenses 10 Total cost 11 Bank loan@
MUSHROOM CULTIVATION Types Suitable for cultivation At present 3 mushrooms are being cultivated in India. These are : the white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), the paddystraw mushroom (Volvariella vovvacea) and the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Of these, A. bisporus is the
most popular and economically sound to grow and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. However, due to its low temperature requirement, its cultivation is restricted to the cool climatic areas and to the winter in the plains of Northen India. In summer, the tropical paddy-straw mushroom is suitable for growing in most parts of India. Even then it is less attractive commercially owing to very low yield per unit weight of the substrate and an extremely short shelf-life. But, as a kitchen-garden crop it is preferred because it is very delicious and nutritous.:
Selection For successful mushroom production, it is necessary for each grower to produce as economically and efficiently as possible the highest quality of mushrooms. This can be accomplished among other requirements, by selecting the best strains which should be high yielding , visually attractive, having desirable flavour, and resistance to adverse climate and pests and diseases. Presently, there are many strains of white, cream and brown varieties in cultivation. The brown variety is the natural mushroom and considered to be the most vigorous form. It tolerates and adverse conditions better than the white variety.
New superior strains are through selection, hybridization and induced mutations continually introduced by mushroom research laboratories and spawn makers. In India, S 11, S 649 and S791 are the good strains available. These strains were originally introduced from reowned commercial spawn makers, Somycel and darlington. Now these strains are well adapted in the Indian climate and are very popular with the growers. 2.Maintenance of strains
Three methods are known by which strains can be propagate. these are multispore culture, tissue culture and mycelium transfer. By periodic subculturing of the mycelium on a suitable agar medium, the span strains can be kept for many years in a fairly good state. However, the frequent sub culturing of the strain may result in its degeneration. Maintenence of strain by multisporous culture is only possible if new multispore cultures are compared with the original strain before the original multisporous culture would show much genetic variation. In the tissue culture, small pieces of fruit bodies are cut under sterile conditions and inoculated on a nutrient medium. Mycelium growing out of these tissue can provide the starting point for subsequent spawn production. However, it is commonly observed that tissue cultures often give lower yields than the original cultures. Of these 3 methods, mycelium transfer is most reliable but it is essential that the performance of the
mycelium is continually checked in order to detect any degeneration-like slow-growing matted mycelium or fluffy mycelium with abnormal growth rate. Spawn The propogating material used by the mushroom growers for planting beds is called spawn. The spawn is equivalent to vegetative seed of higher plant. Quality of spawn is basic for the successful mushroom cultivation. At present, the pure culture spawn has been the basis of modern spawn production units all over the world. The manufacture of the pure culture spawn is done under scientifically controlled conditions which demand a standard of hygiene as in a hospital operation theatre. Equipment and substrate used for spawn are autoclaved and filtered air is passed during the inocluation ensures complete freedom from contamination
(a) Manure spawn Both composted horse-dung or synthetic compost may be used. The composted manure is thoroughly washed to remove such substance in compost which retard growth. The excess water is squeezed out and moisture content adjusted to 60%. The manure is packed in half-litre milk bottles or heat-resistant polypropylene bags os suitable size. The bottles or bags plugged with nonabsorbant cotton-wool and sterlized in an autoculave at 1210C for 2
hr or on 2 consecutive days for an hour each. They are then inoculated with a large bit of agar-containing mycelium and incubated at 220-240C in a dark place. the spawn can be used to inoculate fresh bottles or bags to obtain the second generation spawn. (b)Grainspawn Ten kilograms of wheat grains are boiled for 15 min in 15 litres of water and then allowed to soak for another 15 min without heating. the excess water is drained off and the grains are colled in sieves. Turn the grains several times with a spoon for quick cooling. The colled grains, are mixed with calcium carbonate. the gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and 30 g fo calcium carbonate. The gypsum prevents the grains from sticking together and calcium carbonate is necessary to correct the pH. the prepared grains are filled into halflitre milk bottles or polypropylene bags (at the rate of 150-200 g per bottle or bag) and autocalved for 2 hr at 1210C. After sterlization, the material should have a pH value of 6.5 to 6.7. the bottles are inoculated with grains spawn or with bits of agar medium colonized with mycelium and incubated at 220-240C in a dark place. the mycelium completely permeates the grains in about 2 weeks. Other grains like sorghum and pearlmillet can also be used forspawnmaking. (c)Perlitespawn This was developed by Lemke (1971). Perlite is a mineral which expands at temperature more than 10000C. The ingredients, of the
spawn are : Perlite (1,450 g), wheat-bran (1,650 g), gypsum (200 g), calcium carbonate (50 g), and water (665 cc). The gredients are mixed, filled in bottles and sterlized. Thereafter, the process is the same as for grain spawn. Perlite spawn is easy to disperse and can be produced at a cheaper cost. This spawn can be stored for a long time. 4.Compost The white-button mushroom is grown on a select substrate which provides adequate levels of nutrients to support the crop so that it can successfully complete with other microorganisms. Traditionally, partially-decomposed horse-manure has been the principal medium for providing the required nutrients in artificial cultivation of the mushroom and it is only in recent times that other materials have also been used successfully. (a)Materials and their functions
(i) Base materials. These includes wheat straw, maize cobs and other similar cellulosic plant wastes with or without horse-manure. Conventionally wheat straw either alone or mixed with horsemanure is the most widely used base material. When wheat straw is not available, straws of the other cereals, like rice of barely may be used. the chief function is to provide cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in bulk. These materials also provide proper physical structure to the mixture to ensure the necessary aeration for the
build up of microbial population and the subsequent spawn growth in the compost. Rice and barley straws are quite soft and decompose quickly, leaving only a little fibre for imparting a proper physical structure to the compost. Therefore the types and quantity of supplement should be discretely utilized at the proper time. (ii) Supplements. These are for activating fermentation and can be categorised as : Animal dungs. These include horse- and chicken-manure, the extremely variable manures in composition. Nitrogen cantent may vary from 1 to almost 5% . In addition to nutrients, they contribute greatly to the final bulk density of the compost. cow manure is not considered malt sprouts, carbohydrates are readily suitable. available. Carbohydrate nutrients. From molasses, wet brewers' grain and Concentration meals. These materials are usually used for animal feeds and include wheat or rice bran, dried brewer's grain, the seed meals of cotton, soya, castor and linseed. In these, both nitrogen and carbohydrate are available rather slowly. Nitrogen content may vary from 3-12%. The oil and mineral content of some of these may be significance in mushroom nutrition. Nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen in chemical fertilizers (ammonium sulphate, calcium ammonium nitrate and urea) is rapidly released for the quick growth of microbial population. Materials to correct mineral deficiencies. These are muriate of
potashandcalciumsuperphosphate. Materials to correct greasiness. Gypsum and calcium carbonate serve to precipitate suspended colloidal materials and neutralize greasiness. The choice of materials within each category is largely determined by cost-factors and their availability locally. Compost prepared from horse-dung mixed with straw are termed as 'natural', whereas they are called synthetic if the base material is used is mainly straw without bulk animal-manure. (b)Wheatstraw Straw protected from rain is preferred. One year old straw which is no longer bright yellow and shiny, can be used only if it is tough. Full-length straw must be chopped to smaller size, about 8-10cm length, or else the heap would be less compact. Such a heap would not be able to retain moisture and termentation would be slower. The reverse, if the straw is too short, the heap would be compact and with very little air space inside allowing anaerobic fermentation. Straw, as is sold in the market for cattle feed is quite suitable. Composting is a microbial process requiring biological changes in all parts of the straw tissues and for this, it is essential that the straw tissue be accessible to the appropriate bacteria and fungal enzymes. Microbial action starts as soon as the straw is wetted and stacked in a heap. If the straw is short, fragile and damp, all parts of it will become exposed to microorganisms in a short time ans composting will start early and proceed fairly
uniformly. If the straw is long, tough and dry, cut ends and few broken points may start microbial activity, leaving other parts untouched until later, to result in uneven composting. To include speed and uniformly, it needs much more mechanical breakage and wetting treatment at the beginning of the preparation. Horse-manure Stable manure with wheat, barley and hay-bedding must be collected regularly from the stables at intervals not more than a fortnight. Manure that has been collected over a long period of time will not ferment properly. It should be an even mixture of droppings and straw well-soaked in urine. Care should be taken that there is no admixture of manure of other animals, garbage or other trash. There should not be excess water because very wet manure cannot be stored satisfactory. Compostingtheory
Composting for mushroom cultivation has 3 basic purposes : (i) it transforms the horse-manure and straw into the substrate more suitable for the growth of Agaricus bisporus mycelium than for the many microorganisms whose presence in such a substratum cannot be avoided (ii) to create a favourable medium for the unfavourable microbial flora which does not inhibit the growth of A. bisporus. Protein in
the countless dead bacteria and other microorganisms is a vital item in mushroom nutrition;and
(iii) its fermentation temperature is high enough to eliminate most harmful pests and diseases. Composting is accomplished by pilling up wetted inputs in the heap. When this is done properly the temperature inside the heap begins to rise due to the aerobic fermentation brought about by bacteria and other microorganisms. It is not unusual to reach a temperature of 700-740C, in the center of the heap on the third of composting. Because of the high temperatures which build up in composting heaps, thermophillic and the thermotolerant organisms quickly dominate over the mesophiles. In the early stages, the natural mesophile flora subside but the population of the thermophiles and thermotolerants increases. Bacterial population dominates and their rapid increase in numbers coincides with maximum heat generation--consequently, the temperature build up. This is followed by a relatively prolonged stage dominated by thermophiles mainly thermophilic actinomycetes. As the fermenting organisms require both water and oxygen, the heap is watered frequently and aerated by 'turning'. If there is unsufficient moisture, the microorganisms require cannot function properly. If there is an excess of moisture much oxygen is excluded and anaerobic fermentation sets in resulting in a soggy and stinking
compost. In such a compost mushroom spawn will not grow. During composting, ammonia gas is liberated and some of it is lost to atmosphere, but some is consumed by bacteria to produce nitrogenous intermediates which are eventually converted into protein by another kind of bacteria. Composting more than necessary results in loss of valuable nitrogen and cellulose. White milky Mushroom-
Expenditure and Economics Unit size : 200 Kg. Paddy straw/batch of 100 Kg. Mushrooms / batch A. Break up details of expenditure: NO: Per cost I. Capital Cost a) Thatched shed platform (250 sq.ft) Total amount
wooden 250 50 12500 16500
II. Recurring cost (for first batch capitalised) a) Polythene bags (200 Nos.) b) Paddy straw (200 Kg.) c) Spawn 50 bottles d) Labour charges e) Fuel chullahs 200 200 50 20 1 3 4 14 50 200 600 800 700 1000 200
3700 Total Cost Margin @ 20% Term Loan amount 20200 4040 16160
B Assumptions Sl.No. Particulars / Year 1 Recurring cost / Years 2 Batches per year-No. 3 Yield assumption (Kg.) 4 Sale Price (Rs. Per Kg)
1 2 to 5 14800 37000 4 10 400 1000 70-90
VISIT TO RED LADY PAPAYA FIELD
Mr.Anand’s red lady papaya field, located in kakanampalayam. 3acres lnd Yield-7tonnes 1kg papaya Rs.6 1200 plants/acre
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• Papaya-table purpose
Red Lady Papaya – is a world-renown variety from KNOWN-you It is Papaya Ring Spot Virus resistant. High-yielding, adaptable in any climate and soil conditions, firm red flesh and longer shelf life. Its aromatic taste and firm texture is very well-accepted by Filipino consumers and food processors. More and more farmers are discovering the profitability of growing Red Lady Papaya (RLP) for the domestic urban markets. Start harvesting in 8 months. Red Lady Papaya seedlings require a particular technique to propagate and needs special care during the two month seedling stage. Many growers would prefer to buy seedlings near their farm or backyard to jumpstart their papaya garden or commercial farm. Hence, there is a great opportunity for growing certified seedlings for their needs. With the growing popularity of Red Lady Papaya in the fresh market, there is a need to make sure that seedlings supplied to growers are sown from Fi-hybrid seeds and not taken from fruits which results in adulterated seedlings that will rob growers of quality plants and fruits. Hence, we are promoting the establishment of accredited localized Red Lady Papaya Seedlings Nursery to provide growers with the real hybrids. Be the first in your locality.
Red lady Papaya: Early, vigorous, productive, and tolerant to papaya ring spot virus. Plants begin to bear fruit at 60-80 cm height and have over 30 fruits per plant in each fruit-setting season. Fruits are short oblong on female plants and rather long-shaped on bisexual plants, weighing about 1.5-2 kg. Flesh is thick, red, with 13% sugar content, and aromatic.
About cultivation - Papaya (Carica papaya) produces fruits throughout the year. It requires less area per plant, comes to fruiting in a year, is easy to cultivate and provides more income/ha next to banana. - About 250-300g seeds are sufficient for a hectare. The seedlings can be raised in nursery-beds 3m long, 1m wide and 10cm high as well as in pots or polythene bags. The seeds should be sown 1cm deep in rows 10cm apart and covered with fine compost or leaf-mould. Light watering should be done with watercan in the morning. - Tender seedlings should also be protected from heavy rainfall. Dusting of insecticides to protect the seedlings against insect pests is also advised. Damping off is most serious disease. Treating seeds with 0.1% Monosan (phenyl mercury acetate), Ceresan, Agrosan or Thiram dust before sowing is the best preventive measure to check it. The nursery-beds should also be treated with 5% formaldehyde solution before sowing. If disease appears in the nursery, Bordeaux mixture (1%) or copper oxychloride (0.2%) should be sprayed. - Papaya is planted during spring (February- March), monsoon (June- July)
and autumn (October- November). Spring planting is done in areas where the climatic condition is mild throughout the year. Monsoon planting is preferred in the frost-prone areas, and autumn planting generally done in the regions where the rainfall is high and virus problem is acute in rainy season. - Since papaya does not withstand waterlogging, a well-drained upland should be selected for its cultivation. Its plants are also sensitive to strong winds - The seedlings are planted in pits of 60cm x 60 נcm x 60 נcm size. The pits are dug about 15 days before in summer and filled with top soil along with 20kg farmyard manure, 1kg neem or karanj cake and 1kg bone-meal or fishmeal. Tall and vigorous varieties are planted at greater spacing, while medium and dwarf ones at closer spacing. - Planting distance is determined by the integration of light interception, cultivar and economic consideration. A spacing of 1.8m x 1.8 נm is normally followed for most of the cultivars.
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10 packs 2 grams seeds, about 1,200 seeds @P750 – P7,500 12 pcs ST 104 Seedling Tray @ P40 – P480 30 pcs ST 035 Seedling Tray @P50 – P1,500 5 bags Growell seedling medium @P300 – P1,500 1 kg. Urea fertilizer – P30.00 1 kg. Complete fertilizer – P30.00 1 liter Growell Plant Growth Enhancer – P380
TOTAL Direct inputs – P 11,420.00 Labor – 60 days @ one hour/day = 60 hours @P50/hour - P 3,000.00 Water - P500.00 Total direct cost – P 14,920.00
Initial Investment for seedling nursery greenhouse: Area 10 square meters Fine net 10 meters @P20/meter – P200
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Coco lumber – P2,000 Bamboo - P200 Miscellaneous – P100 Carpenter – P500 Total – P3,000
Expected income after two months:
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Sales 1,000 seedlings @ P30/seedling – P30,000 Less: Direct inputs, labor and water – P15,000 Gross profit – P15,000
VERMI-COMPOSTING UNITS UNDER AGRI-CLINICS INTRODUCTION There is a growing realisation that vermi-composting provides the nutrients and growth enhancing hormones necessary for plant growth. The fruits, flowers and vegetables and other plant products grown using vermicompost are reported to have better keeping quality. A growing number of individuals and institutions are taking interest in the production of compost utilising earthworm activity. Some of them ventured into commercial
production as well. As the cost of production of this compost works out to about Rs.1.5 per kg, it is quite profitable to sell the compost even at Rs.2.50 per kg. Other organic manures like neem cake, groundnut cake, etc., are sold around this price. The process of composting crop residues using earthworms comprise spreading the agricultural wastes and cow dung in layers as 1.5 m wide and 0.9 m high beds of required length. Earthworms are introduced in between the layers @ 350 worms per m3 of bed volume. The beds are maintained at about 40 - 50% moisture content and a temperature of 20 - 30o C by sprinkling water over the beds. The earthworms being voracious eaters consume the biodegradable matter and give out a part of the matter as excreta or vermi-castings. The vermi-casting containing nutrients is rich manure for the plants. When the commercial scale production is aimed at in addition to the cost of production, considerable amount has to be invested initially on capital items. The capital cost may work out to about Rs.1500 to Rs.2500 for every tonne of compost produced annually. The high variability in the unit capital cost is due to the fact that large units require considerable expenditure on machinery and transport particularly when the source of raw materials is away from the site of production facility and the finished product has to be transported to far off places before being marketed. However, in most of the cases, the activity is viable and bankable. Following are the items required to be considered while setting up a unit for production of vermi-compost. 2.0 ABOUT THE WORMS Of about 350 species of earth worms in India with various food and burrowing habits, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatius
are some of the species for rearing to convert organic wastes into manure. The worms feed on any biodegradable matter ranging from coir waste to kitchen garbage and vermicomposting units are ideally suited to locations / units with generation of considerable quantities of organic wastes. One earthworm reaching reproductive age of about six weeks lays one egg capsule (containing 7 embryoes) every 7 - 10 days. Three to seven worms emerge out of each capsule. Thus, the multiplication of worms under optimum growth conditions is very fast. The worms live for about 2 years. Fully grown worms could be separated and dried in a oven to make 'worm meal' which is a rich source of protein (70%) for use in animal feed. 3.0 LOCATION Suburbs of cities and villages around urban centres can be ideal locations for practice of vermicomposting on a large scale, from the view point of availability of raw material and marketing of the produce. As use of the compost is said to have ameliorative effect on product from fruit, flower and vegetable crops, vermicomposting units may be located in areas with concentration of fruit and vegetable growers and floriculture units. 4.0 USE As the wastes are pulverised as they pass through the worm, the surface area of the material increases which in turn helps as base for nutrients. Vermicompost, apart from supplying nutrients and growth enhancing harmones to plants, improves the soil structure leading to increase in water and nutrient holding capacities of soil. Chemical fertilizer in moderate doses can go along with vermicoposting. 5.0 COMPONENTS OF A COMMERCIAL UNIT
5.1 Sheds For a vermi-composting unit, whether small or big, this is an essential item and is required for having the vermi beds. They could be of thatched roof supported by bamboo rafters and purlins, wooden trusses and stone pillars. If the size is so chosen as to prevent wetting of beds due to rain on a windy day, they could be open sheds. While designing the sheds adequate room has to be left around the beds for easy movement of the labour attending to the filling and harvesting the beds. 5.2 Vermi-beds Normally the beds are 75 cm - 90 cm thick depending on the provision of filter for drainage of excess water. The entire bed area could be above the ground. Care should be taken to make the bed with uniform height over the entire width to the extent possible to avoid low production owing to low bed volumes. The bed width should not be more that 1.5 m to allow easy access to the centre of the bed. 5.3 Land About 0.5-1 acre of land will be needed to set up a vermiculture production cum extension centre. The centre will have at least 8-10 sheds each of about 180-200 sq.ft. It should also have a bore well, and pump set or watering arrangement and other equipments as described in the scheme economics. The land can be taken on lease of at least 10-15 years. Even sub marginal land also will serve the purpose. 5.4 Buildings When the activity is taken up on a large scale on commercial lines, considerable amount may have to be spent on buildings to house the office,
store the raw material and finished product, provide minimum accommodation to the Manager and workers. The cost of the buildings along with the electrification of these buildings and the vermi-sheds may be included under this item. 5.5 Seed Stock This is an important item requiring considerable investment. Though the worms multiply fast to give the required numbers over a period of 6 months to a year, it may not be wise to wait till such a time having invested on the infrastructure heavily. Thus, worms @ 350 worms per m3 of bed space should be adequate to start with and to build up the required population in about two cycles or three without unduly affecting the estimated production.
5.6 Fencing and Roads/Paths The site area needs development for construction of structures and development of roads and pathways for easy movement of hand-drawn trolleys/wheel barrows for conveying the raw material and the finished products to and from the vermi-sheds. The entire area has to be fenced to prevent trespass by animals and other unwanted elements. These could be estimated based on the length of the periphery of the farm and the length and type of roads/paths required. The costs on fencing and formation of roads should be kept low as these investments are essential for a production unit, yet would not lead to increase in production. 5.7 Water Supply System As the beds have always to be kept moist with about 50% moisture content, there is need to plan for a water source, lifting mechanism and a system of
conveying and applying the water to the vermi-beds. Drippers with round the clock flow arrangement would be quite handy for continuous supply and saving on water. Such a water supply/application system requiring considerable initial investment, however, reduces the operational costs on hand watering and prove economical in the long run. The cost of these items depend on the capacity of the unit and the type of water supply chosen. 5.8 Machinery Farm machinery and implements are required for cutting (shredding) the raw material in small pieces, conveying shredded raw material to the vermisheds, loading, unloading, collection of compost, loosening of beds for aeration, shifting of the compost before packing and for air drying of the compost, automatic packing and stitching for efficient running of the unit. Costs of providing necessary implements and the machinery have to be included in the project cost. 5.9 Transport For any vermi-composting unit transport arrangement is a must. When the source of raw material is away from the production unit, an off-site transport becomes major item of investment. A large sized unit with about 1000 tonnes per annum capacity may require a 3-tonne capacity mini-truck. With small units particularly with the availability of raw material near the site, expending on transport facility may become infructuous. On-site transport facilities like manually drawn trolleys to convey raw material and finished products between the storage point and the vermi-compost sheds could also be included in the project cost. 5.10 Furniture
A reasonable amount could also be considered for furnishing the officecum-stores including the storage racks and other office equipment. These enhance the efficiency of operations. 5.11 Operational Costs In order to operate the unit, expenditure on some items have to be incurred on a recurring basis. These items include salaries of the staff, wages to the labourers, cost of raw material, fuel cost on transport of raw materials and finished goods, packing material cost, repairs and maintenance, power, insurance, etc. The number of office personnel and labourers have to be decided breaking each activity into a number of sub-activities and for each sub-activity estimating the work involved and the capacity of the labour to finish the work in a given time. The number of persons should be so chosen to keep them engaged throughout by providing enough persons at various work points like stores, vermi-beds and equipping them with adequate number of implements to avoid undue waiting. 6.0 PROJECT PROFILE Vermi-composting could be taken up on any scale starting from 10 tonnes per annum (tpa) to 1000 tpa and above. As the production is proportional to the vermi-bed space, it is advantageous to start with less capacities and later expand the unit after gaining production experience and developing assured market for the product. The Society for Preservation of Environment and Quality of Life (SPEQL) organised a pilot project on vermi-composting in fruit market premises, Kothapet, Hyderabad. The project, being operated currently on commercial lines is serving as a demonstration unit. The estimates of costs and benefits, presented in the profile are based on the experience of that pilot project.
A bed volume of 330 m3 spread over sixteen beds - 15 m long, 1.5 m wide and 0.3 m high is estimated to produce vermi-compost of 200 tpa over 5 cycles/crops of 75 days each annually. These beds are housed in 8 open sheds of 15 m x 5.4 m. The cost of construction of sheds, cost of machinery and tools, operational cost/production cost of compost are set out in annexures I, II and III respectively. The costs and benefits of the unit are set out in annexure-IV. As can be seen, the investment cost is Rs.2,77,000/-, operational cost Rs.3,68,000. Operational cost of two cycles amounting to Rs.1,47,200 is capitalised. Production of 60% in the first year and 90% in the subsequent years is assumed. Benefits include the income from sale of vermi-compost @ Rs.2500 per tonne and worm @ Rs.50/- per kg. The net income from the 2nd year onwards would be about Rs.1,37,000 annually. The financial analysis of the project suggests that the activity is financially viable with financial rate of return of 36% (Annexure-V). Economics have been worked out with out the subsidy component. With the subsidy its viability will be much better. The loan could be repaid over a period of 8 years with a grace period of 1 year. The repayment schedule is set out in annexure-VI. 7.0 EXTENSION SERVICE The unit will provide extension services to the near by villages. Under this the unit will provide cultural material of the desired species, and train farmers and entrepreneurs who would like to set up their own small units for use in their farms. Those who want to set up commercial units also can get know-how and culture material at a reasonable cost. The technical graduates who will establish such an unit under the scheme for agri-clinics will train more people, demonstrate practically the production methodology on the unit that will be set up by him and also supply the pure culture with
quality worms. He may also try to explore marketing for small units that will be promoted by him at a reasonable cost. The following benefits can be assumed under extension services for the unit:
Sale of culture material @5-10 paise Consultancy for setting up new units @Rs.1,000/- per unit and say 10 units per year comes to Rs.10,000/-. It is advised that the same unit will also construct models of simple, alternate methods of compost making to serve as demonstration to the local farmers. One of the simple method is NADEP compost process. Two NADEP tanks of size 10x6x3 feet will be constructed at a suitable location. In addition any other simpler low cost methods also may be installed inconsultation with research institutions/Universities and give wide publicity to popularise the sustainable practices for wider adoption.
Estimate for construction of temporary shed for setting up 200 vermicompost unit (Size 8 m x 15m x 5.4 m) Sl.No. Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quantity Rate (Rs.) Wooden ballies (3 m long) 472 25 Wooden ballies (3.6 m long) 48 30 Bamboos (3 m long) 800 15 Bamboos (6 m long) 240 20 Bamboo mats for covering the roof 720 25 Coir rope 6 mm dia 200 kg 15 Binding wire for tying bamboos & 100 kg 25 Amount (Rs.) 7800 1440 12000 4800 18000 3000 2500
mats Labour charges for erection of LS sheds Miscellaneous Total
20000 2460 72000
200 TPA vermi-compost unit - Implements and machinery Sl.No. Particulars of item Amount (Rs.) 1 Shovels, spades, crowbars, iron baskets, 2800 dung fork, buckets, bamboo baskets, trowel, wire mesh sieves (3 mm and 6 mm) 2 Plumbing and fitting tools 1000 3 Power operated shredder 20000 4 Sieving maching with 3 wire mesh sieves 35000 0.6 m x 0.9 m size - power operated with out motor 5 Weighing scale (100 kg capacity) 1500 6 Weighing machine (platform type) 5000 7 Bag closer 3000 8 Empty barrels (200 L capacity) 4 Nos. 1600 9 Culture trays (plastic) (35 cmx 45 cm) - 4 Nos 200 10 Wheel barrows - 2 Nos. 10000 Total 80100 Say 80000
Total operational cost for one cycle of 75 days Bed volume 330 m3 Recovery percent: 30%
Sl.No. Particulars 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Agricultural waster @ 320 kg per m3
105.6 ton Cow dung @ 80 kg/m3 26.4 ton 150 Worms @ 350 per m3 500 worms per kg 231 kg 50 Formation of vermibed with agro-waste, 330 m3 46 cow dung and worms Harvesting, sieving, packing, etc., 40 ton 0.45 including cost of bags Electrical charges for pump, machinery, lighting etc. Repair and maintenance Total Cost for 5 cycles Rent on lease @Rs 8000/year Total operating cost
Rate Amount (Rs.) 100 10560 3960 11550 15180 18000 4800 7950 72000 360000 8000 368000
vermi-composting unit - Costs and Benefits Years I 1 Costs a) Investment costs i) Open sheds with bamboo mat roofing 72000 over bamboo frame work supported by wooden ballies ii) Machinery and tools 80000 iii) Office-cum-store 60000 iv) Water source 60000 v) 2 NADEP tanks 5000 Total 277000 b) Operational cost 360000 For 5 cycles in a year @ Rs. 72,000 per cycle of
75 days Lease rent 8000 Total 368000 Benefits Sale of vermicompost of 200 tonnes 300000 @ Rs.2500/- per ton (60% in first year and 90% from 2nd year onwards) Sale of worms @ 5 kg per tonne of compost and Rs. 50 per kg Consultancy & ext. services Total 300000 Net Benefit 79200*
8000 368000 450000
45000 10000 505000 137000
* Operational cost for two cycles is capitalized in the first year
vermicomposting unit - Financial Analysis (Rs. in lakhs) Years I II to IX
Particulars 1 A i) ii) iii) iv) B 2 i) COSTS Capital Cost Buildings Machinery / tools Water supply system NADEP tanks Operational cost Total Cost BENEFITS Sale of vermicompost
1.32 0.8 0.6 0.05 3.68 6.45 3.00
3.68 3.68 4.50
ii) Sale of worms 0.45 iii) Consultancy and extension services 0.10 Total benefit 3.000 5.05 3 Net benefit *0.792 1.37 Discounting Rate 15% NPV 2.35 IRR 36% NPV of benefits 22.31 NPV of costs 19.97 BCR 1.12
Repayment schedule Outlay- Rs.4.242 lakh* Bank loan -Rs. 3.394 lakh Interest (%)- 15 Repayment Principal Interest Total outgoing 31000 36000 41000 47000 54000 62000 68400 50910 50910 46260 40860 34710 27660 19560 9510 50910 81910 82260 81860 81710 81660 81560 77910
Year Loan Outstanding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 339400 339400 308400 272400 231400 184400 130400 68400
Net Income 79200 137000 137000 137000 137000 137000 137000 137000
Net Surplus 28290 55090 54740 55140 55290 55340 55440 59090
* including capitalization of operational cost for 2 cycles (Rs.1,47,200/-)
CULTAR APPLICATION IN MANGO: The technique in producing off-season mango has been adopted in Thailand since 1986. Paclobutrazol, a plant growth retardant, was used in combination with thiourea for producing as well as breaking of flower buds. The studies on application methods showed that soil drenching of paclobutrazol is more effective for the induction of flowering in mango as compared to foliar spray. The rate of paclobutrazol application depended on the size of tree canopy as well as on mango cultivars. For most cultivars, the rate of paclobutrazol applied is generally determined by multiplying the diameter of tree canopy (expressed in meter) with 1.0-1.5 g of active ingredients of paclobutrazol. At 120 days after the application of paclobutrazol, 0.5% thiourea is usually sprayed to some cultivars for breaking of buds. Using this method, inflorescences are visible within 2.5 to 4 months after the paclobutrazol application depending on cultivar. However, the success in producing off-season mango is also dependent on other factors such as climatic conditions, mango cultivars, orchard management and most importantly the experience of mango growers. Induction of flowering in mango is not the major problem for Thai growers, as we can control the flowering in the 'on-season' and 'off-season' times. The other problems of mango production that need further research are few or none fruit set and pre-harvest fruit drop in both 'on-season' and 'off-season' production. The growth retardant paclobutrazol was applied after harvest as a foliar spray, a band along the drip line, or a collar drench in trials over 3 years on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old trees of mango cv. Kensington Pride. The trees were
assessed for percentage of branches with vegetative flush, flush length, flowering, and yield. Paclobutrazol reduced length of vegetative growth in all trials. Eight mL a.i. per tree, applied as a single yearly collar drench, significantly (P<0.05) reduced percentage flush. Collar treatments were significantly (P<0.05) more effective than drip line treatment in reducing length of vegetative growth. Two years' collar drench was generally more effective than a band treatment followed by a collar drench. In particular, collar drenches of 4 and 8 mL a.i./tree, applied for 2 consecutive years, reduced summer growth. Flowering and cropping were significantly (P<0.05) increased by paclobutrazol in a year of inadequate winter stress, while a trend towards increased yield was noted under more normal conditions. Yield increases were due to fruit numbers rather than size. Fruit colour was unaffected. Soil-applied treatments were more effective on flowering and cropping than foliar treatment, with collar drenches more effective than drip line treatment. A trend for decreasing yields was found when paclobutrazol was applied as a collar drench for 2 consecutive years at the same rate, compared with an ineffective drip line followed by a single collar treatment. Rates of paclobutrazol >4 mL a.i./tree caused unacceptable compaction of flower panicles. Four mL a.i./tree appeared the best application rate given the prevailing soil type, climatic conditions, and tree size and age. Flowering and Fruiting in Mangoes in the Top End with Paclobutrazol^ The profitability of growing mango is influenced by two key factors: • Productivity, which consists of yield and quality. • Supply and demand which rule market prices. Top End mangoes are the earliest to reach domestic markets and therefore attract a premium price. However, as Queensland mangoes reach the market, prices fall steeply. Besides, the onset of the wet season increases the
incidence of pests and diseases, which lower fruit quality. The manipulation of fruit maturity in favour of an early harvest would therefore be of great value to growers. FLOWERING AND ITS MANIPULATION Flower initiation is very important because it is the first step towards attaining fruit. Recent trials have clearly shown that while the extent (quantity) of flowering affects yields, time of flower emergence has a significant influence on time of fruit maturity. Early flowering clearly resulted in early fruit maturity. Unfortunately, our commercial variety, Kensington Pride, does not flower regularly year after year. Flowering is also staggered, leading to considerable variation in fruit maturity. The induction of regular, profuse, early and uniform flowering will undoubtedly ensure higher yields and better returns to the grower. THE EFFECTS OF PACLOBUTRAZOL One method to manipulate flowering is to use the plant growth regulator, paclobutrazol. The post- harvest application of a small amount of paclobutrazol to the soil significantly promotes flowering and fruiting in the following year. Trials over the last two years have shown the following benefits from the treatment: • A significant increase in flowering leading to increased yields. • The early flowering considerably enhanced fruit maturity. Treated trees flowered three to four weeks early, which reduced the time to fruit maturity by at least two weeks. • Visually, the fruit developed a better external colour. SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF PACLOBUTRAZOL How does paclobutrazol act?
Available evidence strongly suggests that flower initiation depends on the presence of an unknown flowerpromoting factor or factors synthesised in the leaves. At the same time, there are other factors in the shoots which work against the flowering factor or factors. It is believed that a group of plant hormones called gibberellins act as inhibitors to flowering. When paclobutrazol is applied to the soil, it moves up through the roots into the shoots and, due to its anti-gibberellin properties, blocks the synthesis of flowering inhibitors, thereby allowing the flower-promoting factor(s) to work. How and when to apply paclobutrazol? The application of paclobutrazol to soil as a drench around the tree trunk (collar drench) is the most effective method, as it ensures proper uptake by the tree. The required quantity is mixed in approximately one litre of water and poured onto the soil around the trunk in a circular band. In the Top End, the ideal time to apply paclobutrazol is from soon after harvest to early January. In dry conditions, a light irrigation is recommended after application. Foliar sprays have been ineffective. At what age should trees be treated and when should treatment be repeated? The size of trees at first application is important. This depends on the age of the trees and the spacing between them. Apart from promoting flowering, paclobutrazol also restricts tree vigour. Trees should therefore be allowed to develop a good canopy before treatment commences. In high tree density situations with closer spacing, it is recommended to apply paclobutrazol early when trees are about three years old. However, when trees are spaced farther apart, say 10 m, early application with paclobutrazol will reduce canopy size and the fruit bearing area. In such a situation, treatment can commence when trees are about five years old. Tree size and canopy fill are important considerations. Large trees, especially
seedling trees, respond more slowly than young, bearing, grafted trees. The dosage required also varies between cultivars. Florida cultivars, such as Irwin, Glen and Tommy Atkins require a lower dosage than Kensington Pride. At excessively high dosages, flower and shoot compaction can lead to increased infestation by caterpillars. If such compaction occurs, the dosage of repeat applications should be reduced., Two sprays of potassium nitrate at 4 g/L at ten-day intervals, commencing at signs of flower bud burst, were found to minimise panicle compaction. However, compaction is best prevented by using an optimum dosage. If you are not sure about dosage and/or if your trees are ready for the treatment, seek expert advice. It is also important to note that tree size and not age is the key factor for determining dosage. Where there is considerable variation in tree size, dosage may have to be varied. TREE HEALTH AND NUTRITION Any treatment that leads to increased production should be supported by good management to maintain tree healthy. This includes nutrition, irrigation, control of pests and diseases, pruning and skirting. It is desirable to prune and skirt trees after harvest and before the treatment. Unhealthy and weak trees should not be treated with paclobutrazol. Currently available trade names of paclobutrazol are Cultar and Austar ORGANIC FARMING: PANCHAKAVYA PREPARATION:
1. Panchakavya Panchagavya, an organic product has the potential to play the role of promoting growth and providing immunity in plant system. Panchagavya
consists of nine products viz. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, Tender coconut and water. When suitably mixed and used, these have miraculous effects.
Cow dung - 7 kg Cow ghee - 1 kg
Mix the above two ingredients thoroughly both in morning and evening hours and keep it for 3 days
Cow Urine - 10 liters Water - 10 liters
After 3 days mix cow urine and water and keep it for 15 days with regular mixing both in morning and evening hours. After 15 days mix the following and panchagavya will be ready after 30 days.
• • • • •
Cow milk - 3 liters Cow curd - 2 liters Tender coconut water - 3 liters Jaggery - 3 kg Well ripened poovan banana – 12 nos.
2. Preparation All the above items can be added to a wide mouthed mud pot, concrete tank or plastic can as per the above order. The container should be kept open under shade. The content is to be stirred twice a day both in morning and evening. The Panchagavya stock solution will be ready after 30 days. (Care should be taken not to mix buffalo products. The products of local breeds of
cow is said to have potency than exotic breeds). It should be kept in the shade and covered with a wire mesh or plastic mosquito net to prevent houseflies from laying eggs and the formation of maggots in the solution. If sugarcane juice is not available add 500 g of jaggery dissolved in 3 liter of water.
Physico chemical and biological properties of Panchagavya Chemical composition pH : 5.45 EC dSm2 : 10.22 Total N (ppm) : 229 Total P (ppm) : 209 Total K (ppm) : 232 Sodium : 90 Calcium : 25 IAA (ppm) : 8.5 GA (ppm) : 3.5 Microbial Load Fungi : 38800/ml Bacteria : 1880000/ml Lactobacillus : 2260000/ml Total anaerobes : 10000/ml Acid formers : 360/ml Methanogen : 250/ml Physico-chemical properties of Panchagavya revealed that they possess almost all the major nutrients, micro nutrients and growth harmones (IAA & GA) required for crop growth. Predominance of fermentative microorganisms like yeast and lactobacillus might be due to the combined effect of low pH, milk products and addition of jaggery/sugarcane juice as substrate for their growth.
The low pH of the medium was due to the production of organic acids by the fermentative microbes as evidenced by the population dynamics and organic detection in GC analysis. Lactobacillus produces various beneficial metabolites such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and antibiotics, which are effective against other pathogenic microorganisms besides its growth. GC-MS analysis resulted in following compounds of fatty acids, alkanes, alconol and alcohols. Sl.No. Fatty acids 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Oleic acids Palmitic acid Myristic Deconore Deconomic Alkanes Alconol and
Alcohols Decane Heptanol Octane Tetracosanol Heptane Hexadecanol Hexadecane Octadeconol Oridecane Methanol, Propanol, Butanol Ethanol and
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Octanoic Hexanoic Octadeconoic Tetradeconoic Acetic, propionic,
caproic and valeric acids 3. Beneficial effects of Panchakavya on commercial crops Mango
Induces dense flowering with more female flowers
Irregular or alternate bearing habit is not experienced and continues to fruit regularly Enhances keeping quality by 12 days in room temperature Flavour and aroma are extraordinary
• • •
Continuous flowering is ensured round the year Fruits are plumpy with strong aroma Shelf life is extended by 10 days
Higher TSS Shelf life is extended by 5 days
Banana In addition to adding with irrigation water and spraying, 3% solution (100 ml) was tied up at the naval end of the bunch after the male bud is removed. The bunch size becomes uniform. One month earlier harvest was witnessed. The size of the top and bottom hands was uniformly big. Turmeric
• • • • •
Enhances the yield by 22% Extra long fingers Ensure low drainage loss Narrows the ratio of mother and finger rhizomes Helps survival of dragon fly, spider etc which in turn reduce pest and disease load. Sold for premium price as mother/seed rhizome
Enriches the curcumin content
• • •
Exceptional aroma and fragrance No incidence of bud worm Continuous flowering throughout the year
Yield enhancement by 18% and in few cases like Cucumber, the yield is doubled Wholesome vegetables with shiny and appealing skin Extended shelf life Very tasty with strong flavour.
• • •
Generally panchagavya is recommended for all the crops as foliar spray at 30 % level (3 litre panchagavya in 100 litres of water).
4. Recommended dosage Spray system 3% solution was found to be most effective compared to the higher and lower concentrations investigated. Three litres of Panchagavya to every 100 litres of water is ideal for all crops. The power sprayers of 10 litres capacity may need 300 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments are to be filtered and when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size has to be used. Flow system
The solution of Panchagavya can be mixed with irrigation water at 50 litres per hectare either through drip irrigation or flow irrigation Seed/seedling treatment 3% solution of Panchagavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting. Soaking for 20 minutes is sufficient. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane can be soaked for 30 minutes before planting.
Seed storage 3% of Panchagavya solution can be used to dip the seeds before drying and storing them. Periodicity 1. Pre flowering phase : Once in 15 days, two sprays
depending upon duration of crops 2. Flowering and pod setting: Once in 10 days, two sprays stage 3. Fruit/Pod stage Time of application of Panchakavya for different crops is given as follows Crops Rice Sunflower Black gram Time schedule 10,15,30 and 50th days after transplanting 30,45 and 60 days after sowing Rainfed: 1st flowering and 15 deays after flowering Irrigated: 15, 25 and 40 days after sowing maturation: Once during pod maturation
15, 25, 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing
gram Castor 30 and 45 days after sowing Groundnut 25 and 30th days after sowing Bhendi 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing Moringa Before flowering and during pod formation Tomato Nursery and 40 days after transplanting: seed treatment with 1 % Onion Rose Jasmine Vanilla for 12 hrs 0, 45 and 60 days after transplanting At the time of pruning and budding Bud initiation and setting Dipping setts before planting
Effect of Panchakavya Leaf
Plants sprayed with Panchagavya invariably produce bigger leaves and develop denser canopy. The photosynthetic system is activated for enhanced biological efficiency, enabling synthesis of maximum metabolites and photosynthates. Stem The trunk produces side shoots, which are sturdy and capable of carrying maximum fruits to maturity. Branching is comparatively high. Roots The rooting is profuse and dense. Further they remain fresh for a long time. The roots spread and grow into deeper layers were also
observed. All such roots help maximum intake of nutrients and water.
There will be yield depression under normal circumstances, when the land is converted to organic farming from inorganic systems of culture. The key feature of Panchagavya is its efficacy to restore the yield level of all crops when the land is converted from inorganic cultural system to organic culture from the very first year. The harvest is advanced by 15 days in all the crops.It not only enhances the shelf life of vegetables, fruits and grains, but also improves the taste. By reducing or replacing costly chemical inputs, Panchagavya ensures higher profit and liberates the organic farmers from loan. APICULTURE UNIT BY SELF HELP GROUP Miss. Thilagam a member of self help group (NFRDS secretary) and a skilled labour on apiculture explained us about honey bee production. Aim - create awareness about organic farming and tribal development activities.
There are more than 20,000 species of wild bees. Many species are solitary, and many others rear their young in burrows and small colonies, like mason bees and bumblebees. Beekeeping, or apiculture, is concerned with the practical management of the social species of honey bees, which live in large colonies of up to 100,000 individuals. In Europe and America the species universally managed by beekeepers is the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera). This species has several sub-species or regional varieties, such as the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica ), European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera), and the Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica). In the tropics, other species of social bee are managed for honey production, including Apis cerana. All of the Apis mellifera sub-species are capable of inter-breeding and hybridizing. Many bee breeding companies strive to selectively breed and hybridize varieties to produce desirable qualities: disease and parasite resistance, good honey production, swarming behaviour reduction, prolific breeding, and mild disposition. Some of these hybrids are marketed under specific brand names, such as the Buckfast Bee or Midnite Bee. The advantages of the initial F1 hybrids produced by these crosses include: hybrid vigor, increased honey productivity, and greater disease resistance. The disadvantage is that in subsequent generations these advantages may fade away and hybrids tend to be very defensive and aggressive.
Bee keeping (Apiculture) Bee keeping is an agro based enterprise, which farmers can take up for additional income generation. Honey bees convert nectar of flowers into honey and store them in the combs of the hive. Collection of honey from the forests has been in existence for a long time. The growing market potential for honey and its products has resulted in bee keeping emerging as a viable enterprise. Honey and wax are the two economically important products of bee keeping. Advantages of beekeeping as an income generation activity
Bee keeping requires less time, money and infrastructure investments Honey and beeswax can be produced from an area of little agricultural value The Honey bee does not compete for resources with any other agricultural enterprise. Beekeeping has positive ecological consequences. Bees play an important role in the pollination of many flowering plants, thus increasing the yield of certain crops such as sunflower and various fruits. Honey is a delicious and highly nutritious food. By the traditional method of honey hunting many wild colonies of
bees are destroyed. This can be prevented by raising bees in boxes and producing honey at home.
Beekeeping can be initiated by individuals or groups The market potential for honey and wax is high
Production process Honey bees can be raised in boxes at the farm or home. 1. Equipment requirements for bee keeping
Hive: It is a simple long box covered with a number of slats
on top. The rough measurements of the box should be around 100 cm of length, 45 cm of width and 25 cm in height. The box should be 2 cm thick and the hive must be glued and screwed together with entrance holes of 1 cm wide. The slats (top bars ) must be as long as the hive is wide in order to fit across and the thickness of about 1.5 cm is sufficient to support a heavy honey comb. The width of 3.3 cm needs to be given to give the bees the natural spacing they need to easily build one comb to each separate top bar.
Smoker : It is the second important piece of equipment. This
can be made from a small tin .We use the smoker to protect ourselves from bee stings and to control the bees.
Cloth: to protect our eyes and nose from stings at the time of
work near the apiary.
Knife: It is used to loosen the top bars and to cut of the Feather: To sweep the bees from the comb. Queen Excluder
3. Establishment of hives
The apiary must be located in well-drained open area,
preferably near orchards, with profuse source of nectar, pollen and water.
Protection from sunlight is important in order to maintain an optimum temperature in the hive. Ant wells are fixed around the hive stand. The colonies must be directed towards east, with
slight changes in the directions of the bee box as a protection from rain and sun.
Keep the colonies away from the reach of cattle, other animal, busy roads and streetlights.
4. Establishing a bee colony
To establish a bee colony, bees can be obtained by
transferring a wild nesting colony to a hive or attract a passing swarm of bees to occupy it.
Before putting a swarm or even a colony in a prepared
hive, it would be beneficial to make the hive smell familiar by rubbing old brown comb pieces or some bee wax. If possible, the Queen bee can be captured from a natural swarm and placed under a hive to attract the other bees.
Feed the hived swarm for a few weeks by diluting a half cup of white sugar in half a cup of hot water as this will also help in building the comb along with the bars rapidly.
Avoid over crowding
5. Management of colonies
Inspect the beehives at least once in a week during the Clean the hive in the following sequence, the roof, Observe the colonies regularly for the presence of
honey-flow seasons preferably during the morning hours.
super/supers, brood chambers and floorboard.
healthy queen, brood development, storage of honey and pollen, presence of queen cells, bee strength and growth of drones.
Look for the infestation by any of the following bee Wax moth (Galleria mellonella): Remove all the larvae
and silken webbings from the combs, corners and crevices of bee box.
Wax beetles (Platybolium sp.): Collect and destroy the Mites: Clean the frame and floorboard with cotton
swabs moistened with freshly made potassium permanganate solution. Repeat until no mites are seen on the floorboard.
Management during lean season Remove the supers and arrange the available healthy Provide division board, if necessary. Destroy queen cells and drone cells, if noted.
broods compactly in the brood chamber.
Provide sugar syrup (1:1) @ 200 g sugar per colony per Feed all the colonies in the apiary at the same time to Management during honey flow season Keep the colony in sufficient strength before honey-
week for Indian bees.
Provide maximum space between the first super and the Place queen excluder sheets in between brood and super Examine the colony once in a week and frames full of
brood chamber and not above the first super.
chamber to confine the queen to brood chamber.
honey should be removed to the sides of the super. The frames, which are three-fourth filled with honey or pollen and one-fourth with sealed brood should be taken out of brood chamber and in its place empty combs or frames with foundation is added.
The combs, which are completely sealed, or two-third
capped may be taken out for extraction of honey and returned to supers after honey extraction.
ARAVIND VEGETABLES NURSERY Tray Specifications More consistent plant growth. Styrofoam trays rapidly deteriorate resulting in pockets or pits that pathogens and fertilizer residue can hide in. As a result if you reuse other trays you can never be sure of what might be left behind in the tray that influences the performance of the next crop. Easy extraction of the seedling. The smooth cell walls of our trays allow for time saving, easy extraction of the seedlings.
Additionally, both the plant and the root are handled with less damage resulting in better plants during the transplanting process which gives superior plant survival and establishment in the field. Easy to clean and sterilize. The trays are easily cleaned between uses thus eliminating possible pathogen carry-over from crop to crop. Lower cost per use. The durability of these trays can lead many seasons of production. When cost analyzed over the long term these are the most economical trays on the market. While we cannot guarantee the longevity of the tray Plantel has had trays in production for as many as 20 years.
1. A Tray cost RS 100
2. 3. 4.
90 holes in trays hence 90 seedlings can be raised. cost of single seedling is range from 3-5 Rs/Tomato,chillies,Amaranths ,papaya,etc are maintained in the trays.
5. No special manure ,only coir pith manure are used 6. 25 tones of coir pith for 1 acre nursery (560 trays) Yearly income: 1 acre 560 trays(approx)Each tray involve 90 seedling(Rs.5/-per seedling) Hence yearly income from thulir nurery : Rs.2,25000
We had a very useful stay at Thirpathur for Agro industrial tie-up programme. Each and every moment of or stay proved to be very informative and extremely educative. We have visited many agro industries and units and gained the knowledge. We now have a quite a good idea about the present agro based industries and its scope in future. We have attained more practical knowledge on organizing any agro based industries in India. Now we have the confidence to start our own business depending on agriculture at anywhere. Through this tie-up programme we also come to know about the bank loans, government subsidies, interest etc for the establishment of a unit. Thus this kind of agro tie up proved to very innovative for the students.