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SUMMARY OF DIELECTRIC TESTS
The Basic rules for insulation requirements and dielectric tests are summarized in table 1 (IEC 60076-3). Levels of standard withstand voltages, identified by highest voltage for equipme nt Um of winding are given in tables 2, 3 and 4.
The choice between the different levels of standard withstand voltage in these t ables depends on the severity of over voltage conditions to be expected in the system and on the impo rtance of the particular installation.
Category of winding
Highest voltage for equipment Um
Lightning impulse (LI)
Switching impulse (SI)
Long duration AC (ACLD)
Short duration AC (ACSD)
Separate source AC Uniform insulation
Type (note 1)
Uniform and non uniform insulation
72,5<Um=170 Routine Not applicable Special Routine Routine 170<Um<300 Routine Routine (note 2) Routine Special (note 2) Routine Um=300 Routine Routine Routine Special Routine
NOTE 1 In some countries, for transformers with Um=72,5 kV, LI tests are require d as routine tests, and ACLD tests are required as routine or type tests. NOTE 2 If the ACSD test is specified, the SI is not required. This should be cl early stated in the enquiry document.
Requirement and tests for different categories of winding
Highest voltage for Equipment um Kv r.s. Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage kV peak Rated short duration induced or separate source AC withstand voltage kV r.m.s.5 38 95 . 20 3.2 20 60 12 28 75 17.6 10 40 7.m.
24 50 125 145 36 70 170 52 250 95 60 280 115 72. .5 325 140 380 150 100 450 185 123 550 230 145 650 275 170 750 325 NOTE Dotted lines may require additional phase-to-phase withstand tests to prove that the required phase-to-phase withstand voltages are met.
Tekstni okvir: Table 2 Rated withstand voltages for transformer winding with hig hest voltage for equipment Um£170 kV Series I based on European practice .
4 36.m. Distribution (note 1) and class I transformers (note 2) CLASS II transformers (note 3) Distribution and class I transformers CLASS II transformers 15 26.Highest voltage for equipment Um Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage kV peak Rated short-duration induced or separate source AC withstand voltage kV r.3 72.5 121 145 .5 48.s.
169 95 125 150 200 250 350 110 150 200 250 350 350 450 550 650 750 34 40 50 70 .
5 kV. NOTE 3 Class II power transformers include high-voltage windings of Um=121 kV. .95 140 34 50 70 95 140 140 185 230 275 325 NOTE 1 Distribution transformers transfer electrical energy from a primary distr ibution circuit to a secondary distribution circuit. NOTE 2 Class I power transformers include high-voltage windings of Um=72.
Series II based on North American practice .Table 3 Rated withstand voltages for transformer windings with highest voltage for equipment Um=169 kV .
Highest voltage for equipment Um kV r.s. Rated switching impulse withstand voltage phasetoearth kV peak Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage kV peak Rated short-duration induced or separate source AC withstand voltage kV r. 650 550 325 750 650 360 245 850 750 300 850 362 950 395 950 460 1 050 510 .m.m.s.
1 175 1050 850 460 1175 950 510 .
420 1300 1050 570 550 1425 1175 630 1550 .
1300 680 1675 1300 note 3 1800 800 1425 note 3 .
.1950 1550 note 3 2100 NOTE 1 Dotted lines are not in line with IEC60071-1 but are current practice in some countries.
special measures may have to be taken to perform the short-duration AC induced test. higher test voltages may be requir ed to prove that the required phase-to-phase withstand voltages are met. NOTE 3 Note applicable.NOTE 2 For uniformly insulated transformers with extremely low values of rated A C insulation levels. unless otherwise agreed. Table 4 Rated withstand voltages for transformer windings with Um>170 kV . This is valid for the lower insulation levels assign ed to the different Um in the table. NOTE 4 For voltages given in the last column.
50 Hz. which is placed in side the bridge and equipped with a decade display. MEASUREMENT OF VOLTAGE RATIO AND CHECK OF CONNECTION SYMBOL 2.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT The voltage ratio measurements are carried out by means of a measuring bridge. 2. U1 1U 1V 1W 1N 2U 2V 2W 2N y x U2 Test object ~ Fig. The function of the bridge is shown in Fig. 2-1 . The vector group is also checked at the same time. 2-1.5%). T he accuracy of the bridge is ±0.1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT The voltage ratio of a transformer is the ratio at no-load of rated voltage of o ne winding to the rated voltage of another winding (line to line voltage in a three-phase transformer).1%.2. The voltage supply used for the bridge is 400/230 (380/220) V. The voltages of the transformer under test are compared to the corresponding voltages of a regulating inductive divider. The result of deviations is show n directly on the display of the bridge. The purpose of the measurement is to check that the deviation of the voltage rat ion does not exceed the limit of the transformer standard (generally 0. When the zero indicator is equilibrated. the voltage rati on of the inductive divider is the same as that of the transformer under test.
Tekstni okvir: .Because the bridge measuring device works on the single-phase principle the volt age ratio is measured phase by phase between two windings mounted on the same leg. 2-2. When the measuring conductors of the transformer are connected to the b ridge according to Fig. The indication on t he bridge display depends on the vector group of the transformers main voltages (See Fig. 2-1 and Fig. 2-2) At the same time with the voltage ratio measurement the vector group symbol of t he transformer is also checked. the bridge can be balanced only if the vector group is co rrect.
In the report the specified tapping voltage ratios are stated. Dd 0 iii i ii II II II III III 0 Dy I i iii ii Dz 0 i iii ii 0 i iii 8 Yz II i iii ii II Dz 10 10 i ii iii Yz 7 Dz 8 ii 7 i iii Dz 6 6 ii ii i iii Yz 5 i 5 ii iii Dz 4 iii ii i Dz 2 2 iii i ii iii ii Yz I i I .The ratio measurement is performed with the test object in no-load condition. as well as the deviations of measured ratios from these values. The connection symbol is also stated in the test report. The voltage ratios are measured for each tapping connection of the transformer.
4 i Dd 2 iii ii I 2 i Dd 4 iii ii 4 iii ii Dy 5 i 5 6 iii i Dd 6 ii Dy 7 i 7 ii iii Dd 8 iii ii i 8 10 Dd 10 iii i ii iii ii Dy II i II i iii ii Yy 0 0 iii i ii Yd I I Yd 5 iii i ii 5 6 Yy 6 ii iii i 7 Yd 7 ii iii i Yd II II i iii ii Fig. 2-2 Designation of symbols for three-phase transformers .
1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT The resistance between all pairs of phase terminals of each transformer winding are measured using direct current. DC current and voltage drop a re measured by using instruments of 0. A ration between voltage drop and current gives the measured resistance. Tempera ture is measured by Hgthermometer placed in the thermometer pocket on the transformer cover. MEASUREMENT OF WINDING RESISTANCE 3. The required current is obtained from a battery 60V. The measured resistances are needed in connection with the load loss measurement when the load losses are corrected to correspond to the reference temperature.2 APPARATUS AND MEASURING CIRCUIT Winding resistance between corresponding terminals is measured by means of U-I m ethod.2 class according to Fig. 3. 3-1. The measurement is performed in all OLTC tappings. Furthermore the corresponding winding temperature is measured. The measurement is performed for each connection of connectable winding s and for each tapping connection.3. The measurement will also show whether the winding joints are in order and the w indings correctly connected. 2U 2V 2W 1U 1V 1W V A + ba-ttery Test object Re .
During this period the temperature differences of the transformer wi ll equalize and the winding temperature will become equal to the oil temperature. When switching on the supply voltage E to the measuring circuit the winding inductance L tends to resist the increase of the current.3 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT Before the measurement starts. The average winding temperature is obtained by determining the average oil tempe rature. 3-1 The resistance value is then determined as ampermeter reading R = voltmeter reading 3. The average oil temperature is obtained by measuring the top oil temperature in an oil-filled th ermometer pocket situated in cover. the transformer is standing for at least 3 hours filled with oil and without excitation.Fig. and the bottom oil temperature in the drain valve and taking the average of these two. .
1) . However. Furthermore the time constant can be reduced by using as high a supply voltage a s possible enabling an increased series resistance in the circuit. the tapping position and the average temperature of the windings during the measurement are stated. otherwise the temperature rise of the winding caused by measuring current will g ive rise to measuring errors. . . . the supply vol tage is approximately constant and the current is adjusted by means of the series resistance Re.L Rt e R i E 1 t = time from switching on L/R = time constant of the circuit R = total resistance of the circuit To shorten the time for the current to become steady so high a measuring current is used that the core will be saturated and the inductance will be low. .4 TEST RESULT The resistance values and the average temperature are calculated. The measuring current is usually 5 10 times the no-load current of the winding. = . . 3.The rate of increase depends on the time constant of the circuit: (3. . When using a battery. . between which the resistances are measured. . the current should be less than 10% of the rate d current of the winding. In the report the terminals. the connection.
4 APPARATUS AND MEASURING CIRCUIT On account of the test room facilities it is customary to short-circuit the low voltage winding and supply current to the high voltage winding. For multi-winding tr ansformers the test has to be repeated for each combination of two windings. 4. As the impedance voltage wil l vary within wide limits. It is not practical to carry out these measurements with the test o bject in normal operation transmitting its rated power. Consequently it is customary to express the impedance voltage as a per centage of the rated voltage of the corresponding winding. 4. clumps and tank structure.3 LOAD LOSSES The measured load losses will be practically the same independent of which windi ng is short-circuited and to which winding the current is supplied. IMPEDANCE AND LOAD LOSS MEASUREMENT 4. The tests are made at short-circuit condition with one winding short-circuited and current at rated frequency supplied to another winding. S eparation of the loss components is necessary as information for prediction and control of losses. a . From the total losses measured and the winding DC-resistances. For large test objects the demand for react ive power will be considerable and is normally supplied by static condenser banks. The load losses are losses associated wit h the load current and the leakage flux and consist of losses in conductors as for DC.4.1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT The measurement of impedance and load loss of transformers is a routine test per formed on all units. I t serves to verify properties that are of great importance to the transformer operation.2 IMPEDANCE The measured impedance voltage depends on the voltage rating of the winding wher e the measurements are made. The impedance is decisive for the distribution of currents and voltages within the power system and load losses are important for an economic operation of the network. the stray losses are computed. It is only possible to do in a proper way on the complete unit at the final testing. eddy-current losses in conductors caused by the leakage flux and hysteresis and eddy-current losses in the core. 4. It is also necessary for converting the losses from the temperature at the measurement to the reference t emperature as the loss components are affected differently by a change in temperature.
In the state-of-the-art testing installation digital wattmeters will be utilized which have superior ability for data recording. In a traditional instrumentation the three-wattmeter method should always be use d for three-phase measurements. Voltages. Only high quality measuring transformers and instruments must be used. The temperature is an important factor in this test and is measured with thermom eters in the oil system. Correct ion of errors is discussed in clause 4.5. 4-1 as an example. the errors in ratio a nd phase displacement of the measuring transformers will introduce errors which have to be corrected.step-up transformer is normally necessary between the generator and the test obj ect. Irrespective of the instrumentation for power measurement. currents and power are measured by instruments supplied from measuring transformers as given in fig. The impedances of transformers are linear and there is no need to take creation of harmonics into consideration. With a data acquisition system and a suitable computer program the me asured data are processed and a complete test record written out. . Especially large test objects have low power factors and this imposes severe demands on the measurements of power.
1 or 0.2. Determination of measuring errors and their correction is a complex matter. cos. . the losses to be measured are: P´=U´ I´ cos. At present it is customary to use watt meters of class 0. I and cosf r espectively. Consequently. The actual instrument errors are normally only a fraction of their nominal classes.1.5 with cosf=0.´ and corrected values as P.G A W IA A A IB IC W W f C V A B C UA UB UC IA IB IC UA UB UC Data Acquisition & Wave Analyser Fig. Ampermeters and voltmeters have class 0. I´.´ Corrections for errors introduced by the recording instruments should be availab le from calibration sheets for equipment in question. 4-1 Circuity for measuring load loss and impedance voltage 4. Consequently it is imperative that the exact losses are establishe d and known errors are stated and corrected. We denote measured values as P´. U´. In a traditional analogue instrumentation the best availa ble instruments should be used.5 ERROR ANALYSIS With increasing cost of energy. the loss evaluation has become an important fact or in appraisals of transformers.U. The present analysis will not cover the complete subject but deal only with errors in the measuring equipment.
Additionally. The err ors in phase displacement are especially important in consideration of the low power factors for load-loss es in power transformers. It is important that the corrections correspond to the actual ranges and deflect ions.Digital wattmeters have accuracies of the same order as the best of available an alogue instruments. Ratio and phase displacement errors are given in calibration records as deviatio ns in percent and minutes respectively and their respective signs. Measuring transformers introduce errors in ratio and phase displacement. but their reading will result in greatly improved accuracy because random errors are virtu ally eliminated due to better resolution and synchronous recording of values. 60185 and 60186): . According to definitions in standards ((for example IEC Publ. for wattmeters the corrections must cover the range of actual power factors.
+ U E (4.. . .2) % · = U E U U .Ratio errors are considered as positive when the secondary value is greater than the nominal value when the primary value equals the rated primary value. .. ' = · 100 1 u U [ ] 100% ´ u i. + I E (4.e.. The ratio errors Ei and Eu are then: (4.. .3) % · = I E I I .4) d=du-di Signs of phase displacement of the current and voltage vectors and their combina .e. ' = · 100 1 i I [ ] 100% ´ i i. . . Phase displacement errors are considered as positive when the secondary value le ads the primary value in phase.
valid for inductive conditions.2 From the definition of error it follows that a relative correction factor c can be expressed as: ·100% = corrected value c corrected value measured value .tion into a total phase angle error. Fig 4.
.Applied on the measured power this yields: 100% cos cos ´ ´ cos( ) · · · · . the total error will be: [ ] [ ] [ ] 100)% cos ( % % % = + + .· = .· .· · + = . 1 ( d in radians) By neglecting products of errors. sind d . d u i E E The following simplifications can be made: cosd 1. . · . d u i E E E Phase displacement errors are normally given in minutes and the correction formu la is then: . . d . .+ · + · . . d U I c U I U I ] 100% cos ) cos cos sin sin 100 ) (1 100 1 ( 1 · . sin.
voltage and errors.cos ´ -d · = U I arc P In all the formulas (4. The corrected value for the power is: (4.2) to (4.7) [ ] ) 100 1 ( % E P = P· - The correction shall principally be performed on each phase value. The ratio errors are normally only a small fraction of a percent and can in most cases be neglected. That is easil y accomplished using a computer program. care should be taken to apply the errors corresponding to both the burden in the measuring circuit and the actual deflection. +d = and ) ´ ´ cos.(4.0291 % % % .6) the errors are to be introduced with their re spective signs. When having to do manual correction. cos( .6) ´ ´ ) ´ U I P · cos(.5) [ ] [ ] [ [ ] ( ) ]% cos 0.d -d · u i u i E E E The power factor has to be computed: (4. provided these do n ot deviate much . Consequently. this is more convenient t o do on the total threephase losses using average values of currents. = + + . The phase displacement errors are predominantly dependent on the burden and the degree of excitation of the measuring transformer.
. Analyses of load losses on several large units show that the power factors devia te only slightly within phases. but the phase displacement errors of measuring transformers can vary con siderably even for units of the same make and with the best available class.6 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT If the reactive power supplied by the generator G is not sufficient when measuri ng large transformers.within the phases. 4. a capacitor bank C is used to compensate part of the inductive reactive power take n by the transformer.
The transformer is at ambient ts are carried out. (4. If the transformer has more than two windings all winding pairs are measured sep arately.9) m m r U I U = I Mean values are calculated of the values corrected mean values are used in the following.8) P = m m r P I I 2 . losses I2R at the measuring temperature . .The voltage of the supply generator is raised until the current has attained the required value (50 100% of the rated current according to the standard). The readings have to be taken as quickly as possible. and the loss values are corrected to the reference he standards as follows. . because the windings tend to warm up due to the current and the loss values obtained in measurement are higher accordingly.c. . to the rated current and the value of the losses shall be temperature when the measuremen temperature 75°C according to t The d. the power P and th e voltage U at rated current are obtained by applying corrections to the values P and U relating to the measu ring current. The corrections are made as follows: (4.. the measurements are carried out on the principal and ex treme tappings.m are calculated using the res istance values R1m and R2m . According to the standards the measured corrected to a winding temperature of 75°C. If the measuring current I deviates from the rated current I. If a winding in the pair to be mea sured is equipped with an offcircuit or on-load tap-changer.. . .
. . . . .s= 235°C for Copper .12) C P I R C P s s m am s m s c + ° + + + + ° = 75 2 75 . it is assumed that the d. .10) ( ) 2 2 ) 2 1 2 1.obtained in the resistance measurement (for windings 1 and 2 between line termin als): (4. .5 2 I R = I IR m + I R m The additional losses Pam at the measuring temperature are (4. losses vary dir ectly with resistance and the additional losses inversely with resistance.c.11) P P I R am m = .7 RESULTS The report indicates for each winding pair the power SN and the following values corrected to 75°C and the relating to the principal and extreme tappings.s= 225°C for Aluminium 4.2 When the losses are corrected to 75°C. The losses corrected to 75°C are obtained as follows: (4.
5. MEASUREMENT OF NO- LOAD LOSS AND CURRENT 5.1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT
In the no-load measurement the no-load losses P0 and the no-load current I0 of t he transformer are determined at rated voltage and rated frequency. The test is usually carried out at several voltages bellow and above the rated v oltage UN , and the results are interpolated to correspond to the voltage values from 90 to 110% of UN at 5% int ervals.
APPARATUS AND MEASURING CIRCUITS
IA IB IC A B C UA U B UC IA IB IC UA UB UC Data Acquisition & Wav e Analy ser U = Ua v 1,11 U = U rms W W W A A A V V V G
Fig. 5-1 Circuit for the no-load loss measurement
5.2 PERFORMANCE The following losses occur at no-load: - iron losses in the transformer core and other constructional parts - dielectric losses in the insulations - load losses caused by the no-load current
While two last mentioned losses are small, they are generally ignored.
When carrying out the no-load measurement, the voltage wave shape may somewhat d iffer from the sinusoidal form. This is caused by the harmonics in the magnetizing current whic h cause additional voltage drops in the impedances of the supply. The readings of the mean value meter and r.m.s. meter will be different. The test voltage wave shape is satisfactory if the readings U´and U are equal within 3%.
Because the losses are to be determined under standard conditions, it is necessa ry to apply a wave shape correction whereby the losses are corrected to correspond to test conditions whe re the supply voltage is sinusoidal. In the test the voltage is adjusted so that the mean value voltmeter indicates t he required voltage value (U´). At the same time, a voltmeter responsive to the r.m.s. value of voltage shall be connected in parallel with the mean-value voltmeter and its indicated voltage U shall be recorded.
The following formula is valid for the iron losses.
The measured no-load loss is Pm and the corrected no load is taken as:
P P ( d ) m = 1+ 0
´ ´ U d U U = (usually negative)
The current and power readings of different phases are usually different (the po wer can be negative in some phase). This is due to the asymmetric construction of the 3-phase transformer; the mutua l inductances between different phases are not equal.
5.3 RESULTS The report shows the corrected readings at each voltage value, as well as the me an values of the currents of
all three phases. . From the no-load curve thus obtained the noload losses and no-load apparent power corresponding to voltage values from 90 to 110 % of UN at 5% intervals are determined and stated. A regression analysis is carried out on the corrected readings.
the test shall be carried out with or without partial discharge measurements.6. A three-phase transform .1 Short duration induced AC withstand voltage test [ACSD] for transformers w ith uniformly insulated high voltage windings On transformer with uniformly insulated windings.a Transformers without specified partial discharge measurement at ACSD The test voltage connection is quite same as in service. clause 11 . 22.214.171.124 PERFORMANCE The transformer is excited to the terminals of the low-voltage windings and all other windings are left opencircuited. In other c ases one of these two tests could be specified as a special test. withstand the temporary overvoltages and switching overvolt ages to which the transformer may be subjected during its lifetime. only phase-to-phase tests are carried out. The induced voltage test is a routine test for all units and it is specified as the last dielectric test.2. tapping leads and terminals. Standard short duration test is routine test for transformer with highest voltag e Um=170 kV and long duration test is routine test for transformer with highest voltages Um>170 kV. the test object is suppl ied from 200 Hz generator through a step-up transformer. turns. 6. For non-uniformly insulated windings this test will also demonstrate the strengt h of insulation from windings to earth and between phases of multi-phased units. Induced voltage tests are specified as short duration or long duration tests. Phase-to-earth tests are covered by separate source AC test according to IEC 60076-3. INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST 6. 6. Dependent on the highest voltage for equipment Um. Voltages are then induced in all windings according to the turn ratio. To avoid excessive magnetizing current during the test.1 PURPOSE OF THE TEST The object of the test is to secure that the insulation terminals between the ph ase windings.
The test voltage is twice the rated voltage. it should be earthed during the test. or 36 seconds for 60 Hz power frequency The test is successful if no collapse of the test voltage occurs.ers are tested with symmetrical three-phase voltage induced in the phase windings. . = . The time of application of the full test voltage shall be: for Hz test frequency t rated frequency 120sec 30 50 . If a transformer has a neutral. However. × = . the voltage developed betw een line terminals of any other windings shall not exceed the rated short duration power-frequency withsta nd voltage.
The full test voltage i s twice the rated voltage.1 / 3 m 1.3 / 3 m ·U 2 U voltage test U1 2 U < U start Fig. for the application of the voltage as shown in Fig. C=test time (30 or 36 s) E=5 min B=5 min.2. 6-1 Time sequence for the application of test voltage with respect to earth A=5 min. 6-1. The phase-to-phase test voltages sh all not exceed the specified withstand voltage for the winding in question.2. The three -phase transformers are tested with symmetrical three-phase voltage. . D=5 min The Background noise level shall not exceed 100 pC The test is successful if: .6.2.b Transformers with specified partial discharge measurement at ACSD These transformers shall be tested with partial discharge measurement.apparent charge at U2 does not exceed 300 pC on all measuring terminals . U start A B C D E 1.1. Short duration AC withstand voltage test (ACSD) for transformers with non .1 / 3 ·U m ·U 1. The partial discharge performance shall be controlled according to the time sequ ence.no collapse of the test voltage occurs.the partial discharge behaviour does not show a continuing rising tendency 6.
3 or 4 fro m KPT-QTPT 001E). with partial discharge measurement b) A phase-to-phase with earthed neutral and with rated specified withstand volt age between phases with partial discharge measurement a) The test sequence for a three-phase transformer consists of three single-phas e applications of test voltage with different points of the windings connected to earth at each time. which avoid excessive overvoltage between line terminals. The test time and the time sequence for the application of test voltage shall be as shown in Fig. 6-1. U1 is the specified test voltage and U2=1.-uniformly insulated high-voltage windings For three-phase transformers. the test sequence and the test connections should be agreed upon before test and test diagram should be enclosed to the test report. . to the table 2. T here are few possible methods. two sets of tests are required namely: a) A phase-to-earth test with specified withstand voltages between phase and ear th.5Um/v3 (acc. For particular complicated winding arrangements.
6-2b (successively applied to all three phases). measurements should be taken at U2=1. 6-2a) or in some cases in a single-phase connection that gives voltages in the line te rminals according to Fig. The test time and the time sequence for the application of test voltage shall be as shown on Fig.2.b. 6. Tapped windings shall be connected to the principal tapping. should be specified as a routine test (see table 1 in KPT-QT PT 001E).b) For the partial discharge performance evaluation. U U U U -0. The voltage to earth shall be: U1=1. of the winding under test and/or other separat e windings shall be earthed. 6-3. if present.5U -0.3 Um.2.7Um/v3 .5U a) b) G G Fig. during the phase-to-phase t est.3 Long duration induced AC voltage test (ACLD) with non-uniformly and/or uni formly insulated high-voltage windings For the highest insulation levels (>170 kV) a long duration induced voltage test including observation of partial discharges. The neutral terminal. The test time and the time sequence for the application of test voltage shall be as described in 6.1. A three-phase transformer shall be tested preferably in a symmetrical three-phas e connection (see Fig. 6-2 A three-phase transformer supplied from the low-voltage winding side with a delt a-connected high-voltage windings can receive the proper test voltages only in a three phase test with a floating high-voltage winding. unless otherwise ag reed.
U2=1.5 Um/v3 .
no collapse of the test voltage occurs . (KPT-QTPT 007E) The test is successful if: .5 / 3 2 m U = ·U 1.A B C D E 1. about purpose and methods may be obtained from enclosed app lication guide for partial discharge measurements.7 / 3 1 m U = ·U 1. In the case of failure to meet the partial discharge acceptance criteria. 6-3 Time sequence for the application of test voltage for induced AC long-d uration tests (ACLD) A= 5 min. partial discharges shall be mo nitored. D= 60 min for Um=300 kV or 30 min for Um<300 kV E= 5 min. clause 12 and Annex A. Further information. C= test time (30 or 36 s) B= 5 min.5 / 3 2 m U = ·U < Ustart U start Fig. During the whole application of the test voltage.1 / 3 ·U m ·U 1.1 / 3 m 1. .the continuous level of partial discharges does not exceed 500 pC during long duration test at U2 . furthe r investigation should be undertaken in accordance to IEC 60076-3.the partial discharge behaviour shows no continuously rising tendency at U2.
Partial discharge of some magnitude can cause gassing premature aging or even de struction of the insulation after a short time. Figure 7-1 shows the connection of test and measuring equipment used during part ial discharge measurement of one three phase transformer. From the results of measurement conclusions can be drawn about the st ate of insulation.7. 7. G F V V V 2U 2V 2W 1V 1W 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 Zm 1U Fig. On the other hand.1 GENERAL The partial discharge (PD) measurement is a method of observing the quality of t he insulation without risk of breakdown. PD measurements have become an important aid to quality control in transformer c onstruction. The criteria for assessment are the apparent charge q in pC.1 TEST AND MEASURING CIRCUIT For power transformers the PD measurement is normally performed during the induc ed overvoltage test as it was described in KPT-QTPT 006E. the quality of manufacture and possible concealed defects of insulation. partial discharges occurring i n certain materials and not exceeding certain intensity are harmless. PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT 7. 7-1 Measuring basic circuit .
the frequency characteristics are determined by lower a nd upper cut-off frequencies f1 and f2. Bushing taps for connection the pd-measuring equipment 3 Coupling quadripol 4 Measuring point selector 5 ERA discharge detector models: type 652. Using measuring point selector give us opportunity to perform the measurement on several terminals sim ultaneously. In accordance to IEC 60270. The measu ring circuit and indication on instruments constitute a Broad Band pass system determined by their frequency characteristics.f=f2-f1) or in this case 40-220 KHz. The measuring impedance Zm is connected to the test tap of the condenser Bushing . .1 Transformer to be tested (Test object) 2. which is at 3 dB for wide band (. with discharge magnitude meter type 6 66 (band with 40-220 kHz or 3dB) 6 Oscilloscope for observation the pulse distribution over one cycle of the test voltage ratio 7 Feeding generator 200 Hz 8 Step up transformer 9 Compensating power reactors 10 Selective low-pass filters (for 200Hz) 11 Potential transformers plus measuring circuit The scheme is generally adapted for testing high-voltage transformers.
The ratio of q0 to reading of the pC meter gives the scale factor of the pC mete r. 7-2 Calibration measurement 7. as it is shown in Fig.2 CALIBRATION MEASUREMENT The purpose of the measurement is to determine the scale factor ent with the complete test and measuring circuit.3 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT To achieve the desired low PD level. The voltage is increased stepwise. The background level should be recorded with the complete test circuit connected . ( om q q k = ) Because ERA discharge detector is equipped with suitable variable amplifier the signal can be adjusted to read the applied charge directly on the pC meter multiplied by scale factor k.7. The terminals should be shielded. raised to U2 and held there for a duration of 5 min. 7-2. first up to 1. raised to U1. but at nearly zero voltage. it is necessary to perform a thorough prepa ration of the test transformer. the bushings must be cleaned and all foreign o bjects removed from the cover and tank because unearthed surface can give undesired discharges. held there for the test ti me as stated in instruction Part for induced voltage (KPT-QTPT 006E) . K for the measurem The calibration is performed by injecting an apparent charge q0 between each HV terminals and earthed transformer tank using measuring point selector.1 Um/v3 and held there for a du ration of 5 min. V W 1 4 5 6 F U 12 Zm Fig. including the supply circuit.
The standard PD measuring sequence is reading of the PD levels at specified volt age levels at specified intervals (5 min) during the induced voltage test. In such case further investigations have to be performed to check the severity o f the PD. applied calibration charge. time intervals and background level will pu t down on a form made for this purpose. For example: From the distribution of discharged pulses which appear an ellipse (on oscilloscope) conclusions can be drawn as a to the type of defect.1 Um/v3 and held there for a duration of 5 min. 30 or 60 min (KPTQTPT 006E). applied voltage.Immediately after test time. reduced to a value below onethird of U2 before switching off. The voltage should be increased and subsequently reduced until the discharges ar e decreased below the specified level and the voltage are recorded as inception / extinction voltage. If higher then prescribed or specified PD levels occur the inception and extinct ion voltages should be determined. reduced to 1. .4 TEST REPORT A summary of test results which include measurement of PD for each terminal or m easuring channel. 7. reduced to U2 and held thee for a specified duratio n for 5.
OPERATION TESTS ON ON-LOAD TAP CHANGER After the tap-changer is fully assembled on the transformer. the following tests are performed at (with exception of b) 100% of the rated auxiliary supply voltage: 8 complete operating cycles with the transformer not energized 1 complete operating cycle with the transformer not energized. with 85% of the r ated auxiliary supply voltage ratio 1 complete operating cycle with the transformer energized at rated voltage and frequency at no load 10 tap-change operations with ± two steps on either side of the principal tapping with as far as possible the rated current of the transformer.9. with one winding short-circuited .
MEASUREMENT OF THE ZERO-SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE 10. Measurement of zero-sequence impedances is a special test that is carried out on ly when specified in the contract. Fig.1. the negative and the zero sequence phase system. 10.1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT The zero sequence impedance is the impedance. which a three-phase circuit gives to a set of currents that are equal to and in phase with each other in all phases.2 MEASURING CIRCUIT AND METHOD The zero-sequence impedance is normally measured in connection with the load-los s and impedance voltage test.10. 10-1 Circuitry for measuring zero-sequence impedance . The zero-sequence impedance is of interest for calculating loads and currents at unsymmetrical conditions. 10. The circuitry used is the same as for this test. but modified for one phase measurement as shown in fig. At such calculations the method of symmetrical components is applied. By this me thod any set of unsymmetrical three-phase vectors are resolved into three symmetrical component sets: the positive. The relation of the symmetrical sets of voltage and currents is for each system given by corresponding impedances.
When necessary the final result is obtaine d by extrapolation. 10. th e measurements should be performed on the three main taps. care should be taken to control that the current capacities of these are not exceeded.The phase terminals of the Y-connected winding are short-circuited and the volt age is applied between this connection and the neutral point. The applied voltage and current are recorded.3 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS The zero-sequence impedance Z0 is the quotient of the voltage and the current on the per phase basis which is: [ohms] I Z = 3·U 0 Like short-circuit impedances the zero-sequence impedance is normally expressed in percent of the per-unit value: 100% 3 100% 2 0 0 = · = · · · r r r U P I U Z Z Z . Any tests on other tap positions should be spe cified in the contract. For units where the current-carrying windings are equipped with tap changers. For test objects with auxiliary or stabilizing windings.
guard on low and ground (R13) Low to tertiary. guard on high and ground (R23) . The absolute insulation resistance values depend on the transformer rated power. guard on low (R10) Low to ground. guard on low and tertiary (R10) High to low. cleanliness and some other properties of the parts. dryness. All line terminals of each winding are connected together during the measurement . 12. results obtained in such tests are useful as reference values for l ater measurement at site. The insulation resistance measured in the factory afford a useful indication as to whether the transformers are in suitable condition for application of dielectric test.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT The insulation resistance is expresssed in megohms and measured by means of an i nsulation resistance meter with three line terminals at a voltage of 2500 or 5000 V d. Measurement to be made in insulation resistance tests are: a) Two winding transformer tests with guard circuit: High to low. That is why it is impossible to nominate or define a general allowable minimum insulation resistance value for transformers of differ ent ratings. Furthermore. The resistance readings R15 and R60 are taken 15 sec and 60 sec after connecting the voltage. guard on tertiary and ground (R12) High on tertiary. INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT 12. guard on ground (R12) High to ground. tem perature.12.c. guard on high (R20) b) Three winding transformer tests with guard circuit High to ground.1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT The purpose of the measurement is to determine the insulation resistance from in dividual winding to ground or between individual windings.
Low to ground. R60 and R60 /R15 are stated in the report. and temperature. R15. the measuring voltage. while the other windings are earthed. guard on high and tertiary (R20) Tertiary to ground. The type of meter used. 12-1. The basic diagrams of the test circuits for one three-winding transformer is sho wn on Fig. guard on high and low (R30) Each winding is measured separately by connecting the voltage between the windin g to be tested and earth. . The resistance readings R15 and R60 are ta ken 15s and 60s after connecting the voltage.
HV .G terminal ( Measurement R 1-2 = HV . 12-1 Basic diagrams for three-winding transformer . using «GUARD» .m (LV + STW) .G terminal ( Measurement R 1-0 = HV . HV .LV (STW+m) . STW-winding and tank (m). using «GUARD» .E G L (-) (+) Transformer under test m VN-HV R1-0 R1-2 R2-3 R3-0 R2-0 R1-3 NN-LV STN-STW Measuring instrument (Megger) Basic test circuit for insulation resistance measurement. to «G» terminal ) Fig.winding to LV winding.winding to tank (m) LV and STW wi nding to ''G'' terminal ) m E G L (-) (+) Transformer under test VN-HV R1-0 R1-2 R2-3 R3-0 R2-0 R1-3 NN-LV STN-STW Measuring instrument (Megger) Basic test circuit for insulation resistance measurement.
13. MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC STRENGTH OF THE INSULATING OIL The electric strength of the oil is given by the breakdown voltage. The electric strength of new treated oil should be at least 60 kV. The electrodes are spherical surfaced with 25 mm radi us and are 2. dust or moisture. may contain air bubbles. the rate of increase of the voltage bei ng 2 kV/s. measured usi ng an electrode system in accordance with IEC 60156. . The electric strength is the average of five break-down voltage values. which do es not withstand this voltage. Oil.5 mm apart. The measurement is carried out at 50 Hz.
15-1 Basic circuit diagram of the impulse generator The impulse generator design is based on the Marx circuit.1 PURPOSE OF THE TEST The purpose of the impulse voltage test is to secure that the transformer insula tion withstand the lightning overvoltages which may occur in service. LIGHTNING IMPULSE TEST 15. 15-1. 15. . The impulse capacitors Cs (12 c apacitors of 750nF) are charged in parallel through the charging resistors Rc (28kO) (highest permissibl e charging voltage 200 kV).2 TESTING EQUIPMENT Impulse generator Fn Rb Ra F C an 3 Rc Rs F2 Rb Ra Fa2 C Cs Rc Rs F1 Rb Ra Cs Fa1 Rs Fig. The basic circuit diagram is shown on Fig.15.
Tekstni okvir: Cs impulse capacitor Rc charging resistor Rs series resistor Ra low-ohmic discharging resistor for lightning impulse Rb high-ohmic discharging resistor for switching impulse F1 Fn main spark gaps Fal Fan auxiliary spark-gaps .
When the charging voltage has reached the required value. the potential of the following s tage (point B and C) rises. When F1 breaks down. C1 U= V= R1 R2 Impulse generator C2 C3 1U 1V 1W N 2U 2V 2W 2N 3U1 3V2 3V 3W . the potential difference across the spark-gap F2 ri ses considerably and the breakdown of F2 is initiated. Because the series resistors Rs is of low-ohmic value compared with the discharg ing resistors Rb (4. The required voltage is obtained by selecting a suitable number of series-connec ted stages and by adjusted the charging voltage. and since the low-ohmic discharging resistor Ra is separated from the circuit by the auxiliary spark-gap Fal. The wave shape and the peak value of the impulse voltage are measured by means o f an Impulse Analysing System (DIAS 733) which are connected to the voltage divider. with a time delay of a few hundred nano-seconds. In these cases some of the capacitors are connected in parallel during the discharge. In order to obtain the necessary discharge energy parallel or series-parallel connections of the generator can be used. breakdown of the spar kgap F1 is initiated by an external triggering pulse.5 kO) and the charging resistor Rc. The high-ohmic discharge resistors Rb are dimensioned for switching impulses and the low-ohmic resistors Ra for lightning impulses. The resistors Ra are connected in parallel with the resistors Rb. Thus the spark-gaps are caused to break down in sequence. Consequently the capacitors are discharged in series-connection. when the auxiliary spark-gaps b reak down. The arrangement is necessary in order to secure t he functioning of the generator.
Voltage divider Transformer under test Voltage recorder Channel 1 (U) of digital tranzient rec. R1 resulting discharge resistance. C2 and C3 capacitances of the voltage divider The required impulse shape is obtained by suitable selection of the series and d ischarge resistors of the generator. The front time can be calculated approximately from the equation: For R1 >> R2 and Cg >> C (15. R2 resulting series resistance. S1 Fig.2) T 0. Current recorder Channel 2(I) of digital tranzient rec. . 15-2 Equivalent diagram of the impulse test circuit C1 resulting impulse capacitance.1) T t = · R ·C 1 2 3 and the half time to half value from the equation 2 1 1 (15.7 · R ·C In practice the testing circuit is dimensioned according to experience.
RECORDER S1 Ra Ra b RECORDER c S1 RECORDER a S1 RECORDER Ra RECORDER Ru d S 1 RECORDER e S1 Ra R S1 b RECORDER Fig. 15-4 Transformer impulse and fault detection connections. The impulse test-s equence is applied successively to each of the line terminals of the tested winding. tertiary windings) the low voltage winding ma y be impulse tested . However.g. the time to half-value obtained is often too short ( Fig. According to the IEC 60076-3 st andard the resistances of the resistors must be selected so that the voltages at the adjacent terminals do not exceed 75% of the test voltage and the resistance does not exceed 500O.3 CONNECTION OF THE TEST OBJECT The testing impulse test is normally applied to all windings. the time to half value can be increased by connecting suitable r esistors ( Ra in Fig. step-up transformers.15. When testing low voltage windings of high power. 15-4b) between the adjacent terminals and earth. 15-4a and b). The other line terminals and the neutral terminal are earthed (single-terminal test. a and b l-terminal testing c and d neutral terminal testing When the low voltage winding in service cannot be subjected to lightning overvol tages from the low voltage system (e. 15-5). Fig.
According to the standard IEC 60076-3 the line terminals of the low voltage wind ing are connected to earth through resistances of such value (resistances Ra in Fig.simultaneously with the impulse tests on the high voltage winding with surges tr ansferred from the high voltage winding to the low voltage winding (Fig. The r esistance shall not exceed 5000 O. test with transferred vo ltages). 15-4e) that the amplit ude of transferred impulse voltage between line terminal and earth or between different line terminals or a cross a phase winding will be as high as possible but not exceeding the rated impulse withstand voltage. . 15-4e.
monitor. The front time (T1) and the time to half-value (T2) are defined in accordance with the standard. 15.4 PERFORMANCE OF THE IMPULSE TEST The test is performed with standard lightning impulses of negative polarity. The equipment for voltage and current signal recording consists of digital trans ient recorder. The front time is allowed to be up to 13 µsec. Experience gained from results of tests on similar units or eventual precalculation can give guidance for selecting compone nts for the wave shaping circuit. Fig.2µs ± 30% Time to half-value T2 = 50 µs ± 20% In practice the impulse shape may deviate from the standard impulse when testing low-voltage windings of high rated power and windings of high input capacitance. computer. The test sequence consists of one reference impulse (RW) at 75% of full amplitud e followed by the specified number of voltage applications at full amplitude (FW) (according to IEC 60076-3 three full impulses). The failure detection is normally accompolished by exmination of the oscillograms of the applied test voltage.The neutral terminal is normally tested directly or indirectly by connecting a h igh-ohmic resistor between the neutral and earth (voltage divider Ra. The impulse test is performed with negative polarity voltages to avoid erratic f lashovers in the external insulation and test circuit. 2/2 izdanje 03. . The impulse test of a neutral terminal is performed only if requested by a custo mer.2002. plotter and printer. the neutral current and / or the capacitively transferred current. Waveform adjustments are necessary for most test objects. 15-5 Standard lightning impulse Front time T1 = 1. Ru) and by applying the impulse (Fig. 154c and d) to the line terminals connected together.
The recordings at the two levels can be compared directly for failure indication . Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: 0 1.9* 0.67 T .3 U t T2 T T1 =1. For regulating transformers one phase is tested with the on-load tap changer set for the rated voltage and the two other phases are tested in each of the extreme positions.0 0.5 0.
values for all comp onents in the impulse shaping and measuring circuits. The two traces should have a perfect match to constitute evidence that the insul ation has passed the test.5 TEST REPORT The detailed test record cover setting of impulse generator. . 15. connection of the test object.Detection of correctness at impulse testing is based on comparison of voltage an d current records obtained at reduced and full amplitudes. parameters for the wave-s hape and oscillogram records for each voltage application.
.. The duration Tc from t he beginning of the impulse to the chopping can vary within the range of 2. The delay of the chopping gap ignition impulse in relation to the impulse generation is adju stable.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE TEST The test is performed with impulses of negative polarity. The impulse is chopped by means of triggered-type chopping gap connected to the terminal to which the impu lse is applied. 16-1).2 TEST EQUIPMENT For the chopped lightning impulse test the same testing and measuring equipment and the same testing and fault detection connections are used as for the standard lightning impulse test... thus the time Tc from the start of the impulse to the chopping can be adjusted (Fig. 16..6µs (Fig. 16-1). TEST WITH THE LIGHTNING IMPULSE CHOPPED ON THE TAIL 16.6 µs .2 µs ± 30% Time to chopping Tc = 2.1 PURPOSE OF THE TEST The purpose of the chopped lightning test is to secure that the transformer insu lation withstand the voltage stresses caused by chopped lightning impulses. Fig 16-1 Chopped lightning impulse Front time T1 = 1. 16-1) According to the sta ndard IEC 60076-3 the amount of overswing to opposite polarity shall be limited to not more than 30% o f the amplitude of the chopped impulse (Fig. 16. If necessary the overswing amplitude will be limite d to the value mentioned by means of damping resistor inserted in the chopping circuit. which may occur in service.16.
= 100% < 30% a ß c Y Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: Tc T1 0.3 0.9 1.0 b a .
which causes differences in the fault detection of voltages and winding currents. The test with chopped lightning impulse is combined with the test carried out wi th standard impulse. Furthermore differences in the instant of firing of the stages in the impulse ge nerator may give rise to initial high-frequency oscillations in the first part of the voltage front. At high test voltages there is a small delay in the ignitions of the chopping-gap.4 THE FAILURE INDICATION The fault detection is also for chopped impulses primarily based on the comparis on of voltages and winding currents obtained at 75% and 100% test voltages.5 TEST REPORT The test voltage values. When carrying out the chopped-impulse test. w here they are available when required. different t appings are selected for the tests on the three phases of a three-phase transformer.The voltage measurement is based on the peak voltmeter indication. The oscillographic records and measurement records are stored in the archives. tappings and the number of impulses at different voltage levels are stated in the report. . impulse shapes. usually the two extreme tappings and principal tapping. The following order of pulse application is recommended by the standard IEC 6007 6-3 one one one two two 75% full impulse 100% full impulse or more 75% chopped impulses 100% chopped impulses 100% full impulses 16. In this case the fault detection must be based primarily on the recordings obtained at the application of full impulses. 16. unless otherwise agreed.
The voltage developed between line terminals during the test is approximately 1.5 times the test voltage between line and neutral terminals.1 PURPOSE OF THE TEST The purpose of the switching impulse test is to secure that insulation between w indings. When the core reaches saturation the winding impedance is drastically reduced and a chopping of the ap plied voltage takes place (Fig.17. The flux density in the magnetic circuit increases considerably during the test. 171.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE TEST The same testing and measuring equipment as for the lightning impulse test are u sed here. 17-2). the maximum possible switching impulse duration can be increased. By introducing remanent flux of opposite pola rity in relation to the flux caused by the switching impulse. The remanence of opposite polarity is introduced in the core by applying low voltage current impulses to LV winding of opposite polarity to the transformer before each full voltage test im pulse. 17. SWITCHING IMPULSE TEST 17. between line terminals and earth and between different terminals with stand the switching overvoltages. the initial remanence of the core has a great influence on the voltage duration. A single-phase no-load test connection is used in accordance with Fig. between windings and earth. Because the remanent flux can amount to even 70 to 80 % of the saturation flux. which may occur in service. According to the IEC 60076-3 the switching impulse test is carried out on each h igh voltage line terminal of a three-phase winding in sequence. The time to saturation determines the duration of the switching imp ulse. .
17-1 Transformer switching impulse testing and fault detection connections The test is performed with impulses of negative polarity. The requirements on th e switching impulse shape given in the standard IEC 60076-3 are summarized in Fig. 17-2.Fig.5U S1 current voltage C1 C2 Loading 0. Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: U -0.5 U recorder recorder resistor .
When comparing the wave shape it is to be noticed that the magnetic saturation c auses drastic reduction of voltage and increase in winding current and the time to saturation is dependent . 17-2 Switching impulse Front time Tp> 100µs Time above 90% Td> 200µs Time to the first zero passage T0> 500µs ( preferably 1000 µs ) At full test voltage each phase will be tested with the number of impulses requi red by the relevant standard.The voltage measurement is based on the peak voltmeter indication. Fig.
The test is suc cessful if no sudden collapse of voltage caused by flashover or breakdown is indicated on the voltage oscillog rams and no abnormal sound effects are observed. impulse shapes. Thus voltage and current oscillograms obtained at full test vol tage and at 75% voltage level will deviate from each other in this respect.on the amplitude of the applied voltage. The fault detection is mainly based on the voltage oscillograms. where they are av ailable when required.67 T . Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: 0.3 T0 T Td Tekstni okvir: 0. The oscillographic records are stored in the archives.0 Tekstni okvir: Tp = 1.9 Tekstni okvir: 1. Test report The test voltage values. and number of impulses at different vol tage levels are stated in the report. When the core reaches saturation a slight noise caused by magnetosriction can be heard from the transformer.
g.18. 18-1. This is done with sound level meter Bruel & Kjaer type 2236 and calibrator type 4231. If the difference is less than 9 dB(A) bat not less than 3 dB(A) a correction fo . 18. the measurement plane is located at half the tank height.2 MEASURING EQUIPMENT A precision sound pressure level meter type 1 complying with IEC 60651 is used i n the sound level measurements.5 m.5m. Preferably the background sound level should be at least 9 dB(A) below the measu red combined sound level.3 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT The A-weighted sound pressure level of the Background noise shall be measured at points on the prescribed counter immediately before and after the measurements on the transformer. IEC 60076-10 or guar antee values given by the transformers manufacturer. 18. When the tank height is less than 2. Power is supplied to the transformer under no load condition at the rated voltage and the frequency with the tapping selector on the principal tapping. A sound spectrum analyses are carried out for the tra nsformer at the customer's request. MEASUREMENT OF ACOUSTIC SOUND LEVEL 18. The sound spectrum indicates the magnitude of sound components as a fun ction of frequency. as it is shown on Fig. The microphone position in the vertical direction shall be on horizontal planes at one third and two thirds of one transformer tank height when the height of the tank is equal to or greater t han 2. The sou nd spectrum analysis of the transformer is carried out by recording the sound band levels as a functi on of frequency. The measurements are performed using the weighing curve A.1 PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENT The purpose of the sound level measurement is to check that the sound level of t he transformer meets the specification requirements given in relevant standards e. The sound pressure level is the measured at various points ar ound the transformer as detailed in the standards: at a distance (D) of 30 cm for ONAN or 2 m for ONAF c ooling system spaced at an interval (X) of 1 meter.
r background level will be applied according to standards. Fig. 18-1 Basic layout of measuring points Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: 22 LV HV STV D=2m. x=1m Tekstni okvir: D Tekstni okvir: 36 Tekstni okvir: 38 .
Tekstni okvir: 1 Tekstni okvir: 15 Tekstni okvir: 40 Tekstni okvir: x Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni Tekstni okvir: okvir: okvir: okvir: 9 31 30 19 .
should be done in accordance with relevant standard. measured with the test object energized by using equation: . 18.18. S = LpAi i N pA N L 0 . Corrections for background level and environmental correction.4 CALCULATION OF AVERAGE SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL The uncorrected average A-weighted sound pressure level shall be calculated from sound pressure levels. defined by equation : a) for ONAN system S = 1. LpAi..1 1 10 lg 1 10 or when the range of values of LpAi does not exceed 5dB. in case of need o r as circumstances require. = . .25 h · lm or b) for ONAF system S = (h+2) · lm . . a simple arithmical ave rage will be used.5 CALCULATION OF SOUND POWER LEVEL The A-weight sound power level of the transformer LwA shall be calculated from a verage A-weight sound pressure level LpA according to equation: L WA L pA S = + 10 lg [dB ] S = the equivalent surface area in m2..
.where: h= height in meters of transformer tank lm = the length in meters of the prescribed counter More details can be found in relevant standard.
only in the linear r ange of their characteristics. they are insignificant for a user. During the measurement of higher harmonics the power voltage should be maintaine d so that it has a constant value. gradually increasing the value from zero to higher values.3 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT For the measurement. t hat is. The test generator and intermediate transformer are used. the measurement of higher harmonic contents. the above me ntioned fast-registering . is carried out during the measurement of no-load losses and in the same connection (see in KPT-QTPT 005E F ig 5-1).19. since the portion of higher harmonics in relation to transformer rated current is smaller than 1%. because of non-linear magnetic curve of the core. during this period. The transmitting ratio of voltage transformers as well as the load of current transf ormers are selected in such a way that their working points lie in the linear range of the magnetizing charact eristics. first. 1 GENERAL At imposed sinus voltage on a transformer. magnetizing current at no-load contains besides basic harmonics also higher harmonics. Such current and voltage harmonics can cause disturbances in e lectric grid or in connected appliances. However.2 MEASURING EQUIPMENT In the Test Station. The measurement of voltage is c arried out with a meanvalue voltmeter. 19. in the Test Station. they can cause even higher harmonics. type D 6000. usually 100% of rate d voltage. Therefore. 19. a required voltage is adjusted. The test circle is carried out without a feedback line so that the third degree harmonics cannot flow. as a rule. producer NORMA. The measurement of higher harmonics in magnetizing currents is carried out with a Wide Band Power Analyser. as a rule. MEASUREMENT OF HIGHER HARMONICS IN MAGNETIZING CURRENT 19. Higher harmonics in the current can cause in electric grid voltage distortion.
the final measured values of higher harmonic s are immediately obtained for the test protocol. . Higher harmonics are expressed in percentage of the fundamental one. 19.analyser with the memory in real-time procedure is used.4 PROCESSING OF THE MEASUREMENT RESULTS By using this registering analyser.
Overpressure of 35 kPa is applied on the tank cover and kept for 12 hours.1 PURPOSE The purpose of the test is to prove tightness of transformer tank and accessorie s assembled on the transformer. .3. TEST REPORT Value of overpressure and elapsed time are recorded with confirmation of tightne ss. 20. If requirements in the contract differ from those stated procedure and values as per contract should apply. 20. TIGHTNESS (LEAKAGE) TEST 20.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE TEST Transformer is assembled and filled with oil. Welds and joints on the tank are checked on leak.20.
22. core frame to tank. CORE INSULATION MEASUREMENT 22.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE MEASUREMENT Earthing links from core to earth and from core frame to earth (if the latter on e exists) are removed (disconnected) in earthing connection box (terminal box).3 TEST REPORT Measured values with indication of measured combination are documented in transf ormer routine test report. The measurement is performed by by means of an insulation resistance meter ( Megge r ). core to tank. (core + core frame) to ta nk. 22.1 PURPOSE The purpose of the measurement is to check and prove that the transformer core i s insulated from the tank and core frame. . For each measurement a DC voltage of at least 500 V (but not greater than 2500 V) is appl ied between pair of terminal bushings in earthing terminal box for a measuring period = 1 min.22. At least combination core to (tank + core frame) or core to tank is to be measured. In all measurements tank is assumed as earth potential. core to (tank + core frame). Measured values for each combination shall be above 50 MO. Several combinations o f measurement of insulation resistance are possible depending upon the performance of core and frame earthin g : core to frame. or un til the measuring insulation resistance become stable.
The transformer cooling system is supplied from voltage adjustable power source. Depending upon t he transformer cooling system this power can be consumed by fans and oil pumps. to specified value in transformer specification.2 PERFORMANCE OF THE TEST The measuring circuit and used equipment is in principle the same as for load an d/or no-load measurement (described in KPT-QTPT 04E and KPT-QTPT 05E). This measurement is performed only if required by the contract or transformer sp ecification.1 PURPOSE The purpose of the test is to measure power consumption of transformer cooling p lant or saying by another words to measure losses consumed by transformer cooling system. POWER CONSUMPTION OF COOLING SYSTEM 23. Values of current.3 TEST REPORT Measured values of current. voltage and loss at specified frequency are recorded in transformer test report.23. 23. Power consumption for each cooling group is measured if the transformer cooling system is divided into several groups. voltage and loss are measured and recorded. The voltage is adjusted to rated value for motors or acc. 23. .
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