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Final Report

Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Sustainable Urban Transport for


Pune Metropolitan Area
Final Report
June, 2005

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

This study is part of the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities' (CAI-Asia) pilot
program Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia (PSUTA). The
program is supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation
Agency (Sida) through the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and jointly
implemented with EMBARQ, the World Resources Institute (WRI) Center for
Transport and the Environment.

The views expressed in this study are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Clean Air Initiative for Asian
Cities or EMBARQ or the Swedish International Development Cooperation
Agency or the Asian Development Bank.

The Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities or EMBARQ or the Swedish
International Development Cooperation Agency or the Asian Development
Bank do not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication
and accept no responsibility for any consequence of their use.

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

CONTENTS
Page

List of Tables ……………………………………………………… [iv]

List of Figures …………………………………………………….. [vi]

ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………… [viii]

1 INTRODUCTION 1-1
Background………………………………………………. 1-1
Terms of Reference……………………………………… 1-3
Approach………………………………………………….. 1-3
Pune City Profile………………………………………….. 1-5
The Report ……………………………………………… 1-9

2 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM 2-1


Definition …………..…………………………………….. 2-1
Key Attributes ……………...………………………….… 2-1

3 STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR EXPECTATIONS 3-1

Identification of Stakeholders …………………………… 3-1


Stakeholder-wise Expectation from ST System ……… 3-3

4 INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM 4-1

Identification of Indicators ..…………………………….. 4-1


Grouping of Indicators ………………………….………. 4-5
System of Assessment of Indicators ..………………… 4-8

5 DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR KEY INDICATORS 5-1


Introduction .………………………………………………. 5-1

6 MAPPING THE GAP 6-1

Identification of Data Gaps……….……………………… 6-1

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Page
7 ALTERNATIVES FOR BRIDGING GAP 7-1
Evolving Alternatives for Bridging the Data Gap……………. 7-1

8 TREND ANALYSIS FOR SELECTED INDICATORS 8-1


Access ………………………………………………………… 8-1
Economic ……………….…………………………………… 8-5
Environment & Health………………………………………. 8-13
Safety………………………………………………………… 8-32
Governance…………………………………………………. 8-35
Assessment of Sustainable Transport System in PMA
through Indicators………………………………………….. 8-35

9 SUMMING UP 9-1

General ………………………………………………………… 9-1


Summing up……………….…………………………………… 9-2

ANNEX 1.1 Pune city road network


ANNEX 1.2 Pimpri-Chinchwad city road network
ANNEX 4.1 List of indicators for stakeholders
ANNEX 4.2 Detailed evaluation of indicators
ANNEX 8.1 National Ambient Air quality Standards
ANNEX 8.2 Distribution of Vehicle Population among Different
Categories in Pune
ANNEX 8.3 Emission Factors for Different Categories of Vehicles and
for Different Vintages
ANNEX 8.4 Annual Vehicle Utilization by Category
ANNEX 8.5 Pune Emission Inventory under the USEPA
Programme
ANNEX 8.6 Indian Emissions Compliance System
ANNEX 8.7 Continuous Technological Upgrading through
Progressively More Stringent Emission Regulations
ANNEX 8.8 Pune City Traffic Photographs

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

LIST OF TABLES

Page

1.1 Pune MA Demographic and Area Details 1-7


1.2 Land-use Distribution Pattern in PMC 1-7
4.1 Stakeholders, Expectations, & Indicators for STS 4-1
4.2 Group Indicator with their Hierarchy & Stakeholders 4-6
4.3 Hierarchy Indicators with Group & Stakeholders 4-9
4.4 Distribution of Indicators with Hierarchy by Group of STS 4-12
5.1 Data Requirements for Access Indicators 5-4
5.2 Data Requirements for Economic Indicators 5-7
5.3 Data Requirements for Environmental Indicators 5-9
5.4 Data Requirements for Safety Indicators 5-12
5.5 Data Requirements for Governance Indicators 5-14
6.1 Environmental Indicators and Availability of Data 6-3
7.1 Bridging Data Gaps for Access Indicators 7-3
7.2 Bridging Data Gaps for Economic Indicators 7-6
7.3 Bridging Data Gaps for Environmental Indicators 7-8
7.4 Bridging Data Gaps for Safety Indicators 7-13
7.5 Bridging Data Gaps for Governance indicators 7-14
8.1 No. of Canceled km/Scheduled km. 8-2
8.2 Average Passenger Load Factor 8-3
8.3 No. of Breakdowns per 10,000 km 8-4
8.4 No. of Zebra Crossings Vs. Total Traffic Signals 8-4
8.5 Fare/passenger km. Vs. Petrol Cost for two-wheelers 8-5

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.6 Loss through Subsidized Fare Vs. Subsidy Provided 8-6


8.7 Capital Expenditure on Transport to Total Budgeted 8-7
Expenditure
8.8 Fare/km Vs. Cost/km 8-7
8.9 Investment vis-à-vis Requirement in PT per annum 8-8
8.10 Rate of Return on Cumulative Investment 8-9
8.11 Operating Fuel Intensity : passenger-km/liter (bus) 8-10
8.12 Expenditure to Revenue Realized through Transport 8.10
Infrastructure (PMC)
8.13 Expenditure to Revenue Realized through Transport 8-11
Infrastructure (PCMC)
8.14 Tax collection from transport sector to total tax collection 8-12
(PMC)
8.15 Tax collection from transport sector to total tax collection 8-12
(PCMC)
8.16 Details of Air Quality Monitoring Stations in PMA 8-13
8.17 Regulatory Standards for Ambient Noise Levels in India 8-22
8.18 Applicability of Latest Emission Standards for Different 8-30
Categories of Vehicles
8.19 Number of PUC Centers in Pune Metropolitan Area 8-31
8.20 Adequacy of the Number of PUC Centers in Pune 8-31
Metropolitan Area
8.21 Fatalities and Injuries/10,000 vehicles in Pune 8-33
8.22 No. of Persons Violating Traffic Rules/10,000 vehicles 8-34
8.23 No. of Traffic Police Deployed/lac vehicles 8-35
8.24 Assessment of Sustainable Transport system (STS) in 8-36
PMA through Indicators

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

LIST OF FIGURES

Page
1.1 Location of Pune in Maharashtra 1-6
8.1 Ratio of canceled km. to scheduled km 8-2
8.2 Average passenger load factor in % 8-3
8.3 No. of breakdowns per 10,000 km 8-4
8.4 Fare/passenger km. Vs. petrol cost for two-wheelers 8-5
8.5 Loss through subsidized fare vs. subsidy provided 8-6
8.6 Capital expenditure on transport to total budgeted 8-7
expenditure
8.7 Fare/km Vs. Cost/km 8-8
8.8 Investment vis-à-vis requirement in PT per annum 8-8
8.9 Rate of return on cumulative investment 8-9
8.10 Operating fuel intensity 8-10
8.11 Expenditure to revenue realized through transport 8.11
infrastructure (PMC)
8.12 Expenditure to revenue realized through transport 8-11
infrastructure (PCMC)
8.13 Tax collection from transport sector to total tax 8-12
collection (PMC)
8.14 Tax collection from transport sector to total tax 8-13
collection (PCMC)
8.15 Trends in daily levels of PM10 at Karve Road Station 8-15
8.16 Trends in daily levels of NOx at Karve Road Station 8-17
8.17 Monthly average SPM and NO2 levels at Nal-Stop 8-18
monitoring station over the years
8.18 Monthly average SPM, SO2 and NO2 levels at Nal- 8-19
Stop, Bhosari, and Swargate monitoring stations
8.19 Average SPM, SO2 and NO2 levels at Pune 8-20
8.20 Levels of ambient noise at Mahatma Phule Mandai 8-22
8.21 Relative percentage of PM10 emissions in Pune Region 8-24

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.22 Population of different categories of registered vehicles 8-25


in Pune
8.23 PM and NOx contribution of vehicles of different 8-27
categories and vintages of vehicles in Pune
8.24 Period-wise and cumulative contribution of PM and 8-27
NOx vehicles in Pune
8.25 Percentage of vehicles of different categories meeting 8-29
the year 2000 emission standards
8.26 Transport-caused fatalities/10,000 vehicles in Pune 8-33
8.27 Transport-caused injuries/10,000 vehicles in Pune 8-34
9.1 Growth of Vehicles in Pune 9-1
9.2 Levels of RSPM (PM10 and NO2) in Pune 9-2

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

2 ABBREVIATIONS

CB Cantonment Board
CSO Central Statistical Organisation
CNG compressed natural gas
CPCB Central Pollution Control Board
DALY disability adjusted life years
dB decibel
EMU Electric Multiple Unit
Fig. figure
GDP gross domestic product
Govt. government
ha hectare
HC hydrocarbon
HCV heavy commercial vehicle
HIG high-income group
IPT intermediate public transport
km kilometer
LCV light commercial vehicle
LIG low-income group
LPG liquefied petroleum gas
MIG middle-income group
MPCB Maharashtra Pollution Control Board
MCCIA Maratha Chamber of Commerce Industries and Agriculture
MVI motor vehicles inspector
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NMT non-motorized transport
NGO non-governmental organization
NH national highway
Nos numbers
NOx oxides of Nitrogen
NSS national sample survey
PCMC Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation
PCMT Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Transport
PM particulate matter
PMA Pune Metropolitan Area
PMC Pune Municipal Corporation
PMT Pune Municipal Transport
PT public transport
PUC pollution under control
PWD person with disability
Rs Rupees
RSPM respirable suspended particulate matter
RTO Regional Transport Office
SPM suspended particulate matter
STS sustainable transport system
STU State Transport Undertaking
SN serial number
USD United States Dollar
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
VED vital, essential, and desirable

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Notes

All tons are metric tons.

All dollars are U.S. dollars.

1 U.S. dollar = 44.2 India Rupees (2006)

1 Paise = 0.01 Rupee

1 lac =100,000

1 crore = 10 million

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Photo 1 Traffic Congestion due to Construction (near Agriculture College)

Photo2 Footpath Encroached by Hawkers (Shivajinagar)

Photo 3 Vehicles Queue at Traffic Signal (near Simla Office)

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Photo 4 On-street Parking at J M Road

Photo 5 On-street Parking at Laxmi Road

Photo 6 Traffic Chaos near Laxmi Road

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

1. INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND

1.1 Many cities in Asian countries are growing by leaps and bounds both
physically and demographically. The rapid growth of cities is putting
tremendous pressure on urban infrastructure—including housing,
transportation, power supply, water supply, and sewerage systems.
Transport, which is demand-driven, plays a very important role in the
overall growth of the economy. Despite having direct influence on
economic growth, transport systems in many cities in Asia—especially
in India—require much higher levels of attention in terms of their
growth and sustainability.

1.2 As observed in Indian cities, some of the common problems of


transport systems are as follows:
- poor integration of the transport network with city land-use plans
- inequitable access to transport systems
- very high growth in personalized modes (scooter/motor cycle, car)
- traffic congestion at major arterials, particularly during peak periods
- acute vehicular parking problems in commercial areas
- high incidence of road accidents, causing fatalities and injuries
- alarming increase in pollution levels (air/noise) due to vehicles
- inadequate public transport (PT) systems (bus and rail)
- inadequate attention toward the needs of non-motorized modes
(pedestrian, cycle, cycle-rickshaw) of transport.

1.3 In view of the high growth rates of personalized vehicles—and their


multidimensional effects on ecology, travel quality, environment, safety,
and public health—it is important for planners to take suitable short-
and long-term remedial measures. Although a number of studies have
been carried out to address these issues, the performance level of the
urban transport system leaves significant gaps in meeting the public’s
expectations and travel needs. Even an objective, uniform, and

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

reliable system of assessing the adequacy of urban transport is


generally not available, except though fragmented details.

1.4 Given this situation, it would be useful to identify a set of objective


indicators that would reasonably reflect whether the urban transport
system is heading toward sustainability.

1.5 It is in this context that the Clean Air Initiatives (CIA)–Asia Secretariat,
in consultation with the local government (Pune Municipal Corporation-
PMC), agreed to participate in the “partnership for sustainable urban
transport in Asia (PSUTA).” The Asian Development Bank (ADB)
received support for this project from the Swedish International
Development Agency (SIDA). ADB, working with local organizations
with expertise in transport and EMBARQ (World Resources Institute,
Washington, D.C.) initiated the PSUTA project in three cities in Asia,
namely Pune in India, Hanoi in Vietnam, and Xi’an in China.

1.6 The PSUTA project in Pune was managed by the Central Institute of
Road Transport (CIRT), an institute of national standing in the road
transport sector with a focus on research and consultancy in the
transport field, the training of transport system executives and
managers, and testing and certification of the quality of automobile
components and accessories. CIRT is an ISO 9001 and ISO 14001-
certified and NABL-accredited Institute.

1.7 The terms of reference (TOR) and the project’s approach and
methodology are described in the following paragraphs.

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

TERMS OF REFERENCE

1.8 For the study on Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune


Metropolitan Area, the following broad terms of reference were
agreed upon:

a. To define a sustainable transport system (STS) in the context of social


acceptability, ecological sustainability, political participation, and
economic productivity;

b. To identify key indicators with defining formulas, calculating (if


required) for access, economics and demography, environment and
health, and governance;

c. To categorize indicators in hierarchical order;

d. To assess requirements of key data for indicators (key data,


source/owner of data, evaluation of quality of data, frequency of data
compilation);

e. To map data gaps (that is, data requirements compared to data


availability);

f. To design up to three options for closing/bridging data gaps;

g. To develop recommendations for policy and decision makers with


respect to how to produce a sustainable urban transport plan and
policy structure for Pune.

APPROACH

1.9 An urban transport system should be planned, designed, and


developed to cater to total travel demand for both passengers and
goods for a city. The transport system must not only meet total travel
demand for a city, but also meet the expectations of the stakeholders
who are directly or indirectly linked to the system. A step-by-step
approach for this study is given below:

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

- We developed a definition of a sustainable transport system (STS)


for the Pune Metropolitan Area (PMA), taking into consideration
present and future expectations of concerned stakeholders for a
dynamic, eco-friendly, energy efficient, safe, affordable, and
operationally viable transport system.
- We identified concerned stakeholders for transport of both
passengers and goods.
- We identified expectations of the stakeholders for Pune’s transport
system.
- We calculated how meeting their expectations would affect the
sustainability of the transport system.
- We identified possible indicators for concerned stakeholders to
meet their expectations from the transport system.
- We identified quantifiable indicators to function as a tool for
assessing the level of sustainable transport.
- We developed formulas to assess the values of indicators.
- We grouped the selected indicators.
- We developed values/time-series trends of indicators to reflect the
sustainability of the transport system with reference to the
parameters of STS (such as access, economics, demography,
environment and health, and governance).
- We arranged the indicators in a hierarchical level on the basis of
levels of decision making.
- We assessed data requirements and availability of key data to
construct indicators (key data, evaluation of quality of data,
frequency of data compilation, source/owner of data).
- We assessed gaps in data requirements and data availability in the
existing system.
- We mapped the data gaps.
- We developed and evaluated alternatives for closing/bridging gaps
for each indicator.

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

PUNE CITY PROFILE

Brief History

1.10 Pune has always been an important region, from the ancient Hindu
period to the British regime. It attained glory during the Maratha period,
when it was a bastion of the powerful Maratha empire. The location of
Pune in Maharashtra is shown in Fig. 1.1.

1.11 Presently, Pune is the seventh largest industrial city in India and the
second most important city in Maharashtra after Mumbai. Pune is
known for its cultural heritage, educational activities, and heavy
industrialization. It is identified as a growing metropolis. Over the past
three decades, Pune has witnessed remarkable development,
particularly along the Mumbai-Pune highway (NH-4)/Mumbai-Pune
expressway, and in most regions in the hinterland.

1.12 The pleasant, cool climate of Pune is to a great extent responsible for
its development as a center of education. It has some of the finest and
most prestigious educational institutions in India. Two charming hill
stations—Lonavala and Khandala—are located about 65 kms and 70
kms northwest of Pune on the Mumbai-Pune highway (NH-4)/ Mumbai-
Pune expressway. Important historic sites in Pune include
Shaniwarwada (the palace of the Peshwa rulers, built by Bajirao in
1736), Parvati hills and temples (built by Nanasaheb Peshwa in 1749),
Saras Baug (a tidy garden in the southern part of the city, built by
Nanasaheb Peshwa), Chatusrungi Mandir, and Osho International
Commune.

1.13 Industrialization at present is concentrated in the Pimpri-Chinchwad


Municipal Corporation (PCMC) area. All the office establishments—
state, central, semi-government offices, and commercial centers with
high population density—are located in Pune city. Besides Pune
Municipal Corporation Area (PMC) and the Pimpri-Chinchwad
Municipal Corporation (PCMC), the Pune Metropolitan Area (PMA) also
includes the Cantonment Boards of Pune and Khadki.

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Figure1.1 to be inserted

Fig 1.1 Location of Pune in Maharashtra

Demographic and Economic Profile

1.14 The Pune Metropolitan Area (PMA) spreads over an area of


375.48 sq. km. The 2001 Census of India estimated that the Pune and
Pimpri-Chinchwad urban areas had populations of 25,38,473 and
10,12,472 respectively. Over the period from 1991–2001, the
population of the state grew by 22.57 percent, whereas the population
of the Pune MA increased by 65.19 percent. The population density
(persons per sq km) for Pune MA was 9,873 in 2001. The city
administration is run by two municipal corporations, PMC and PCMC,
and two cantonment boards, Pune and Khadki. Average household
size in Pune city is about 4 persons per household; per capita income
is Rs 6,615/month. Some 55 percent of households own a two-
wheeler, and 35 percent own a bicycle. (Source: Comprehensive traffic
& transportation study for Pune city, 2004). Table 1.1 presents
demographic and area details of Pune MA.

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 1.1
Pune MA Demographic and Area Details
Area Population*
SN Area jurisdiction
(sq km) in (in lacs)
1991 2001
1 Pune Municipal Corporation 244.00 15.67 25.38
(PMC)
2 Pune Cantonment Board 13.88 0.82 0.80
3 Khadki Cantonment Board 13.23 0.78 0.77
Pimpri-Chinchwad
4 Municipal Corporation 104.37 5.17 10.12
(PCMC)
Total area 375.48 22.44 37.07
Decennial population growth (PMA)
1991-2001 in % 65.19
Source: *Census of India 1991 & 2001

Land-Use Distribution
1.15 Table 1.2 presents existing land-use distribution patterns for the PMC
area.

Table 1.2
Land-use Distribution Pattern in PMC
SN Land-use category %
1 Mixed land use 0.5
2 Residential 21.1
3 Commercial 0.1
4 Industrial 1.5
5 Public/ semi-public 1.7
6 Public Utility 7.5
7 Transport & communication 3.9
8 Agriculture 43.2
9 Hilltop and hill slope 6.8
10 Reserve forest 5.3
11 Other 1.9
Total 100%

Registered Vehicles
1.16 The total registered vehicle population (transport and non-transport) in
Pune city in 2002 was 658,313, out of which 537,956 were non-
transport vehicles such as two-wheelers, cars, and jeeps.
Two- wheelers constitute the highest among non-transport vehicles
(491,747, or 74.6 percent of total vehicles), followed by cars (63,489,
or 9.6 percent of total vehicles) in 2002. Growth of vehicles in Pune is
about 8 percent per annum.

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Transport Linkages

1.17 The total road length in the Pune metropolitan area is about 1,250 kms.
This area includes Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), Pimpri-
Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), Pune Cantonment Board,
Khadki Cantonment Board, and some villages around the city.
Mumbai, India’s financial hub, is just 3–4 hours away from Pune and
can be accessed by the Mumbai-Pune expressway/Mumbai-Pune
highway (National Highway-NH-4), as well as by rail and air. With the
significant reduction in travel time (about 2–3 hrs) between Mumbai
and Pune by road via the expressway, there is growing passenger
travel demand between Pune and Mumbai. Similarly, there is also an
increase in passenger travel demand between Pune and other regional
centers. Some of the other cities that are well-connected with Pune are
Nagpur, Nasik, Satara, Sholapur, Kolhapur, Aurangabad, Nanded,
Hyderabad, Bangalore, Panaji, Kolkata, Chennai, and Delhi by
road/rail/air. Important major arterials in Pune city are old NH-4, Pune-
Nasik road, Pune-Ahmednagar Road, Jangli Maharaj road, Gokhale
road, Shankarsheth road, Satara road, and Sholapur road. The Pune
city (including Pune CB and Khadki CB) and Pimpri-Chinchwad city
road network plan are described in Annexes 1.1 and 1.2, respectively.

Public Transport

1.18 Currently, the city’s transport requirements are managed by Pune


Municipal Transport (PMT) and Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Transport
(PCMT). PMT and PCMT operate 849 buses and 212 buses
respectively in PMA (as of March 31st, 2004). In addition to the above,
about 7,500 buses (as on March 31st, 2002) are registered in Pune to
cater to the needs of a large number of industries, offices, and the
nearby region. About 6 lacs passenger trips per day are catered by
public transport. Large numbers of auto-rickshaws also operate in the
city to cater to the intra-city travel needs of passengers. Auto-
rickshaws tend to serve areas/localities with inadequate bus service;
they offer a relatively cheap source of transport.

1.19 Inter-city travel needs are managed by the Maharashtra State Road
Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses, private buses, rail, and air. The
inter-city bus routes offer services between Pune and other major cities

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

such as Mumbai, Bangalore, and Hyderabad. A variety of bus


services—ranging from ordinary, express, deluxe, and air-
conditioned—are available to suit different sections of society.

1.20 Pune is well-connected by rail to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Miraj-


Kolhapur, and Goa. Such rail services are also used by people
commuting to work to nearby places.

1.21 Pune is also well-connected by air via Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai,


Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Bangalore.

THE REPORT

1.22 This report is divided into nine chapters as described below:

- Chapter 2 presents a definition of a sustainable transport system


and its key attributes.

- Chapter 3 identifies concerned stakeholders and their expectations


for a sustainable transport system.

- Chapter 4 deals with the identification of indicators of stakeholders’


expectations for a sustainable transport system.

- Chapter 5 discusses data requirements for key indicators, including


data availability, quality of data, frequency of data compilation,
source/owner of data, etc.

- Chapter 6 maps data gaps.

- Chapter 7 details alternatives for bridging data gaps.

- Chapter 8 presents trend analysis for selected indicators of STS.

- Chapter 9 presents a summary of the study.

™‹™

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

2. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM

2.1 The Sustainable Transport System (STS) for Pune Metropolitan Area is
defined according to the expectations of the concerned stakeholders
for STS, particularly in the context of the following elements:

• Social acceptability
• Ecological appropriateness
• Political participation
• Economic productivity
• Energy Efficiency
• Safety
• Cultural appropriateness
2.2 Any transport system could be considered reasonably sustainable if it
adequately fulfils the expectations of the concerned stakeholders on a
continual and equitable basis.

DEFINITION
2.3 Considering the above, the STS is defined as follows:

STS is an integrated system which optimally satisfies


accessibility expectations of all concerned stakeholders on
a continual and equitable basis in a manner which is
dynamic, eco-friendly, energy efficient, safe, affordable and
operationally viable.

KEY ATTRIBUTES

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

2.4 While defining STS, we considered the following six key attributes,
which focus on the most important themes of the STS.
a. Dynamic. The term “dynamic” in the STS context highlights the
changing needs of the transport industry with respect to
innovation(s) in vehicle technology, information systems, traffic
and transportation engineering, and management techniques. A
dynamic STS tends to ensure that it caters to changing
transportation needs with reference to various aspects of the
transport sector.
b. Eco-friendly. This signifies the importance of developing an
environmentally friendly transportation system. It focuses on
harnessing the full potential of those transport modes that require
minimal energy resources and do not pollute the environment.
Such modes include pedestrians, bicycles, cycle-rickshaws,
horse-carts (popularly called tongas in India), electric trolley
buses, trams, battery-operated buses, electric multiple unit (EMU)
trains, and CNG/LPG/hybrid/fuel cell vehicles.
c. Energy efficient. The term “energy efficient” highlights the
importance of using transport modes that cater to larger numbers
of trips with the least consumption of energy, such as high-
capacity road/rail-based public transport (PT) modes. Maximum
usage of energy efficient modes will eventfully lead to lower
consumption of fuel, as well as lower pollution.
d. Safe. Considering the large number of road accidents and
mounting social costs of accidents in Indian cities, it is essential to
look toward transport modes that provide higher safety levels to
the transport system, such as bus and rail systems.
e. Affordable. Since affordability plays an extremely important role
in improved patronage of the transport system—especially the
public transport (PT) and intermediate public transport (IPT)
systems—and in obtaining a sustainable transport system, the
fare structure of the PT/IPT needs to be fixed at a reasonable
level.
f. Operationally viable. The operational viability of a transport
system—relative to city land-use characteristics and the existing

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Central Institute of Road Transport
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

layout of the transport (road/rail) network—plays a very important


role in making any transport system sustainable.

™‹™

3. STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR EXPECTATIONS

IDENTIFICATION OF STAKEHOLDERS

3.1 Having defined a sustainable transport system (STS) for Pune city, the
next task of the study is to identify concerned stakeholders, along with
their expectations for sustainable transport. The sustainability of the
transport system depends on effectively and adequately fulfilling the
expectations of the concerned stakeholders.

3.2 In order to identify the concerned stakeholders and their expectations,


the study team along with the representatives of EMBARQ worked out
a list of stakeholders of passengers and goods transport for Pune
Metropolitan Area. The broad categories of the stakeholders for STS
are as follows:

• Citizens. They are one of the most important stakeholders of a


sustainable transport system in a city. The transport system,
including infrastructure, is generally planned, designed, and
implemented/operated to meet day-to-day travel needs of the
citizens. People as stakeholders of STS have been further divided
into two categories, namely commuters and civil society.

• Service Providers. As the name suggests, service providers


(owners and/or operators) operate public transport (PT)/
intermediate public transport (IPT) systems in the city primarily to
meet the travel needs of passengers as well as goods transport. In
Pune city, various transport modes such as suburban rail, bus,
auto-rickshaw, and six-seater auto-rickshaw cater to the travel

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needs of passengers/commuters. Light commercial vehicles


(LCVs), heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs), and other intermediate
modes are operated to cater to goods transport needs in the city.

• Energy providers. The main task of energy providers is to ensure


an adequate supply of energy of appropriate quality (transport fuel)
to the service providers and for personal vehicles.

• Infrastructure Providers. The term infrastructure providers here


basically include transport infrastructure providers for road- and rail-
based transport systems. In Pune city, the municipal corporations
and cantonment boards are responsible for providing road-based
infrastructure. Indian Railways (IR) provides infrastructure for rail-
based transport.

• Regulators. Regulators as stakeholders play an important role in


STS. Regulators must develop adequate regulations, as well as
effective implementation of the provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act
and rules, enforcement of traffic police rules, vehicular emission
norms, and fuel quality norms.

• Vehicle Manufacturers. Vehicle manufacturers ensure an


adequate supply of user-friendly vehicles in the market. These
vehicles have to be eco-friendly, energy efficient, safe, and
universally accessible.

• Government. The government—including the central government,


state government, and local government—plays a key role in
obtaining a sustainable transport system. The local government and
its departments (municipal corporations, cantonment boards, state
finance department, state pollution control boards, and health
services department) play a vital role in ensuring adherence to
various standards and norms, as well as timely execution of
infrastructure projects, including tax collection and providing
universal and equitable access to the citizens.

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STAKEHOLDER EXPECTATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE


TRANSPORT SYSTEM

3.3 Stakeholder expectations for a sustainable transport system are


discussed in the following section.

CITIZENS

3.4 As mentioned earlier, citizens comprise people, civil society, and


commuters. Some of their expectations of a sustainable transport
system are as follows:

o Clean environment. The first and foremost expectation of


citizens from STS is to have a clean environment.

o Noise-free environment. The noise level in the city should be


within acceptable levels, which will eventually reduce transport-
induced cases of hearing impairment.

o Safety. Citizens expect a safe urban transport system to help


reduce transport-related fatalities and injuries. Safety measures
should include training of drivers, ensuring vehicle fitness,
controlling violation of traffic rules, ensuring strict enforcement of
helmet use by two-wheeler users, wearing seat belts for 4-
wheeler users, and providing enough trauma care centres in the
city.

o Access to transport facilities. Easy access to the transport


system is a very important expectation of travellers. Bus
commuters expect public shelters to be located close to their
residential areas. There should be proper integration of inter-
change points at bus terminals and railway stations. Similarly,
persons with disabilities (PWDs) expect the bus
stops/terminals/buses to be PWDs friendly.

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o Minimum travel time. Commuters expect to spend minimum


travel time for their trips. This can be achieved by improving the
journey speed of the vehicles, reducing congestion, as well as
by reducing waiting time at road intersections and bus stops.

o Adequacy of transport services. There should be an adequate


supply of all categories of buses to meet travel demand of all
sections of society (LIG/MIG/HIG).

o Reliability. Commuters expect the bus transport system to


provide highly reliable services, performing trips without
breakdowns during the journey.

o Punctuality. Commuters expect buses or suburban rail to


adhere to scheduled arrival/departure timings.

o Minimum waiting time for transport services. This is mainly


applicable to the public transport system. Commuters expect
minimal waiting time at bus shelters/terminals/railway stations.

o Affordability. The fare structure of the public transport system


(bus/sub-urban rail) should be affordable, even for the lower
income segment of the city’s population.

o Adequacy of travel information. Commuters of public


transport (bus and rail) need to have adequate travel information
about bus routes, bus arrival/departure schedules, and bus
shelters/bus terminals. Similarly, information about suburban rail
is required by its travellers.

o Comfortable journey. Public transport commuters expect their


travel trips to be comfortable. They expect to travel seated in the
bus/suburban rail, at least in buses.

o Safe side-walkways/pedestrian crossings. In Pune city, a


large number of short trips are performed as walk trips.
Availability of safe and encroachment-free side-walkways and

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pedestrian crossings constitute an important expectation of


pedestrians.

o Cycle tracks. Cyclists expect adequate cycle track length (km)


to meet their requirements.

o Parking areas. Personalised vehicle (bicycles, scooters/ motor-


cycles, cars) users expect availability of parking space for
vehicles. On-street vehicular parking other than designated
spots should be curbed.

SERVICE PROVIDERS
3.5 The road-based service providers, as stakeholder of STS, include bus
operators/owners, taxi owners/operators, and operators of three-
wheelers, 6-seaters, and auto-rickshaws, as well as railway service
providers. Some of the expectations of service providers are as
follows:

o Operational feasibility. For PT/IPT service providers,


operational feasibility of the transport system is an important
expectation for STS. It encompasses various parameters such
as adequacy of infrastructural facilities and demand/load factors.

o Financial viability. Service providers of PT/IPT expect the


financial viability of their services to the citizens/commuters even
after accounting for loss of revenue on account of subsidized
fares or subsidies provided by the government.

o Energy efficient vehicles. Bus and other IPT service providers


expect energy efficient vehicles to obtain improved fuel
efficiency/ operating fuel intensity.

o Cleaner vehicles. As mentioned in the previous chapter, eco-


friendly transport services are one of the key attributes of a
sustainable transport system; cleaner vehicles such as LPG,
CNG, battery-operated, and hybrid electric vehicles could play a
very important role.

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o Safe vehicles. Bus transport service providers expect vehicles


to be safe to minimize the number of road accidents caused by
vehicular defects. With the availability of safe vehicles, road
accidents may be significantly reduced.

o Reliable and durable vehicles. The availability of reliable and


durable vehicles, which affects vehicles’ performance on the
road, is an important expectation of service providers. Reliability
of the bus transportation system is usually measured by the
number of breakdowns per 10,000 km operated.

o Integration of rail with road transport. Service providers of


public transport expect effective integration of transport modes
to provide seamless transfer of travellers, including railway
stations. IPT stands should be connected with bus/ railway
stations within a 0.5 km. distance.

ENERGY PROVIDERS
3.6 The role of energy providers as a stakeholder of sustainable transport
is to ensure an adequate supply of energy (fuel) for public transport,
intermediate public transport (IPT), and users of the personalized
modes. Some of the notable expectations of energy providers are as
follows:

o Adequate demand and growth. Energy providers expect


adequate demand for energy on continual basis.

o Space for fuel station. In order to meet the energy


requirements of their clients, energy providers expect availability
of suitable land for locating their fuel stations in the city.

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INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDERS
3.7 Infrastructure providers are one of the important stakeholders of
sustainable transport. They plan, design, and execute projects
pertaining to transport infrastructure, such as roads, bus shelters,
parking bays, sidewalks, and traffic signals. The important expectations
of infrastructure providers as stakeholders are:

o Availability of adequate space for roads, sidewalks, parking


lots, bus shelters.

o Availability of adequate funds. Availability of adequate funds


is an important input for ensuring provisioning of infrastructure
requirements.

REGULATORS
3.8 Regulators are one of the stakeholders of the sustainable transport
system. They regulate implementation of various rules and regulations
pertaining to transport systems and subsystems. Some of the
expectations of the regulator are as follows:

o Rules and regulations. Regulators expect adequate availability


of rules and regulations to check vehicular emissions, their
roadworthiness, speeding, etc.

o Enforcement capacity and capability. In order to enforce


relevant rules and regulations, regulators expect to have
adequate staff (traffic policemen, motor vehicle inspectors) and
necessary infrastructure and facilities, such PUC centers and
driver testing tracks.

VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS
3.9 The role of vehicle manufacturers as a stakeholder of a sustainable
transport system is to supply an adequate number of vehicles in
response to consumer demand and to promote technological
innovation in vehicles. Some of the expectations of the vehicle
manufacturers are as follows:

o Healthy growth of transport sector.

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o Consumer satisfaction.
o Adequate, efficient, and transparent system of statutory
approvals.

GOVERNMENT (CENTRAL, STATE AND LOCAL)


3.10 The government plays a vital role in planning, implementation, and
control of various activities. Some of the expectations of the
government are as follows:
o Timely execution of programs and policies.

o Efficient tax collection.


o Compliance with statutory standards, regulations, laws.
o Minimal injuries/fatalities due to accidents and adequate
post-accident care.
o Universal and equitable access.

™‹™

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4 INDICATORS OF A SUSTAINABLE TRANSORT


SYSTEM

IDENTIFICATION OF INDICATORS
4.1 In order to meet expectation(s) of the concerned stakeholders for a
sustainable transport system (STS), we identified all possible indicators
that directly or indirectly reflect a measure of the expectations of
stakeholders. An indicator is a quantifiable and measurable parameter
that describes a certain activity, objective, or performance. In some
cases, it is qualitative.

4.2 All possible indicators are compiled and listed in Annex 4.1.
Subsequently, a VED (Vital, Essential and Desirable) analysis of
indicators was carried out. While vital signifies critical indicators for
STS, essential refers to the next level of criticality (less importance) of
indicators of STS, and desirable refers to indicators meeting basic
expectations of stakeholders from a sustainable transport system.
Following VED analysis, we identified a total of 52 indicators
representing critical expectations of stakeholders in the STS, which are
shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1
Stakeholders, Expectations, and Indicators for STS
SN Stake- Expectation Indicators Gro- Hierarchy
holder up
1 People/ 1.1 clean 1.1.1 No. of days pollution level En M
citizens environ exceeded national ambient air
-ment quality standards (NAAQS)
1.1.2 air quality trends for last 5 En H
years
(concentration of pollutants in
ambient air)
1.1.3 % of green area to total city En H
area
1.1.4 Pollution contribution from En M
transport sector as a fraction
of total pollution load (%)
1.1.5 Total fuel consumed (by type: En L
petrol, diesel) / 10,000 vehicle
population (fuel-wise)
1.1.6 Disability adjusted life years En M

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(DALY) per 10,000 population


due to transport component of
air population
1.1.7 No. of Pollution Under Control En L
(PUC) centers per lac
vehicles
1.2 noise 1.2.1 No. of days noise level En M
free exceeded normal level
environ 1.2.2 noise level trends for last 5 En H
-ment years
1.3 safety 1.3.1 Transport-caused fatalities S H
from per 10,000 vehicles (vehicle
transpo category-wise) including NMT
rt & pedestrians
system trend analysis
1.3.2 Transport caused injuries per S M
10,000 vehicle (vehicle
category-wise) including NMT
& pedestrians trend analysis
1.3.3 No. of trauma care centers S M
per lac population
1.3.4 No. of persons violating traffic S L
rules per 10,000 vehicles
2 Commut 2.1 easy 2.1.1 No. of bus shelters to total Ac L
er/ access road length
traveller to
transpo
rt
facility 2.1.2 No. of bus shelters/terminals Ac M
Persons with Disabilities
(PWDs) friendly to total bus
shelters (trend analysis)
2.1.3 No. buses PWDs friendly/total Ac M
buses (trend
analysis)
2.2 minimu 2.2.1 Travel time per unit distance Ac M
m travel for each transport mode
time (sample study-peak-non
peak) (trend analysis)
2.3 adequa 2.3.1 Travel demand & transport Ac H
cy of supply ratio (PT related)
transpo
rt
service 2.3.2 City capital expenditure on Ec M
s transport to total budgeted
expenditure (trend analysis)
2.4 reliabilit 2.4.1 No. of breakdowns per Ac L
y 10,000 km operated (for
buses)
2.5 punctua 2.5.1 No. of cancelled Ac L

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lity km/scheduled km (for buses)

2.6 minimu 2.6.1 Average waiting time at bus Ac M


m stops/shelters (trend analysis)
waiting
time
for PT
2.7 comfort 2.7.1 Average passenger load Ac M
-able factor (for buses)
journey
2.8 safe 2.8.1 No. of zebra crossings / Ac L
walkwa total traffic signals
ys/
pedestri
an
crossin
gs
2.8.2 No. of walk-signals / total Ac L
traffic signals trend
analysis
2.9 parking 2.9.1 Parking demand in sq km-hr / Ac M
areas available parking space
(on/off-street) per 10, 000
vehicles (mode-wise)
trend analysis
2.10 adequa 2.10.1 Capital investment in Ec H
cy of transport sector to GDP
transpo
rt
service
s
2.11 afforda 2.11.1 expenditure on transport as % Ec M
bi-lity of household expenditure (by
income group)
trend analysis)
2.11.2 Marginal cost per km for Ec M
two-wheeler to bus fare per
passenger km
2.12 cycle 2.12.1 Total cycles track (by track- Ac L
tracks length-category) per 10,000
cycles-trips (survey)

3 Service 3.1 operati 3.1.1 Loss of revenue on account Ec M


provider onal/ of subsidized fare to subsidy
financia provided by govt.
l
viability
3.1.2 Fare per km/cost per km for Ec M

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bus
3.1.3 Investment vis a vis Ec H
requirement in PT per annum
3.1.4 Rate of return on cumulative Ec M
capital investment trend
analysis
3.2 integrati 3.2.1 no. of buses connected with Ac M
on of railway stations within 0.5 km
rail with distance to 10,000 rail
road commuters vis a vis
transpo requirement as per travel
rt demand (trend analysis)

3.3 energy 3.3.1 Operating fuel intensity in Ec L


efficient terms of passenger-km/liter
vehicle for bus
trend analysis
3.4 cleaner 3.4.1 No. of LPG, CNG, battery En L
vehicle operated, hybrid electric
vehicles per lac vehicles
population (by category)
trend analysis
3.5 railway 3.5.1 Total area for parking space Ac L
infrastr for vehicles at railway station
uct-ure vis a vis requirement as per
norms station-wise trend
analysis
4 Energy 4.1 consum 4.1.1 No. of fuel samples failed to En L
provider er meet specifications against
satisfac total no. of fuel samples
t-ion tested (trend analysis)
4.2- 4.2.1 No. of dispensing stations per Ac L
space lac vehicles (trend analysis)
for fuel
stations
5 Infrastr- 5.1 adequa 5.1.1 %age of total budget spent on Ec H
ucture te funds transport infrastructure trend
provider analysis

5.1.2 ratio of expenditure to Ec L


revenue realized through
transport infrastructure
(road tax, fuel tax, etc)
5.2 availabi 5.2.1 %age of area reserved for Ac M
lity of transport use
space
for road
building
for
sidewal

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ks,
parking
lots,
bus
shelters
, etc
6 Regula- 6.1 enforce 6.1.1 no. of MVIs /10,000 vehicles S L
tors -ment vis a vis existing norms
capacit
y&
capabili
ty
6.1.2 No. of traffic police deployed/ Gov L
lac vehicles
7 Vehicle 7.1 healthy 7.1 .1 vehicles ownership/household Ac L
manufa- growth (trend analysis)
cturers of
transpo
rt
sector

7.2 policy & 7.2.1 - Available/not available Gov -


regulati (qualitative)
ons for
safety,
emissio
ns,
perform
ance
etc. of
vehicle
s
7.3 road 7.3.1 -Available/not available Gov -
map (qualitative)
with
adequa
te lead
time for
implem
entation
of
regulati
ons
7.4 good 7.4.1 no. driver training schools/no. S L
quality of new licenses issued
drivers trend analysis
8 Gover- 8.1 continu 8.1.1 %age of vehicles meeting the En L
nment al latest emission standards

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(central, technol trend analysis


state/ ogy
local) upgrad
a-ation
of
vehicle
s, fuels,
etc.
8.2 efficient 8.2.1 tax collection from transport Ec L
tax sector to total tax collection
collecti trend analysis
on

9 Goods 9.1 basic 9.1.1 parking bays capacity Ac M


vehicle ameniti (planned) for goods
operator/ es vehicles/10,000 LCV & HCV
driver vehicles

Abbreviations used in Table 4.1:


Group: Ac-access, En-environment, Ec-economic, Gov-governance,
S-safety and Hierarchy level: H-high, M-medium and L-low.

GROUPING OF INDICATORS

4.3 The indicators were then placed in the following broad groups:
- Access
- Economics
- Environment and Health
- Safety
- Governance

4.4 Table 4.2 shows group indicators arranged in a hierarchical manner


and the concerned stakeholders.

Table 4.2
Group Indicators with their Hierarchy and Stakeholders

SN Group Indicators Hierarchy Stake-


holder
1 Access 1.1 no. of buses connected with railway M SP
stations within 0.5 km distance to
10,000 rail commuters vis a vis
requirement as per travel demand
1.2 total cycles track (by track-length- L Com

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category) per 10,000 cycles-trips


1.3 %age of area reserved for transport use H IP
1.4 no. of bus shelters to total road length L Com
1.5 no. of bus shelters/terminals Persons M Com
with Disabilities (PWDs) friendly to total
bus shelters
1.6 no. buses PWDs friendly/total buses M Com
1.7 travel time per unit distance for each M Com
transport mode
(sample study-peak-non peak)
1.8 travel demand/transport supply ratio (PT M Com
related)
1.9 no. of cancelled km/scheduled km L Com
(for buses)
1.10 average waiting time at bus stop/shelter M Com
1.11 average passenger load factor M Com
1.12 no. of zebra crossings/total traffic L Com
signals
1.13 no. of walk-signals / total traffic signals L Com
1.14 parking demand in sq km-hr / available M Com
parking space (on-street/off-street) per
10, 000 vehicles (by mode)
1.15 total area for parking space for vehicles L SP
at railway station vis a vis requirement
as per norms (by station)
1.16 vehicles ownership per household M VM
1.17 no. of breakdowns per 10,000 km L Com
operated
(for buses)
1.18 no. of dispensing stations per lac L EP
vehicles
1.19 parking bays capacity (planned) for M GVD
goods vehicles per10,000 LCV & HCV
vehicles

2 Econo 2.1 capital investment in transport sector to H Com


mic GDP
2.2 expenditure on transport as % of M Com
household expenditure (by income
group)
(trend analysis)
2.3 marginal cost per km for two-wheeler to M Com
bus fare per passenger km
2.4 loss of revenue on account of M SP
subsidized fare to subsidy provided by
government
2.5 city capital expenditure on transport to M Com
total budgeted expenditure
2.6 fare per km / cost per km for bus M SP

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2.7 investment vis a vis requirement in PT H SP


per annum
2.8 rate of return on cumulative capital M SP
investment trend
analysis
2.9 operating fuel intensity in terms of L SP
passenger-km/liter for bus trend
analysis
2.10 %age of total budget spent on transport H IP
infrastructure trend
analysis
2.11 ratio of expenditure to revenue realized L IP
through transport infrastructure (road
tax, fuel tax, etc)
2.12 tax collection from transport sector to L Govt.
total tax collection trend
analysis
3 Enviro 3.1 no. of days pollution level exceeded M P
n-ment national ambient air quality standards
(NAAQS)
3.2 air quality trends for last 5 years H P
3.3 no. of days noise level exceeded normal M P
level
3.4 noise level trends for last 5 years H P
3.5 % of green area to total city area H P
3.6 pollution contribution from transport M P
sector as a fraction of total pollution
load (%)
3.7 total fuel consumed (by type: petrol, L P
diesel) per 10,000 vehicles population
(by fuel)
3.8 no. of fuel samples failed to meet M EP
specifications against total no. of
samples tested
3.9 %age of vehicles meeting the latest L Govt.
emission standards
3.10 no. of LPG, CNG, battery operated, L SP
hybrid electric vehicles per lac veh
population
(by category)
3.11 no. of PUC centers per lac vehicles L P
population
3.12 disability adjusted life years (DALY) per M P
10,000 population due to transport
component of air population
4 Safety 4.1 Transport-caused fatalities per 10,000 H P
vehicles (by vehicle category) including
NMT & pedestrians
4.2 Transport-caused injuries per 10,000 M P
vehicle (by vehicle category) including

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NMT & pedestrians


4.3 no. of trauma care centers/ lac M P
population
4.4 no. of persons violating traffic rules per L P
10,000 vehicles
4.5 no. of MVIs /10,000 vehicles vis a vis L Reg
existing norms
4.6 no. driver training schools/no. of new L VM
licenses issued
5 Gover 5.1 no. of traffic police deployed/lac L Reg
nance vehicles
5.2 policy & regulations for safety, - VM
emissions, performance etc. of vehicles
(available/not available) qualitative
5.3 road map with adequate lead time for - VM
implementation of regulations
(available/not available) qualitative
Abbreviations used in Table 4.2:
Hierarchy level: H-high, M-medium and L-low.
Stakeholder: P-people, Com-commuter, SP-service provider, EP-energy
provider, IP-infrastructure provider, Govt.-government,
Reg-regulator and VM-vehicle manufacturer and
GVD-goods vehicles driver/operator

SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF INDICATORS

4.5 We then evaluated the indicators both quantitatively and qualitatively


using certain formulas and data. The details of this assessment are
described in Annex 4.2.

4.6 The indicators were organized in a hierarchical level under three


categories—high, middle, and low level.

4.7 The indicators falling in the high hierarchical level signify that for
achieving STS, these indicators should be used for making policy-level
decisions by the highest level of officials, such as the mayor of the city,
the municipal commissioner, and other senior officials. Medium
hierarchy indicators refer to those that should be used for analyzing, or
establishing trends. by the concerned executive-level officials of the
respective departments. Low hierarchy indicators refer to the raw data
level; these indicators are of low significance in STS. The indicators
arranged by hierarchy, along with corresponding groups and
stakeholders of STS, are shown in Table 4.3.

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Table 4.3
Hierarchy wise Indicators with Group and Stakeholders

SN Hierarchy Indicators Gr- Stake-


oup holder
High Level
1 H air quality trends for last five years En P
(concentration of pollutants in ambient
air)
2 H % of green area to total city area En P
3 H noise level trends for last 5 years En P
4 H travel demand/transport supply ratio Ac Com
(PT related)
5 H capital investment in transport sector Ec Com
to GDP
6 H investment vis a vis requirement in PT Ec SP
per annum
7 H %age of total budget spent on Ec IP
transport infrastructure
trend analysis
8 H Transport-caused fatalities per 10,000 S P
vehicles (by veh category) including
NMT & pedestrians
trend analysis
Middle Level
1 M no. of days pollution level exceeded En P
national ambient air quality standards
(NAAQS)
2 M pollution contribution from transport En P
sector as a fraction of total pollution
load (%)
3 M no. of days noise level exceeded En P
normal level
4 M disability adjusted life years (DALY) En P
per 10,000 population due to transport
component of air population
5 M %age of area reserved for transport Ac P
use
6 M no. of bus shelters/terminals Persons Ac Com
With Disabilities(PWDs) friendly to
total bus shelters (trend
analysis)
7 M no. buses PWDs friendly to total Ac Com
buses (trend analysis)
8 M travel time per unit distance for each Ac Com
transport mode (sample study,

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peak/non-peak) (trend analysis)


9 M average bus waiting time at bus Ac Com
stops/shelters (trend analysis)
10 M average passenger load factor Ac Com
11 M parking demand in sq km-hr / Ac Com
available parking space (on-street/off-
street) per
10,000 vehicles (by mode)
trend analysis

12 M no. of buses connected with railway Ac SP


stations within 0.5 km distance to
10,000 rail commuters vis a vis
requirement as per travel demand
(trend analysis)
13 M parking bays capacity (planned) for Ac GVD
goods vehicles/10,000 LCV & HCV
vehicles
14 M loss of revenue on account of Ec SP
subsidized fare to subsidy provided by
government
15 M city capital expenditure on transport to Ec Com
total budgeted expenditure (trend
analysis)
16 M expenditure on transport as % of Ec Com
household expenditure (by income
group)
(trend analysis)
17 M marginal cost per Km for two-wheeler Ec Com
to bus fare per passenger Km
18 M fare per km / cost per km for bus Ec SP
19 M rate of return on cumulative capital Ec SP
investment (trend analysis)
20 M Transport-caused injuries per 10,000 S P
vehicle (by vehicle category) including
NMT & pedestrians
(trend analysis)
21 M no. of trauma care centers / lac S P
population
Low level
1 L %age of vehicles meeting the latest En Govt.
emission standards trend analysis
2 L total fuel consumed (by type petrol, En P
diesel)/10,000 vehicles pop (fuel-wise)
3 L no. of LPG, CNG, battery operated, En SP
hybrid electric vehicles per lac veh
population (by category)
trend analysis
4 L no. of fuel samples failed to meet En EP

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specifications against total no. of


samples tested (trend analysis)
5 L no. of PUC centers per lac vehicles En P
population
6 L no. of bus shelters to total road length Ac Com
7 L no. of breakdowns per 10,000 km Ac Com
operated
(buses)
8 L no. of canceled km / scheduled km Ac Com
(for buses)
9 L no. of zebra crossings/total traffic Ac Com
signals
10 L no. of walk-signals / total traffic Ac Com
signals trend analysis
11 L total cycles track (by track-length- Ac Com
category) per 10,000 cycles-trips
(survey)
12 L total area for parking space for veh at Ac SP
railway station vis a vis requirement
as per norms (by railway station)
(trend analysis)
13 L vehicles ownership per household Ac VM
(trend analysis)
14 L no. of dispensing stations per lac Ac EP
vehicles
trend analysis
15 L operating fuel intensity in terms of Ec SP
passenger-km/ liter for buses
(trend analysis)
16 L ratio of expenditure to revenue Ec IP
realized through transport
infrastructure
(road tax, fuel, etc)
17 L tax collection from transport sector to Ec Govt.
total tax collection trend
analysis
18 L no. of persons violating traffic rules S P
per 10,000 vehicles
19 L no. of MVIs /10,000 vehicles vis a vis S Reg
existing norms
20 L no. driver training schools/no. of new S VM
licenses issued trend
analysis
21 L no. of traffic police deployed/ lac Gov Reg
vehicles
Qualitative Indicators
1 policy & regulations for safety, Gov VM
emissions, performance etc. of
vehicles

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(available/not available)
qualitative
2 road map with adequate lead time for Gov VM
implementation of regulations
(available/not available)
qualitative

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Abbreviations used in Table 4.3:


Hierarchy level: H-high, M-medium and L-low.
Group: Ac-access, En-environment, Ec-economic, Gov-governance,
S-safety
Stakeholder: P-people, Com-commuter, SP-service provider, EP-energy
provider, IP-infrastructure provider, Govt.-government,
Reg-regulator and VM-vehicle manufacturer and
GVD-goods vehicles driver/operator

4.8 As shown in Table 4.3, eight indicators fall under the high-level
category, 21 indicators in the middle level, and 21 indicators in the low
level.

4.9 The group distribution pattern of STS indicators is presented in Table


4.4. Note that the majority of the high-level indicators (3 each) fall in the
environment and economic groups. The access category dominates
the middle level with 9 indicators, followed by 6 indicators in the
economic group. For the low -level indicators, the access group has
highest number with 9 indicators, followed by 5 indicators in the
environment group. This analysis of indicators clearly brings out that for
policy making, the environment and economic groups of indicators are
required by high-level officials, whereas for analyzing trends and
establishing patterns for assessing STS, the access, economic,
environment, and safety indicators are required for the executive level
of officials.

Table 4.4
Distribution of Indicators with Hierarchy
by Group of STS

Group of STS High Middle Low Total


Access 1 9 9 18
Economic 3 6 3 12
Environment & Health 3 4 5 12
Safety 1 2 3 6
Governance - - 1 1
Total 8 21 21 50

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5 KEY DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR INDICATORS

INTRODUCTION

5.1 Having identified indicators for each functional group of STS (access,
economic, environment, safety and governance) in Chapter 4, we now
turn to the requirements and availability of key data for indicators. The
key data values will help in quantifying the respective indicator value.

5.2 We examined the requirements and availability of key data particularly


with respect to the following:
-what data is required
-what data is available
-quality of data
-regularity of data compilation
-source/ownership of data

5.3 The details are available in Tables 5.1 to 5.5. The quality of data is split
into sections (acceptable and available). The quality of data is
examined with respect to the data accuracy level and is marked as
“high”, “good” and “average.” The quality of data ranked “high” signifies
the highest accuracy level in data; “good” signifies the next lower
accuracy level in data quality, and “average” signifies the lowest
accuracy level in data.

5.4 The frequency of data compilation is again split into sections (desired
and available). The regularity of data collection is marked as “regular”
and “irregular.” Regular signifies that at fixed intervals
(daily/monthly/yearly) the required data is collected by the concerned
department in PMA; irregular signifies that data is not collected at fixed
intervals.

5.3 Further, possible sources or ownership of data are examined. The


funding for data collection, including publishing of data (common in

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most cases), is not discussed separately. However, wherever changes


in ownership of data and its funding are observed, they are indicated
accordingly.

Access

5.4 Data accessibility is examined in Table 5.1. As shown in Table 5.1, for
the majority of the indicators, the quality and frequency of data
compilation is acceptable. For data compiled through primary surveys,
the required frequency for data compilation is indicated as 5 years.

Economic

5.5 Regarding the economic aspect of STS, key data requirements and
availability are shown in Table 5.2. The required high-quality data is
collected regularly by the concerned departments.

Environment & Health

5.6 The data requirements and availability for indicators reflecting air
quality and public health is shown Table 5.3. In the case of the
environment and health group, for some indicators data is not collected
—for example, data on noise levels and detailed data on pollutant
sources—and for some data frequency of data collection is observed to
be irregular.

Safety

5.7 The key data requirements for safety of operations/ safety of transport
systems are presented in Table 5.4. For safety-related indicators, high-
quality data is compiled regularly by the concerned departments. For
the majority of indicators in safety area, data is available from the
Traffic Police and the RTO in PMA.

Governance

5.8 Table 5.5 presents key data requirements and availability for the
governance aspects of a sustainable transport system. There are three
indicators in this group, which includes two qualitative-type indicators.

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Table 5.1
Key Data Requirements & Availability for Access Group of Indicators
SN Indicator Key data required Quality of data Frequency of data Possible source
compilation or ownership
(regular/irregular) of data

accep- actual desired available


table
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1 total cycle tracks (by track- -total length of cycle tracks (by high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs
length-category) category)
per 10,000 cycles-trips -total cycle trips good average regular@ irregular PMC, PCMC, CBs

2 no. of buses connected with -rail commuters travel demand good good regular irregular Indian Railways
railway station(s) within 0.5 -no. of buses connected to
km distance to 10,000 rail railway station(s) within 0.5 km high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
commuters vis a vis as distance
requirement per travel
demand
3 %age of area reserved for -total area reserved for high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs
transport use transport use
-total area (PMA) high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs
4 number of bus shelters to -no. of bus shelters high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
total road length -total road length high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs

5 number of bus -no. of bus shelters PWDs high - regular - PMT, PCMT
stops/shelters for persons friendly

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with disabilities (PWDs) to -total bus shelters in PMA high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
total bus stops/shelters
6 number of buses PWDs -no. of buses PWDs friendly high high regular irregular PMT, PCMT
friendly to total buses -total buses* high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
7 travel time per unit distance -travel time per unit distance good average Regular irregular PMC, PCMC, CBs
for each transport mode (by mode) @
8 travel demand and transport -per capita trip (for bus) good good regular irregular PMC, PCMC, CBs
supply ratio (PT related) -total no. of bus trips high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
-average occupancy ratio in high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
bus*
9 no. of breakdowns per -no. of breakdowns vis a vis high average# regular regular PMT, PCMT
10,000 km operated* (for km operated for buses
buses)

10 no. of canceled -no. of canceled km for buses high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
km/scheduled km (for -no. of scheduled km for buses high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
buses)*
11 average waiting time at bus -average waiting time at bus good average regular@ irregular PMT, PCMT,
stops/shelters stops/shelters PMC, PCMC
12 average passenger load -average passenger load factor high good regular regular PMT, PCMT
factor (for buses)* for buses
13 number of zebra crossing to -total no. of zebra crossings high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs,
total traffic signals Traffic Police
-total traffic signals high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs,
Traffic Police
14 number of walk signals to -no. of walk signals high High regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs
total traffic signals
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total traffic signals Traffic Police


-total traffic signals high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs,
Traffic Police
15 parking demand to available -total parking demand good average regular irregular PMC, PCMC, CBs
parking space per 10,000 -available parking space per high high regular regular PMC, PCMC, CBs
vehicles 10,000 vehicles
16 total area for vehicles -total area for vehicles parking high high regular@ irregular Indian Railways
parking at railway station to at railway station (s)
requirement as per norms
17 no. of dispensing stations - no. of dispensing stations high high regular regular Oil companies
per lac vehicles - no. of registered vehicles high high regular regular RTO
18 vehicles ownership per - no. vehicles owned good average regular@ irregular PMC, PCMC, CBs
household -no. of households high good regular@ irregular
19 planned parking bays -planned parking bays capacity high good regular irregular PMC, PCMC
capacity (goods vehicles) to (goods vehicles)
10,000 Heavy Commercial -no. of goods vehicles high high regular regular RTO
Vehicles (HCVs) and Light
Commercial Vehicles
(LCVs)
@ data to be collected regularly at 5 year interval # data reliability to be improved * data published by CIRT, Pune

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Table 5.2
Key Data Requirements & Availability for Economic Group of Indicators
SN Indicator Key data required Quality of data Frequency of data Possible
compilation source or
(regular/irregular) ownership
of data
accep- actual desired available
table
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1 capital investment in -capital investment in high good regular regular PMC, PCMC,
transport sector to GDP transport sector by local & CBs
government
-GDP of PMA (available good good regular regular Directorate of
at district level) Economics and
Statistics,
Mumbai
2 expenditure on transport as -% of average good - regular - Not available
% of household expenditure on transport
expenditure (income group- -average household good - regular - Not available
wise) expenditure or income (income
group-wise)
3 marginal cost per km for -marginal cost per km for good average# regular @ irregular PMT, PCMT
two-wheeler to fare per two-wheeler
passenger km (only fuel efficiency is
taken on assumption of
60 km per liter and petrol
prices 40 Rupees @ liter)
high high regular regular PMT, PCMT

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-fare per passenger km*


4 loss of revenue on account -loss of revenue on high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
of subsidized fare to account of subsidized
subsidy provided by fare
government -subsidy provided by high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
local government
5 city capital expenditure on - % capital expenditure high high regular regular PMC, PCMC,
transport to total budgeted on transport of total CBs
expenditure budget
6 fare per km/cost per km for -fare per km in PT* high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
PT (bus) -cost per km in PT* high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
7 investment vis a vis -investment per annum High good regular regular PMC, PCMC,
requirement in bus made by local CBs
transport per annum government in public
transport
-requirement per annum high good regular regular PMT, PCMT
given by public transport
provider
8 rate of return on cumulative -net profit of public high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
capital investment transport provider
-total capital investment high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
9 operating fuel intensity in -number of passenger high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
terms of passenger-km/liter kilometers operated*
for bus -fuel consumed in liters* high high regular regular PMT, PCMT
(per annum)
10 %age of total budget spent -% expenditure on good average regular@ irregular PMC , PCMC,
on transport infrastructure transport infrastructure of CBs
total local government

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budget
11 ratio of expenditure to - % revenue from High good regular regular PMC , PCMC,
revenue realized through transport infrastructure CBs
transport infrastructure - % expenditure on high good regular regular PMC , PCMC,
(road tax, fuel tax, etc) transport infrastructure of CBs
total local government
budget
12 tax collection from -octroi collection and high high regular regular PMC , PCMC,
transport sector to total tax other taxes such as road CBs
collection tax etc.
* data published by Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune # through primary survey @ 5 year interval

Table 5.3
Key Data Requirement & Availability for Environment Group of Indicators
SN Indicator Key data required Quality of data Frequency of data Possible
compilation source or
(regular/irregular) ownership
of data
accep- actual desired available
table
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1 no. of days pollution - ambient air pollutant concentrations for high good regular regular MPCB*
level exceeded various pollutants such as PM10, NO2,
national ambient air SO2, measured at various locations in good good regular@ regular PMC
quality the PMA area (spatial distribution)
2 standards(NAAQS) - ambient air pollutant concentrations at
air quality trends for traffic hotspots
last 5 years

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3 disability adjusted life -Results of epidemiological studies good - irregular - None


years (DALY) per -data on hospital admissions, deaths, good good regular regular PMC
10,000 population asthma among school children
due to transport
component of air
pollution
4 no. of days noise - data on noise levels measured at good - regular - NONE
level exceeded traffic hotspots (spatial distribution)
5 normal level
noise level trends for
last 5 years

6 % of green area to distribution of green spaces in PMA (by high high regular regular PMC, PCMC,
total city area (PMA: ward) CBs
green space)
7 number of LPG, -no. of LPG, CNG, battery operated, high high regular regular RTO
CNG, battery hybrid electric vehicles
operated, hybrid - no. of registered vehicles high high regular regular RTO
electric vehicles per
lac vehicles
(by category)
8 pollution contribution -distribution of vehicle population high high regular regular RTO
from transport sector (by vehicle category/ vintage)
as a fraction of total -emission factors (by vehicle category good good regular irregular CPCB
pollution load (%) and vintage)
--utilization factors (km/day) or (km/year good good regular irregular CPCB
-percentage of old vehicles not in use or
phased out good - regular - NONE
-percentage of old vehicles upgraded,
retrofitted with emission control devices, good - regular - NONE

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or converted to alternative fuels such as


CNG or LPG
-number of vehicles tested for in-use
emission per 100,000 vehicles/year high - regular - RTO
-number of vehicles passing the in-use
emission inspection per 100,000 high - regular - RTO
vehicles
(by vehicle category & vintage)
-detailed data on pollutant contribution
by various sources good - regular - NONE
9 no. of fuel samples -no. of fuel samples failed to meet high good regular regular Oil companies
failing to meet specifications
specifications against -total number of fuel samples tested high good regular regular Oil companies
total no. of fuel
samples tested
10 total fuel consumed -total population of 2-stroke engine high - regular - NONE
(by type: petrol, powered vehicles
diesel)/10,000 -total requirement of 2-stroke oil high good regular regular Oil companies
vehicles population -total quantity of 2-stroke oil sold in pre- high good regular irregular Oil companies
(by fuel) mixed form
11 no. of PUC centers -no. of PUC centers high high regular regular RTO
per lac vehicles -no. of vehicles registered high high regular regular RTO
population
12 %age of vehicles -no. of vehicles meeting latest emission high high regular regular RTO
meeting the latest standards
emission standards -no. of vehicles registered high high regular regular RTO
*Published by CPCB & funded by University of Pune & PMC

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Table 5.4
Key Data Requirements & Availability for Safety Group of Indicators
SN Indicator Key data required Quality of data Frequency of data Possible
compilation source or
(regular/irregular) ownership
accep- actual desired available of data
table
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1 Transport-caused fatalities -no. of fatalities high high regular regular Traffic Police
per 10,000 vehicles (by (by vehicle category)*
vehicle category) including -no. of vehicles good high regular regular RTO
NMT & pedestrians registered (5 year
interval)

2 Transport-caused injuries -no. of injuries high high regular - Traffic Police


per 10,000 vehicles (by (by vehicle category)*
vehicle category) including -no. of vehicles high high regular regular RTO
NMT & pedestrians registered
3 no. of trauma care centers/ - no. of trauma care high high regular regular PMC, PCMC
lac population centers
- population of PMA high high regular regular Census of
India

4 no. of cases of violation of - no. of cases violating high high regular regular Traffic Police
traffic rules per 10,000 traffic rules
vehicles - no. of vehicles high high regular regular RTO

5 no. of MVIs /10,000 vehicles -no. of MVIs high high regular regular RTO
vis a vis existing norms -no. of vehicles high high regular regular RTO

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registered high - - - None


-existing norm for MVIs
6 no. driver training -no. of driver training high high regular regular RTO
schools/no. of new licenses schools
issued -no. of new licenses high high regular regular RTO
issued
* vehicle (by category) accident data to be analyzed

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Central Institute of Road Transport 6-7
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 5.5
Key Data Requirement & Availability for Governance Group of Indicators
SN Indicator Key data required Quality of data Frequency of data Possible
compilation source or
(regular/irregular) ownership
of data
accept- actual desired available
able
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1 no. of traffic police -No. of traffic police high high regular regular Traffic Police
deployed/ lac vehicles deployed
-no. of vehicles registered high high regular regular RTO

2 policy & regulations for Available/not available - - - - Central


safety, emissions, (qualitative) Government
performance etc. of
vehicles

3 road map with Available/not available - - - - -


adequate lead time for (qualitative)
implementation of
regulations

™‹™

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Final Report
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6 MAPPING THE GAP

IDENTIFICATION OF DATA GAPS

6.1 Having identified key data requirements and availability for indicators of
STS in Chapter 5, we now turn to considering data gaps for indicators,
such as:

- the availability of basic data for the calculation of the various


indicators
- the accuracy, measurability and frequency of data compilation
- the methods of calculation of the indicators and their importance.

6.2 During the course of the research, we identified some areas that
indicated gaps in the currently available basic data. In this section, a
more detailed assessment of the gaps has been carried out in terms of:

- What data is available, and at what data quality level;


- What is missing, and whether can it be borrowed;
- Desired frequency of data collection (regular basis or irregular basis).

6.3 In Tables 5.1 to Table 5.5 (Chapter 5), columns 6 and 7 (regular or
irregular) have been filled for all cases, irrespective of whether the data
for an indicator is available or not. Where “regular” is mentioned in
case of indicator gaps—for example, “column 6 of above mentioned
tables”—it is meant to emphasize that the data for the indicator needs
to be monitored on a regular basis. We then discuss the “availability” of
required data with its “quality,” and the “desired frequency of data
compilation” for indicators.

Access

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6.4 The accessibility of key data is shown in Table 5.1 in Chapter 5. It can
be observed from Table 5.1 that for the majority of the indicators, data
is available at the local-government level
(PMC/PCMC/CBs/PMT/PCMT), and that data for various indicators are
compiled at regular intervals. For some indicators—such as travel
demand, average waiting time, etc—data is not collected periodically,
and hence for these indicators sample studies at periodic intervals are
indicated.

Economic

6.5 Table 5.2 in Chapter 5 presents availability of data, acceptable data


quality, and desired frequency of data compilation for indicators
reflecting economic aspects of STS. For the majority of the indicators,
data is available at the local-government level and data for various
indicators is collected at regular intervals.

Environment & Health

6.5 Table 5.3 of Chapter 5 indicates that the data for many indicators
reflecting the status of air quality and health of citizens—that is, the
“environment and health” related aspects of STS—are not
available/collected or not collected at the desired frequency of data
collection. For this area, Table 6.1 presents the availability of data,
missing data (and whether it can be borrowed), and desired frequency
of data compilation. For many of the indicators, data is available at the
local-government level with data gaps.

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Table 6.1
Environment Group Indicators with Availability of Data
Indicator Available Missing Desired
(at what level) (can it be borrowed) frequency
of data
collection
(regular or
irregular)
1. number of days pollution level Local, state, and regular
exceeded national ambient air central governments
quality standards (NAAQS)
2. air quality trends for last 5 years Local, state, and regular
(concentration of pollutants in air) central governments
-ambient air pollutant Local, state, and regular
concentrations for various central governments
pollutants such as PM10, NO2,
SO2, measured at various
locations in the PMA area (spatial
distribution)
-ambient air pollutant Local government Data at several locations not available regular
concentrations at traffic hotspots
3. disability adjusted life Not available No data for Pune available. Can be barrowed from limited regular
years(DALY) per 10,000 data for other cities like Delhi.
population due to transport
component of air pollution
4. number of days noise level Local government Data at traffic hotspots with respect to transport-generated regular
exceeded normal level noise
5. noise level trends for last 5 Local government Data not available regular
years

6. % of green area to total city Local government regular


area

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(PMA: green space)


7. no. of LPG, CNG, battery State government Could be ascertained from the data of registration of regular
operated, Hybrid electric vehicles vehicles with RTO. Currently only small number of LPG
per lac vehicles (by category) vehicles are registered.
8. pollution contribution from Local government Only one very approximate study done as part of a training regular
transport sector as a fraction of and capacity building project assisted by USEPA
total pollution load (%)
9. Number of fuel samples failing Not available Testing fuel samples for quality is not a regular activity regular
to meet specifications against total except for the oil companies’ internal programs at present
number of samples tested
10. Total fuel consumed (by type Local government The indicator, as defined, is not calculated at present. regular
petrol, diesel, others)/10,000 and oil companies However, it can be calculated with the limitation that the
vehicle population actual number of vehicles on the road is not available.
11. Number of PUC centers per State government This indicator is not currently monitored but can be easily regular
lac vehicles population worked out
12. %age of vehicles meeting the State government No specific measurement of this indicator though it can be regular
latest emission standards calculated from the total number of registered vehicles by
year available with RTO.
RTO statistics do not indicate the actual number of vehicles
on the road. Can be borrowed from some survey- based
studies done in other cities instituted by the Auto-Fuel Policy
Committee
-distribution of vehicle population State government Total number of registered vehicles of different categories regular
(by vehicle category / vintage) available with RTO.
The data do not indicate the actual number of vehicles on
the road. Can be borrowed from some survey-based studies
done in other cities instituted by the Auto-Fuel Policy
Committee

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-emission factors (by category and Central government Data available not based on actual measurements. regular
vintage) It is derived from the emission levels of vehicles obtained (The ‘ICAP’
during Type Approval and using certain assumed programme
deterioration factors to reflect actual conditions. is envisaged
Can be used in the absence of any other data. as a one
A project called “Indian Clean Air Programme - ICAP” time
sponsored by the oil companies is currently under way and exercise.
is likely to provide more accurate data.
-utilization factors (km/day) or Central government Data available not based on actual measurements but on irregular
(km/year) anecdotal information and certain old studies. Can be
adequate for the time being
-percentage of old vehicles not in Not available There is no system of de-registration of vehicles. Can be regular
use or phased out ascertained from some survey-based studies done in other
cities instituted by the Auto-Fuel Policy Committee by using
the distribution of vehicles on the road (by vintage).

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Safety

6.6 Table 5.4 in Chapter 5 presents data availability with acceptable data
quality, and desired frequency of data compilation for indicators dealing
with safety issues. For the majority of the indicators, data is available at
the local-government level; data for indicators are collected at regular
intervals.

Governance

6.7 Table 5.5 in Chapter 5 presents availability of data with acceptable


quality, and desired frequency of data compilation for governance
issues. Data is available at the local, state, and central-government
levels; frequency of data compilation is at regular intervals.

™‹™

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Final Report
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7 ALTERNATIVES FOR BRIDGING GAPS

EVOLVING ALTERNATIVES FOR BRIDGING DATA GAP

7.1 This part deals with options to bridge the data gaps identified in
Chapter 6. For this purpose, up to three options have been considered:

- The simplest option of using information that is locally, regionally, or


globally available (some options have already been briefly touched
on in Chapter 6)
- A middle level option;
- The most complex and costly option involving developing or
acquiring specialized models and expertise.

7.2 An attempt has been made to cost each of the above options and
formulate a plan of action for collection of the missing data, keeping in
view the trade-offs between accuracy, frequency of collection, and
cost. The accuracy requirement has been considered from the point of
view of the needs of the Pune Metropolitan Area to diagnose problems,
implement cures, evaluate progress, and rebalance policies that are
not meeting stakeholders’ expectations.

7.3 We also identified key public, private, and NGO experts, agencies, and
other stakeholders who could contribute toward the cost of the
development of these indicators.

7.4 For each indicator with data gaps, we present options for bridging
those gaps. The list also includes indicators with no apparent gaps, but
that may require further refinement.

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Access

7.5 Table 7.1 presents a list of access group indicators. For the majority of
access group indicators, data is generally available. However, for some
indicators, refining the process of data collection is required.

Economic

7.6 Table 7.2 presents a list of indicators on economic issues, and options
for bridging data gaps for these indicators. For the majority of
indicators, data is generally available. For one indicator, owing to
absence of city-level GDP data, options for bridging the data gap are
worked out and present in the table.

Environment & Health

7.7 Table 7.3 presents a list of environment and health indicators and
suggested options for bridging data gaps for those indicators for which
data is not collected/available. In the environment group, we observed
data gaps for many indicators; options (low cost, medium cost, and
high cost) for bridging data gaps are given in Table 7.3.

Safety

7.8 Table 7.4 presents indicators reflecting safety issues. For indicators in
this group, the data are generally compiled at regular intervals.

Governance

7.9 Table 7.5 presents a list of governance indicators. The data for
indicators in this group are generally compiled at regular intervals. A
road map with lead time for implementation of regulations is presently
not available and needs to be developed.

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Central Institute of Road Transport 7-3
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 7.1
Bridging Data Gap for Access Group of Indicators
Indicator Data Gap Action plan Remarks
for bridging
data gap
1. total cycles track No apparent data gaps; however, refining the - Periodic assessment of
(by track-length-category) per data compilation process is necessary. bicycle-trips in PMA is
10,000 cycles-trips required.
trend analysis
2. no. of buses as per travel demand No apparent data gaps; however, refining the - Periodic assessment of
connected with railway stations data compilation process is necessary. commuter travel demand
within 0.5 km distance to 10,000 rail at respective railway
commuters station(s) to be carried
(trend analysis) out.
3. %age of area reserved for No data gaps. - -
transport use
4. number of bus shelters to total No apparent data gaps; however, refining the - Periodic assessment of
road length vis a vis requirement as data compilation process is necessary. commuter travel demand
per travel demand. in PMA to be carried out.
5. number of bus stops/shelters for No apparent data gaps. - Need to make bus
persons with disabilities (PWDs) to stops/shelters PWDs
total bus stops/shelters friendly in phases.
6. number of buses PWDs friendly to No apparent data gaps. - Need to procure buses
total buses PWDs friendly in phases.

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-1
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

7. travel time per unit Data is not compiled periodically. Medium-cost option Cost : Rs. 3 lacs,
distance for each transport Data gap Periodic primary survey to USD : 6,900
mode assess travel time for each Stakeholder to
transport mode in PMA is to contribute to the cost
be carried out. - PMC, PCMC
-Traffic Police, RTO
8. travel demand and Periodic assessment of passenger travel Low-cost option: -
transport supply ratio demand through primary survey is required. Assessment of travel
(PT related) demand as per projections
made in secondary data.
Medium-cost option: Cost : Rs. 10 lacs
To carry out primary USD : 23,000
surveys on sample basis at Stakeholder likely to
periodic interval in PMA. contribute to the cost.
-PMC, PCMC
-Traffic Police, RTO
9. no. of breakdowns per No data gaps. - Reliability of the data
10,000 km operated needs to be
(for buses)- trend analysis improved.
10. no. of canceled km per No data gaps. - -
scheduled km for buses
trend analysis
11. average waiting time at Data gap. Medium-cost option: Cost : Rs. 3 lacs
bus stops To carry out primary survey USD : 6,900
(trend analysis) on sample basis at periodic Stakeholder likely to
interval in PMA. contribute to the cost.
-PMC, PCMC
-Traffic Police, RTO

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-2
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

12. average passenger load No data gaps. - -


factor (for buses)
13. number of zebra No data gaps. Data pertaining to zebra - -
crossings to total traffic crossings in PMA need to be refined.
signals
14. number of walk signals No data gaps. Data pertaining to walk signals - -
to total traffic signals need to be refined.
15. parking demand to Data gap. Medium-cost option: Cost : Rs. 3 lacs
available parking space per Assessment of parking USD : 6,900
10,000 vehicles demand at periodic intervals Stakeholders likely to
through surveys in PMA. contribute to the cost.
-PMC, PCMC,CBs
16. total area for vehicle No data gaps. - -
parking space at railway
station(s) to requirement as
per norms.
17.no. of dispensing No data gaps. - -
stations per lac vehicles
18. vehicle ownership per Data gap. Periodic assessment of vehicle Medium-cost option: Cost : Rs. 5 lacs
household ownership per household to be carried out. To carry out survey USD : 11,500
pertaining to vehicle Stakeholder likely to
ownership in PMA. contribute to the cost.
-PMC, PCMC, CBs
19. planned parking bays No data gaps. - -
capacity (goods vehicles) to
10,000 HCVs and LCVs

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-3
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 7.2
Bridging Data Gap for Economic Group of Indicators
Indicator Data Gaps Action plan for bridging Remarks
data gap
1. capital investment in Data gap: Low-cost option -
transport sector to GDP As district level per capita
gross product is available,
same may be used to get
approximate gross product
for PMA.
High-cost option Cost: Rs. 5 lacs
Though currently there is no USD : 11,500
method for calculating city- Stakeholders likely
level GDP, it can be to contribute to the
formulated at the CSO or cost:
NSS level with the help of -PMC,PCMC, CBs
local government. -Central govt.
-Donor agencies
-Trade associations
2. expenditure on transport No data gaps. -
as % of household
expenditure (by income
group) (trend analysis)

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-4
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

3. marginal cost per km No data gaps. - -


for two-wheeler to fare per
passenger km
4. loss of revenue on No data gaps. - -
account of subsidized fare
to subsidy provided by
government trend analysis
5. city capital expenditure No data gaps. - -
on transport to total
budgeted expenditure
(trend analysis)
6. fare per km/cost per km No data gaps. - -
for bus
trend analysis
7. investment vis a vis No data gaps. - -
requirement in bus
transport per annum trend
analysis
8. rate of return on No data gaps. - -
cumulative capital
investment
trend analysis

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-5
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

9. operating fuel intensity in No data gaps. - -


terms of Passenger-km
/liter for bus trend analysis
10. %age of total budget No data gaps. - -
spent on transport
infrastructure
trend analysis
11. ratio of expenditure to No data gaps. - -
revenue realized through
transport infrastructure
12. tax collection from No data gaps. - -
transport sector to total tax
collection
trend analysis

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-6
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 7.3
Bridging Data Gap for Environment Group of Indicators
Indicator Data Gaps Action plan for bridging data gap Remarks
1. no. of days pollution level No apparent data gaps; - -ambient air pollutant
exceeded national ambient however, refining the concentrations for
air quality standards data compilation process various pollutants
(NAAQS) is necessary such as PM10, NO2,
SO2, measured at
2. air quality trends for last 5 various locations in
years the PMA area
(concentration of pollutants (spatial distribution)
in air) -ambient air pollutant
concentrations at
traffic hotspots (no
data gap)
3. disability adjusted life Data gap: Low-cost option Cost : Rs. 10 lacs
years (DALY) per 10,000 No data for Pune a) Improve coordination among the different USD : 23,000
population due to transport available. agencies that are monitoring air quality and
component of air pollution ensure that identical procedures are Stakeholders likely to
Analysis of data with followed contribute to the cost:
respect to air pollution b) Hold a single agency at the local level (1) PMC, PCMC,
responsible for consolidating all the data cantonment
from different stations and calculate the boards,
indicators and prepare maps showing (2) MPCB,
spatial distribution of pollutant levels (3) University of
c) Institute a system of independent audits of Pune,
the centers to ensure high levels of (4) Central govt.
accuracy and consistency budget
(5) Donor agencies

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-7
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

d) Draw up a program to start regular


monitoring of pollutants at critical traffic
hotspots
e) Draw up a road map to include other
important pollutants such as ozone and
toxics
f) Determine the morbidity /mortality data
(DALYs) based on similar data from
epidemiological studies for other cities like
Delhi
g) Make a systematic analysis of the data on
hospital admissions, deaths, asthma
among school children etc already
available
High-cost option Cost : Rs. 1 Crore
a) Complete revamp of the air quality USD : 230,000
monitoring network according to
international best practices Stakeholders likely to
b) Operate the system through public-private contribute to the cost:
partnership (1) PMC, PCMC,
c) Build institutional capacity to take up cantonment
epidemiological studies on a regular basis boards,
(2) MPCB,
(3) University of
Pune,
(4) Central govt.
budget
(5) Donor agencies

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-8
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

4. no. of days noise level Data gaps: no data Low-cost option Cost : Rs. 20 lacs
exceeded normal level a) Institute a one-time study over a month USD : 46,000
No program to monitor covering different traffic hot spots, different
5. noise level trends for this indicator. times of the day, different days of the week Stakeholders likely to
last 5 years b) Institute a one-time epidemiological study contribute to the cost
to ascertain the magnitude of the problem (1) University of
of hearing impairment caused by traffic Pune
noise (2) PMC, PCMC,
Cantonment
Boards,
(3) MPCB, CPCB
(4) private sector
(SIAM/SAFE)
High-cost option Cost : Rs. 50 lacs
a) build a full-fledged network for regular USD : 115,000
monitoring of traffic-induced noise
b) build institutional capacity to take up Stakeholders likely to
regular epidemiological studies related to contribute to the cost
noise (1) central govt.
(2) state govt.
(3) donor agencies
6. % of green area to total No data gap. - -
city area
(PMA: green space)
7. pollution contribution from Only one very - -
transport sector as a approximate study done
fraction of total pollution as a part of training and
load (%) capacity building project
assisted by USEPA

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-9
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8. percentage of vehicles No specific Low-cost option Cost : Rs. 2 lacs


meeting the latest emission measurement of this a) Use ‘Emission Inventory’ data available USD : 4,600
standards indicator though it can from the USEPA-supported project
be calculated from the b) Determine actual number of vehicles on the Stakeholders likely to
total number of road by borrowing data from survey-based contribute to the cost
registered vehicles by studies instituted by the Auto-Fuel Policy (1) PMC, PCMC,
year available with RTO. Committee CANTONMENT
RTO statistics do not c) Use ‘Emission Factors’ published by CPCB BOARDS
indicate the actual d) Incorporate new emission factors from (2) PMC ‘Air Quality
numbers of vehicles on ICAP study as soon as available Management -
the road. Can be e) Use utilization factors published by CPCB AQM Cell’
borrowed from some Calculate number of old vehicles not in use
survey-based studies from the survey-based studies instituted by the
done in other cities Auto-Fuel Policy Committee
instituted by the Auto-
Fuel Policy Committee
Medium-cost option Cost : Rs. 55 lacs
a) Carry out the emission inventory exercise USD : 126,500
in a more detailed manner as per Stakeholders Likely
procedures outlined during the USEPA To Contribute To the
study. Cost
b) Carry out a survey-based study to (1) University of
determine utilization factors of different Pune
categories of vehicles typical to Pune (2) PMC, PCMC,
c) Carry out a survey-based study to CANTONMENT
determine actual numbers of vehicles on BOARDS,
the Pune roads (3) MPCB, CPCB
Institute source apportionment studies to (4) private sector
determine the contribution of transport to total (SIAM/SAFE)

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-10
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

air pollution in Pune (5) PMC ‘Air Quality


Management -
AQM Cell’
(6) NEERI
High-cost option Cost Rs. 2.5 Crore
a) Develop new institutional capacity to carry USD : 575,000
out emission inventory, source Stakeholders likely to
apportionment, and dispersion modeling contribute to the cost
exercises on an ongoing basis using best (1) CENTRAL
practices, acquiring the necessary models GOVERNMENT
b) Institute detailed study to ascertain the (2) STATE
emission factors and utilization factors of GOVERNMENT
different categories of vehicles under real- (3) PMC, PCMC,
world Pune driving conditions; this could be CANTONMENT
done using the IVEM model study carried BOARDS,
out by Dr. James Lentz (under the USEPA (4) PMC ‘Air Quality
program) and using on-board emission Management -
analyzer such as the SEMTECH” of AVL AQM Cell’
c) Build additional capacity at the RTO to
generate regular data on old vehicles not in
use or phased out and determine the actual
number of vehicles on the road

9. no. of fuel samples failed No apparent data gap. - -


to meet specifications But refining the data
against total number of compilation process is
samples tested. required.

10. total fuel consumed (by No apparent data gap. - -

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-11
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

type: petrol, diesel, But refining the data


others)/10,000 vehicles compilation process is
population required.
11. no. of PUC centers per This indicator is not - -
lac vehicles population currently monitored but
can be easily worked
out. No data gap.
12. no. of LPG, CNG, Could be ascertained - -
battery operated, hybrid from the data of
vehicles per lac vehicles (by registration of vehicles
category) with RTO. Currently only
small number of LPG
vehicles are registered.
No gap.

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-12
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 7.4
Bridging Data Gap for Safety Group of Indicators
Indicator Data Gaps Action plan for bridging data Remarks
gap
1. transport-caused fatalities No data gaps. - -
per 10,000 vehicles (by
vehicle category) including
NMT & pedestrians
2. transport-caused injuries No data gaps. - -
per 10,000 vehicles (by
vehicle category) including
NMT & pedestrians
3. no. of trauma care No data gaps. - Data pertaining to private trauma
centers/1 lac population care in PMA is to be compiled by
local NGOs or local government.
4. no. of cases of violation No data gaps. - -
of traffic rules per 10,000
vehicles
5. no. of MVI /10,000 No data gaps. - -
vehicle vis a vis existing
norms
6. no. driver training No data gaps.
schools/no. of new licenses
issued trend
analysis

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-13
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 7.5
Bridging Gap for Governance Group of Indicators
Indicator Data Gaps Action plan for bridging data Remarks
gap
1. no. of traffic police No data gaps. - -
deployed/ lac vehicles
2. policy & regulations for - - -
safety, emissions,
performance etc. of vehicles
- available/not available
(qualitative)
3. road map with adequate Data gap: road map not Low-cost option: Cost : Rs. 10 lacs
lead time for implementation available There is a need to develop a UISD : 2,300
of regulations road map with adequate lead
-available/not available time for implementation of
(qualitative) regulations by a committee
comprising officials from the
concerned departments.

™‹™

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-14
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8 TREND ANALYSIS FOR SELECTED INDICATORS

4.8 Based on the availability of data for the past few years from the
concerned departments and organizations, we carried out a trend
analysis for each selected indicator for the Pune Metropolitan Area
(PMA). In this chapter, the analysis is presented in sequence by
group—namely access, economics, environment and health, safety,
and governance.

4.9 At present, two municipal transport organizations—Pune Municipal


Transport (PMT) and Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Transport (PCMT)—
cater to the travel needs of commuters in PMA. As of March 31, 2004,
the bus fleet strength of PMT and PCMT was 849 and 212
respectively. Owing to PCMT’s small bus fleet and lesser number of
bus routes, the trend analysis for various indicators pertaining to city
buses was carried out for PMT.

ACCESS

4.10 In the access group, 19 indicators were selected for sustainable


transport in Pune. Based on the availability of data for indicators, we
conducted a trend analysis for five access indicators, which is
presented below.

Indicator access 1
%age of area reserved for transport use
(refer Table 4.2, SN 1.3)

8.4 For this indicator, data for year 2004 was collected for Pune city (PMC
area) and is presented below. Given the existing land-use distribution
pattern in PMC, 3.9 percent of city area in Pune is for transport use
(refer Table 1.2, Page 1-7). According to planning norms, about 15 to
20 percent of the city area should be reserved for transport use; in this

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-1
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

perspective, the value of this indicator in Pune is very low. Hence,


efforts need to be made by the concerned organizations to improve the
value of this indicator for achieving a sustainable transport system
(STS) in PMA.

Indicator access 2
No. of cancelled km/scheduled km (buses)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 1.9)

8.5 Data was collected for Pune Municipal Transport (PMT) from 1999 to
2004 and is given below:

8.6 Table 8.1 presents canceled kms, scheduled kms, and its ratio as an
indicator value for PMT buses from 1999 to 2004. Fig 8.1 shows that
the ratio of canceled kms to scheduled kms for PMT increased from
1999 through 2001–02 and then declined slightly. In order to increase
the reliability of PMT bus service among commuters, value of this
indicator should be as low as possible and preferably nil.
Table 8.1
No. of Canceled km/Scheduled km
*values are in lacs
Year 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04
Canceled kms (A)* 40.02 60.49 94.05 68.02 65.98
Scheduled kms (B)* 648.52 666.69 675.36 638.29 674.85
Ratio (A/B) 0.06 0.09 0.14 0.11 0.10

0.150

0.100

0.050

0.000
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04

cancelled km/schedule km
Fig 8.1 Ratio of canceled km to schedule km

Indicator access 2
Average passenger load factor (buses)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 1.11)

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-2
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.7 Table 8.2 presents the average passenger load factor for PMT buses
from 1999 to 2004. Fig 8.2 graphically shows the trend for this indicator
during last five years. It can be seen from Fig 8.2 that the average
passenger load factor for PMT has gradually increased. A high average
passenger load factor in bus operation helps meet operating costs of
buses and other expenditures by transport operators.

Table 8.2
Average Passenger Load Factor

Parameters 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04


Load Factor (%) 49.84 44.96 47.58 52.79 55.32

60.00
Avg. Load Factor

50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
Year load factor
Fig 8.2 Average passenger load factor in %

Indicator access 3
No. of breakdowns per 10,000 km (buses)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 1.17)

8.8 Table 8.3 presents the number of breakdowns per 10,000 effective km
operated by PMT buses from 1999 to 2004, and Fig 8.3 shows the
trend for this indicator. It can be seen from Fig 8.3 that in the last five
years, the number of breakdowns per 10,000 effective km operated
had remained about the same (i.e. 1 breakdown per 10,000 km
operated), except in 2000, when it declined to 0.80 breakdowns per
10,000 effective km. This indicator is directly linked with the reliability of
the bus service. Therefore, efforts need to be made by PMT to further
reduce the value of this indicator.
Table 8.3
No. of Breakdowns per 10,000 km

Year 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-3
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

04
No. of 0.99 0.80 1.01 0.97 1.04
breakdowns
per 10,000 km

1.2

Breakdowns/10000 kms
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04

breakdowns/10000 kms Year


Fig 8.3 No. of breakdowns per 10,000 km

Indicator access 4
No. of zebra crossings/ total traffic signals
(refer Table 4.2, SN 1.12)

8.9 For this indicator, data for 2004 was collected for Pune city (PMC area)
and is presented below. As shown in Table 8.4, zebra crossings are
provided at the majority of traffic signals in Pune city. This trend needs
to be monitored in the future.

Table 8.4
No. of Zebra Crossings Vs Total Traffic Signals

Year 2004
No. of zebra crossings in Pune (A) 270
No. of traffic signals in Pune (B) 135
Ratio (A/B) 2

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-4
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ECONOMIC

8.10 In the economic group, 12 indicators were selected. Based on the


availability of data for indicators, we carried out trend analysis for nine
indicators.

Indicator economic 1
Marginal cost per km for two-wheeler to bus fare passenger km
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.3)

8.11 Fig. 8.4 shows gradual growth in the ratio, which is a positive sign that
PMT bus fare passenger km are getting marginally better vis a vis 2-
wheelersin Pune. This was largely due to a sudden rise in the ratio in
2002–03. The future trend for this indicator needs to be monitored.

Table 8.5
Fare/passenger km Vs Petrol Cost for two-wheelers

Petrol Cost
Year Fare/passenger km (maximum in the year) Ratio
(paise @ km) (paise @ km*)
1999–00 70 47 0.67
2000–01 70 51 0.73
2001–02 70 53 0.76
2002–03 70 63 0.90
2003–04 70 64 0.91
* petrol cost worked out assuming average speed 60 km @liter for two-wheelers

y = 0.0639x + 0.5996
1.000
0.895 0.910
0.800 0.752
0.677 0.722
0.600 Ratio
ratio

0.400 Linear (Ratio)


0.200
0.000
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
years

Fig 8.4 Fare/passenger km Vs petrol cost for two-wheelers

Indicator economic 2
Loss of revenue on account of subsidized fare to subsidy
provided by government
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.4)

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-5
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.12 Table 8.6 presents the loss of revenue on account of subsidized fares
by PMT as well as subsidies/grants provided by the local government
during the last five years. The trend line (Fig 8.5) shows a fall in the
ratio, which indicates that the local government is providing more aid to
sustain the burden of subsidies to public transport operators. Though it
is heading down, the ideal value will be a constant ratio of 1 that will
show no overprotection is provided to public transport operators.
Future trends need to be observed.
Table 8.6
Loss through Subsidized Fare Vs Subsidy Provided

Year Loss through Subsidy/grant Ratio


subsidized fares by local Govt.
(Rs. in Lacs) (Rs. in Lacs)
1 2 3 4=2/3
1999–00 515.30 450 1.145
2000–01 469.85 250 1.879
2001–02 451.08 450 1.002
2002–03 450.70 675 0.667
2003–04 582.93 795 0.733

y = -0.2035x + 1.6962
2
1.5
Ratio
Ratio

1
Linear (Ratio)
0.5

0
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
Year

Fig 8.5 Loss through subsidized fare Vs subsidy provided

Indicator economic 3
City capital expenditure on transport to total budgeted
expenditure
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.5)

PCMC
8.13 The trend line (Fig 8.6) shows a rise in percentage, which indicates that
local government is making more and more provision every year for
transport needs. Though it is heading up, a further rise is required.

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-6
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Future trends need to be observed to assess the sustainable transport


system for Pune.
Table 8.7
Capital Expenditure on Transport to
Total Budgeted Expenditure
*Rs in Crore
Year Transport Budget %
Expenditure* (Total Expenditure)*

1999–00 16.79 251.41 6.68


2000–01 22.11 246.38 8.97
2001–02 20.79 269.18 7.72
2002–03 17.76 272.57 6.52
2003–04 30.50 316.46 9.64

15.00
Percentage

10.00 8.97 9.64


6.68 7.72 6.52
5.00
0.00
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04

Year %
Linear (%)

Fig 8.6 Capital expenditure on transport to


total budgeted expenditure

Indicator economic 4
Fare per km/ cost per km (buses)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.6)

8.14 The trend line (Fig 8.7) is well below the ratio of 1, which shows that
costs are not being covered by the PMT bus fare. There was a decline
in the ratio in the year 2000–04. Ideally it should be nearing 1 to
achieve a sustainable transport system.
Table 8.8
Fare/km Vs Cost/km

Year Fare Cost Ratio


(paise @ km) (paise @ km)
1 2 3 4=2/3
1999–00 70 53 1.32
2000–01 70 64 1.09
2001–02 70 66 1.06
2002–03 70 65 1.07
2003–04 70 66 1.06

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-7
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

1.5
y = -0.054x + 1.28
1
operating
Feasibility PMT
0.5
Linear (operating
0 Feasibility PMT)
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 Year

Fig 8.7 Fare/km Vs Cost/km

Indicator economic 5
Investment vis a vis requirement in PT per annum
(Refer Table 4.2, SN 2.7)

8.15 The trend line (Fig 8.8) is heading up, a good indication that local
government is financing public transport operators in more numbers.
Though ideal variance will be zero, with the financial constraints of
local government it may not be feasible. But the overall reduction in
variance is a good indication.
Table 8.9
Investment vis a vis Requirement in PT per annum
All values are in Rs lacs
Finance
Year Requirement Sanctioned Amount Variance
1 2 3 4=3-2
1999–00 1527 450 -1077
2000–01 1212 250 -962
2001–02 1297 450 -847
2002–03 1268 675 -593
2003–04 1554 795 -759

Year
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
0
-200 Variance
Rs in lacs

-400 -593
-600 Linear (Variance)
-800 -1077 -759
-1000 -847 y = 100.5x - 1149.1
-1200 -962

Fig 8.8 Investment vis a vis requirement in PT per annum

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-8
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Indicator economic 6
Rate of return on cumulative capital investment
(Refer Table 4.2, SN 2.8)

8.16 The trend line (Fig 8.9) heading up shows that negative returns are
falling with the given cumulative investment. There is a fall in
cumulative losses, with reduced cumulative capital investment.

Table 8.10
Rate of Return on Cumulative Investment
*Rs in lacs
Year Cumulative Cumulative Capital Ratio
Loss* Investment*

1 2 3 4=2/3
1999–00 -14787.64 6606.33 -2.2
2000–01 -12786.29 5048.10 -2.5
2001–02 -11232.08 5041.74 -2.2
2002–03 -9527.39 4028.17 -2.4
2003–04 -7523.04 4004.02 -1.9

y = 0.0887x - 2.5147
Year
0.0
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
-1.0
Ratio

-2.0 -2.2 -1.9 Ratio


-2.2 -2.4
-2.5 Linear
-3.0
(Ratio)
Fig 8.9 Rate of Return on Cumulative Investment

Indicator economic 7
Operating fuel intensity in terms of passenger-km/liter for bus
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.9)

8.17 Trend line (Fig 8.10) for PMT heading up is a good indicator. Further,
future trend observations are needed.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-9
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table 8.11
Operating Fuel Intensity: passenger-km/liter (bus)
*values are in lacs
Year Passenger KM operated Fuel Consumed Ratio
(passenger km)* (liter)*
1999–00 18455 177.40 104.03
2000–01 16523 177.11 93.29
2001–02 16972 173.24 97.97
2002–03 18852 176.04 107.09
2003–04 21082 182.04 115.81

y = 3.7356x + 92.431
140.00
104.03
Passenger Km/Ltr

120.00 97.97 115.81


100.00
80.00 107.09
93.29
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
Year Operating Fuel Intensity

Linear (Operating Fuel Intensity)

Fig 8.10 Operating fuel intensity

Indicator economic 8
Ratio of expenditure to revenue realized through transport
infrastructure (road tax, fuel tax, etc)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.11)

PMC
8.18 The trend line (Fig 8.11) is heading down, showing that local
government is putting back more of the revenue earned.

Table 8.12
Expenditure to Revenue Realized through
Transport Infrastructure (PMC)
*Rs in crore
Year Expenditure* Revenue* Ratio

1 2 3 4=3/2
2002–03 100.14 311.0 3.10
2003–04 120.78 314.6 2.60
2004–05 124.70 342.5 2.74
Note:1. Expenditure includes roads building maintenance and cleaning of roads
2.Revenue includes road tax and octroi

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-10
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

y = -0.1795x + 3.1781
3.2
3
2.8 ratio

Ratio
2.6 Linear (ratio)
2.4
2.2
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
Year

Fig 8.11 Expenditure to Revenue Realized through


Transport Infrastructure (PMC)

PCMC
8.19 The trend line (Fig 8.12) is heading down, showing that local
government is putting back more of the revenue earned. But there was
a sudden rise in the ratio in 2002–03, indicating a departure from
sustainability.

Table 8.13
Expenditure to Revenue Realized through
Transport Infrastructure (PCMC)
*Rs in crore
Year Expenditure* Revenue* Ratio

1 2 3 4=3/2
1999–00 16.79 154.69 9.21
2000–01 22.11 151.57 6.86
2001–02 20.79 153.81 7.40
2002–03 17.76 261.48 14.72
2003–04 30.5 279.74 9.17

y = -0.0077x + 0.1364
0.2

0.15 Ratio rev/ Exp


ratio

0.1
Linear (Ratio rev/
0.05 Exp)
0
00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04
Year

Fig 8.12 Expenditure to Revenue Realized through


Transport Infrastructure (PCMC)

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-11
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Indicator economic 9
Tax collection from transport sector to total tax collection
(refer Table 4.2, SN 2.12)

PMC
8.20 The trend line (Fig 8.13) shows a decline in the portion of tax collected
from the transport sector to the total tax collected. The trend line should
be observed with the other indicator titled “ratio of expenditure to
revenue realized through transport infrastructure.”
Table 8.14
Tax collection from transport sector to total tax collection (PMC)
Rs in crore
Year Taxes* Total taxes Ratio

1 2 3 4=2/3
2002–03 311.0 468.3 0.66
2003–04 314.6 486.6 0.65
2004–05 342.5 579.0 0.59
* Taxes include octroi and road tax
y = -0.0363x + 0.7066
0.70
0.65
0.65

0.60 0.66
0.59
0.55
ratio
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
Linear

Fig 8.13 Tax collection from transport sector


to total tax collection (PMC)
PCMC
8.21 The trend line (Fig 8.14) shows a stagnant portion of tax collected from
transport sector to the total tax collected. Local government should put
funds in sector development for further revenue generation. This trend
line should be observed with the other indicator, “ratio of expenditure to
revenue realized through transport infrastructure.”
Table 8.15
Tax collection from transport sector to total tax collection (PCMC)
*Rs in crore
Year Taxes* Total Taxes* Ratio
1 2 3 4=2/3
1999–00 154.69 174.49 0.89
2000–01 151.57 174.11 0.87
2001–02 153.81 180.81 0.85
2002–03 261.48 292.56 0.89
2003–04 279.74 312.75 0.89

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-12
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Note: Taxes include octroi and road tax


Year y = 0.0039x + 0.8675
0.90 0.89
0.89
0.89 0.89 ratio tax
0.88
from
0.87 transport to
0.86 total tax
0.85 0.87 PCMC
0.84 Linear (ratio
0.83 tax f rom
0.85 transport to
0.82
total tax
Ratio

99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 PCMC)

Fig 8.14 Tax collection from transport sector


to total tax collection (PCMC)

ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH

8.22 In the environment and health group, 12 indicators were selected for
the sustainable transport system (STS). Based on the availability of
data for indicators, we carried out a trend analysis for seven indicators.

Indicator environment 1
Number of days pollution level exceeded national ambient air
quality standards (NAAQS)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.1)

8.23 There is a network of air quality monitoring stations in the Pune area.
These monitoring stations are operated by three different agencies.
The location of the monitors and the operating agencies are given in
Table 8.16.
Table 8.16
Details of Air Quality Monitoring Stations in PMA
Location Karve Road Swargate Nal-Stop Jog Bhosari
Centre
Address Yeshwantrao Crossing Crossing Mumbai- Pune-
Chavan of of Karve Pune Mumbai
Sabhagruha, Shankar Road and highway Road(old),
Karve Road, Sheth, Law (NH-4) Bhosari
Kothrud Satara, College industrial
and Road area
Shivaji
Roads
Operating MPCB University University MPCB University
agency of Pune of Pune of Pune

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-13
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.24 The Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) also monitors air quality at
select locations on select days and runs its own laboratory. Karve
Road and Swargate are locations that have a heavy movement of
vehicles. While Karve Road is predominantly residential, the Swargate
location is also a commercially busy area. It has a heavy movement of
goods transport vehicles and also buses entering and leaving an
important bus station nearby. Bhosari, on the other hand, is a
predominantly industrial area with relatively lower vehicle movement.
Most of the industries in the area, such as major automobile
manufacturers and their ancillaries, are low polluting.

8.25 The overall responsibility of recording and maintaining the air quality
data is that of the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB). The
MPCB maintains a website that gives the data for various cities in the
state of Maharashtra, including Pune.

8.26 No attempts to analyze the data to study the trends of exceedance are
evident. Some raw data obtained from the MPCB, as well as some
that was downloaded from the MPCB website, were used to prepare
graphical representations of air quality status in Pune. These are
shown in Fig 8.15 for PM10 (also referred to as respiratory suspended
particulate matter, RSPM) and Fig 8.16 for NOx (oxides of nitrogen)
levels.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-14
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

PM10 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, OCTOBER 2004, ug/ m3 PM10 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, NOVEMBER 2004, ug/ m3 PM10 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, APRIL 2005, ug/ m3 PM10 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, MAY 2005, ug/ m3
Number of exceedances =12 (50%), Allowed <2%per year Number of exceedances = 14 (54%), Al l owed <2%per year Number of exccedances = 5 (23%), Al l owed = <2%per year Number of exceedances = 7 (50%) Al l owed = <2%per year

300 300 300 300

250 250 250 250

200 200 200 200

150 150 150 150

100 100 100 100

50 50 50 50

0 0 0
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Fig 8.15 Trends of daily levels of PM10 at Karve Road station, Pune
(during the months of October and November 2004 and April and May-partly, 2005)

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-15
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.27 It can be seen from Fig 8.15 that the levels of PM10 measured at the
Karve road station are very high and exceeded the stipulated level of
100 ug/m3 (24 hourly limit) on several days. As per the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (refer to Annex 4.3), pollution levels
should not exceed the stipulated level more than 2 percent of the time
in a whole year and not on two consecutive days. It is seen from the
data presented above that the PM10 levels at Karve Road in Pune
exceed the stipulated level more than 50 percent of the time, except in
the month of April 2005, in which it exceeded the limit 23 percent of the
days. Several of these exceedance days are consecutive. The levels
seem to have been exceptionally high and variable in the month of
November 2004. As opposed to this, the levels are relatively lower and
less variable in the month of May 2005 (only partial data is available,
since this is the current month). These trends may be due to various
factors, including climatic conditions. At this stage, it is difficult to
conclude whether the changes are influenced by various policy
decisions taken, such as the progressive introduction of stringent
emission standards (refer to Annex 4.9).

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-15
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

NO2 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, OCTOBER 2004, ug/ m3 NO2 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, NOVEMBER 2004, ug/ m3 NO2 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, APRIL 2005, ug/ m3 NO2 LEVELS, KARVE ROAD, MAY 2005, ug/ m3
Number of exceedances = none Number of exceedances = none Number of exceedances = none Number of exceedances = none

90 90
90 90

80 80
80 80

70 70 70
70

60 60 60 60

50 50 50 50

40 40 40 40

30 30 30 30

20 20 20
20

10 10 10 10

0
0 0 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Fig 8.16 Trends of daily levels of NOx at Karve Road station, Pune
(during the months of October and November 2004 and April and May-partly, 2005)

8.28 Fig 8.16 shows that the daily levels of NOx are considerably below the maximum stipulated level of 80 ug/m3 (24 hourly
limit). The levels in the month of May 2005 are, however, higher than those in the months of October and November 2004. A
mild tendency for an increase in the daily levels of NOx is visible. However, this cannot be taken as a trend unless data of
similar periods for several years are compared.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-15
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Indicator environment 2
Air quality trends for last 5 years
(concentration of pollutants in air) Ambient air pollutant concentrations for various pollutants such as PM10, NO2, SO2,
measured at various locations in the PMA area (spatial distribution)-ambient air pollutant concentrations at traffic hot spots.
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.2)

8.29 The levels of two important pollutants, namely SPM and NOx over the last three years at one location, namely Nal Stop, are
shown in Fig 8.17. The levels of these pollutants (in addition to SO2) at two other important locations, namely Bhosari and
Swargate, on a comparative basis with those at Nal Stop, are shown in Fig 8.17. An overall picture, based on the averages
of the levels of pollutants at the three locations, is given in Fig 8.18.

MONTHLY AVERAGE SPM LEVELS, NAL STOP, ug/m3


MONTHLY AVERAGE NO2 LEVELS AT NAL STOP, ug/m3

140 700
120 600
100 500
80 400
60 300
40 200
20 100
0 0
0 12 24 36 0 12 24 36
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

Fig 8.17 Monthly average SPM and NO2 levels at Nal-Stop monitoring station over three years
[Notes: (1) Consolidated monthly data for the fiscal year 2003-04 could not be obtained. (2) The periods refer to the Indian fiscal years from April to
March, (3) Data for PM10 over the years could not be obtained since only SPM has been regularly monitored for a long time, (4) A rough assessment
of the PM 10 levels can be made by assuming that it is approximately 40% of the SPM level]

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-16
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.30 Levels of both NO2 and SPM (suspended particulate matter) have increased in the year 2001–02 compared to 2000–01.
While the levels of SPM continued to rise in the following year 2002–03, NOx seems to be declining to levels even below the
2000–01 levels. Since Nal-Stop is a heavy vehicular traffic area, the influence of the introduction of cleaner vehicles with
lower NOx emission levels on this trend cannot be ruled out. The trend in the reduction in NOx levels continued in the
following year. A continued increase in the levels of SPM (and concomitantly PM10) could be explained by the fact that
vehicular emissions are perhaps not the predominant source of these pollutants.
AVERAGE ANNUAL LEVELS AT NAL STOP AVERAGE ANNUAL LEVELS AT BHOSARI AVERAGE ANNUAL LEVELS AT SWARGATE

500 500 500


450 450 450
400 400 400
350 350 350
300 300 300
250 250 250
200 200 200
150 150 150
100 100 100
50 50 50
0 0 0

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
NOx SPM SO2 NOx SPM SO2 NOx SPM SO2

Fig 8.18 Monthly average SPM, SO2 and NO2 levels at Nal-Stop, Bhosari, and Swargate monitoring stations

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-17
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.31 It is evident from Fig 8.18 that the spatial variation of pollutants among the monitoring stations in Pune is extremely high.
Bhosari, an industrial area, has recorded the lowest levels of SPM, which are less than half of the levels recorded at
Swargate, a commercial and a transport-intensive area. The SPM (and concomitantly PM10) levels are the highest at
Swargate, though they are quite high at Nal-Stop as well. In all cases, SPM levels have steadily increased over the years.
The declining trend in the NO2 level is visible at all stations. There is also a distinct trend of reduction in SO2 levels.

ANNUAL AVERAGE POLLUTANT LEVES FOR PUNE, ug/m3


[LIMITS: NOx = 60, SO2 = 60, SPM = 140]
350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04
NOx SPM SO2

Fig 8.19 Average SPM, SO2 and NO2 levels at Pune


(based on averages at Nal-Stop, Bhosari and Swargate monitoring stations)

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-18
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.32 The data given in Fig 8.19 is derived by taking the mean of the annual
average levels of different pollutants at the three monitoring sites,
namely Nal-Stop, Swargate, and Bhosari. As shown, SPM has been
steadily rising over the years and is currently more than twice as high
as the permissible level of 140 ug/m3. Assuming that PM10 is
approximately 40 percent of the SPM level, the average annual PM10
level would be approximately 128 ug/m3, which is greater than twice
the permissible limit of 60 ug/m3.

8.33 In conclusion, it is evident that SPM and PM10 are the most important
pollutants of concern for Pune. The levels of these pollutants seem to
be extremely high and way beyond the permissible limits at major
traffic intersections compared to industrial areas. Levels of NOx are
somewhat below the allowed limits and seem to be declining. However,
further actions would be required to ensure that these are brought
down to very safe levels and in a sustainable manner.

Indicator environment 3
Number of days on which noise level exceeded normal level
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.3)

8.34 Measurement of ambient noise is presently not carried out regularly.


These are carried out mostly for specific studies or at festival times
when the ambient noise levels rise to unbearably high levels.

8.35 The noise levels measured at the Mahatma Phule Mandai (an
important fruit and vegetable market situated in the middle of the old
city) as reported in the Environmental Status Report 2003-2004 are
given in Fig 8.20.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-21
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

AMBIENT NOISE LEVELS AT MAHATMA PHULE MANDAI, dB(A)


90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
04

04

04

04

04

04

04
00
20

20
4/

4/

5/

5/

5/
/2
/0

/0

/0

/0

/0
5/

6/
/5
16

27

13

17

20
7/

9/
10
Fig 8.20 Levels of ambient noise at Mahatma Phule Mandai

8.36 As shown in Fig 8.20, typically ambient noise levels in Pune are much
above the permissible limit of 65 dB(A) specified for commercial areas.
Table 8.17 summarizes the prevailing regulations for ambient noise
levels for various types of areas and different times of the day.

Table 8.17
Regulatory Standards for Ambient Noise Levels in India

Category of Area Limit value dB(A)


Day time Night time
(6 hrs to 21 hrs) (21 hrs to 6 hrs)
Industrial Area 75 70
Commercial Area 65 55
Residential Area 55 45
Silence Zone* 50 40
* Areas up to 100 meters of hospitals, educational institutions, courts etc

Indicator environment 4
Noise level trends for last 5 years
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.4)

8.37 There is no study or records available from which such data could be
derived. The limited study referred to above has shown the acuteness
of the problem. Since most of the noise is attributable to the
transportation activity, it is important to urgently institute a system to
monitor ambient noise levels at critical locations regularly and take up
stringent measures to control it to regulated levels.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-22
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Indicator environment 5
Percentage of green area to total city area
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.5)

8.38 The basic data regarding the area of the city that is covered by gardens
and forests (this is only for the PMC area and not for PMA) is derived
from the Environmental Status Report 2003-2004 of PMC.

Total area of the city (PMC before merging of the villages) = 146 sq km
(14,600 ha)
Total area covered by gardens = 139 ha (0.95%)
Total area covered by forests = 338 ha (2.3%)
Total green area (gardens and forests) = 477 ha (3.27%)

8.39 It is heartening to note that the PMC has adopted a well-conceived


program to develop gardens, improve sides of roads, plant trees, and
develop water bodies. Pune also maintains a detailed tree census and
details on biodiversity.

Indicator environment 6
Pollution contribution from transport sector as a fraction of total
pollution load
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.6)

8.40 Indicative data is available from the only approximate study done as a
part of training and capacity building project under USEPA assistance
and guidance. The report of this study clearly warns that the data is not
official and should not be used for any reference or analysis. However,
the main findings are given in Fig 8.21 as an indication.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-23
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Figure 8.21 Relative percentage of PM10 emissions in Pune region

8.41 The contribution of on-road vehicles to the total PM10 in Pune is around
4 percent. The major contribution comes from agricultural burning and
dust from paved and unpaved roads. Brick kilns have a significant
share.

8.42 Although the actual figures could be quite inaccurate, the above study
clearly shows that there are many major sources of PM10 other than
automotive vehicles in Pune that need to be controlled to bring about a
significant improvement in air quality.

8.43 The most important requirement is to institute a systematic and


accurate pollutant inventory so that this important indicator can be
regularly monitored.

8.44 Bringing about a reduction in the pollution contribution of vehicles


would also require information on the relative contribution of different
categories and vintages of vehicles. Estimation of pollutant load
(tones/year) can be done by using the following formula:

Pollutant load (tons/year) = [EF] x [N] x [U] x 10-6


EF = Emission Factor in g/km,
N = Number of vehicles
U = Average utilization in km/year

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-24
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Population of registered vehicles of different categories in Pune

1000000
900000 Total 2-W
800000 Cars (petrol)
700000
Cars (diesel)
600000
500000 3-wheelers
400000 LCV
300000
200000 Buses
100000 Trucks
0
1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Source: Regional Transport Office, Pune


Fig 8.22 Population of different categories of registered vehicles
in Pune

8.45 One problem that is common to all indicators involving the population
of vehicles is the difficulty in getting accurate data on the actual
number of vehicles moving on the road.
[Note: As per the vehicle registration system in India, all private
vehicles (two-wheelers, cars etc) are required to pay their registration
tax only once in a life time. A re-registration is required (to establish the
fitness of the vehicle) only after 15 years. The vehicles used for
commercial purposes, however, (buses, trucks, three-wheelers) are
required to obtain a fitness certificate every year. As a result, there is
no record of the vehicles that continue to operate on the road in a city
where it was first registered. The result is that the official records show
a higher number of vehicles than the numbers that are actually
operating on the road].

8.46 Accurate emission factors based on actual measurements are not


available for Indian vehicles. However, fairly accurate estimates have
been reported by the Central Pollution Control Board (“Transport Fuel
Quality for Year 2005, Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of
Environment & Forests, Government of India, December 2000”). These
are based on the new vehicle emission values measured during type
approval and assuming certain deterioration factors for in-use vehicles.
Emission factors for PM and NOx, as for different categories of
vehicles, are given in Annex 4.5. The average utilization factors are
also given in Annex 4.6.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-25
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.47 It is possible to estimate the relative pollution contribution of different


categories of vehicles using the above formula and the population of
registered vehicles of different categories. Estimates of pollution loads
on the above lines have been performed for Pune and the results are
shown in Fig 8.23 for PM and NOx respectively. The results show the
contributions of the pollutant made by different categories of vehicles
belonging to different age-groups. The age-groups have been defined
in terms of the periods made up of the years when vehicle emission
standards of a particular stringency were prevalent.

8.48 The introduction of progressively stringent emission standards in the


country has led to a significant reduction in the contribution of vehicles
to the PM levels. There has, however, been an increase in the NOx
contributed by two-wheelers and cars. In the case of two-wheelers, the
increase may be on account of a changeover to four-stroke engines,
which tend to emit more NOx than hydrocarbons (HC). Note that these
vehicles are required to comply with a composite standard for
HC+NOx. Two-stroke engines tend to emit higher HC and lower
(negligible) NOx, whereas four-stroke engines emit higher levels of
NOx and much lower levels of HC].The increase in the contribution of
cars may be due to their large numbers

8.49 Even though there have been significant reductions in the emission
levels of all types of vehicles over the years—mainly due to the
stringent emission standards and the introduction of new technologies
—the cumulative pollutant loads in the city contributed by vehicles has
continued to rise. Fig 8.24 shows that though there has been a decline
in the rate of increase of vehicular contribution of PM and NOx, the
total load has been steadily rising.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-26
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

PM CONTRIBUTION OF VEHICLES OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES AND NOx CONTRIBUTION OF VEHICLES OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES
VINTAGES IN PUNE, TONNES AND VINTAGES IN PUNE, TONNES
900 6000
800
5000
700
600 4000
500
3000
400
300 2000
200 1000
100
0 0
2-W CARS 3-W LCV BUSES TRUCKS 2-W CARS 3-W LCV BUSES TRUCKS

Pre-1992 1992-96 1996-2000 Post-2000 pre-92 1992-96 1996-2000 post-2000

Fig 8.23 PM and NOx contribution of vehicles of different categories and vintages of vehicles in Pune
PM loads (tonnes) of vehicles in Pune NOx loads (tonnes) of vehicles in Pune

20000
6000
15000
4000
10000
2000
5000

0 0
pre-92 1992-96 1996-2000 post-2000
pre-92 1992-96 1996-2000 post-2000

period cum period total

Fig 8.24 Period-wise and cumulative contribution of PM and NOx vehicles in Pune

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-28
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

8.50 As per the current rule in India, the central government is responsible
for issuing standards for new vehicles and in-use vehicles. However, the
implementation of actions to control emission of in-use vehicles is the
responsibility of the state government and the local authorities. As such, the
local bodies would be more interested in knowing about the relative
contribution of existing old in-use vehicles. Periodic analysis of data in the
manner shown above can prove to be extremely useful to the local authorities
to decide on ways to control in-use vehicle emissions. The measures would
typically include improvement of the in-use inspection (PUC) system, phasing
out of old vehicles, encouraging retrofits for upgrades wherever possible, and
switching to alternative fuels.

Indicator environment 7
Total fuel consumed (by type: petrol, diesel, others)/10,000
vehicles population
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.7)

8.51 Vehicles in Pune consume an estimated 1.8 million liters per day of
petrol and diesel fuel. It is also estimated that the consumption of
diesel and petrol would be equal.

Indicator environment 8
Number of fuel samples failed to meet specifications against total
number of samples tested
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.8)

8.52 Though tests of fuel samples are carried out periodically, these are
mostly done by the oil companies for their internal purposes. At
present, no data is available in the public domain. However, in view of
the rampant practice of adulteration of fuel that adversely affects
emissions, it is important for this activity to be taken up on an urgent
basis and data made available to the authorities as well as the general
public.

Indicator environment 9
Percentage of vehicles meeting the latest emission standards
(Refer Table 4.2, SN 3.9)

8.53 This indicator does not form a part of any of the officially available
records or data. However, it can be calculated from the total number of
registered vehicles by year available with RTO. The percentage of
vehicles complying with the year 2000 emission standards (calculated
based on the vehicle registration statistics available from the Regional
Transport Office) is shown in Fig 8.25.

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PERCENTAGE OF VEHICLES OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES MEETING LATEST


(2000) EMISSION STANDARDS

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Cars 2-W Buses 3-W LCV Cars Trucks TOTALS
(petr) (dies)

Fig 8.25 Percentage of vehicles of different categories meeting the


year 2000 emission standards

8.54 The data in Fig 8.25 show that the percentage of vehicles meeting the
(year 2000) emission standards is the highest for cars (38 percent)
followed by two-wheelers (29 percent). This can be explained by the
rapid increase in their numbers in the city in recent years. The lowest
percentage (7 percent) is for trucks.

8.55 The figures given above are not truly the latest. The applicability of
latest standards for different categories of vehicles is shown in Table
8.18. Since the latest vehicle registration statistics are not yet available,
it is not possible to calculate the percentage of vehicles meeting the
truly latest emission standards.

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Table 8.18
Applicability of Latest Emission Standards for
Different Categories of Vehicles

Vehicle category Latest emission standard and


date
Two-Wheelers Bharat Stage II from April 1, 2005
Passenger cars (petrol and diesel) Bharat Stage III, from April 1, 2005
Three-Wheelers Bharat Stage II from April 1, 2005
Light Commercial Vehicles Bharat Stage III, from April 1, 2005
Buses Bharat Stage III, from April 1, 2005
Trucks Bharat Stage III, from April 1, 2005
[Note: Pune also had an early introduction of Bharat Stage II standards for 4-wheelers from year 2003]

Indicator environment 10
Number of LPG, CNG, battery operated, hybrid vehicles per
100,000 vehicles (by category)
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.10)

8.56 The numbers of LPG-powered vehicles, mainly cars and three-


wheelers, are extremely insignificant at the present time. There are no
CNG-operated vehicles available in the PMA since there is no supply
of CNG at present. No data is presented here for these indicators.
However, these indicators will gain in importance soon, since it is
envisaged that CNG will be made available to the PMA by the year
2007. Besides, the local authorities are exerting pressure to convert
three-wheelers and taxis to LPG. Already, there are three LPG filling
stations in the PMA area.

8.57 Currently, there are no battery-powered or hybrid electric vehicles in


PMA. However, these categories of vehicle are also expected to
increase in numbers in the years to come.

Indicator Environment 11
Number of PUC centers per 100,000 vehicle population
(Refer Table 4.2, S. No. 3.11)

8.58 The number of PUC (Pollution Under Control) centers in the PMA
region are shown in Table 8.19.

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Table 8.19
Number of PUC centers in Pune Metropolitan Area
For petrol vehicles only 124
For diesel vehicles only 22
For petrol and diesel vehicles 69
Total number of centers 215
Total number of centers available for petrol 193
Total number of centers available for diesel 91

8.59 The calculation of the indicator, which represents the adequacy of the
number of centers to enable all the vehicles to get inspected and
certified for PUC, is presented in Table 8.20.

Table 8.20
Adequacy of the number of PUC centers in
Pune Metropolitan Area

Type of Fuel Petrol Diesel


Number of vehicles 1,043,109 81,954
Number of PUC centers 193 91
available
Number of PUC centers/100,000 18.5 111
vehicles

8.60 The number of PUC facilities available for diesel-powered vehicles is


much larger with respect to the population of diesel vehicles compared
to petrol vehicles and the number of PUC centers. A more detailed
analysis is needed regarding the adequacy of the number of PUC
centers.

Indicator environment 12
Disability adjusted life years (DALY) per 10,000 population due to
transport component of air pollution
(refer Table 4.2, SN 3.12)

8.61 There is no data on this in Pune. No systematic studies to monitor the


health effects of the high concentrations of SPM, PM10 and NOx have
been taken up in the PMA area. There do not seem to be any
proposals in this regard either. The only evidence of the awareness of
the authorities to address this important issue is the following
statement in the Environmental Status Report of the PMC for the year
2003-2004.
“From one of the surveys carried out regarding the health of the
citizens with respect to the increasing air pollution and water pollution,

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it can be stated that the outgoing persons, irrespective of gender and


age, get affected more than that of the persons staying back at the
home/office. The major initial symptoms noted were eye irritation, skin
irritation, cold, coughing, sneezing, and gastric disorders etc. The
impact on kids was more as compared to the elder ones. About 800
persons and 20 doctors were interviewed from the Pune and Pimpri-
Chinchwad area. It is estimated that a common man has to spend
average Rs. 200/- per month for the health recovery”.

8.62 It needs to be emphasized that there is an urgent need to institute


systematic and scientific studies in this area.

SAFETY

8.63 In the safety group, six indicators were selected. Based on the
availability of data for indicators, the trend analysis for two indicators
was carried out and presented below.

Indicator Safety 1 & 2


Transport-Caused Fatalities/10,000 vehicles
(refer Table 4.2, SN 4.1) and
Transport-Caused Injuries/10,000 vehicles
(refer Table 4.2, SN 4.2)

8.64 To carry out trend analysis for the past few years for the above-
mentioned indicators, road accident data (fatalities and injuries) from
1998–2001 was collected and is presented in Table 8.21. The trend
analysis for both the indicators is graphically shown in Fig 8.26 and Fig
8.27. Trends in both fatalities and injuries per 10,000 vehicles in PMA
are decreasing, which is good for a sustainable transport system.
However, efforts are needed by the concerned departments to further
reduce the value of these indicators to achieve zero fatalities in Pune.

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Table 8.21
Fatalities and Injuries /10,000 Vehicles in Pune
(Vehicle category-wise)

Vehicle
Year Fatalities Injuries
type
1998 43.80 37.93
1999 53.06 36.94
Trucks
2000 48.07 42.38
2001 38.57 34.97
1998 52.99 49.14
Buses and 1999 65.16 65.16
mini-buses 2000 64.73 58.38
2001 48.14 44.13
two- 1998 1.87 1.91
wheelers, 1999 1.65 1.82
three- 2000 1.36 1.34
wheelers,
cars, etc 2001 1.44 1.43
1998 55.39 46.43
1999 41.44 43.34
Others
2000 31.54 31.17
2001 29.94 28.87

180

160

140

120
VALUE OF THE INDICATOR

100 OTHERS
TWO/THREE WHEELERS,CARS etc
BUSES AND MINI BUSES
80 TRUCKS

60

40

20

0
1998 1999 2000 2001
YEAR

Fig 8.26 Transport-caused fatalities/10,000 vehicles in Pune

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160

140

120
VALUE OF THE INDICATOR

100

OTHER
TWO/THREE WHEELERS, CARS etc
80
BUSES & MINI BUSES
TRUCKS

60

40

20

0
1998 1999 2000 2001
YEAR

Fig 8.27 Transport-caused injuries/10,000 vehicles in Pune

Indicator Safety 3
No. of trauma care centers/lac population
(refer Table 4.2, SN 4.3)

8.65 For this indicator, data on number of trauma care centers i.e. 35 in
Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal area for year 2005, was collected
from PCMC. Owing to the absence of data for previous years,
trend analysis for this indicator could not be carried out.

Indicator Safety 4
No. of persons violating traffic rules/10,000 vehicles
(refer Table 4.2, SN 4.4)

8.66 Owing to absence of vehicle population data for Pune city from 2002
onwards, trend analysis could not be carried out for this indicator.
However, data pertaining to the number of persons violating traffic
rules in Pune from year 2000 to 2004 is indicated in Table 8.22.

Table 8.22
No. of Persons Violating Traffic Rules/10,000 Vehicles

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004


No. of person violating traffic rules 8713 8614 8806 7317 7466
No. of persons violating traffic 146.93 138.94 - - -
rules/10,000 vehicles

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GOVERNANCE

Indicator Governance 1
No. of traffic police deployed/lac vehicles
(refer Table 4.2, SN 5.1)

8.67 Owing to absence of vehicle population data for Pune city from 2002
onwards, trend analysis could not be carried out for this indicator.
However, data pertaining to no. of traffic police deployed in Pune from
year 2001 to 2004 is indicated in Table 8.23:

Table 8.23
No. of Traffic Police Deployed/Lac Vehicles

Year 2001 2002 2003 2004


No. of traffic police deployed 457 457 457 457
No. of traffic police deployed/100,000 vehicles 73.71 - - -

ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM (STS) IN


PMA THROUGH INDICATORS

8.68 In order to assess a sustainable transport system (STS) for Pune


Metropolitan Area (PMA) through indicators, for each selected indicator
a maximum weight (on a scale of 1 to 20 as per its hierarchy in STS)
was allotted. Subsequently based on ideal indicator value (benchmark)
and indicator value for 2004, actual marks for each indicator were
allotted. Owing to the absence of data for assessing indicator value(s)
for short-listed indicators (50 nos.) as well as ideal indicator value, the
above-mentioned exercise could not be completed. Table 8.24
presents a format for assessing STS in PMA through indicators. Owing
to reasons indicated above, the same is to be considered as a
suggestive method to assess STS in PMA.

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Table 8.24
ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM (STS) IN PMA THROUGH INDICATORS

S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
High level
1 H air quality trends for last five years 20 - - - Bench
(concentration of pollutants in ambient air) mark to be
finalized.
2 H % of green area to total city area 20 10 % of 3.5 % of 7 *to be
total city total city checked
area* area with norms
3 H noise level trends for last 5 years 20 - - - Bench
mark to be
finalized.
4 H travel demand/transport supply ratio 20 1* - - *Ideal case
(PT related)
5 H capital investment in transport sector to GDP 20 - - - -
6 H investment vis a vis requirement in PT per 20 0 - 10 -
annum
7 H %age of total budget spent on transport 20 - - - Bench
infrastructure trend analysis mark to be
finalized.
8 H Transport-caused fatalities per 10,000 20 - - - Bench
vehicles (vehicle category-wise) including mark to be
NMT & pedestrians trend finalized.
analysis

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S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
Middle level
1 M no. of days pollution level exceeded national 10 - - - Bench
ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) mark to be
finalized.
2 M Pollution contribution from transport sector 10 - - - Bench
as a fraction of total pollution load (%) mark to be
finalized.
3 M no. of days noise level exceeded normal 10 As per - - Data to be
level norms collected
4 M Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per 10 - - - -Bench
10,000 population due to transport mark to be
component of air population finalized.
-Data to be
collected
5 M %age of area reserved for transport use 10 15 % of 4 % of 3 -
total city city area
area*
6 M no. of bus shelters/terminals Persons With 10 - - - Data not
Disabilities(PWDs) friendly to total bus available
shelters (trend analysis)
7 M no. buses PWDs friendly to total buses 10 - - - Data not
(trend analysis) available
8 M travel time per unit distance for each 10 - - - Primary
transport mode (sample study, peak/non- surveys to
peak) (trend analysis) be carried

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S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
out
9 M average bus waiting time at bus 10 - - - Primary
stops/shelters (trend analysis) surveys to
be carried
out
10 M average passenger load factor (buses) 10 70 % 55 % 8 -

11 M parking demand in sq km-hr / available 10 - - - Primary


parking space (on-street/off-street) per surveys to
10,000 vehicles (by mode) be carried
trend analysis out
12 M no. of buses connected with railway stations 10 - - - Primary
within 0.5 km distance to 10,000 rail surveys to
commuters vis a vis requirement as per be carried
travel demand (trend analysis) out
13 M parking bays capacity (planned) for goods 10 - - - Primary
vehicles/10,000 LCV & HCV vehicles surveys to
(trend analysis) be carried
out
14 M loss of revenue on account of subsidized fare 10 1 0.7 10 Value less
to subsidy provided by government than 1 indi-
cate higher
subsidy
than loss
of revenue

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S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
15 M city capital expenditure on transport to total 10 15 % of 9.6 % of 6 -
budgeted expenditure (trend analysis) total total
budget budget
16 M expenditure on transport as % of household 10 - - - -Bench
expenditure (by income group) mark to be
(trend analysis) finalized.
-Data to be
collected
17 M marginal cost per km for two-wheeler to bus 10 - - - -Bench
fare per passenger km mark to be
finalized.
-Data to be
collected
18 M fare per km / cost per km (buses) 10 1.20 0.81 7
19 M rate of return on cumulative capital 10 - - - -Bench
investment (trend analysis) mark to be
finalized.
-Data to be
collected
20 M transport caused injuries per 10,000 vehicle 10 - - - -Bench
(vehicle category-wise) including NMT & mark to be
pedestrians (trend analysis) finalized.
-Data to be
collected
21 M no. of trauma care centers / lac population 10

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S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
Low level
1 L %age of vehicles meeting the latest emission 5 - - - -Bench
standards trend analysis mark to be
finalized.
2 L total fuel consumed (by type petrol, 5 - - - -Bench
diesel)/10,000 vehicles pop (by fuel) mark to be
finalized.
3 L no. of LPG, CNG, battery operated, hybrid 5 - - - -Bench
electric vehicles per lac veh population (by mark to be
category) trend analysis finalized.
4 L no. of fuel samples failed to meet 5 - - - -Bench
specifications against total no. of samples mark to be
tested (trend analysis) finalized.
5 L no. of PUC centers per lac vehicles 5 - - - -Bench
population (trend analysis) mark to be
finalized.
6 L no. of bus shelters to total road length 5 - - - -Bench
mark to be
finalized.
7 L no. of breakdowns per 10,000 km operated 5 - - - -Bench
(buses) mark to be
finalized.
8 L no. of canceled km / scheduled km 5 0 - -
(buses)
9 L no. of zebra crossings/total traffic signals 5 - - - -Bench

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S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
mark to be
finalized.
10 L no. of walk-signals / total traffic signals 5 - - -
trend analysis
11 L total cycles track (track-length-category-wise) 5 - - -
per 10,000 cycles-trips (survey)
12 L total area for parking space for veh at railway 5 - - -
station vis a vis requirement as per norms
railway station-wise
(trend analysis)
13 L vehicles ownership per household 5 - - -
(trend analysis)
14 L no. of dispensing stations per lac vehicles 5 - - -
trend analysis
15 L operating fuel intensity in terms of 5 - - -
passenger-km/ liter for buses
(trend analysis)
16 L ratio of expenditure to revenue realized 5 - - -
through transport infrastructure
(road tax, fuel tax, etc)
17 L tax collection from transport sector to total 5 - - -
tax collection trend analysis
18 L no. of persons violating traffic rules per 5 - - -
10,000 vehicles
19 L no. of MVIs /10,000 vehicles vis a vis existing 5 - - -

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S Hier- Indicators Maximum Benchmark Actual Marks Remarks


N archy Weight- (ideal indicator allotted
age indicator value
value) 2004
norms
20 L no. driver training schools/no. of new 5 - - -
licenses issued trend analysis
21 L no. of traffic police deployed/ lac vehicles 5 - - -
Qualitative Indicators
1 policy & regulations for safety, emissions, 15 - - -
performance etc. of vehicles
(available/not available) qualitative
2 road map with adequate lead time for 10 - - -
implementation of regulations
(available/not available) qualitative
Total 500
Abbreviations used in Table 8.24: Hierarchy level: H-high, M-medium and L-low.

™‹™

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™‹™

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9 SUMMING UP

GENERAL

9.1 Pune Municipal Transport and Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Transport


have a bus fleet of 849 and 212 respectively to cater to intra-city travel
demand of the Pune Metropolitan Area (PMA). Considering the total
population of over 3.7 million in PMA, the bus fleet strength is very low.
Such inadequate public transport (PT) has resulted in a very high
growth of personalized vehicles in the past few years.

9.2 During the last decade or so, Pune Metropolitan Area, consisting of
PMC, PCMC and two Cantonment Boards (Pune and Khadki), has
witnessed phenomenal growth both demographically and in terms of
vehicular population. Growth of vehicles in Pune is given in Fig 9.1.

1000000
Grow th of vehicle population in Pune
800000

600000

400000

200000

0
1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Total 2-W Cars (petrol) Cars (diesel)


3-w heelers LCV Buses
Trucks

Fig 9.1 Growth of Vehicles in Pune


(Source: RTO, Pune)

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9.3 The spurt of vehicles in Pune, especially personalized vehicles


(two-wheelers: 75 percent of total vehicles) has not only created traffic
congestion on many roads, but also increased road accidents and air
pollution (PM10 and NO2) levels. Fig 9.2 shows levels of RSPM
(PM10 and NO2) in Pune.
140
M icr o gr am m e s /cub m e tr e

120

100

80

60

40

20
R S PM NO x
0
1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001

Fig 9.2 Levels of RSPM (PM10 and NO2) in Pune


(Source: Auto Fuel Policy Committee Report)

SUMMING UP

9.4 The present study on “Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune


Metropolitan Area” addresses development of a system for assessing
sustainability of a transport system in PMA through indicators, which
mainly fulfill expectations of the concerned stakeholders of a
sustainable transport system. It identifies the data requirement for
objective assessment of indicators, surveys, availability of data and its
ownership, maps data requirement vis a vis availability of data gaps,
and suggest ways and means of bridging data gaps. The step-by-step
procedure followed in undertaking the study is summarized in the
following paragraphs.

9.5 The sustainable transport system (STS) defined-


STS is an integrated system that optimally satisfies accessibility
expectations of all concerned stakeholders on a continual and
equitable basis in a manner that is dynamic, eco-friendly, energy
efficient, safe, affordable, and operationally viable.

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9.6 Any transport system is considered “sustainable” if it fulfills the


expectations of the concerned stakeholders of STS on a continual and
equitable basis.

9.7 First, we identified all concerned stakeholders associated directly or


indirectly with the sustainability of transport system in the Pune
Metropolitan Area. In this study, seven stakeholders—citizens, service
providers, energy providers, infrastructure providers, regulators, vehicle
manufacturers, and government—were considered. Since fulfillment of
the expectations of stakeholders directly relates to the sustainability of
a system, the next logical step was to identify the key expectations of
each of the stakeholders. The stakeholders and their expectations from
STS were discussed in Chapter 3.

9.8 In order to meet the expectations of the stakeholders for a sustainable


transport system, we identified all possible indicators that directly or
indirectly reflected a measure of stakeholder expectations. An indicator
is a quantifiable and measurable parameter that describes a certain
activity, objective, or performance. In some cases, it is qualitative. An
exhaustive list of indicators reflecting expectations of the stakeholders
from STS is available in Annex 4.1.

9.9 Subsequently, a VED (Vital, Essential and Desirable) analysis of


indicators was carried out to shortlist indicators representing critical
expectations of stakeholders in the STS. Vital signifies critical
indicators for STS. Essential refers to the next level of criticality
(less importance) of indicators of STS, and desirable refers to
indicators meeting basic expectations of stakeholders from a
sustainable transport system. A list of 52 short-listed indicators
representing critical expectations of the stakeholders is available at
Table 4.1 in Chapter 4.

9.10 The critical indicators of STS are then grouped to represent


accessibility, economic, environment and health, safety and
governance aspects of STS. Arranged by group, the indicators and
corresponding stakeholders of STS are detailed in Table 4.2 of Chapter
4.

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9.11 In the accessibility category, we identified 19 major indicators, many of


them focusing on commuter accessibility requirements such as easy
access to transport facilities, minimum travel time, adequacy of
transport services, reliability, punctuality, minimum waiting time for
public transport, comfortable journey, etc. These indicators also point
out accessibility requirements for PWDs.

9.12 In the economic category, we identified 12 indicators, focusing mainly


on financial viability of the transport system. These indicators reflect
availability of adequate funds, efficient collection of revenue (tax),
fare/tariff levels, allocation of funds for developing infrastructure, etc.

9.13 In the environment and health category, we identified 12 indicators


reflecting the status of air quality and the health of citizens. These
focus on issues such as air quality, noise, and the use of cleaner fuels.

9.14 Safety of operations also plays a key role for STS. To assess the
safety of the transport system, we identified six indicators, including no.
of transport-caused fatalities (injuries) per 10,000 vehicles, no. of
trauma care centers per lac population, etc.

9.15 We selected three indicators related to governance aspects of STS.


Two of the selected indicators are qualitative; they deal with policy,
regulations, and a road map for the transport system.

9.16 Indicators are then evaluated quantitatively/qualitatively using certain


formulas and data. The details of assessing the level of
performance/trend of behavior of the indicators are in Annex 4.2.

9.17 We also organized the indicators according to their utility for policy
makers. We recognized three levels of decision making: (1) the policy
level, (2) the executive level, and (3) the working level. The indicators
were organized in a hierarchical fashion in three categories—high,
middle, and low level.

9.18 The indicators falling in the high hierarchical level signified that for
achieving STS, these indicators should be used for taking policy level
decisions by the highest level of officials, such as the mayor of the city,

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the municipal commissioner, and other senior officials. The medium


hierarchy level of indicators refers to those that should be used for
analyzing, establishing trends, etc. by the concerned executive level
officials of the respective departments. The low hierarchy level of
indicators refer to the raw data level; these indicators are of low
significance in STS. The indicators arranged in this fashion are detailed
in Table 4.3 of Chapter 4.

9.19 Key data requirements/availability for each of the indicators was then
examined, particularly with respect to the following:
-what data is required
-what data is available
-quality of data
-regularity of data compilation
-source/ownership of data.
The details are available Tables 5.1 to Table 5.5 in Chapter 5.

9.20 The key data for indicators reflecting accessibility—including travel


demand, mode-wise travel time, per capita trip rate, vehicles
ownership—were of good or average data quality. The frequency of
data collection was irregular. Data for other indicators in the access
group were of high quality, with regular collection frequency. In the
economic group, the majority of the data was of high quality, with
regular data collection. A few indicators, such as GDP for PMA and
expenditure on transport as % of household expenditure, were not
available. In the environment and health group, for the majority of
indicators data quality was good, with regular frequency of data
collection. In the safety group, for all indicators the quality of data and
their frequency of compilation were high. In the governance group, one
quantitative indicator is available; its data quality as well as frequency
of data compilation is high.

9.21 A detailed assessment of data gaps was carried out in terms of data
availability, data that was missing and could be borrowed, and desired
frequency of data collection (regular basis or just one-time basis). Key
data requirements were discussed in Chapter 6. In the economic
group, GDP for PMA was not available. In the environment & health
group, we found data gaps in noise level trends, and distribution of

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vehicles (by category) in PMA. For ambient air pollutant


concentrations, we observed a need for monitoring at additional traffic
hotspots. In the safety and governance groups, we did not observe any
data gaps.

9.22 Chapter 7 discussed bridging these data gaps, either through the
simplest option of using information that was locally, regionally, or
globally available, a middle-level option, or the most complex option
involving developing specialized models.

9.23 For bridging data gaps, we worked out an action plan with low-cost,
medium-cost, and high-cost options. A low-cost option to bridge data
gaps for the access group indicator pertaining to travel demand is
suggested by using demand forecasting techniques; a medium-cost
option for this group is indicated by carrying out primary surveys. In the
economic group, a low-cost option for working out GDP for PMA is
mentioned by using GDP for district level and multiplying with PMA
population; a high-cost option is to formulate a method for calculating
city-level GDP. In the environment group, for various indicators we
suggested low-cost options, include improving coordination among
different agencies, formulating a program for monitoring of pollutants,
use of emission inventory data, use of utilization factors, etc. Some of
the medium-cost options included carrying out an emission inventory
exercise, and conducting a survey for utilization certification. Some
high-cost options included revamping the air quality monitoring network
as per international standards, operating the system through a public-
private partnership, building capacity to conduct epidemiological
studies related to air and noise on a regular basis, and developing the
institutional capacity to carry out emission inventory controls.

9.24 To assess the sustainability of transport in PMA, based on availability


of data for past 4-5 years for indicators of STS, we carried out a trend
analysis (positive or negative) for indicators of STS. However, a
quantified overall assessment of STS in PMA could not be completed,
mainly due to non-availability of data as well as benchmarks for various
indicators. For indicators depicting negative trends toward
sustainability of transport, efforts should be made—including suitable
changes in the transport system—to make these trends positive, which

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will eventually lead toward sustainability of the transport system.


™‹™

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Annex 4.1
List of Stakeholders, their Expectations and Indicators
(Indicators relating to movement of people)
SN Stakeholders Expectations Indicators
1 Citizens/People 1-Clean environment Land-use distribution
1.1 % of green area to total city area
(by PMA ward: green space)
Pollution/emission
1.2 a No. of days pollution level
exceeded ambient air quality
standards
1.2 b air quality trends
1.3 Pollution contribution from
transport sector as a fraction of
total pollution load (%)
(by veh. category / vintage &
**fuel consumed-basic data)
1.4 Transport pollution specific cases
of morbidity/mortality per 10,000
vehicles
1.5 Transport pollution specific cases
of morbidity/mortality per 10,000
population
1.6 Total fuel consumed (by type
petrol, diesel)/10,000 veh pop (fuel-
wise)
1.7 %age of vehicle meeting emission
standards. (in-use vehicle
standards)
by veh. category & vintage
1.8 no. of PUC centers per lac veh pop

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1.9 no. of fuel samples testing centers


per lac veh
1.10 % of filling stations supplying 2T
premix oil & no. of times fuel
adulteration checked at station in a
year (Trend analysis)
Economic/cost
1.11 total cost to society due to
pollution (air)
2-noise free 2.1 No. of days noise level exceeded
environment normal level
2.2 Transport-induced hearing
impaired persons (%) to total hearing
impaired pop
Economic/cost
2.3 total cost to society due to
pollution (noise)/GDP of city
3-Safety from transport fatalities
system 3.1 Transport-caused fatalities per 1
lac pop or per 10,000 vehicles (by
vehicle category)
3.2 Transport caused injuries per 1 lac
pop or per 10,000 vehicle (vehicle
category)
3.3 accident growth rate vis a vis veh
growth rate (by vehicle category)
facilities
3.4 no. of trauma care centers/lac
population
3.5 no. of vehicle (by category) drivers
trained per 10,000 license holders
3.6 %age of vehicle passing fitness

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tests
3.7 no. of vehicles tested per lac
vehicles
General
3.8 no. of persons violating traffic
rules per 10,000 vehicles
economic
3.9 total cost to society due to
accidents /GDP of the city
safety
3.10 % of persons (2 wheeler) wearing
helmets
3.11 % of persons (cars) wearing seat
belts
4-fulfillment of 4.1 no. of traffic police deployed/ 1 lac
corporate social vehicles
responsibility
2 Civic society -protection of -SAME INDICATORS AS IN PEOPLE-
environment from
degradation
-adequate awareness To be covered in recommendation

-equity in availability of
services for
disadvantaged group
3 Commuter/ 1.safe travel* (people) -SAME INDCATORS AS IN PEOPLE
traveler check with 3.1-people
(by mode) & trend
no. of accidents/total veh or traveler
–Road based 2-easy access to tpt 2.1 no. of bus stand to total road
facility length

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facility
three-wheeler 2.2 no. of integrated interchange
autorickshaw points to total no. of interchange
& six seater auto- points
rickshaw
Taxi 2.3 no. of busbays/total bus shelters
Passenger 2.4 no. of bus stops/terminals Persons
car/jeeps/MUVs With Disabilities(PWDs) friendly to
total bus stops
trend analysis
Two-wheeler, 2.5 no. buses PWDs friendly/total
Cyclist buses
trend analysis
Pedestrian, 2.6 no. of veh designed PWDs
Animal driven, friendly/total no. veh by category
Human driven (tricycles, two- wheeler, three-wheeler,
car, bus)
–Rail based 3-minimum travel time 3.1 total travel time/distance mode-
wise (O–D, walk, cycle, bus, etc)
3.2 travel time per unit distance for
each transport mode (sample study-
peak-non peak)
trend analysis
3.3 waiting time at intersections
(sample)-peak-non peak to average
journey time
4-adequacy of tpt 4.1 travel demand/transport supply
services ratio (PT related)
4.2 no. of veh by type (buses-all
categories, etc) per lac population (by
income group)
4.3 capital investment made by govt.

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on transport system elements fleet-


mix-wise
4.4 capital investment in transport
sector to GDP
4.5 transport element wise
contribution as % of GDP
economic
4.6 % of city revenue from transport to
total city budgeted revenue (octroi,
taxes, etc)
4.7 city capital expenditure on
transport to total budgeted
expenditure (trend analysis)
5-reliability 5.1 no. of breakdown per 10,000 km
(for STUs)
6-punctuality 6.1 no. of late departure of bus/total
departure of buses
7-minimum waiting time 7.1 Average waiting time at bus stop
for P tpt system (trend analysis)
8-integration of modes Covered earlier: commuter 2.3
with least interchanges
9-affordability 9.1 expenditure on transport as % of
household expenditure (income group-
wise) (trend analysis)
9.2 ability to pay for transport as % of
household expenditure income group-
wise (contingent valuation method)
(trend analysis)
9.3 marginal cost per Km for two-
wheeler to fare per passenger Km
9.4 willingness to pay for PT(sample
survey)

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10-adequacy of travel 10.1 no. of buses provided with travel


information information (destination boards) to
total buses
(trend analysis)
10.2 availability of printed/electronic
time table/fare table, city route map-
qualitative
10.3 no. of places time table displayed
to total no. of Bus Q shelters/terminal
and stands trend analysis
10.4 online passenger information city
11-comfortable journey 11.1 category wise distribution of
available bus fleet vis a vis income
group wise distribution of population
(trend analysis)
11.2 average load factor-(up to 70 %
good)
12-safe 12.1 total length of walkways to length
walkways/pedestrian of road Trend
crossings analysis
12.2 % of category-wise-raised,
fenced, at- grade/paved-unpaved
walkways to total walkways
12.3 % of walkways encroached
(hawkers, utility-related, parking, etc)
12.4 pedestrian fatality/injuries per
10,000 vehicles, per one lac population
12.5 no. of zebra crossings/total traffic
signals
12.6 no. of user friendly subways (over-
bridges) to no. of junctions trend analysis
12.7 no. of walk-signals / total traffic

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signals
trend analysis
13-cycle tracks 13.1 total cycles track (by length-
category) per 10,000 cycles-trips
(survey)
13.2 cyclist fatalities per 10,000
vehicles & per one lac population
14-parking areas 14.1 parking demand in sq km-hr /
available parking space (on-street/off-
street) per
10, 000 vehicles (by mode)
trend
analysis
14.2 % of road area lost due to on-
street parking to total road area
15-no. encroachment -
4 Service 1-operational/financial 1.1 fare per km/cost per km
provider viability
(payback period, rate of return, social
cost, growth)
1.2 Loss of revenue on account of
subsidized fare to subsidy provided by
govt.
1.3 Investment vis a vis requirement in PT
per annum
1.4 Rate of return
1.5 Payback period
3-energy efficient 3.1 fuel efficiency in terms of km per liter
vehicle trend analysis
3.2 operating fuel intensity in terms of
passenger-km/liter
3.3 (Per capita income) to avg.

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operating fuel intensity (passenger-


km. per liter.)
veh. category-wise
4-cleaner vehicle 4.1 no. of LPG, CNG, battery operated,
hybrid electric vehicles per lac veh
population (by category) trend
analysis
5-safe vehicle 5.1 share of accidents by veh (by
category)
trend analysis
5.2 % share of accidents due to
vehicle defects for PT(by category)
trend analysis
6-comfortable vehicle 6.1 ( taken with –different type of veh
deluxe, etc)

7-reliable vehicle 7.1 no. of breakdowns (minimum) for


PT
8-cycle tracks 8.1 (taken earlier)
9-parking areas 9.1 % of total area used for parking
(off street/on-street)

10-taxi/auto-rick stand 10.1 no. of auto/taxi stand (min 10 auto


capacity) per 10,000 population of
vehicles
(trend analysis)
10.2 no. of auto (min 10 auto
capacity)/taxi stand per km of road length
(trend analysis)
11-railway infrastructure 11.1 total area for parking space for veh
at railway station per 10,000 rail

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commuters
(trend analysis)
12-integration rail with 12.1 no. of buses connected with
road transport railway stations within 0.5 km distance
to 10,000 rail commuters
(trend analysis)
12.2 no. of IPT stands (3wh auto/6-
seater/taxi) connected with railway
stations within 0.5 km to 10,000 rail
commuters (trend analysis)
5 Energy provider 1-adequate demand & 1.1 total fuel demand (category-wise)
growth per annum (trend
analysis)
1.2 transport fuel consumption per 1 lac
population (total & category)
(trend analysis)
1.3 relationship between per capita
income & per capita fuel consumption by
fuel category
2-financial viability 2.1 total subsidy on kerosene per
eligible house hold through public
distribution system (PDS)- (Rs /
person)
2.2 total sales of kerosene through
PDS & total sales of kerosene in open
market
3-operational feasibility COVERED IN 2 & 3
4-space for fuel stations 4.1. no. of dispensing stations per 1 lac
vehicles
(trend analysis)
5-consumer satisfaction 5.1 no. of fuel samples failed to meet
specifications against total no. of

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samples tested (trend


analysis)
6 Infrastructure 1-availability of 1.1 Available/not available (qualitative)
provider integrated land use &
transport plan within
master plan
–Road including traffic 2-availability of space for 2.1 %age of area reserved for transport
island, speed breaker, road
divider, flyover road construction for side use
–Sidewalk walks, parking lots, bus 2.2 %age of area dedicated (existing) for
–Parking lots transport use vis a vis required
–Bus shelters shelters, bus stations,
–Bus station railway infrastructure,
–Bus terminal
–Bus depot traffic signal, information
–Auto-rick stand signs
–Taxi stand
–Cycle stand (land acquisition)
–Basic services (street light, 2.3 land acquisition (sq km) per 10,000
storm water drainage)
vehicles trend analysis
–traffic signals 2.4 Avg. no. of days taken per sq.m of
–Railway infrastructure
acquisition
3-adequate funds 3.1 %age of total budget spent on
transport infrastructure
trend analysis
3.2 ratio of expenditure to revenue
realized through transport infrastructure
(road tax, fuel tax, etc)
4-financial viability -
5-operational feasibility -
(BOT-private)
6-easy statutory -
clearances

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7 Regulator 1- rules and regulations 1.1 no. of PUC centers checked/annum


trend analysis
–Driving license
–Veh registration
–Veh permits 1.2 no. of vehicle fitness testing centers
–Veh insurance checked/annum trend
analysis
–Parking fee 1.3 no. of vehicle checked for
–Veh fitness overspeeding/10,000 veh trend
analysis
1.4 % of vehicle over speeding trend
analysis
- Pollution check 1.5 no. of persons violating usage of
–Tariff regulation helmets & seatbelts per 10,000
vehicles trend
analysis
–Tariff fixation (public 1.6 no. of vehicles booked for
tpt/IPT) overloading / 10,000 LCV/HCV
trend analysis
–Fuel quality check 2-enforcement capacity & 2.1 no. of traffic policemen per 10,000
–safety capability veh vis a vis existing norms
2.2 no. of MVIs /10,000 veh vis a vis
existing norms
2.3 no. of PUC centers per 10,000 veh vis
a vis existing norms
2.4 no. of driver testing tracks per 10,000
new licenses vis a vis requirement
3-improved credibility 3.1 no. of complaints against
enforcement agency to 1000 persons
interviewed (sample survey)
trend analysis
4-adequate infrastructure 4.1 covered in 2.3-2.4

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5-adequate funds for 5.1 capital expenditure on enforcement


enhancing & upgrading system to transport budget
enforcement system (trend
analysis)
6-adequate credible -
information
7-public cooperation -
8 Vehicle 1-healthy growth of % of turnover on Research
transport sector &Development (trend analysis)
manufacturers
7.2 vehicle ownership/household
(trend analysis)
2- consumer 2.1 average waiting period for veh
satisfaction (category-wise)
2.2 vehicle purchase price to household
income (category-wise)
2.3 Vehicle fuel expenditure(by mode) to
household income (by category)
3-policy & regulations - Available/not available (qualitative)
for safety, emissions,
performance etc. of
vehicles
4- road map with -Available/not available (qualitative)
adequate lead time for
implementation of
regulations
5-Adequate system of 5.1 -average cycle time(days) for type
statutory approvals approvals /vehicle
(Trend analysis)
6- Roadmap for 6.1 available/not available (qualitative)
introduction of new

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fuels (CNG/LPG)
7- Adequate availability 7.1 No. of authorized workshop per
of quality workshop 10,000 veh (by category) vis a vis
requirement

8- Elimination of -
spurious spares.
9- Good quality roads 9.1 No. of potholes /km of road length
trend analysis
10- Good quality drivers 10.1 no. driver training schools/no. of
new licenses issued trend
analysis
9 Govt. (central, 1-a continual tech up- 1.1 %age of vehicles meeting the latest
gradation of vehicles emission standards trend analysis
State)/local 1.2 road length meeting Indian Roads
1-b roads, information
govt. (Planning & Congress standards (with reference to
policy formulation,
systems, street furniture,
other related facilities street furniture)/total road length
trend analysis

revenue collection, 2-timely execution of 2.1 %age of projects completed on time


expenditure programs and policies of total projects
budgeting)
–Planning dept. 3-efficient tax collection 3.1 tax collection from transport sector to
- Corporations total tax collection trend
(PMC/PCMC/CBs) analysis
-Finance dept.
-Pollution control 4-compliance of 4.1 Covered earlier:
board statutory
–Health services standards/regulation/act
dept
–Legal services 5-reduce health damage Covered earlier: people 1.8, 1.9

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dept. due to pollution


–Transport dept. (morbidity & mortality)
6-reduce injuries & Covered earlier: people 3.8
fatalities due to
accidents
7-compliance to air Covered earlier: people 1.9
quality std
8-universal and Covered earlier: traveler-2.1 to 2.7
equitable access

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SN Basic data
1 Population distribution income/expenditure by group
2 Income (by group) expenditure on transport
3 Congestion index (no. of Passenger Car Units per km road length per
lane or Volume/Capacity ratio)
4 Poverty line level for Pune city
5 Cost per passenger km
6 Fare per passenger km
7 Passenger Load Factor
8 Kms operated per bus per day
9 Revenue per bus per year
10 Cost per bus per year
11 Life of bus
12 Investment per bus
13 Per capita growth in GDP
14 Per capita absolute or growth investment in transport sector
15 Price of transport fuel & tax component with breakup (state & city) over a
period of time
16 Distribution of travelers (by distance) from their O-D points to bus stop
17 no. of daily rail commuters (trend analysis)
18 No. of fuel samples tested /fuel station (trend analysis)

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Annex 4.1 Contd…


Indicators Relating to Movement of Goods

SN Stakeholders Expectations Indicators


1 •People -Clean environment
-noise free environment Covered in passenger transport
-Safety from transport
system
-fulfillment corporate
social responsibility
-restricted movement of -to be covered in recommendation –based on
goods vehicle. congestion index restriction
2 • Civic society -protection of environment
from degradation
-adequate awareness
-equity in availability of -not required
services for disadvantaged
% of accidents involving goods vehicles
group
% of accidents involving hazardous goods vehicles
- safety from goods
transport.
3. Driver 1.Basic driver training 1.1no. of training schools per 10,000 of LCV & HCV
license holders

2.Basic amenities 2.1 no. of planned parking bays/10,000 LCV &


HCV vehicles

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3. Social securities 3.1 no. of drivers employed in organized sector /


total no. of LCV & HCV license holders

4. Health services 4.1 no. of drivers having paid medi-claim policy by


employer/total no. of three-wheeler, LCV & HCV
license holders
5. Recognition as formal
employee 5.1 % of drivers having formal employment/10,000
of three-wheeler, LCV & HCV license holders
6. freedom from
harassment 6.1 -

7.Application of 7.1 covered in 5.1


appropriate acts

8.least waiting time for 8.1 -


perishable goods

9.safety awareness for 9.1 no. of drivers trained on safety awareness


hazardous goods /10,000 of LCV & HCV license holders

4 •user 1. safe delivery of goods 1.1 no. of claims made for damaged goods/10,000
(goods services) goods vehicles (LCV&HCV)

–Road based 2. easy access 2.1-


•Pedestrian
(hawkers) 3.minimum travel time 3.1 total travel time/distance different veh (O–D,
•Cyclist(newspape LCV/HCV)
r) 3.2 travel time per unit distance for each LCV/HCV

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•two-wheeler (sample study-peak-non peak)


(milk,newspaper) 4.adequacy of tpt services 3.3 congestion index
•Animal driven 4.1 -
•Human driven 5. Reliability
•three-wheeler 5.1 covered
goods carrier 6. punctuality
• HCVs 6.1 -
•LCVs/MCVs 7. minimum waiting time
for tpt system
8. min waiting time at tax 7.1 not applicable
collection post 8.1 considered at “service provider”
–Rail based 9. barrier free movement
10. integration of modes 9.1 considered at “service provider”
with least interchanges 10.1 considered at “service provider”
11. affordability
12. adequacy of travel 11.1
information 12.1 covered in Passenger Transport
13. comfortable journey
14. safe walkways 13.1
15. cycle tracks 14.1 covered in Passenger Transport
16. parking areas 15.1 covered in Passenger Transport
17. no encroachment 16.1 parking demand in sq km-hr / available parking
space (off-street) per 10, 000 goods vehicles
5 •Service provider 1. Operational feasibility 1.
–Road based vehicle 2. Financial viability 2.
(payback period, rate of
providers (own and return, social cost, growth) 3.1. operating fuel intensity in terms of liter/ton-km
3. energy efficient vehicle 4.1 covered in Passenger Transport
/ or operate) 4. cleaner vehicle 5.1 trend of % share of accidents due to goods

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/ or operate) 5. safe vehicle vehicle defects(category-wise)

•truck(HCV) 6. comfortable vehicle 6.1 covered in Passenger Transport


operator 7. reliable vehicle 7.1 covered in Passenger Transport
•truck owner 8. cycle tracks 9.1 % of total study area used for goods veh
•three-wheeler 9. parking areas parking
operator
•three-wheeler 10. Three-W goods 10.1 Number of three-W goods vehicle stands per
owner vehicle stands 1,000 population of vehicles
•two-wheeler 11. Availability of trained, 10.2 Number of three-W goods vehicle stands per
(Sc/mc) owner skilled and ethical driver road length km
•LCV/MCV owner
•Cycle owner 12. min waiting time at tax 11.1 no. of trained goods veh drivers/10,000 goods
•Animal driven collection post vehicles (LCV&HCV)
cart owners 13. barrier free movement
•Human driven 14 railway infrastructure
cart owners 12.1 average waiting time per tax collection post
–Railway service 15 integration rail with
provider road transport 13.1
14.1 average daily supply of goods (tons) per hr /
average truck capacity at railway stations
15.1 same as 14.1

5 •Energy provider 1. adequate demand & Same as passenger transport


growth
2. financial viability
3. operational feasibility
4. space for fuel stations

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5. consumer satisfaction
6 •Infrastructure 1. availability of integrated
provider land use & transport plan
–Road including within master plan
traffic island, 2. availability of space for
speed breaker, road construction for side
road divider, walks, parking lots,
flyover railway infrastructure,
–Sidewalk traffic signal, information
–Parking lots signs
-goods terminal (land acquisition)
–LCV/MCV stand 3. adequate funds
–three-wheeler 4. financial viability
goods carrier 5. operational feasibility
stand (BOT-private)
–Cycle stand 6.easy statutory
–Cycle track clearances
–Information
provider
–Basic services
(street light, storm
water drainage)
–traffic signals
–Railway
infrastructure
7 •Regulator 1.Strict rules and 1.7 quality of PUC checking in city area
–Driving license regulations 1.8 quality of veh fitness certification
–Veh registration 2. enforcement capacity & 1.9 strictness of control on speed
–Veh permits capability 1.10 strict on curbing overloading

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–Veh insurance 3.improved credibility 2.1 no. of traffic policemen per 1,000 veh
–Parking fee 4.adequate infrastructure 2.2 no. of MVI /per lac pop
–Veh fitness 5.adequate funds for 2.3 no. of PUC centers per 10,000 veh
–Pollution check enhancing & upgrading 2.4 no. of testing tracks per 10,000 new licenses
–Tariff regulation enforcement system
–Tariff fixation 6. adequate credible 3.1 -
(public tpt/IPT) information 4.1 covered in 2.3-2.4
–Fuel quality 7.public cooperation 5.1 -
check
–safety 6.1 -
7.1 trend of traffic offenses (yearly
8 •Vehicle 1. healthy growth of 7.3 covered in passenger transport
manufacturers transport sector 1.2 veh ownership/capita
2. consumer satisfaction
3. clear policy & 2.1 fuel efficient
regulations for safety,
emissions, performance
etc. of vehicles
4. Clear road map with
adequate lead time for
implementation of
regulation
5. Adequate, efficient and
transparent system of
statutory approvals 7.1 No. of authorized WS per 1000 veh (LCV/HCV)
6. Assured supply of
quality fuels/lubes. 9.1 No. of potholes/km
7. Adequate availability of
quality workshop

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8 Elimination of spurious 10.1 no. driver training schools/lac of population


spares.
9 Good quality roads
10 Good quality drivers

9 •Govt(central, -continual tech up- Same as passenger transport


State)/local gradation of vehicles,
fuels, roads, information
govt. (Planning &
systems, street furniture,
policy formulation,
revenue collection, other related facilities
expenditure -timely execution of
budgeting) programs and policies
–Planning dept. -efficient tax collection
- Corporations -compliance to statutory
(PMC/PCMC/CBs) standards/regulation/act
-Finance dept. -reduce health damage
-Pollution control due to pollution (morbidity
board & mortality)
–Health services -reduce injuries & fatalities
dept due to accidents
–Legal services -compliance to air quality
dept. std
–Transport dept. -universal and equitable
access

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Annex 4.2
DETAILED EVALUATION OF INDICATORS
Access Group
Table Ac-4.1
Indicator
Length of cycle-track vis a vis cycle trips
Description
Describes total length of cycle tracks (by category) available per 10,000 cycle trips.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholder?
The provision of cycle tracks enhances safety of cyclists on roads. It will encourage
as well as promote high usage of bicycles, i.e. eco-friendly modes in Pune.
Therefore, it becomes an important indicator to meet expectations of commuter as
stakeholders.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Higher the ratio of this indicator shall indicate movement toward sustainability.

Table Ac-4.2
Indicator
Number of buses connected with railway stations within 0.5 km distance per 10,000
rail commuters
Description
Number of buses connected with railway station(s) within 0.5 km distance per 10,000
rail commuters in Pune MA.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholder?
Integration of modes is important for providing a comfortable journey for users,
preferably from their actual origin to actual destination. This indicator will assess
adequacy of buses connected with rail commuter travel demand at each railway
station.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
For sustainability of transport system in PMA, proper integration of modes, especially
PT, is highly desired. Therefore, adequacy of bus connection with rail commuter
travel demand’s positive trend will lead toward STS in PMA.

Table Ac-4.3
Indicator
% of area reserved for transport use
Description: It describes percentage of Pune city area reserved for transport use.
Transport use includes space used for roads, walkways, bus terminals, railway
stations, etc.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of stakeholders?
Allocation of land in city for transport use as per planning norms will enable planners
to plan better road network, and other facilities for city commuters and other
stakeholders of sustainable transport system.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
To have smooth traffic flow in city, adequate percentage of city area is to be allocated
toward transport use.

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Table Ac-4.4
Indicator
Number of bus shelters to total road length vis a vis requirement as per travel
demand.
Description
It describes number of bus shelters vis a vis total road length (km) in the Pune.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
A commuter using public transport expects a well-designed bus shelter to save him
from the vagaries of weather while he/she waits for the bus to arrive. Therefore, this
indicator is important from easy accessibility to bus transport commuters’ and their
comfort point of view.

How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?


By trend analysis, this indicator will be used to judge sustainability of the transport
system. In an ideal scenario, number of bus shelters should match the requirement of
bus shelters worked out as per primary surveys. An increasing trend signifies better
facilities to the public transport commuter and may ensure greater loyalty to the
public transport system.

Table Ac-4.5
Indicator
Number of bus stops/shelters for persons with disabilities (PWDs) to total bus
stops/shelters
Description
It describes out of total bus shelters/terminals in Pune city, how many bus
stops/terminals are PWDs friendly.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholder?
Since PWDs forms an important part of the society, their mobility and accessibility
needs have to be addressed in a sustainable transport system. The public transport
system is obliged to address their accessibility needs in the design of their bus stops.
This indicator fulfills easy accessibility to bus transport, expectation of one of most
important but neglected group of bus commuters viz. PWDs in Pune city.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
By trend analysis, this indicator will be used to assess percentage of bus
shelters/terminals PWDs friendly in Pune city. Higher percent will lead toward
sustainability of transport.

Table Ac-4.6
Indicator
Number of buses PWDs friendly to total buses
Description
It describes ratio of PWDs-friendly buses to total buses (PMT& PCMT).
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator is very important for PWDs to meet easy accessibility to bus(es) in
Pune city. Bus transport being relatively cheaper than other modes of transport also
attract significant per cent of PWDs to cater to their travel needs and eventually it
also helps in providing universal accessibility.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-37
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?


By trend analysis, this indicator will be used to judge sustainability of the transport
system. Higher the ratio over a period of time will lead toward sustainability.

Table Ac-4.7

Indicator
Travel time per unit distance for each transport mode
Description
Travel time per unit distance for each transport mode in Pune city.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Commuters as stakeholders of sustainable transport expect to spend minimum travel
time during their trip. Assessment of travel time per unit distance by each mode will
suggest concerned authorities to take suitable remedial measures to tackle traffic
congestion in the city.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
By trend analysis, it may be used to assess average travel time by public
transport(PT), intermediate public transport (IPT) and personalized mode. By
reducing travel time for PT with priority signals or dedicated bus lanes, it may lead
toward sustainability.

Table Ac-4.8
Indicator
Travel demand and transport supply ratio (PT related)
Description
Ratio of passenger travel demand to transport supply in Pune MA.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator is important to assess adequacy of PT services in PMA. Adequacy in
transport supply is an important expectation of city commuters. For working out
adequacy of transport supply, average occupancy ratio in buses and total number of
bus trips per day shall be assessed. Similarly for travel demand, per capita trip rate
for buses shall be used.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
By trend analysis, it may be used to assess adequacy of public transport services in
PMA. In an ideal scenario, travel demand and transport supply ratio should be unity.

Table Ac-4.9
Indicator
No. of canceled km/scheduled km for buses

Description
Same as above
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholder?
A schedule is made for public transport buses, keeping in view the demand for such
services. The reliability and punctuality of these services are a primary concern for
the commuter. A bus transport service that is not reliable and punctual would result
in cancellation of scheduled km. The extent of cancellation can be used to judge the
quality in terms of reliability and punctuality.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-38
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

A cancellation-free service is essential to provide a bus transport service that is


punctual and reliable. These are essential prerequisites for any effort to motivate
commuters to use the bus-based public transport mode for their regular trips.
A reduction in the indicator ratio shows a strengthening of the bus-based public
transport system and provision of more reliable and punctual bus service.

Table Ac-4.10

Indicator
Average waiting time at bus stops/shelters
Unit: minutes
Description
Same as above
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator is important to assess average frequency of buses (by route).
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?

Lower waiting time for buses will increase patronage among bus commuters and
eventually will help in achieving a sustainable transport system.

Table Ac-4.11
Indicator
Average passenger load factor (for buses)
Formula: (Total passenger-km x 100) / (total carrying capacity-km)
Unit : %
Description
This indicator may be used to assess the comfort level for passengers in a public
transport bus. Since it is cumbersome to assess the crowding levels in individual
trips, a benchmarking of 70% load factor on an average basis for all services can be
done. An average load factor of above 70% would indicate overcrowding. A micro-
level study could be done to identify corridors where additional services are required.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The indicator tries to identify whether comfort-level expectations of commuters are
being fulfilled.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
The indicator prompts the public transport planner to assess the adequacy of the
services and provision of appropriate comfort level in the bus-based public transport
service.

Table Ac-4.12

Indicator
Number of zebra crossing to total traffic signals
Description
Number of zebra crossing to total traffic signals in Pune.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator meets expectations of one of the most vulnerable stakeholders of
transport mode—pedestrians—by providing safe pedestrian crossings.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-39
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

By trend analysis, increase in ratio will lead toward meeting expectations of


pedestrians and thus lead toward sustainability.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-40
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table Ac-4.13

Indicator
Number of walk signals to total traffic signals
Description
Number of walk signals to total traffic signals in Pune.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator again meets expectations of one of the most vulnerable stakeholder of
transport mode—pedestrians—by providing walk signals in Pune.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
By trend analysis, increase in ratio will lead toward meeting expectations of
pedestrians and thus lead toward sustainability.

Table Ac-4.14

Indicator
Parking demand to available parking space per 10,000 vehicles
Description
Parking demand (in sq km-hr) to available parking space per 10,000 vehicles in
Pune.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Vehicular parking has become a very serious problem, especially in central business
districts (CBDs) and commercial areas of Pune city. This indicator fulfills expectations
of personalized vehicle users.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Lower ratio of parking demand and available parking space per 10,000 vehicles will
lead toward sustainability of transport.

Table Ac-4.15

Indicator
Total area for vehicle parking space at railway station(s) to requirement as per
norms.
Description
Total area for vehicle parking space at railway station(s) to requirement as per
norms.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator will fulfill rail commuters’ expectations as far as their vehicles parking
space is concerned. Adequate parking space at railway stations will encourage
commuters to use suburban rail.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Ratio between supply of vehicle parking space as per norms (by station) will lead
toward sustainability.

Table Ac-4.16
Indicator
Vehicle ownership per household
Description
Same as above
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator is meeting healthy growth of transport sector expectation of vehicle
manufacturer as stakeholder of STS.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-41
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?


Trend analysis of vehicle ownership per household will be used to assess growth
pattern of vehicles in PMA.

Table Ac-4.17
Indicator
No. of breakdowns per 10,000 km operated (for buses)
Description
Same as above
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
To fulfill the mobility expectations of all stakeholders and provide a timely and
breakdown-free public transport service is essential.
This indicator gives an indication of the reliability of the public transport system.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
A reducing trend indicates a more reliable service and may result in increased usage
and loyalty to the public bus transport service.

Table Ac-4.18
Indicator
No. of dispensing stations per lac vehicles.
Description
Same as above.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator will meet space for fuel station(s) requirement of energy provider.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
This will be used assess the sustainability of the transport system with respect to
adequacy of fuel stations vis a vis vehicle population in PMA.

Table Ac-4.19
Indicator
Planned parking bays capacity (goods vehicles) to 10,000 heavy commercial
vehicles (HCVs) and light commercial vehicles (LCVs)
Description
Number of planned parking bays(goods vehicles) to 10,000 heavy commercial
vehicles (HCVs) and light commercial vehicles (LCVs)
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholder?
This indicator will fulfill goods transporters expectations to have planned parking bays
for their vehicles. Adequate number of planned parking bays in city will reduce on-
street parking of goods vehicles and help smooth traffic flow on roads used for goods
vehicles parking.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Higher ratio of planned parking bays capacity for goods vehicles to 10,000 HCV &
LCV will lead toward sustainability.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-42
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Economic Group
Table Ec-4.1

Indicator
Capital investment in transport sector to Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Description
% growth in capital investment in transport sector by local government to % growth in
GDP
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Transport is a key element of an economy. The manufacture use/reuse, and disposal
of vehicles, fuels, and infrastructure comprise major sectors of modern economies.
The more transport that is available, and the more spent on transport, the greater the
contribution to gross domestic product and perhaps to other indices of general
economic well-being.
But the real focus is this sector can be boosted with investing efficiently with the
growth of GDP to make transport services adequate to people.
This indicator will spot whether capital investment in the transport sector is keeping
pace with GDP growth or not.

How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?


The trend over a period of time in % growth of GDP and capital investment in
transport sector by local government will give a strong indication that if the gap is
widening between two trend lines and investment is not keeping pace with growing
GDP, transportation system may be moving away from sustainability.

Table Ec-4.2

Indicator
% Expenditure on transport by household out of total expenditure
Description
Trend lines for % expenditure on transport by household out of total expenditure by
low-income group and higher income group
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholder?
A sustainable transportation system is by definition “affordable.”

As a commuter, transportation system is expected to be affordable.

A good indicator of progress toward such sustainability can be shown by household


spending on transportation to total household spending.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
This indicator shows the share of household spending on transportation. This
indicator need not solely indicate the affordability of transport system. But it can be
used to indicate whether consumption is increasing each year, driving the
transportation system toward unsustainability, or otherwise rising rates of
transportation are putting a burden on the household, making it less affordable. In
both cases, rising trend will show transport becoming less affordable and less
sustainable.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-43
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table Ec-4.3

Indicator
Marginal cost of two-wheeler per kilometer to per kilometer fare of public transport
service
Description
Marginal cost of two-wheeler is taken fuel required for 60 km per ltr vehicle and
average fare per km is taken from PMT and PCMT.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
For sustainable transport, a good public transit system and its increasing use is
required. For commuters, affordability is a major factor in choosing public transport
instead of personalized modes.

The reason people prefer a two-wheeler is that the operating cost of driving is less
than the cost of the urban transport system.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative decline in line, then increasing preference of
personalized mode usage can be deduced, showing movement away from
sustainability.

Table Ec 4.4
Indicator
Subsidies in public transport
Description
Loss of revenue on account of subsidized fare to subsidy provided by local
government (PMC and PCMC)
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Public Transport in many economies is considered al social good primarily provided
by local governments. As any social good, public transport also follows social welfare
pricing, allowing subsidies in financial structure—since for commuters the need is
affordability and as a government maximizing social benefit is the goal. But as a
service provider making public transport financially viable is the most important task.

Many times this contrast in expectations make a public system financially weak. So
this indicator will try to spot pitfalls of social welfare putting burden on public transport
service provider.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative augment in the line, then the local government is not
extending support to make public transport financially sustainable on social welfare
grounds.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-44
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table Ec-4.5
Indicator
Financial flows from transport sector
Description
% revenue from transport sector to % expenditure on transport sector of total local
government budget.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
In the economy there are inefficient uses of aging infrastructure; hidden subsidies
and accounting systems that ignore external (environmental, social) costs, thus
sending the wrong market signals to public decision makers and travelers; and deficit
fighting government budget cuts, which mean the old ways of doing things are no
longer affordable.

As a contributor to revenue, people, service providers, and energy providers expect


benefits from local government, and they expect expenditure on transportation
system should be increased to make the system sustainable.
This indicator will show whether revenue collected from the sector is benefiting the
sector or not.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative augment in the line showing ratio more than one, then
the local government is not pumping investment in the transportation system in
proportion to revenue collected from the transport system.

Table Ec-4.6
Indicator
Operating feasibility of public transport system

Description
Fare per kilometer to cost per kilometer.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
As a service provider, financial viability and operating feasibility are two major
expectations. This indicator focuses on operating feasibility. Any business runs
perpetually but soundly if it is able to sell at least to cover the cost. In case of public
transport fare should cover the cost of the service provided.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative augment in the line showing ratio more than one, then
the public transport system is financially moving nearer to sustainability.

Table Ec-4.7
Indicator
Investment sufficiency in public transport
Description
Investment per annum made by local government in public transport/requirement per
annum given by public transport provider.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
As a service provider, fresh capital inflow is necessary to cater to ever growing public
demand. To sustain as a public good, local government provides these inflows. But
are they really sufficient? This indicator tracks this trend.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend over a period is showing ratio below one and falling, then investment will

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-45
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

tend to be insufficient and will put cumulative negative effect on sustainability of


transport system.

Table Ec-4.8
Indicator
Returns from public transport service to provider
Description
Net profit of public transport provider / Total capital investment
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
As a service provider, positive returns from the business are desired to plow back the
profit for further capital investment.
As an investor, local government is also interested in getting better returns from
investment. This indicator focuses on how the service is being performed over the
period and whether it is getting positive returns.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative augment in the line, then the public transport system is
financially moving nearer to sustainability.

Table Ec-4.9
Indicator
Operating fuel intensity of public transport
Description
Number of passenger kilometer operated / liter of fuel consumed (per annum)
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
As a service provider, it is the utmost priority to check that operating efficiency will
cut down the costs and service will sustain with stagnant inflows.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative augment in the line, then the public transport system is
moving nearer to sustainability.

Table Ec-4.10
Indicator
improvement in road infrastructure
Description
% revenue from transport infrastructure to % expenditure on transport infrastructure
of total local government budget
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Transport infrastructure is a vital element of the transport system in the local
economy. Sufficient investment is desired by each stakeholder. Usage of this
infrastructure generates substantial revenue to the local government. It is expected
that this revenue is re-invested again back to road infrastructure to strengthen it.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If the trend shows indicative heave in the line and the ratio is moving toward unity,
then the strengthening of road infrastructure is moving in a positive direction.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-46
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table Ec-4.11
Indicator
revenue to local government from transport system
Description
% of tax collected from transport sector out of total tax collection.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
As a governing body, local government is keen to get more funds for their
developmental activities. Taxation is only major source for them. If local government
is spending on road development then they expect revenue from the usage of these
public assets. Local government impose taxes on road usage, fuel, and on goods
entering into the limits.

This indicator will show how much local government is earning from these assets.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
If trend goes upward, then local government is taking benefits from assets. Other
things being constant, their investment capacity to develop roads and road
infrastructure will increase to make the transportation system sustainable.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-47
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Environment and Health

Table En-4.1
Indicator
Air quality trends for past 5 years
Description
Daily (24 hourly) average concentration of PM10, NO2, SO2 in µg/m3.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This data is monitored at various locations on a regular basis. It is important to know
whether the level of each of the pollutants is within the limits specified in the NAAQS
and to determine the number of days in a month the levels exceed the limits.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
The air quality trend analysis for the last few years will indicate the number of days in
a year the air quality level in PMA was above the normal level. It will also enable the
concerned department(s) to establish monthly/daily air quality patterns and to work
out suitable remedial measures to curb high air pollution. It will eventually help in
achieving STS in PMA.

Table En-4.2
Indicator
Number of days pollution level exceeded National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS)
Description
Number of days in a month the ambient concentrations of PM10 and NO2 exceeded
the maximum levels specified in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS).
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The records of air quality monitoring done so far show that the levels of PM10 in Pune
are way above the NAAQS limits. The NO2 levels, though below the NAAQS limits,
are showing an increasing trend. It is, therefore, extremely important to monitor this
indicator on a monthly basis. This will help to assess the effectiveness of various
actions that are taken to reduce the concentrations of these pollutants.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Same as given in Table 4.19

Table En-4.3
Indicator
Disability adjusted life years (DALY) per 10,000 population due to transport
component of air population
Description
To be given
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
To be given
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
To be given

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-48
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table En-4.4
Indicator
Number of days noise level exceeded stipulated level
Description
Number of days in a month the ambient level of noise (measured in dBA) at critical
traffic hotspots exceeds the maximum level stipulated.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
High noise generated by vehicular traffic is a very serious problem in Pune. Though
the permissible noise levels of new vehicles have been progressively tightened, the
noise emitted by old vehicles is high. Indiscriminate use of horns is also common.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Assessment of days noise level is higher than stipulated at traffic hotspots in PMA
will be highly useful to establish noise level pattern in PMA. Analysis of noise level
data will enable the concerned department to take corrective action(s) to keep noise
level under control in PMA throughout the year. Trend analysis of this indicator will
facilitate in assessment of sustainability of transport system in PMA.

Table En-4.5
Indicator
noise level trends for last 5 years
Description
Number of days in a month the ambient level of noise (measured in dBA) at critical
traffic hotspots exceeds the maximum level stipulated.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
People of PMA expect noise-free environment from STS and hence regular
monitoring of noise level and establishing its trends for past few years in PMA will
help the concerned departments in PMA to fulfill public expectations.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Assessment of noise level trends in PMA will help the high level officials in PMA to
develop suitable action plan or policy(ies) for PMA to keep noise level within the
permissible limits in PMA.

Table En-4.6
Indicator
Percentage of green area to total city area
Description
Hectares of green space as a percentage of total area in Ha
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Green space helps to mitigate the ill effects of air and noise pollution. This indicator
meets both clean environment and noise-free environment expectations of people as
stakeholders of STS in PMA.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
By trend analysis, assessment is to be made about the sustainability of transport
system in PMA. A higher percentage of green space to city area will lead toward
sustainability.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-49
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table En-4.7
Indicator
Pollution contribution from transport as a fraction of total pollution load
(Emission Inventory)
Description
Load of PM10 in terms of tons/day contributed by transport as a fraction of the total
PM10 load from various other sources
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
Though transport is believed to be a significant contributor to the PM10 pollution load
in Pune, there are likely to be many other sources contributing PM10 in significant
quantities. For instance, re-suspended road dust and agricultural refuse burning were
identified as major contributors in a limited exercise recently carried out in Pune.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
This trend analysis of this indicator will provide increase/decrease of pollution
contribution from transport and will facilitate remedial measures to curb growth of
pollution contribution (if any) from transport.

Table En-4.8
Indicator
Total fuel consumed (by type: petrol, diesel, others)/10,000 vehicle population
Description
Total fuel (petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG etc) consumed by the transport activity in kilo
liter/ month
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The total energy consumption is an important indicator of the transport activity and its
efficiency.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
As the degradation in air quality is linked with consumption of fuel, hence the higher
trend for usage of fuel especially petrol, diesel, etc will lead to degradation in air
quality as well as STS.

Table En-4.9
Indicator
Number of PUC centers per 10,000 vehicle population
Description
Number of PUC centers per 10,000 vehicles over actual requirement to cover actual
requirement of testing all vehicles every six months
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
It indicates the level of measures to check environmental degradation from vehicular
emissions.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
An adequate no. of PUC centers required for specific no. of vehicles is a benchmark.
This indicator may be used to judge the adequacy of efforts toward control of
vehicular emissions.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-50
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Table En-4.10
Indicator
Number of LPG, CNG, battery operated, hybrid electric vehicles per 100,000 vehicles
(by category)

Description
Numbers of each (LPG, CNG etc) over 100,000 vehicles in each category (two-
wheelers, cars, buses etc)
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
To achieve better ambient air quality by reducing vehicular emission through
introduction of clean fuel technology.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
Higher no. of clean fuel vehicles would indicate less degradation of environment and
movement toward sustainability.

Table En-4.11
Indicator
Number of fuel samples failed to meet specifications against total number of samples
tested.

Description
Numbers of each (LPG, CNG etc) over 100,000 vehicles in each category (two-
wheelers, cars, buses etc)
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
It gives indication of quality of fuel being used in the city and extent of adulteration in
fuel.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
A lower percentage of deviation would indicate the dispensing of quality fuel to
vehicles and thereby reduce harmful emissions.

Table En-4.12
Indicator
percentage of vehicles meeting the latest emission standards.

Description
Same as above
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The objective of STS is to facilitate adoption of more environmentally friendly engine
technology. Percentage of vehicles meeting the latest emission standards would have
direct bearing on total vehicle emission load in the city.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-51
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?


The higher percentage of vehicles meeting latest emission standards would help in
achieving better ambient air quality in city and thus sustainability of transport.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-52
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

Safety
Table S-4.1

Indicator
Transport cost fatalities per 10000 vehicle (category wise) including NMT and
pedestrian
Description
The indicator “Transport caused fatalities” per 10,000 vehicles reflects the severity of
accident proneness of vehicles. This ratio is worked out between total number of
transport-caused fatalities and total number of vehicles registered in the city.
However, the floating population of vehicles in the city is missed in this ratio.

Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?


People, the main stakeholder in the sustainable transport system, expect that all their
basic access needs are to be met safely. This indicator measures the expectations
of people as a stakeholder in the sustainable transport system. The fatality accident
risk is quantified as a ratio. It measures the sustainability of the transport system in
the city.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
The decline in transport-caused fatalities would indicate a reduction of accident risk
to the road users and provide lead in target group for road safety management
measures.

Table S-4.2
Indicator
Transport-caused injuries per 10,000 vehicle (category wise) including NMT and
pedestrian
Description
The indicator “transport-caused injuries” per 10,000 vehicles reflects the severity of
accident proneness of vehicles and users. This ratio is worked out between total
number of injuries caused and total number of vehicles registered in the city.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
This indicator measures the expectations of people as a stakeholder in the
sustainable transport system. Transport-caused injury risk is quantified as a ratio
and helps measure the sustainability of the transport system.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
The decline in transport-caused injuries would indicate a reduction of accident risk to
all categories of road users and provide lead in target group for road safety
management measures.

Table S-4.3

Indicator
No. of cases of violation of traffic rules per 10000 vehicles
Description
The trend on no. of cases of violation of traffic rules per 10000 vehicles will be
worked out using data on no. of cases of violation of traffic rules as booked by the
traffic police and total no. of registered vehicles with the motor vehicle department.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The local government being one of the stakeholders in ST expects that all the users
in the city need to comply with the traffic rules to ensure seamless flow of traffic
without congestion and road accidents so as to reduce travel time.

___________________________________________________________________
Central Institute of Road Transport 8-53
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?


This indicator quantifies level of compliance of traffic rules by the road users in the
city. A declining trend in the number of cases of violation of traffic rules will lead
toward sustainability of the transport system

Table S-4.4
Indicator
No. of trauma care centers per 100,000 lac population
Description
No. of trauma care centers per 100,000 lac population is worked out based on
trauma care centers established and population in Pune city. The trend analysis will
indicate the growth of medical infrastructure facilities in Pune.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The increase in trend of trauma care units per lac population will reduce the chance
of death due to transport-caused injuries.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
This indicator will enable the local government to gauge the adequacy of trauma care
centers in Pune.

Table S-4.5

Indicator
No. of MVIs per 10000 vehicles vis a vis existing norms.
Description
Driving licensing, regulation of M.V. registration, maintenance and operation of
vehicles etc. are performed within the framework of M.V. Act by M. V. Department.
The requirement of MVIs is fixed as per norm by the M. V. Department and the
existing number of MVIs against the set norms will lead to access the gap between
the actual and required M.V.I. strength.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
MVIs of M.V. Department are key officers responsible for enforcement of M.V. Act
and Central / State M.V. Rules. The adequate no. of MVIs as against the prescribed
norm would strengthen the enforcement level by M.V. Department. Therefore this
indicator on no. of MVIs per 10000 vehicles vis a vis the existing norm is important
and will lead toward ST.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?
The reduction of gap between actual no. of MVIs per 10000 vehicles and the existing
norms would indicate the adequacy level of regulating forces in the field.

Table S-4.6
Indicator
number of driver training schools per no. of new licenses issued
Description
Number of driver training schools per no. of new licenses issued is worked out based
on the total number of driver training schools available and the total number of new
licenses issued in Pune Metropolitan Area.
Why is this indicator important to meet expectation(s) of the stakeholders?
The trend analysis on the number of driver training schools per new licenses issued
will enable the regulator in the sustainable transport system to assess the adequacy
of driver training infrastructure to promote sustainable transportation system in Pune
Metropolitan Area.
How may it be used to assess sustainability of transport system?

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-54
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

The increase in the trend of number of driver training schools per new licenses would
move toward provision of training for quality and safe driving and thereby tend toward
a sustainable transportation system in the Pune Metropolitan Area.

ANNEX 4.3
ANNEX 1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Standards
Time Residential,
Weighted Industrial Rural and Sensitive
Pollutant Average Area other Areas Area Unit
Annual
Sulphur
Average* 80 60 15 µg/m
3
dioxide
(SO2) 24 Hours
3
Average** 120 80 30 µg/m
Annual
Nitrogen
Average* 80 60 15 µg/m
3
dioxide
(NO2) 24 Hours
3
Average** 120 80 30 µg/m
Annual
Suspended
Average*
Particulate 3
360 140 70 µg/m
Matter
24 Hours
(SPM) 3
Average** 500 200 100 µg/m
Annual
Respirable
Average*
Suspended
Particulate 3
120 60 50 µg/m
Matter
24 Hours
(PM10) 3
Average** 150 100 75 µg/m
Annual
3
Lead Average* 1 0.75 0.5 µg/m
(Pb) 24 Hours
3
Average** 1.5 1 0.75 µg/m
8 Hours
Carbon Average**
3
monoxide 5 2 1 mg/m
(CO) 1 Hour
3
Average 10 4 2 mg/m

Note:
* Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval
** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time,
it may exceed but not on two consecutive days

Source :
Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi
<http://www.rrcap.unep.org/issues/air/maledec/baseline/Baseline/India/INCH4.htm>

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-55
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ANNEX 4.4

DISTRIBUTION OF VEHICLE POPULATION AMONG


DIFFERENT CATEGORIES IN PUNE

S.No Category Population


. as of March
31, 2004
1 Motor cycles 442,965
2 Scooters 264,564
3 Mopeds 157,209
4 Cars 108,276
5 Jeeps 28,870
6 Station wagons 949
7 Taxi cabs 5,012
8 Auto-rickshaw 55,799
9 Stage carrier 4,707
10 Contract Carriage 1,825
11 School Bus 222
12 Private Service Vehicle 1,227
13 Ambulances 735
14 Trucks and Lorries 22,905
15 Tankers 2,869
16 Delivery Van (4- 12,633
Wheeler)
17 Delivery Van (three- 14,296
wheeler)
18 Tractors 13,864
19 Trailers 11,859
20 Others 1,470
Total 1,552,256
Source: Regional Transport Officer, Pune

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-56
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ANNEX 4.5

EMISSION FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF VEHICLES AND


FOR DIFFERENT VINTAGES

pre- 1992 pre-1996 1996-2000 2000-2003 2003-2004


2-wheelers
NOx, 4-stroke 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.3
NOx, 2-stroke 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.07
PM, 4-stroke 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05
PM, 2-stroke 0.23 0.23 0.1 0.05 0.05
Cars, petrol
NOx 1.8 1.8 1.1 0.2 0.12
PM 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02
Cars, diesel
NOx 2.77 2.77 0.69 0.5 0.45
PM 0.84 0.84 0.42 0.07 0.05
3-wheelers
NOx 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.11 0.11
PM 0.35 0.35 0.15 0.08 0.08
LCV
NOx 3.15 3.15 2.49 1.28 0.59
PM 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.07
Buses
NOx 19 19 16.8 12 11
PM 3 3 1.6 0.56 0.24
Trucks
NOx 9.5 9.5 8.4 6.3 5.5
PM 1.5 1.5 0.8 0.28 0.12

Source: “Transport Fuel Quality for the Year 2005”, Central Pollution Control
Board, December 2000.

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-57
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ANNEX 4.6

ANNUAL VEHICLE UTILIZATION BY CATEGORY

Vehicle Utilization
category km/year
Two-wheelers 10,000
Cars, petrol 15,000
Cars, diesel 15,000
Three-wheelers 40,000
LCV 40,000
Bus 60,000
Trucks 30,000

Source: “Transport Fuel Quality for the Year 2005”, Central Pollution Control
Board, December 2000.

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-58
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ANNEX5: PUNE EMISSION INVENTORY AS CARRIED OUT UNDER THE USEPA


PROGRAMME

30

25

20

15

10

0
On W indb Const
A gri Land Unpv d Pav ed Unpv d Brick Other
road low n ructio
bu rn prep rd(na) rd rd(a) kilns s
v ehi dust n

PM10, t/d 25.3 16.6 16 13.4 9.6 7.7 4.1 4.1 2.2 3.5

ANNEX 4.7

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-59
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ANNEX 4.8

INDIAN EMISSION COMPLIANCE SYSTEM

• INITIAL STAGE:
• NOTIFIED TEST AGENCY TESTS A PROTOTYPE SUBMITTED BY
THE MANUFACTURER TO VERIFY COMPLIANCE TO THE
SPECIFIED NORM AND ISSUES A TYPE APPROVAL (TA)

• ONGOING PRODUCTION:
• NOTIFIED TEST AGENCY, AS PER A PLAN, PERIODICALLY
TESTS VEHICLES RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM PRODUCTION
LOTS AND TESTS THEM FOR COMPLIANCE TO THE
CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION (COP) LIMIT

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-60
Final Report
Sustainable Urban Transport for Pune Metropolitan Area

ANNEX 4.9

CONTINUOUS TECHNOLOGICAL UPGRADATION THROUGH


PROGRESSIVELY STRINGENT EMISSION REGULATIONS
Progression of Exhaust Emission Standards: The progression of exhaust
emission regulations in India is summarized in the table below. IPune has
had the benefit of early introduction of Bharat Stage II and Bharat Stage III
emission regulations compared to the rest of the country. Emission
regulations have been following the Euro progression only in the case of four-
wheelers. The Indian regulations for two- and three-wheelers have always
been unique and among the most stringent in the world.

YEAR REGULATION
1989 Idle emission regulations
1991 Mass emission regulations for all petrol vehicles
1992 Mass emission regulations for diesel vehicles
1995 Fitment of catalytic converters for petrol cars in four metro cities
1996 Tighter emission regulations for all categories of vehicles
2000 • Indian 2000 (Euro I equivalent) regulations for all 4-wheelers
• Bharat Stage II (Euro II equivalent) regulations in NCR of Delhi for
cars and MUVs
• Bharat Stage II extended to Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in year
2001
• Tightest emission regulations in the world for two and three
wheelers
2001 Bharat Stage II regulations for commercial vehicles in Delhi and
Kolkata and Chennai
2003 Bharat Stage II for all four wheelers in Hyderabad & Secundarabad,
Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Bangalore, Kanpur, Agra, Lucknow and
Solapur
2005 • Bharat Stage III (Euro III equivalent) for above thirteen cities
• Bharat Stage II (Euro II equivalent) extended to entire country
• Further stringent regulations for two and three wheelers

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Central Institute of Road Transport 8-61