Arthur A. MacKay
(© 1999, Art MacKay. All rights reserved. Illustrations may not be used without written permission.)

The following list of fish species found in the freshwaters of Grand Manan is based on specimens collected by the author and information supplied by knowledgeable residents. Although it is possible that some species have been missed, this list is believed to have been complete at the time of the original field work in 1962, 1963 and 1964. New information has been added, and will be added, as it becomes available. Grand Manan Island has nine species of fishes which have been recorded in its freshwaters (r= record, pc= personal communications):
• • • • • • • • •

brown trout (pc) brook trout (r) American eel (r) eastern banded killifish (r) mummichog (r) northern lake chub (r) smallmouth bass (r) ninespine stickleback (r) three-spined stickleback (r)

0f these nine species, the presence of all but two can be accounted for. The American eel, brook trout, sticklebacks, and mummichog are euryhaline species which undoubtedly reached Grand Manan via saltwater. The smallmouth bass and brown trout (if it is still present) were both introduced by man. The eastern banded killifish and northern lake chub are true freshwater fish for which there is no record of introduction. These species are common forage species for smallmouth bass and it is possible that they were imported as food for this introduced species.

ACCOUNTS OF SPECIES (Identifications were based on Hubbs and Lagler, Fishes of the Great Lakes Region, 1959 and Bigelow and Schroeder, Fishes of the Gulf of Maine, 1953)

Brown trout Salmo trutta L.

Distribution: Presence is hypothetical. A resident of Grand Manan, Wayne Guptill, informed the author that he placed approximately six nine to ten inch Brown Trout in Long Pond during the summer of 1959. The fish were part of wildlife display at the Hospital Fair held at Grand Harbour. There have been no further reports of these fish.

Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill)

Local names: trout, brook trout, squaretail Distribution: Present in all drainage systems General: While many ponds on Grand Manan have been stocked with brook trout, this species has always been present and many of the older residents have been fishing them since childhood. Batty (1874) recorded Brook Trout on Grand Manan in 1874.

Since the arrival of the beaver sometime after World War II, almost all of the streams have been dammed, dramatically increasing the amount of habitat. (J.K. Ingersoll, per. comm. 1962) reported poor catches of trout in Miller's Pond where smallmouth bass had been introduced. Island trout average small, but an occasional large one is caught. A 3.5 pound out was taken at Miller's Pond in the summer of 1962 (Ingersoll, per.comm. 1962). Specimens examined: Bradbury Brook, 1.

American eel Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur)

Local names: eel Distribution: Believed to be present in all drainage systems following directly into the ocean. General: While no specimens were collected, Gesner reported that very large eels were abundant in Eel Lake during his visit in the1839. Specimens examined: None. Eastern banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus (LeSueur) Local names: minnow, chub. Distribution: Miller's Pond, possibly other ponds and streams General: The only specimens of this species were obtained from Miller's Pond. As previously discussed this species may have been introduced as food for smallmouth bass. Specimens examined: Miller's Pond, 2 adults, 1 fry.

Mummichog or killifish Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)

Local names: Minnow. Distribution: Great (Big) Pond, Long Pond, Whale Cove Pond, probably Castalia Marsh and the lower reaches of some streams. General: The Mummichog is generally distributed in the coastal waters of New Brunswick (Scott and Crossman, 1959) and is abundant, were found, on Grand Manan. They were common at Great and Long Ponds, but the largest concentration of these fishes was at Whale Cove Pond (brackish water) where, as one approached the shore of the pond, the water would "boil" as fish tried to escape. Males collected at Long Pond on June 24, 1962 were in breeding colors and females collected the following day at Whale Cove Pond were filled with spawn. Specimens examined: Long Pond, 6 males; Whale Cove Pond, 5 females and 6 fry.

Northern lake chub Coesius plumbeus (Linnaeus)

Local names: Minnow. Distribution: Miller's Pond General: Probably introduced as forage fish for bass. Specimens examined: Specimen lost.

Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui Lacépède

Local names: bass. Distribution: Miller's Pond, Eel Lake. General: This species ws first introduced to Miller's Pond on an undetermined date. Additional introductions were made into Eel Lake in the summer of 1962 in an effort to rid this body of water of sticklebacks which were believed to have reduced the brook trout population (Ingersoll, Sept. 13, 1962). Specimens examined: Miller's Pond, 1.

Ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus) Local names: Minnow, stickleback. Distribution: Long Pond, Great (Big) Pond, Eel Lake, probably other lakes and streams. General: A single specimen from Long Pond was collected. Specimens examined: Long Pond, 1.

Threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus

Local names: Minnow, stickleback. Distribution: Common in salt ponds. General: Observed but not collected. Specimens examined: None.

DISTRIBUTION RECORDS FOR FRESHWATER FISH 0F GRAND MANAN 1. Eel Lake - brook trout, ninespine stickleback, smallmouth bass 2. Little Lake - brook trout 3. Eel Brook - brook trout 4. Money Cove Brook - brook trout 5. Stanley Brook - brook trout 6. Wilson Pond - brook trout 7. Dark Harbour Brook - brook trout 8. David Watt Pond - brook trout 9. Ohio Pond - brook trout 10. Dock Brook - brook trout 11. Mill Brook - brook trout 12. Bleumortier Brook - brook trout 13. Round Pond - brook trout 14. West Long Pond - brook trout 15. Seal Cove Brook - brook trout 16. Bradbury Brook - brook trout 17. Grand Brook - brook trout 18. Miller's Pond - brook trout , smallnouth bass, banded killifish. 19. East Brook - brook trout 20. Great (Big) pond - Mummichog, brook trout 21. Long Pond - brook trout, 9-spine Stickleback, brown trout (Wayne Guptill ) 22. Dwelly's Pond - brook trout , {Landlocked salmon were stocked but never developed) 23. Deep Cove Brook - brook trout 24. Bradford Cove Pond- brook trout 25. Whale Cove Pond - Mummichog

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