Task 1

Introduction to Propellers
Vineed .M. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 1

A propeller is usually a typical type of fan that pass on power by changing rotary movement into thrust for propulsion of a transport such as an aircraft, ship, or submarine through a matter such as water or air, by spinning two or more twisted blades about a central shaft, in a way similar to spinning a screw through a solid. The blades of a propeller perform as spinning wings, and create a force through the applications of both Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law, producing a dissimilarity in pressure between the front and the back surfaces of the airfoilfigured blades and by speeding up a mass of air backwards.


Vineed .M. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 2

These blades are constructed in the form of an airfoil like an aircraft wing. The blades create lift when the engine spins the propeller blades. This lift is termed thrust and shifts the aircraft frontward. Most airplanes have propellers that drag the airplane through the air. These are termed tractor propellers. Some aircrafts have propellers that push the aircraft. These are called pusher propellers.

Leading Edge of the airfoil is the cutting edge that slices into the air. Blade Face is the surface of the propeller blade that corresponds to the lower surface of an airfoil. Thrust Face is the curved surface of the airfoil. Blade Shank (Root) is the section of the blade nearest the hub. Blade Tip is the outer end of the blade farthest from the hub.

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A propeller may consist of a minimum 2 airfoil shaped blades which are attached to a hub. this type of propeller is called a tractor propeller. likewise when the blades of a propeller are rotated at a high rpm the also produce lift. the hub serves a connection between the blades and the engine shaft. When the wings of an aircraft move through the air it produces lift. the thrust produced by the propeller is used to move the aircraft through the air.Thrust Thrust is the force that moves the aircraft through the air. The propulsion system usually utilizes Newton’s 3rd law to produce thrust.M. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 4 . Most propellers pull the aircraft through the air. this lift is called thrust which pushes the aircraft forward. propeller is one of the system which produces thrust. The blades of an aircraft are made in the shape of an airfoil like the wings of an aircraft. The thrust is produced by the propulsion system of the aircraft. Vineed .

Torque The torque of the propeller has a turning effect on the body of an aircraft. this is dew to Newton’s 3rd law “every action has an equal and opposite reaction” this implies the propeller moves in one direction with a force while another force acts on the aircraft body which rotates it in the opposite direction. One of the ways to correct this is to increase the lift on the wing which is being forced down. causing a turning moment on that side. While on the ground a turning moment along the vertical axis is induced by the torque reaction. Propeller torque effect When the aircraft is in flight this force causes the aircraft to roll. Vineed .M. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 5 . This causes friction on that tyre. more weight is being placed on landing gear on that side. in other situation aileron provide further adjustment. This is a permanent factor in the aircraft. As one side of the aircraft is being forced down by the torque reaction.

Centrifugal force is produced by the rotary motion of the propeller and it usually throws the blade out from the center.M. Blade Forces acting on a propeller in flight Thrust is the power on the propeller which is parallel to the route of advance and creates bending stress in the propeller. The greatest efficiency of the propeller is attained at an angle of attack about 2 to 4 degrees. Vineed . Torsion is a force in the blade produced by the forces of the air which usually twist the blades in the direction of a lower blade angle.Blade angle of attack Blade angle of attack is defined as the angle in between the chord of the element and the relative wind. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 6 .

Propeller’s Efficiency The Propellers Efficiency can be calculated in 2 ways. Vineed . as the RPM of the propeller is increased the so does the lift and drag. until it reaches a point where the drag produced is very high and the efficiency of the propeller falls. As we know when the propeller blade moves through the air it produces lift and drag. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 7 . This is done by accelerating a large mass of air to a higher velocity. The effectiveness with which a propeller performs this conversion is known as propeller efficiency. they are: • • Thrust Horsepower (THP) / Brake Horsepower Lift generated by the propeller / Drag of the Propeller The job of the propeller is to convert power which is provided by the engine into thrust.M.

Metal propellers are now broadly utilized in the building of propellers for all type of airplane. but the most satisfactory are yellow birch. Wooden Propellers: A wooden propeller consist of a number of separate layers of wood.M. heatresistance and aluminium alloy. Vineed . Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 8 . sugar maple. Metal Propellers: Modern metal propellers are made-up from great power.Fixed Pitch Propeller The propeller is prepared in one piece and is frequently made of wood or metal. The lamination of wood will decrease the tendency for propeller to deform. black cherry. The general look of the metal propeller is same to the wooden propeller except that the parts are usually thinner. and black walnut.

Vineed . Constant Speed Propellers A constant speed propeller is a type of propeller in which the blade pitch can be change to make better use of the power supplied by the engine. Governor A governor is a device that s used to measure the speed of an engine. These types of propeller were used in the earlier aircrafts and the pitch was changed by the pilot. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 9 .M.Two Pitch Propellers These propeller can be adjusted for two pitch’s the purpose of this is to maintain an optimal angle of attack on the propeller as the aircraft speed changes. the mechanism may differ in different models but the purpose is to change the angle of attack of the blades to vary the mass accelerated by the propeller.

The adjustable pitch propellers is one in which the pitch can be changed only by a mechanic to serve a particular purpose-speed or power. The controllable pitch propeller is one in which the pilot can change the pitch of the propeller during the flight or by functioning the engine by means of a pitch changing mechanism that can be hydraulically functioned. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 10 . Vineed .Variable Pitch Propellers The two kinds of variable-pitch propellers are the adjustable and controllable pitch propellers.M.

To stop wind milling the forward airspeed should be reduced to near stall airspeed. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 11 . this will cause the engine air pump torque and friction to stop the rotation and decrease the reversed lift.M. Vineed . At some point the angle of attack will become negative and the lift becomes negative and the propeller rotates by it self. This drives the engine as an air pump resulting in an increase in the aerodynamic drag which is greater then the drag produced by the stationery propeller. while this is happening the angle of attack must constantly be decreasing. If the forward speed is increased the wind milling will increase and vice versa.Wind Milling Propellers In a fixed pitch propeller the velocity depends on the forward speed of the aircraft and the RPM of the propeller. In case of an engine failure the pilot pitches the aircraft down to maintain the forward airspeed which decreases the RPM of the propellers.

Vineed . That is. This mode allows reverse thrust to be developed by the propeller. is especially useful. and sometimes to reduce the thrust to nothing. where the ability to maneuver backwards.Reverse Pitch Propeller A reversing pitch propeller can alter the pitch of the blades to a negative angle. A popular application is in seaplanes.M. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 12 . the blade pitch is changed so that they have their leading edge pointing slightly opposite to the direction of flight. but in sport aircraft it is more usually used to enhance maneuvering on the ground. In larger commuter and transport aircraft this feature is often used to slow the aircraft rapidly after landing.

Therefore a Feathered blade is in an approximate in-line-of-flight position. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 13 .M. Pilots can use these indications to resolve whether or not to take on the propeller synchronization or to physically help them to synchronize propeller speeds. The term Feathering refers to the operation of rotating the blades of the propeller to the wind position to reduce drag. Propeller Synchronization Propeller Synchronization is defined as the mechanism which automatically synchronizes all propellers of a multiengine. since its primary function is to decrease the beats created by the propellers that are rotating at dissimilar speeds.Full Feathering It is a constant speed propeller which has the ability to turn the edge to the wind and thereby eliminate drag and wind milling in the event of engine failure. Some airplanes give a visual indication of the propeller synchronization in the cockpit. Vineed . Propeller synchronization main function is to increase the comfort of passengers. Feathering is necessary when the engine fails or when it is desirable to shutoff an engine in flight. propeller-driven airplane so that they revolve at the same speed. streamlined with the line of flight (turned the blades to a very high pitch).

Oil at engine pressure. Propeller governor oil. 2.Beta Control A beta propeller is a propeller which allows the physical repositioning of the propeller blade angle outside the normal low pitch stop. which are utilized to control the blade angle. this stabilizes the first two forces and shifts the blades towards high pitch. these are: 1. so that a constant RPM is sustained.M. these aspects are power. Propeller control The speed sensitive governor of the propeller robotically controls the blade angle as necessary. A beta control is used frequently in taxiing. this supply the centrifugal twisting moment in the direction of low pitch. centrifugal force which acts on the rotating blades and usually shifts the blades into low pitch. 3. airspeed and air density. There are 3 forces. The speed sensitive governor gives the means by which the propeller is automatically fixed and power is transformed into thrust. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 14 . Centrifugal twisting moment. For the RPM to be constant the angle should differ frankly with the power and airspeed and inversely with air density. where thrust is physically controlled by adjusting the blade angle with the power lever. Vineed . There are 3 things that control RPM of the engine during the process.

This kind of propeller utilizes three kinds of forces at constant speed process.M. The piston movement produces the propeller to modify the pitch. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 15 .Pitch change mechanism Hydromantic propellers This kind of pitch changing mechanism is a mechanical hydraulic scheme in which hydraulic forces performing on the system are transformed to mechanical forces which perform on the blade. Single acting propeller In this system the governor directs fuel into the inboard side of the piston only. The governor controls the hydraulic fluid. oil at engine pressure applied against the outboard side of the propeller piston and this force to supplement the centrifugal twisting moment toward the low pitch throughout the constant speed operation and oil from governor pressure applied against the inboard side of the piston. The oil pressure from governor was amplified from the engine oil contributor by the governor pump and the force is monitored by metering the high pressure oil to or draining it from the inboard side of the propeller piston which stabilises the centrifugal twisting moment and oil at the engine pressure. The blade’s centrifugal force constantly tends to shift the blades in the direction of low pitch. Vineed .

Thus. With the aid of blade centrifugal twisting moment.Double acting propeller The governor directs its output either side of the piston as the operating condition required. The piston motion is transmitted through the cam and rollers . which intern decreases the RPM. The engine oil from outboard moves the piston inboard. engine oil from engine flows through the propeller shaft into the outboard piston end.M. Vineed . This type of propeller. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 16 . oil supply is boosted in pressure by the engine driven propeller governor. Force at flyweight is decrease and permit speeder spring to lower pilot valve. Double acting propeller uses double acting governor. As the piston moves outboard. Over speed condition When the engine speed increases above the RPM. the governor pump output oil is directed by the governor to either side of the propeller piston. thereby open the oil passage allow the oil from inboard side of piston to drain through the governor. cam and rollers move the propeller blades toward a higher angle. As the oil from inboard side is drained . the blades move to lower angle. Under speed condition When the engine speed drops below the RPM for which the governor is set. The piston and the attached rollers move outboard. is directed against the inboard side of the propeller piston.

Conclusion for Propellers By studying different types of propeller and the factor affecting them. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 17 . The only drawback in the propeller system is its inability to perform at high speed. which limits its use on to slower aircrafts. Vineed .M. they are an effective and economical system to provide thrust for the aircraft and with the use of constant speed propellers the prospects have been further increased. we have come to an understanding that. creating more room for improvement.

Task 2 Vineed .M. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 18 .

It is the biggest part of the engine which should be both strong and light.M. Vineed . at the similar time it permits the valve to allow air to enter into the combustion chamber and as the cycle goes on the solidity of that air goes on.Crank Case The crankcase is a body that carries all the parts of the engine. Crankcase in a 2 stroke engine In a two stroke engine the crank case is sealed and used as a combustion chamber and pressurization chamber for the air and fuel mixture. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 19 . as the piston shifts down opening the exhaust outlet vale and closing the air inlet valve. Throughout combustion the air go into the crankcase through the inlet valve.

It mainly contains air and oil. The oil is compressed by the means of an oil pump which is then transferred through a filter to eradicate any sort of contamination. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 20 . The oil flow in the 4 stroke engine is cut off from the air and fuel mixture in the cylinders.M. The oil is then sprayed into the crankcase and the parts inside. Vineed . It is designed in a way that there is minimum connection between the oil and the crankshaft when it is sprayed in the crankcase. this accumulates the oil from combusting.Crankcase for 4 stroke engines In a four stroke engine the crankcase is potted from the air and fuel combination.

Vineed . To perform this job the crankshaft has crankpins which are additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank.Crankshaft It is a device that converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotary motion. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 21 . at the end of which the connection rods are attached.M. A vibration damper might also be installed on the other end which reduces the torsion vibration. The crank shaft is usually connected to flywheel which reduces the pulsation caused by the 4 stroke cycle.

M. This is done by the use of a pump. for this reason high performance racing engines are dry sumped. Some times during a hard cornering oil in the sump surges which starves the pump of oil. Dry sump is used mainly in large diesel engines. Vineed .Sumps The sump is a space below the engine which collects the oil and other undesirable substances dropping from the engine. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 22 . racing cars and aerobatic planes. The sump acts as a reservoir and the oil collected in it is used to lubricate the engine. In a dry sumped engine a secondary external reservoir is used to lubricate the engine.

which strengthens the engine accessories and also to transmit the drive of the engine to the accessories such as electric generators. de-icing apparatus.M.Accessory Gearbox It is a gearbox which is connected to an engine. Vineed . landing gear retracting mechanism and etc. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 23 .

It is located in a cylinder and made gas-tight by piston rings.M.Cylinder & Piston Assemblies A cylinder is one of the main part of a piston engine. Because the cylinders are subjected to high temperatures it also needs a cooling system which keeps a check on its temperature. Its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas to the crankshaft through a piston rod. These cylinders are mostly cast from aluminum and iron before other features are added to it. A number of cylinders are arranged side by side the engine block. it is where the piston travels. Vineed . The piston is a component of a reciprocating engine. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 24 . In a 2 stroke engine it acts as a valve which covers and uncovers ports in the cylinder wall.

The Carnot heat cycle tells us that if the ignition takes place when the temperature of the mixture of fuel and gas is high it will be able to provide more work. Vineed . 1.M. Spark ignition system Spark ignition system is used in an Otto cycle which uses petrol as fuel. For example petrol is ignited by a spark which is given by a timed spark plug and diesel is ignited by compression heating. In this type of ignition the timing is controlled by the fuel injectors. Petroleum spirit 2. So it is important that the ignition takes place at the right pressure and position of the piston. the air and fuel is compressed to the point where the temperature rises to combustion temperature. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 25 .Types of fuel used in piston engines. Auto gas (liquefied petroleum gas) 4. In this system the mixture of fuel and air is compressed to a certain pressure then a precise time controlled spark plug produces an electrical spark which ignites the mixture of compressed air and fuel. Compressed natural gas Ignition system The ignition system depends on the fuel utilized. Ignition timing The efficiency of an engine depends on the time when the ignition of the fuel takes place. Petroleum diesel 3. Compression controlled ignition system This type of system is mainly used in diesel engines.

the lower its static pressure and the higher its dynamic pressure. This valve can be adjusted to restrict the flow or increase it. A carburetor basically consists of an open pipe a throat through which the air passes into the inlet manifold of the engine. Right below the venture is a butterfly valve also called the throttle valve. This is a governing factor for the power produce and the speed of the engine. It woks on Bernoulli’s principle which states. the faster air moves. This valve controls the airflow which in turn controls the air/fuel mixture. The pipe is like a venture its diameter decreases in the middle and then again increases. Vineed . Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 26 .M. The throttle is connected to a cable or the mechanical linkage by rods and joints to the accelerator peddle in a car or the throttle lever in an aircraft.Carburettors The task of the carburetor is to mix the fuel and the air for an engine. this increases speed of the airflow.

M. The main purposes for fuel injection:    Power output Fuel efficiency Reliability The electrical fuel injection is monitored by a central unit described the engine control unit. and when the fuel is no longer necessary the engine central unit disconnects the electric supply from it thus ending the fuel provide. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 27 . and then computes the quantity of fuel necessary to be inserted in the system. The injector is usually closed and opens to provide compressed fuel only when electricity is provided to the solenoid coil. This component observes the different parameters such as engine speed ambient temperatures and workload etc. Vineed .Fuel injection It is a device which is utilized to combine air with fuel in an internal combustion engine. A fuel injection system is particularly made and standardized for various kinds of fuel. The introduction of electronic fuel injectors has permitted us to utilize same injectors for all kinds of fuel.

An inter cooler is also installed to cool the air as compression increases the temperature of the air. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 28 . Vineed .Superchargers A supercharger is basically a compressor which compresses the air before it is fed to the engine this increases the pressure ratio. The supercharger is driven by the crankshaft and takes up almost a third of its power to run. Supercharging also decreases the fuel economy.M. power and also the efficiency.

sometimes the compressed air is passed through an intercooler before feeding to the engine this decreases its temperature. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor connected together by a shaft. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 29 . power output and increase the efficiency. this compresses the ambient air and increases the pressure and feeds the engine with this pressurized air.Turbocharger The purpose of the turbocharger is to increase the intake pressure of the engine to increase the pressure ratio.M. Vineed . The turbine receives the exhaust gases from the engine which rotates it and in turn rotates the compressor.

Its not just the engine that has been improved other systems associated with it such as the fuel injection system and the ignition system has seen significant changes in them.M. Though the principle at which it works haven’t changed but research and development with this engine has made it more efficient.) Vineed .Conclusion for a Piston Engines The piston engines are one of the most successful forms of engines and are available for a number of applications. Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 30 . reliable and also economical.

Thomas – Engineering Propulsion – 31 .thaitechnics.wikipedia.org http://www.shtml Ref 1 Ref 2 Ref 3 Ref 4 Ref 5 Ref 6 Ref 7 http://www.com/propeller/prop_intro.com/training/flight_training/fxd_wing/props.M.pilotfriend.html http://www.Source of information www.aerospaceweb.org/question/dynamics/q0015a.ht m Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design Engineering Thermodynamics Aircraft Manuals Vineed .

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