DATE PERFORMED: APRIL 28, 2010

DETERMINATION OF THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OF
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE


N.P. REBLANDO
1
AND L. MONDEJAR
2

1
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
2
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, COLLEGE OF HOME ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
RECEIVED: APRIL 22, 2010

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Determination of Ksp
The addition of aqueous NaOH to aqueous Ca(NO3)2 results to the formation of white precipitate Ca(OH)2
also known as hydrated lime or slaked lime. Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble in water which results to the formation of basic
solution upon solvation. The accepted solubility product constant Ksp= 5.5 x 10
-6
. The solvation reaction is shown
below.
ܥܽሺܱܪሻ
ଶሺ௦ሻ
՞ ܥܽ
ሺ௔௤ሻ
ଶା
൅ ʹܱܪ
ሺ௔௤ሻ
ି

Using water and varying concentration of KCl solution, the solvation of Ca(OH)2 produced the suspension
containing variable amounts of OH
-
ions, indicated by the bright purple color upon the addition of phenolphthalein.
The concentration of 25 mL suspension was then analyzed using titrimetric analysis in 0.1M HCL solution.

Table.8.1 Volume distribution of titrant in corresponding KCl concentration
Concentration of the
Medium
KCl Medium
0.000 0.001 0.005 0.010 0.050 0.100 0.500
Vnet, mL of
titrant
Trial 1 2.2 1.9 2.4 2.5 1.6 1.6 2.7
Trial 2 2.1 1.9 2.5 2.4 1.4 1.8 3.5

Given the values presented in Table.8.1, the concentration of OH
-
can be calculated using stoichiometry.
Table.8.2 Concentration of OH
-
in different KCl concentration
Concentration of the
Medium
KCl Medium
0.000 0.001 0.005 0.010 0.050 0.100 0.500
Concentration
of OH
-
in the
analyte (x10
-3
M)
Trial 1 8.8 7.6 9.6 10 6.4 6.4 10.8
Trial 2 8.4 7.6 10 9.6 5.6 7.2 14
With the reaction Caሺ0Bሻ
ଶሺୱሻ
൅ ʹKCl
ሺୟ୯ሻ
՞ CaCl
ଶሺୟ୯ሻ
൅ ʹK0B
ሺୟ୯ሻ
, the concentration of Ca
2+
is half the
concentration of OH
-
ions in the solution. The concentration of K
+
and Cl
-
is equal to the concentration of KCl since KCl is salt
which ionizes completely in water.

Table.8.3 Concentration of Ca
2+
in different KCl concentration
Concentration of the
Medium
KCl Medium
0.000 0.001 0.005 0.010 0.050 0.100 0.500
Concentration
of Ca
2+
in the
analyte (x10
-3
M)
Trial 1 4.4 3.8 4.8 5.0 3.2 3.2 5.4
Trial 2 4.2 3.8 5.0 4.8 2.8 3.6 7.0

Since the solution is saturated, meaning, the solution is assumed to have the maximum amount of ions it can contain, and
considering the Ca(OH)2 /Ca
2+
mole ratio to be 1; the molar solubility of calcium hydroxide is equal to the concentration of Ca
2+

present in the solution. Furthermore, the Ksp of calcium hydroxide is equal to 4[Ca
2+
]
3
since Ksp= [Ca
2+
][OH
-
]
2
where [OH
-
]=2[Ca
2+
].
Note that there are four major ions present in the solution namely, K
+
, Cl
-
, Ca
2+
and OH
-
. Ionic strength Ƭ can then be
expressed as Ƭ=0.5™(ciZi
2
), where c and Z are the molar concentration and the charge of the ion respectively.

Table.8.3 Ionic strength Ƭ at different KCl concentration
Concentration of the
Medium
KCl Medium
0.000 0.001 0.005 0.010 0.050 0.100 0.500
Ionic strength
(Ƭ)
Trial 1 0.0132 0.0124 0.0194 0.025 0.0596 0.1096 0.5162
Trial 2 0.0126 0.0124 0.02 0.0244 0.0584 0.1108 0.521

With the data computed, the solubility at zero ionic strength is given by the slope of the solubility vs
10([2.04/¥Ƭ]/[1+2¥Ƭ]) graph









Figure.8.1 Solubility vs 10([2.04/¥Ƭ]/[1+2¥Ƭ]) graph with slope 0.0003(trial 1) and 0.0001(trial 2)

With the slope expressed in mol/L, it can be converted to g/100gH2O. Values calculated were 2.24x10
-3
g/100gwater for
trial 1 and 7.48x10
-4
g/100gwater for trial 2. With theoretical value of 0.159g/100g water, both experimental values
committed 98-99 percent error. Several events such as miscalculation, and human errors were cited to cause this failure.
Common Ion Effect
With the same procedure as that above, 25 mL of Ca(OH)2 /0.1M Ca(NO3)2 suspension required 1.5 mL of
0.1M HCl in the titrimetric analysis. Using this, OH
-
concentration has a value of 6.0 x 10
-3
M. Notice that the
concentration of OH
-
in this setup is less than the concentration of OH
-
in the solution containing 0.000M KCl. This
effect is the result of adding Ca(NO3)2 which provides more Ca
2+
. Since Ca
2+
is in the product side, the equilibrium will
shift to the left, the formation of reactant. This effect will cause the system to retain its Ksp even when stress is applied
to the system.



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
1. Aside from human error, what could explain the deviation of the solubility from the accepted value?
Answer: Factors affecting the solubility of a solute can also cause the deviation from the accepted value.
This may include temperature, pressure, gaseous ions dissolved during stirring, ions present from the
unwashed containers.


2. Why do we compare the solubility instead of the Ksp to the accepted value?
Answer: One reason for the use of solubility instead of Ksp is the fact that Ksp calculated from solubility is
based on ion concentration (not activity) which assumes that the dissociation of solute into ions is
complete. Furthermore, the experimental calculation does not consider the formation of ion pairs in the
system.

3. Relate the presence of nitrate ions in the medium in the Common Ion Effect system to the
increase/decrease in its [OH
-
] compared to the [OH
-
] of the system that used only water.
Answer: The nitrate ions present in the medium must increases the solubility of the solute resulting to
greater amount of [OH
-
] produced. But, considering the presence of common ion Ca
2+
in the solution, the
effect is not observable since the slowing effect of the common effect in the solubility of a solute is greater
than the increasing ability of uncommon ions.

CALCULATION

1. Amount of Ca(OH)2 produced from the reaction between NaOH and Ca(NO3)2
ʹNa0B
ሺୟ୯ሻ
൅ ܥܽሺܱܰ


ଶሺ௔௤ሻ
՜ ʹNaN0
ଷሺୟ୯ሻ
൅ Caሺ0Bሻ
ଶሺୱሻ


Consider 10 mL 1.0M Ca(NO3)2
ͳͲ݉ܮ ܥܽሺܱܰ




ଵ௠௢௟஼௔ሺேை




ଵ଴଴଴ ௠௅ ஼௔ሺேை




ଶ ௠௢௟ ே௔ைு
ଵ ௠௢௟ ஼௔ሺேை



ൌ ͲǤͲʹ ݉݋݈ ܱܰܽܪ ݎ݁ݍݑ݅ݎ݁݀
available Na0B ൌ ͵Ͳ mL Na0B ൈ
ଵ ୫୭୪ ୒ୟ୓ୌ
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୒ୟ୓ୌ
ൌ ͲǤͲ͵ mol Na0B
Ca(NO3)2 is the limiting reagent

amount Caሺ0Bሻ

piouuceu ൌ ͳͲmL ܥܽሺܱܰ




ଵ୫୭୪஼௔ሺேை




ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ஼௔ሺேை




ଵ ୫୭୪ Caሺ0Bሻ
ʹ
ଵ ୫୭୪ େୟሺ୒୓ሻ

ൌ ͲǤͲͳ mol

2. Molarity of OH
-
titrated

a. At 0.000M KCl
ʹǤʹmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͺǤͺ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


ʹǤͳmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͺǤͶ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


b. At 0.001M KCl
ͳǤͻmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͹Ǥ͸ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


ͳǤͻmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͹Ǥ͸ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


c. At 0.005M KCl
ʹǤͶmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͻǤ͸ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


2Ǥ ͷmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͳǤͲ ൈͳͲ
ିଶ
N 0B
ି


d. At 0.010M KCl
ʹǤͷmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͳǤͲ ൈͳͲ
ିଶ
N 0B
ି


ʹǤͶmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͻǤ͸ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


e. At 0.050M KCl
ͳǤ͸mL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͸ǤͶ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


ͳǤͶmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͷǤ͸ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


f. At 0.100M KCl
ͳǤ͸mL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͸ǤͶ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


ͳǤͺmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͹Ǥʹ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


g. At 0.500M KCl
ʹǤ͹mL BCl ൈ
ͲǤͳmolBCl
ͳͲͲͲ mL BCl

ͳmol 0B

ͳ mol BCl

ͳ
ͲǤͲʹͷ L aliquot
ൌ ͳǤͲͺ ൈ ͳͲ
െʹ
N 0B



͵ǤͷmL BCl ൈ
ͲǤͳmolBCl
ͳͲͲͲ mL BCl

ͳmol 0B

ͳ mol BCl

ͳ
ͲǤͲʹͷ L aliquot
ൌ ͳǤͶ ൈ ͳͲ
െʹ
N 0B



3. Molarity of Ca
2+
and Solubility (s)
Consider the solvation of calcium hydroxide
ܥܽሺܱܪሻ
ଶሺ௦ሻ
՞ ܥܽ
ሺ௔௤ሻ
ଶା
൅ ʹܱܪ
ሺ௔௤ሻ
ି

Note that for every Ca
2+
ion produced there is two OH
-
ions that is also produced. It means that
the amount of Ca
2+
in the solution is half the amount of OH
-
present. Furthermore, the reaction shows
that for every mole of calcium hydroxide dissolved there will be the same mole of Ca
2+
ion that will be
formed which means that the molarity of Ca
2+
ion in a solution is the molar solubility of calcium
hydroxide.

4. Molarity of K
+
and Cl
-

Since both ions came from a salt, with salt/ion ratio equal to one, then the concentration of these ions
is equal to the concentration of the salt itself.

5. Ionic strength Ƭ

a. At 0.000M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(4.4x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(8.8x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.0)(+1)
2
+(0.0)(-1)
2
]
=0.0132
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(4.2x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(8.4x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.0)(+1)
2
+(0.0)(-1)
2
]
=0.0126

b. At 0.001M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(3.8x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(7.6x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.001)(+1)
2
+(0.001)(-1)
2
]
=0.0124
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(3.8x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(7.6x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.001)(+1)
2
+(0.001)(-1)
2
]
=0.0124

c. At 0.005M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(4.8x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(9.6x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.005)(+1)
2
+(0.005)(-1)
2
]
=0.0194
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(5.0x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(1.0x10
-2
)(-1)
2
+(0.005)(+1)
2
+(0.005)(-1)
2
]
=0.02

d. At 0.010M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(5.0x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(1.0x10
-2
)(-1)
2
+(0.010)(+1)
2
+(0.010)(-1)
2
]
=0.025

Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(4.8x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(9.6x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.010)(+1)
2
+(0.010)(-1)
2
]
=0.0244

e. At 0.050M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(3.2x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(6.4x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.050)(+1)
2
+(0.050)(-1)
2
]
=0.0596

Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(2.8x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(5.6x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.050)(+1)
2
+(0.050)(-1)
2
]
=0.0584

f. At 0.100M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(3.2x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(6.4x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.100)(+1)
2
+(0.100)(-1)
2
]
=0.1096
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(2.8x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(5.6x10
-3
)(-1)
2
+(0.100)(+1)
2
+(0.100)(-1)
2
]
=0.1108

g. At 0.500M KCl
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(5.4x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(1.08x10
-2
)(-1)
2
+(0.500)(+1)
2
+(0.500)(-1)
2
]
=0.5162
Ƭ =0.5(cCa2+Z
2
Ca2+ +cOH-Z
2
OH- + cK+Z
2
K+ + cCl-Z
2
Cl-)
=0.5[(7.0x10
-3
)(+2)
2
+(1.4x10
-2
)(-1)
2
+(0.500)(+1)
2
+(0.500)(-1)
2
]
=0.521

6. Conversion of mol/L H2O to g/g H2O
a. Consider trial 1
ͲǤͲͲͲ͵molCaሺ0Bሻ


ͳͲͲͲ mL watei

͹Ͷ gCaሺ0Bሻ

ͳ molCaሺ0Bሻ


ͳͲͳǤͲͳmL watei
ͳͲͲ g watei
ൌ ʹǤʹͶ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
gȀͳͲͲg watei

Percent Error = (0.159-2.24x10
-3
)(100)/(0.159)
= 98.58 percent

b. Consider trial 2

ͲǤͲͲͲͳmolCaሺ0Bሻ


ͳͲͲͲ mL watei

͹Ͷ gCaሺ0Bሻ

ͳ molCaሺ0Bሻ


ͳͲͳǤͲͳmL watei
ͳͲͲ g watei
ൌ ͹ǤͶͺ ൈͳͲ
ିସ
gȀͳͲͲg watei

Percent Error =(0.159-7.48x10
-4
)(100)/(0.159)
= 99.53 percent

7. Determination of OH concentration for the common ion effect setup
Consider 1.5 mL 0.100M HCl measured from titration
ͳǤͷmL BCl ൈ
଴Ǥଵ୫୭୪ୌେ୪
ଵ଴଴଴ ୫୐ ୌେ୪

ଵ୫୭୪ ୓ୌ

ଵ ୫୭୪ ୌେ୪


଴Ǥ଴ଶହ ୐ ୟ୪୧୯୳୭୲
ൌ ͸ǤͲ ൈͳͲ
ିଷ
N 0B
ି


8. Determination of Ca
2+
concentration for the common ion effect setup
Consider the OH
-
concentration calculated from number 7 and the amount of Ca
2+
ion from added
Ca(NO3)2.

ܥܽሺܱܪሻ
ଶሺ௦ሻ
՞ ܥܽ
ሺ௔௤ሻ
ଶା
൅ ʹܱܪ
ሺ௔௤ሻ
ି

Initial not necessary 0.1M 0
Change not necessary +3.0x10
-3
M +6.0x10
-3
M
Equilibrium not necessary 0.103M +6.0x10
-3
M

9. Experimental Ksp for common ion effect setup
Ksp = [Ca
2+
][OH
-
]
2

= [0.103M][6.0x10
-3
]
2

= 3.708 x 10
-6

Percent Error = (5.5 x 10
-6
- 3.708 x 10
-6
)(100)/ 5.5 x 10
-6

=32.58 percent

REFERENCES
Petrucci, Harwood, and Hering. General Chemistry,Principles and Modern Application, 8
th
Edition. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall

Patnaik P.2003. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. USA: McGraw-Hill.
Smith, Pierce. Solving General Chemistry Problems,5
th
Edition. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company

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