Written Report: Technology Based Instruction

Technology Based Instruction

and discussion boards. but can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching E-Learning Technology Uses a wide range of technological advances. Cognitive skills are best suited for E-Learning because they can be communicated to learners using language. E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning.Technology-based instruction or E-learning is simply using technology to deliver training and educational materials. numbers and symbols. When performance objectives present the learner with ill-structured problems (no clear right or wrong answer) that require application. Most eLearning situations use combinations of the these techniques. To determine if E-learning alone is appropriate consider the domain of learning and the level of performance expected of the learners. The idea here is that participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. building comprehension and practicing the application of skills is appropriate for E-learning without a human instructor. rewards and recognition and through modeling the behavior and is not suited for Elearning. as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting . from blogs to collaborative software. Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. ePortfolios. A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. synthesis and evaluation of information and shared experiences E-learning must be coordinated with human instruction to be successful. Teaching learners new attitudes (affective domain) requires the instructor to provide direct and indirect feedback through praise. analysis. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once. Psychomotor skills require repeated practice and feedback for mastery. wikis. Highly structured problems (clear right or wrong answers) that require transferring knowledge. The two most popular choices are delivery over the Internet or on CDROM is a general term used to refer to a form of learning in which the instructor and student are separated by space or time where the gap between the two is bridged through the use of online technologies.E-learning is well suited for providing basic information and achieving performance objectives in the lower levels of the cognitive domain of learning. text. E-learning is very appropriate in conjunction with other delivery methods. the term M-learning has become more common. Communication technologies used in e-learning Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs. and virtual classrooms . In cases where mobile technologies are used. Electronic mail (Email) is also asynchronous in that mail can be sent or received without having both the participants’ involvement at the same time.

descriptions of events. and links to other blogs. or on dedicated hardware devices known as e-book readers or e-book devices audiobook • is a recording that is primarily of the spoken word as opposed to music • is often based on a recording of commercially available printed material • a recorded spoken program in its own right and not necessarily an audio version of a book • they are especially good for car rides. Reduce overall cost. A typical blog combines text. for people who have trouble reading or don't like to read or for the blind • it is the context of a regular book read and recorded onto a means of media such as CD Roms or Cassettes. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject. Most blogs are primarily textual. although some focus on art (Art blog). usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. and other media related to its topic. Web pages. 2. images. Reduce learning times. 5. music (MP3 blog). Increase retention. featuring very short posts • Advantages of E-Learning A well-designed E-learning can: 1. .e-book (for electronic book: also ebook: also ecobook) • is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book • Such documents are usually read on personal computers. which can be an advantage to the blind or illiterate blog (a contraction of the term "web log") • • • • • • is a type of website. photographs (photoblog). Capture expert knowledge. and audio (podcasting). others function as more personal online diaries. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Microblogging is another type of blogging. 3. 4. "Blog" can also be used as a verb. videos (Video blogging). The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. or other material such as graphics or video. Increase consistency in instruction.

the Personal Computers (PC)  connection of several computers using a cable link is called intranet  connection of several computers using telephone lines is called internet  connection is made using modems to transmit electronic data over telephone lines  connection to internet is facilitated by Internet Service Provider (ISP)  internet surfing requires a web browser application (internet explorer.6. Reduced social and cultural interactions Brief History of the Internet  in 1960s. 2. and 7. the US Defense Department (Advanced Research Projects Agency) created a communications system with no obvious central control point & with the ability of all surviving points to reestablish contact in the event of an attack on any one point  in 1969. Requires management of resources beyond the training organization 5. Requires a substantial technical infrastructure. 3. Requires larger teams to design. the 1st ARPANET Information Message Processor was installed at UCLA  additional IMPs were also installed in University of California. The up front development costs. Stanford Research Institute & University of Utah  “internet” is a connected set of networks using Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP)  the internet is nothing more than a collection of computers connected with one another using TCP/IP  in 1970s. there was an explosive growth of home computers. On demand availability The disadvantages of E-learning are: 1. Inappropriate subject matters for E-learning. netscape navigator & safari)  browsers are designed to interpret specially coded documents (web pages) written in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) . mozilla firefox. Automate the proof of completion and certification of learning. 4. and 6.

develop self-discipline and sense of morality in the use of technology . play a more active role in learning 4. learn how to appraise and assess the relevance and content of information that they acquire through technology 2. develop confidence in information gathering and expression of thoughts and insights 5. recognize the need for continuing education specially in the field of technology 5. become more sophisticated problem solvers and thinkers 3. ranging from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems is becoming increasingly common With some systems. need to be open-minded and receptive to technology and its application in educations 3. need to find new ways to challenge and facilitate learning in students Students 1.Computer-aided assessment and learning design Computer-aided Assessment (also but less commonly referred to as Eassessment). instill the importance of social interaction amidst decrease personal interface among students & teachers 4. Changing Roles in Technology Based Learning Teachers 1. need to be aware of the latest technological advances and application in education 2. feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned.

“Today’s computer is intellectually a moron & morally permissive. sales & distribution of products (software. music. as long as it is programmed in a language that it understands. Moral & Legal Issues Piracy • • • copyright law protects the rights of software developers to profit from their products. and significant decrease in companies that develop new software. “piracy” is the unauthorized copying. movies) under licenses or copyright global effect is loss of billions of US dollars in worth of products.Goals of Technology Based Instruction Technology should be utilized in education for the following purposes: • • • • • • As tools for personal & professional productivity As facilitators of higher-order thinking skills As vehicles for creative expression As facilitators for cooperative learning As multiple modality learning environments As means of empowerment Ethics in Technology Application According to Hamilton(1984).” The use of computers has also brought about ethical. music and movies as educators. moral & legal problems in society Ethical. we must instill the respect and compliance of our students to intellectual property rights law and product licenses agreement • . it will do as it is told whether it is right or wrong.

of thoughts. Viruses • small program planned specifically to cause mischief or damage to computer systems Technology in the Classroom There are many kinds of computer and non-computer technologies currently in use in traditional classrooms. Class Blogs and Wikis: These are some of a variety of Web 2. students are able to • • • . and so much more. teachers are able to demonstrate a new lesson. In current day society. Among these are: • Computer in the Classroom: Having a computer in the classroom is an asset to any teacher. illustrate how to use new programs. and show new websites. children know how to use the computer and navigate their way through a website. stealing of personal information & data. and with the help of microphones. teachers can post homework assignments. so why not give them one where they can be a published author. Just be careful as most districts maintain strong policies to manage official websites for a school or classroom. ideas. than to create a web page designed just for your class. With a computer in the classroom. Blogs allow for students to maintain a running dialogue. famous quotes. present new material.[27] Class Website: What better way to display your student's work. and assignments that also provide for student comment and reiterative reflection.• • we should police our students and discourage the proliferation of piracy loss of respect for one’s personal privacy Computer Crimes • • includes hacking & fraud improper transfer of funds among electronic accounts. student work. trivia games. tampering with private and government computer systems. like a journal. Wikis are more group focused to allow multiple members of the group to edit a single document and create a truly collaborative and carefully edited finished product.0 tools that are currently being implemented in the classroom. Once a web page is designed. Wireless Classroom Microphones: Noisy classrooms are a daily occurrence.

and educational in addition to "electronic" that is a traditional national . Instructional technique and technologies Problem Based Learning and Inquiry-based learning are active learning educational technologies used to facilitate learning. the term is generally used to refer to the use of technology in learning in a much broader sense than the computer-based training or Computer Aided Instruction of the 1980s. In cases where mobile technologies are used. and Educational Technology. (read more in the article MLearning). E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning. All three are student centered. document cameras. These may include: digital cameras. however. instructional technology. extended. Luskin says that the "e" should be interpreted to mean exciting. Children learn better when they hear the teacher clearly. • Mobile devices: Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be used to enhance the experience in the classroom by providing the possibility for professors to get feedback. Technology which includes physical and process applied science can be incorporated into project. SmartBoards: An interactive whiteboard that provides touch control of computer applications. The benefit for teachers is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of the day. • There are many other tools being utilized depending on the local school board and fund availability. E-learning. but can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching. E-Learning pioneer Bernard Luskin argues that the "E" must be understood to have broad meaning if e-Learning is to be effective. The process that students are encouraged to employ (as long as it is based on empirical research) is considered to be a technology. energetic.hear their teachers clearer. emotional. also has implications beyond just the technology and refers to the actual learning that takes place using these systems. Along with the terms learning technology. It is also broader than the terms Online Learning or Online Education which generally refer to purely web-based learning. ideally involving realworld scenarios in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. excellent. or LCD projectors. problem. the term M-learning has become more common. enthusiastic. inquiry-based learning as they all have a similar educational philosophy. Classic examples of technologies used by teachers and Educational Technologists include Bloom's Taxonomy and Instructional Design. video cameras. interactive whiteboard tools. in which case the term Blended learning is commonly used.

have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training. Electronic mail (Email) is also asynchronous in that mail can be sent or received without having both the participants’ involvement at the same time. e-counseling. student governments and student newspapers. Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations. several universities offer online student support services. The advantage of such tools is that it gives the presenter the ability to show his ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them. the expert can mimic the one on one experience of the classroom and deliver clear. In addition.interpretation. The recent trend in the e-Learning sector is screencasting. many are delivered completely online. and discussion boards. This broader interpretation allows for 21st century applications and brings learning and media psychology into the equation. . such as online advising and registration. as well as newer online-only colleges. online textbook purchase. complete instructions. something a classroom cannot always offer. The idea here is that participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. Communication technologies used in e-learning Communication technologies are generally categorized as asynchronous or synchronous. the increasing tendency is to create a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. There are many screencasting tools available but the latest buzz is all about the web based screencasting tools which allow the users to create screencasts directly from their browser and make the video available online so that the viewers can stream the video directly. In higher education especially. which may be more confusing when delivered via simple text instructions. e-Learning can also refer to educational web sites such as those offering learning scenarios. With the combination of video and audio. From the learners point of view this provides the ability to pause and rewind and gives the learner the advantage to move at their own pace. wikis. worksheets and interactive exercises for children. A growing number of physical universities.

as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting. Virtual classrooms and meetings can often use a mix of communication technologies. In many models. require frequent chat sessions in the form of virtual classrooms and/or blog meetings. reusable content objects). Both the communities provide a general overview of the basic learning models and the activities required for the participants to join the learning sessions across the virtual classroom or even across standard classrooms enabled by technology. editing and indexing e-learning content (courses. Many activities. tracking and managing training/education. the writing community and the communication channels relate with the E-learning and the M-learning communities. A learning content management system (LCMS) is software for authoring. Lately context-aware ubiquitous technology has been providing an innovative way for written and oral communications by using a mobile device with sensors and RFID readers and tags (Liu & Hwang 2009). .Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. Computer-aided assessment Computer-aided Assessment (also but less commonly referred to as Eassessment). [edit] Learning management system (LMS) and Learning content management system (LCMS) Main article: Learning management system A learning management system (LMS) is software for delivering. feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned. LMSs range from systems for managing training/educational records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once. or it can host the content itself (remote AICC content hosting model). ranging from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems is becoming increasingly common. With some systems. An LCMS may be solely dedicated to producing and publishing content that is hosted on an LMS. essential for the learners in these environments. A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications.

The best examples follow a Formative Assessment structure and are called "Online Formative Assessment". The IMS Learning Design specification is intended as a standard format for learning designs. This involves making an initial formative assessment by sifting out the incorrect answers. (1997). The next stage is to make a Summative Assessment by a new set of questions only covering the topics previously taught. C. Indianapolis. Driscoll. New York: Harper Collins College Publishing. The author/teacher will then explain what the pupil should have done with each question. D. The Effects of Internet-Based Instruction on. Keil. K. Web-based Training. Westbrook. (1999). M. and IMS LD Level A is supported in LAMS V2. D. . It will then give the pupil at least one practice at each slight variation of sifted out questions. Wired for Learning. The term learning design has sometimes come to refer to the type of activity enabled by software such as the open-source system LAMS which supports sequences of activities that can be both adaptive and collaborative. Technology & the Educational Workplace. (1994). Microcomputers for Twenty-First Century Educators. Web-based Training. K. Lasarenko. James Lockard. This is the formative learning stage. IN: QUE Corporation. Scott B. Wegner. K. (1997). Thousand Oaks. JALN . K. D. P. California: Corwin Press Inc. Some will take this even further and repeat the cycle such as BOFA which is aimed at the Eleven plus exam set in the UK. J.elearning has been replacing the traditional settings due to its cost effectiveness. References: Dr.

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