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MPK1023:
Management and
Administration of TVE

CONCEPTS vs.
PRINCIPLES vs.
THEORY
PM Dr WILFREDO H. LIBUNAO

IMPORTANCE OF
THEORIES

Theories are constructed to give an explanation of


phenomena (Stam, 2000).
According to Denzin (1970), there are three
functions of a theory:
1. Permitting organization of descriptions,
2. leading to explanation, and
3. furnishing the basis for prediction of future
events.

Importance of Theories…cont’d:

In a nutshell, theories:

- Tell us what we are doing


- Tell us why we do things
- Not how to do things
- It help us better understand the
process
- Will enable us to predict what is
going to happen in the future

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Importance of Theories…cont’d:

Elements of Theory:
• Concepts
• Generalizations
• Assumptions

Purposes of Theory:
• Provide an explanation of how
things generally work
• Guide research
• Guide practice

Importance of Theories…cont’d:
Hypotheses:
• Conjectural statements that explain relationships.
• Use to test theories.
• Guide research

Scientific Knowledge:
• Propositions supported by systematic research.

Purpose of Science: To test theory and to


provide reliable explanation.

Theoretical System

Generalizations
Concepts Concepts
Assumptions

Variables
Variables Hypotheses
Empirical
Testing
Principles

© Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003

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IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPTS

• What is a concept?
• Why is it important?
• How is it different from principles and
theories?
• Is concept important in management?

The Elephant
Six blind sages were shown an
elephant and met to discuss their
experience. “It's wonderful,” said
the first, “an elephant is like a rope:
slender and flexible.” “No, no, not at
all,” said the second, “an elephant is
like a tree, sturdily planted on the
ground.” “Nonsense,” said the third,
“an elephant is like a wall.”
“Incredible,” said the fourth, “an
elephant is a tube filled with water.”
“What a strange and piecemeal beast
this is,” said the fifth. “Strange
indeed,” said the sixth, “but there
must be some underlying harmony.
Let us investigate the matter
further.”
Adapted from a traditional Hindu fable

IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPT
• A concept is a mental abstraction which allows
generalization and the extension of knowledge
from some known objects to others unknown.
• A concept is formed by taking a number of
similar entities and deciding what makes them
similar in an important way.
• Concepts are bearers of meaning, as opposed
to agents of meaning. A single concept can be
expressed by any number of languages.

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Importance of concept…cont’d

• In other words concepts are essentially


hypotheses that will become invalid, should they
fail to fit in some critical way the empirical reality
it is claimed they represent.

• The word ‘concept’ refers to a class of acts,


thoughts, activities, processes, or structures.

• In science its concepts drive research,


steering inquiry according to the meaning
of each.

Importance of concept…cont’d

• Concepts lead to new directions


and new ideas through
disturbances or provocations in
usual thinking processes.
• Concepts are keys to change
and improvement.

IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE

PRINCIPLE – is considered as a law, a doctrine, a


policy, or a deep
deep--seated beliefs which governs the
conduct of various types of human activities.

In the field of administration and supervision,


PRINCIPLE is accepted as a fundamental truth.

---- for the administrator and supervisor, it is very


important to have good principles, because these
will serve as his guide in his reflective thinking and
in his choice of program of activities.

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IMPORTANT USES OF PRINCIPLES IN SCHOOL


ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION

1. Principles are means by which the administrator and


supervisor proceed from one situation to another.
---- it means that in the operation or in
administering/ supervising functions, there is an
organized step-
step-by
by--step schedule or program of
activities to be followed.
2. Principles are instrumental in improving teaching-
teaching-
learning process.
---- since every administrator or supervisor as
well as teachers want the best learning outcomes on
the part of the learner, these principles will be of great
help for the improvement of instruction and all other
learning activities.

Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d]

3. Principles make for enormous economy of


time and effort in choosing techniques to be
used.
----- meaning principle directs us on what
is the appropriate techniques/strategies to be
used effectively in the operation of
administrative and supervisory functions.
4. Principles eliminate much of the trial and error
practices.
----- through it, we can avoid waste of time
on what to do, but instead they give us
direction or point of destination.

Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d]

5. Principles greatly aid in the discovery of new


techniques.

----- they are the hypotheses that direct the


search for new techniques in school
administration and supervision.

6. Principles are needed to guide the choice


and sequence of the techniques at hand.

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Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d]

7. Principles aid in the evaluation of techniques, for


they furnish a broader basis by which to judge the
techniques used in the school administration and
supervision.
----- it is not only used to determine on what
appropriate techniques to be used, but it can also
serve as measurement / basis as to how effective
is the technique or procedures.
8. Principles define the items, which must be
scrutinized in evaluating the results.
----- this implies the better understanding of the
fundamental principles and functions of school
administration and supervision

Uses of principles in school administration [cont’d]

9. Principles are used to evaluate the success of


administrative and supervisory programs.
------ administration and supervision are also
directed and evaluated in terms of principles.
10. Principles lead the administrators and supervisors
to further activities for they are dynamic and not
static.
------ being a teacher, we are also an
administrator and supervisors in the real
classroom situation, we must see to it that our
principles and techniques used are open for any
changes and improvement.

The Triadic Relations of


Theory, Practice, and Research

Theory, research, and practice are in a


dynamic relationship
relationship.. Each set of relationships is
reciprocal:
reciprocal: theory guides practice, but practice
reinforces, refines, or disconfirms theory
theory;; theory
guides research, but research creates and refines
theory;
theory; and research guides practice, but practice
directs research
research..
T

R P
© Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003

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END OF
SESSION

MPK1023:
Management and
Administration of TVE