What is HYPERTENSION and what are the risk factors? What are the signs & symptoms of HYPERTENSION?

What are dx for HYPERTENSION? What drugs are used to treat HYPERTENSION Provide two examples of diuretics meds Provide two examples of antihypertensive meds Provide one example of a Vasodilator Provide two examples of Calcium blockers What is PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE? What are signs and symptoms of PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE Explain the treament of PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE What are complications of PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE What should be encouraged and avoided as it relates to PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE? What instructions should be given? What type of drugs are used to treat PERIPHERAL

prolonged elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Risk factors- race (African-American), aging, obesity, stress, elevated cholesterol levels, sodium intake, tobacco, oral contraceptives. usually none, asymptomatic. Hypertension strains the heart and lungs and may result in left ventricular hypertrophy, failure, CHF or pulmonary edema is made by serial blood pressure readings with a systolic greater than 140 and a diastolic greater than 90. Take two or more blood pressure readings rather than relying on one single abnormal reading diuretics, antihypertensives , Vasodilators, Calcium blockers Beta-adrengergic blockers and ACE inhibitors Lasix, diazide Aldomet, Minipress Nipride Procardia, Cardizem chronic inadequate blood flow in the lower extremities moderate edema, burning, itching, prominent superficial veins, ulcers and skin changes aimed at vasodilation, pain relief, and maintaining skin integrity. Do NOT use a heating pad to keep extremities warm Complications include gangrene, and pressure sores Encourage walking and other leg exercise, watch for signs of decreased peripheral circulation. Avoid temperature extremes, prolonged standing, constrictive clothing or crossing the legs at the knee when seated. Provide instruction about foot care and exercise programs antiplatelet vasodilators anticoagulants Lipid reducers

VASCULAR DISEASE Questran is an example of what type of medication Trenta is what type of medication Mevacor is an example of what type of medication Buerger¶s Disease Lipid reducer vasodilators Lipid reducer vascular disease linked to cigarette smoking and jewish ancestry between the ages of 20-40

What is the most common Intermittent claudication of the instep symptom of buerger's disease What is Raynaud¶s disease? What are signs and symptoms of Raynaud¶s disease What is GANGRENE episodic vasospasms precipitated by stress and exposure to cold. Common in women between puberty and age 40. Affects both hands and sometimes both feet tingling and numbness, blanching that is relieved with warming lack of oxygen supply that leads to thrombosis and tissue necrosis and localized edema. severe localized pain, discoloration and swelling that usually occurs within 72 hours of surgery or trauma. Tachycardia, tachypnea and hypotension related to toxemia and hypovolemia. CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE common disorder caused by a buildup of fatty, fibrous plaques that narrow the coronary artery lumen.

What are signs and symptoms of GANGRENE What is another name for ARTERIOSCLEROTIC HEART DISEASE What is CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE?

What are non-modifiable risk factors for CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE What are treatments for CORONARY ARTERY

Non-modifiable risk factors include age (over 50), gender (male) with increased incidence of disease in postmenopausal women (loss of the protective effects of estrogen) and family history Other risk factors include stress, sedentary life-style, hypertension, obesity, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol, alcohol intake - reduce lipid levels , reduce hypertension, modify diet to limit meat, dairy and high-fat foods, and quit smoking. Limit

DISEASE clofibrate is an example of type of medication

alcohol intake to 2 ounces Lipid lowering agents

cholestyramine is an example Lipid lowering agents of type of medication Questranis an example of type of medication What are complications of CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE What is ANGINA? Lipid lowering agents

angina, MI, CHF, and dull squeezing or crushing pressure resulting from decreased blood flow to the heart. May radiate to the arms, usually lasts 3-5 minutes sweating, pallor, nausea, vomiting, cool extremities and fainting. Associated with physical exertion, emotional excitement and exposure to cold. EKG: ST depression, T wave inversion during acute pain include beta-adrenergic blockers ( propranolol, Lopressor), and calcium channel blocers (Verapamil, Cardizem, Procardia). The aim is to decrease oxygen demand or increase myocardial oxygen supply. store in dark, glass, securely capped vial, kept fresh enough that it tingles when you place it under your tongue When using paste do not rub it in and rotate sites include keeping nitro available at all times, use at the first sign of pain and stop and rest until pain subsides. Seek medical attention if pain lasts more than 20 minutes. Instruct the patient about risk factors for MI are exposure to cold, emotional upset or excitement, exertion, smoking, heavy meals, and rushing about as well as decongestants, diet pills, caffeine and nicotine. Prevention is the best treatment and includes reducing risk factors, reducing calories, fats, salt and getting regular exercise. Complications include arrhythmias, CHF, and MI.

What are signs and symptoms of ANGINA What are dx for ANGINA

What are tx for ANGINA

What should be noted about the storage of nitroglycerine? When nitroglycerine is given in paste form what should be noted? What patient teachings should be given as it relates to nitrolycerine? Which activities commonly lead to aginal pain? Explain prevention as it relates to anginal pain? What are complications of angina?

What is ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM What are the three types of abdominal aortic aneurysm? Which one is the most common and deadly? What are signs and symptoms of ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM What is the dx test for ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM Explain Life-threatening emergency as it relates to ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM What is CARDIAC FAILURE ? Which side usually fails What are general signs of cardiac failure? Explain signs and symptoms of right-side of the heart failure

widening of the aorta. There are three types type

Ascending (most common and deadly), Descending or Transverse severe ripping, boring pain of the shoulder, neck, lower back or abdomen. Bradycardia, pericardial friction rub, pulse intensity disparit Dx confirmed by x-ray includes decreasing hypertension, myocardial contractility, pain control and relief of respiratory distress while preparing for surgical intervention. Abdominal aneurysm resectionsurgical removal of a portion of weakened arterial wall with an end-to-end anastomosis to a prosthetic graft. heart can¶t pump enough blood to meet the body¶s metabolic needs. Left-sided heart failure caused mostly pulmonary SOB, dyspnea, and a moist cough. Also crackles, and gallop rhythm: S3 and S4 edema, swelling, dependent edema, jugular vein distention, hepatomegaly and weight gain

What causes cardiac failure How is heart failure dx as it relates to the left side of the heart How is heartfailure dx for the right side of the heart? What are the interventions for cardiac heart failure? What are the nursing interventions for cardiac failure?

atherosclerosis, conduction defects, COPD, fluid overload, hypertension, MI, pulmonary hypertension, valvular insufficiency or stenosis by chest x-ray that shows increased pulmonary congestion and L ventricular hypertrophy R sided failure shows pulmonary congestion, cardiomegaly and pleural effusions on chest x-ray low-sodium diet, fluid restriction, IABP, O2 therapy, ACE inhibitors keeping the patient in semi-fowler¶s position to increase chest expansion and improve ventilation. Administer O2 to enhance arterial oxygenation. Monitor patient for fluid gain. Plan periods of relaxation for patients with cardiac failure.

Restrict fluid intake after two consecutive days of weight gain. What is DYSRHYTHMIA ? What are the the 4 most common types? What are the signs and symptoms for atrial fibrillation What are the signs and symptoms of Asystole arrhythmias What are the signs and symptoms of ventricular fib arrhythmias - abnormal electrical conduction or automaticity changes the heart rate and rhythm. The most common arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, asystole, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia Asymptomatic, Irregular pulse Apnea Cyanosis No palpable blood pressure Pulselessness Apnea Pulselessness No Palpable blood pressure Chest Pain Diaphoresis What are the signs and symptoms of ventricular tachycardia arrhythmia Hypotension Weak pulse Dizziness LOC Possible Irregular atrial rhythm What 5 EKG changes are noted with Atrial fibrillation arrhythmias Rate> 400/minute Uniform QRS complex Indiscernible PR interval No P waves No rate or rhythm What 4 EKG changes are with Asystole arrhythmias No P waves No QRS complex No T waves Rapid/chaotic ventricular rhythm What 3 EKG changes are noted with Ventricular fib arrhythmias No discernible P¶s Wide/irregular QRS complex

Ventricular rate 140-220 What EKG changes are noted No discernible P¶s with Ventricular tachy arrhythmias Wide/bizarre QRS complex Starts/stops suddenly Cardioversion What are the treaments for Atrial fibrillation arrhythmias Pacemaker Atropine, epi What are the treaments for Asystole arrhythmias Resuscitation Defibrillation What are the treaments for Ventricular tachy arrhythmias Antiarrhythmics Antiarrhythmics What are the treaments for Ventricular fib arrhythmias Resuscitation Defibrillation Antiarrhythmics Resuscitation What are Ventricular tachy arrhythmias treatments? Cardioversion Defib implant What are arrhythmias treatments? What is MI (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION)? identifying and treating life-threatening arrhythmias (duh!) death to myocardial muscle related to lack of oxygen from inadequate perfusion

What are the signs and symptoms of MI (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION)? What are are the ekg readinging to confirm an MI (Myocardial infration) What dx are used to confirm MI (Myocardial Infraction) What may be used used to treat MI (Myocardial Infraction)

crushing substernal pain that may radiate to the jaw, back, and arms. It last longer than anginal pain and is unrelieved by rest or nitroglycerin. May also be asymptomatic. diaphoresis, pallor, arrhythmias EKG: enlarged Q wave, elevated ST segment, T wave inversion. CK, LDH, AST, and positive CK-MB fraction beta-adrenergic blockers (propranolol-Inderal, Lopressor) . Thrombolytic therapy includes the use of Streptase, and Eminase

When would beta-adrengeric blocker be contraindicatedfor MI (Myocardial infraction) treatment

contraindicated if patient also has CHF, hypotension or bronchospasm

When would Thrombolytic therapy be contraindicated for the patient has had recent surgery, or experienced a fall or MI (Myocardial infraction) head wound concurrent with the MI treatment What would the plan of care for MI (Myocardial Infraction) include? What is VALVULAR HEART DISEASE What are the three types of VALVULAR HEART DISEASE What does Aortic insufficiency result from? What causes Aortic insufficiency discussion of the resumption of patient¶s sexual activities (based on endurance- ability to climb 2 flights of stairs without pain, sob). mechanical disruption of blood flow through the heart. Three main types: stenosis-narrowing, incomplete closure of the valve, and prolapse of the valve. blood flowing back into the left ventricle during diastole (rest), creating fluid overload in the left atrium and pulmonary system enocarditis, hypertension, rheumatic fever, and syphilis. Echocardiography shows L ventricular enlargement, What test are commonly used to dx aortic insufficency and x-ray shows L ventricular enlargement and pulmonary vein what would they reveal? congestion What does Mitral insufficiency in blood flowing back into the L atrium during systole

result from? What may cause Mitral insufficiency result from? What test are used to confirm Mitral insufficiency and what do they show? What does Mitral stenosis do? What may cause Mitral stenosis

(squeeze), the atrium enlarges and the ventricle dilates to accommodate the increased volume of blood include L ventricular failure, mitral valve prolapse, and rheumatic fever Cardiac catheterization shows mitral regurgitation and elevated atrial and pulmonary artery wedge pressures. X-ray shows L atrial and ventricular enlargement. obstructs blood flow from the L atrium to the L ventricle rheumatic fever cardiac catheterization shows diastolic pressure gradient across the valve and elevated L atrial and pulmonary artery wedge pressures.

What test are performed to confirm Mitral stenosis and what would the test show?

Echocardiography shows thickened mitral valve leaflets. ECG shows L atrial hypertrophy and x-ray shows L atrial and ventricular enlargement.

What is Mitral valve prolapse etiology & the etiology What is a test that confirms Mitral valve prolapse What does Tricuspid insufficiency result in What causes Tricuspid insufficiency

one or both valve leaflets protruding into the L atriumIt has an unknown etiology ECG shows prolapse of the mitral valve into the L atrium results in blood flowing back into the R atrium during systole (squeeze). Blood flow to the lungs and L side of the heart is decreased. Fluid overloads in the R side of the heart Causes include endocarditis, rheumatic fever and trauma Echocardiography shows systolic prolapse of the tricuspid valve. ECG shows R atrial or ventricular hypertrophy. X-ray shows R atrial dilation and R ventricular enlargement.

Which test are used to confirm Tricuspid insufficiency and what would they show?

What test are performed to confirm Tricuspid

Echocardiography shows systolic prolapse of the tricuspid

insufficiency and what would the test show?

valve. ECG shows R atrial or ventricular hypertrophy. X-ray shows R atrial dilation and R ventricular enlargement.

Aortic Insufficiency What are the signs and sympotoms of Tricuspid insufficiency Mitral Insufficiency

Angina, Cough, Dysnpea,Fatigue, Palpitations

Angina, Dysnpea, Fatigue, Orthopnea, peripheral edema

dyspnea on exert fatigue What are the signs and sympotoms of Tricuspid insufficiency Mitral stenosis orthopnea palpitations peripheral edema weakness Asymptomatic What are the signs and sympotoms of Tricuspid insufficiency Mitral valve prolapse What are the signs and sympotoms of Tricuspid insufficiency Palpitations Chest Pain Fatigue Headache Dysnpea, Fatigue, Peripheral edema,

surgical replacement of the valves sodium restriction in cases of heart failure What are the Tx for all valvular diseases anticoagulant therapy (Coumadin) to prevent thrombus formation around diseased replace valves what are the nursing interventions for patients with valvular diseases? placing the patient in an upright position to relieve dyspnea, maintain bed rest ect. to decrease oxygen demands on the heart

What is Endocarditis?

infection of the endocardium, heart valves or cardiac prosthesis caused by bacterial or fungal invasion. Vegetative growths form on the heart valves, endocardial lining of the heart chamber, or endothelium of a blood vessel include coarctation of the aorta, marfan¶s syndrome, pulmonary stnosis, tetralogy of fallot and ventricular septal defect chills, fatigue, loud, regurgitant murmur, malaise, night sweats, weakness, weight loss. EKG may show atrial fibrillation.

What are risk factors for Endocarditis? What are the signs and symptoms of Endocarditis What are test are run to confirm Endocarditis?

Three or more blood cultures identify the causative organism What are the treaments for Endocarditis Antibiotics, aspirin and maintaining sufficient fluid intake prevent anaphlaxis ( history of drug allergies before implementing antibiotic), watch for signs of embolization (hematuria, pleuritic chest pain, LUQ pain and paresis, What are the nursing interventions for Endocarditis monitor renal status (BUN, creatinine clearance and output), educate patient in need for prophylactic antibiotics before, during and after any invasive procedures (dental work etc.). focal or diffuse inflammation of the cardiac muscle (middle muscular layer). Can be acute or chronic and occur at any age. Recovery is usually spontaneous, without residual defects arrhythmias (S3 and S4 gallops, faint S1), dyspnea, fatigue, fever. EKG shows diffuse ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, Prolonged PR interval and supraventricular arrhythmias. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis includes bed rest, What are six treaments for Myocarditis restricted sodium diet,

What is Myocarditis

What are the signs and symptoms of Myocarditis What test are done to confirm Myocarditis

antiarrhythmics (Pronestyl), antibiotics, anticoagulants (Coumadin), Lanoxin to increase myocardial contractility and diuretics (lasix). What are the nursing interventions for Myocarditis Pericarditis watching for signs of Lanoxin toxicity( anorexia, n/v, blurred, vision) and stress the importance of bed rest to decrease oxygen demands on the heart. inflammation of the fibroserous sac that envelops, supports and protects the heart Many varied causes include, bacteria, fungus, virus, radiation, hypersensitivity or autoimmune disease (lupus, rheumatic arthritis), neoplasms, injury, trauma and uremia or none of these at all Friction rub (grating sound heard as the heart moves) What are the signs and symptoms of Pericarditis Sharp sudden pain in the sternum that radiates to the neck, shoulders, back and arms (increasing with deep inspiration and decreasing when the patient sits up and leans forward).

What causes Pericarditis name at least 5

echo confirms free space between the ventricular wall and what test confirm and what do pericardium. EKG- elevated ST segments without significant they show Pericarditis changes in the QRS. what is the tx for Pericarditis? bed rest and possibly surgery depending on symptoms. Drug therapy includes antibiotics, corticosteroids, and NSAIDs bed rest to decrease oxygen demands on the heart, relieve dyspnea and chest pain by placing the patient in an upright position, reassurance to promote patient comfort and allay anxiety. increased muscle mass to compensate for flabby L. ventricle, altering cardiac function and resulting in decreased cardiac output alcoholism, infection, metabolic and immunologic disorders, pregnancy and postpartum disorders, hypertension,

what are the nsg interventions for Pericarditis?


what are the causes of

CARDIOMYOPATHY what are the signs & symptoms CARDIOMYOPATHY what may indicate CARDIOMYOPATHY what are the tx for CARDIOMYOPATHY what are nursing interventions for CARDIOMYOPATHY

amyloidosis and cancer or other infiltrative disease -murmur (S3, S4), dyspnea, cough, crackles, jugular vein distention, dependent pitting edema, fatigue. echo indicates L ventricular hypertrophy and nonspecific changes beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, inotropic drugs (dopamine), anticoagulants monitoring for arrhythmias and ischemia, monitor for hypokalemia (s/e of diuretics), monitor respiratory and cardiovascular status for signs of heart failure, administer O2 and meds to improve oxygenation and cardiac output.

heart fails to adequately pump reducing cardiac output and compromising tissue perfusion. Decreased stroke volume increases back volume in the L ventricle. Blood from the L ventricle backs up into the lungs creating pulmonary edema. Compensation for decreased CO is increased heart rate and contractility, increasing the need for O2. An imbalance between supply of O2 and demand for O2 increase myocardial ischemia further impairing the heart¶s pumping action. Causes include MI, heart failure, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy and advanced heart block What are signs and cold, clammy skin, hypotension with a narrow pulse symptoms of CARDIOGENIC pressure, oliguria (less than 30 ml/hr), S3 and S4 heart SHOCK sounds, tachycardia, tachypnea, and weak, thready pulse what would an ekg show for a CARDIOGENIC SHOCK patient? Drug treatment for CARDIOGENIC SHOCK includes shows enlarged Q wave, elevated ST segment (MI


adrenergics (epinephrine_, digoxin, dopamine, diuretics, vasodilators (Nitro-press) and vasopressors (norepinephrine


NPO status to reduce risk of aspiration, admminister meds, fluids, oxygen to maximize cardiac, pulmonary and renal fx. Use of IABP an inflatable balloon is inserted through the femoral artery into the descending aorta. Coronary artery perfusion increases when the aortic valve closes and the balloon inflates during diastole (rest). It deflates during systole (squeeze) to reduce cardiac workload by reducing resistance to ejection.

Explain IABP (intra-aortic balloon pump) as it relates to CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

reduced blood volume causes circulatory dysfunction and HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK is ? inadequate tissue perfusion. Without reversal, it can lead to cerebral and renal damage, cardiac arrest and death What causes HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK include blood loss (didn¶t we already go over this?), acute pancreatitis, dehydration from excessive perspiration, intestinal obstruction, severe diarrhea, protracted vomiting, inadequate fluid intake and diuresis - cold, pale, clammy skin, decreased sensorium, hypotension with narrowing pulse pressure, reduce urine output, tachycardia, rapid, shallow respirations Blood tests (elevated K, serum lactate, BUN , urine specific gravity (greater than 1.020), ABG reveals metabolic acidosis (decreased pH) decreased PO2 and increased PCO2 blood and fluid replacement, control of bleeding spiritual/religious beliefs of Jehovah¶s witness to refuse blood transfusions. Interventions include correcting fluid volume deficit, monitoring for adequate urine output, provide emotional support to the patient and his family to help them cope and relieve anxiety.

HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK s/s are what are used to confirm HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK tx are what are nsg interventions and special considerations HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA diet high in iron, fiber, and protein with increased fluids. tx is Avoid teas and coffee which reduce absorption of iron IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA pallor, sensitivity to cold, weakness and fatigue. Dxs/s are decreased Hb, HCT, iron Increase the intake of vitamin C. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA nsg interventions are iron injection deep into the muscle using Z-track technique to avoid subQ irritation and discoloration from leaking drug. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA is chronic, progressive, macrocytic anemia caused by a deficiency of intrinsic factor which prevents the absorption of dietary vitamin B12. Without intrinsic factor RBCs are

defective as they mature PERNICIOUS ANEMIA s/s are PERNICIOUS ANEMIA is confirmed by , what do these test reveal tingling and paresthesia of hands and feet, weight loss, anorexia, dyspepsia bone marrow aspiration shows increased megaloblasts, few maturing erythrocytes and defective leukocyte matureation. Peripheral blood smear reveals oval, macrocytic, hyperchromic erythroctyes diet high in iron and protein and restricting highly seasoned or extremely hot foods. Vitamins especially B12 and B6, Vitamin C and folic acid congenital hematologic disease that causes impaired circulation, chronic ill health and premature death. Exists in African populations and people from Puerto Rico, Turkey, India, the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The RBc are rigid and rough, forming an elongated sickle shape and impairing circulation by ³clumping´ together. This happens during periods of hypoxia which can be provoked by strenuous exercise, high altitude, unpressurized aircraft, cold and vasoconstrictive drugs aching bones, jaundice, pallor, tachycardia, family history, frequent infections, joint swelling and leg ulcers, especially on the ankles. Sickle cell crisis is very painful decreased RBC, elevated WBC and platelet counts, decreased ESR. Hb electrophoresis shows HbS. iron and folic acid supplements, prevent dehydration and analgesics for pain during crisis include warm compresses to painful areas, (cold aggravates the condition) maintain bed rest to reduce workload on the heart and to reduce pain, encourages fluid intake to prevent dehydration, which can precipitate a crisis. )- complication of diseases and conditions that accelerate clotting. Accelerated clotting process caused depletion of circulating clotting factors and platelets which can provoke severe hemorrhage


Provide sn overview of SICLE CELL ANEMIA excluding the dx, tx, s/s and nsg interventions


SICLE CELL ANEMIA nsg interventions are



abnormal bleeding without history of serious hemorrhagic disorder, oliguria, shock, sever muscle, back and abdominal pain prolonged PT greater than 15 seconds, prolonged PTT greater than 60-80 seconds, fibrinogen levels

COAGULATION (DIC) is confirmed by

less than 150 mg/dl, platelets less than 100,000/ul, and a positive D-dimer test specific for DIC bedrest and transfusion with fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and packed RBCs. Interventionscomplete bed rest protects the patient from injury. Apply pressure to injection sites for at least 10 minutes to prevent hemorrhage. Weight the patient daily to monitor for fluid volume excess. Measure abdominal girth every 4 hours to detect intraabdominal bleeding. hereditary bleeding disorder affecting only males. Inherited as x-linked recessive traits spontaneous or severe bleeding after minor trauma (excessive bleeding at circumcision), subcutaneous and intramuscular hematomas, prolonged bleeding after major trauma/surgery (up to 8 days), hematuria, joint tenderness, pain and swelling in a weight-bearing joint (hip, knee or ankle), tarry stools Factor VIII assay reveals 0-25% of normal factor VIII administer cryoprecipitate antihemophilic fact to encourage normal hemostasis. Analgesics to control joint pain. interventions could include vitamin E, soy products, oat bran, relaxation therapy, guided imagery, music therapy, garlic and parsley for hypertension. chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased RBC mass, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and increased Hb concentration. Occurs between the ages of 40-60 to male of Jewish ancestry. Mortality is high if untreated clubbing of the digits (cystic fibrosis), dizziness, headache, hypertension, ruddy cyanosis of the nose, thrombosis of smaller vessels, visual disturbances (blurring, diplopia, engorged veins of fundus and retina.) phlebotomy (350-500ml removed every other day until the patient¶s HCT is reduced to low-normal),




HEMOPHILIA is confirmed by


Briefly explain POLYCYTHEMIA



plasmapheresis. Drug tx includes chemotherapy and myelosuppressive drugs and anitgout agents (allopurinol). POLYCYTHEMIA nsg interventions are Interventions include administering juice or water to replace fluid volume lost during procedure. The sign is positive (indicative of a problem) if, when the examiner flexes your foot, you feel pain in the calf. A positive Homan's sign helps diagnose deep vein thrombosis. Exercises used to empty engorged vessels, stimulate circulation, and at least partially relieve swelling (oedema) in patients with arterial insufficiency of the lower limbs and feet A chronic inflammatory disease of the peripheral vessels forming blood clots that results in reduced blood flow, possible ulceration, and gangrene. Exercise or walking will bring on rapid fatigue, pain, and leg cramps. The feet or hands may turn pale or feel cold. The pain may be increased by exposure to cold, and painful ulcers or gangrene may develop Shave With An Electric Razor instead of a disposable. When Anticoagulant therapy is given what activties should be avoided Use a Toothbrush With Soft Bristles Any activities that could cause injuries What foods are high in vitamin K? green leafy vegetables (spinach, kale), liver

Briefly explain Positive Homan¶s sign

Buerger-allen exercises

What is buerger's Disease

Explain Buerger's Disease as it relates to exercise

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