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The aim of the little work now offered to the Public,

is to be useful to those Students at our Universities, who,
after having made some progress in Hebrew, may be an-
xious to gain at least a slight knowledge of the principal

cognate dialects. On the advantage of such knowledge to

the Theologian I need not here enlarge. Our Authorised
Version of the Hebrew Scriptures is now generally acknow-

ledged to be an indifferent one, and the call for a revised

translation is daily becoming more urgent. The Masoretic
Text itself is in many places obscure, in some to all ap-

pearance corrupt ; and the only means of getting over at least

a part of these difficulties is the study of the other Semitic

languages and the comparison of the Translations that exist

in them, more especially ihe Aramaic and Arabic.

This volume presents to the Student one of the short-
est and simplest of the Biblical Books in four of the old

Oriental Versions — viz. the Chaldee, Syriac, Aefhiopic,

and Arabic — accompanied by Glossaries, wliich give not

only the meaning of every word in each of the texts, but

also the principal cognate vocables in the other dialects; so
— VI —
that a careful study of the work — brief thoiigli it be --
will enable the reader to arrive at a tolerably accurate com-

prehension of some of the principal points of resemblance

and difference in the Semitic languages.

It remains for me to add a few remarks as to the

manner in which I have constituted the several texts.

The Chaldee is based upon a collation of the principal

Polyglots and early editions — such as the Parisian and
London, the Bomberg or Venetian, and Buxtorf's Rabbinic
Bible — the most important variants being given at the foot

of the page.

The Syriac text is taken from Lee's edition, recollated

with two Mss. in the Bodleian Library and two in the British

Museum. It was my endeavour to exhibit here the different

modes of indicating the vowels etc. in Syriac; an endeavour

in which, however, I have not succeeded very well, owing
chiefly to the imperfections of the ty^De. For instance in the

word o-»,£^z|o (p. 48, 1. 8), the large point above (he
(it should liave been still larger in proportion to the rest)

belongs to the oldest system of punctuation, and shows that

it is of the fourth conj. or Ethpa"al; whilst the small points

under the first z and over the ^ and the second z, indi-

cate respectively the aspirated atid unaspirated pronunciation

of those letters ((jlhkatash, or more correctly ethkat-
tasli). So again ia the word ^j-^zjo (p. 50, 1. 13) the

small dot between the ' z and the ^ indicates the unaspirated

sound of the former, or rather the assimilation of the two
letters (etiarraf instead of ethtarraf); whilst Ihe large

dot over the syllable ^ is the mark of tiie fourth conj.
:^ — VIJ —
hi _L3-f4z] ([». 49, 1. 3) tlie Iwo large points under the final

z'*cire one way of indicating tlie 3. p. sing, fern., another

being exemplified in iuj^o (p. 49, 1. penult.). In the noun
ILn.- (p. 49, 1. 2), the large dot over the .^ gives a clue
to the pronunciation (khebhala or khebhóló), which
was afterwards rendered more distinct by substituting or

appending the later vowel -sign _ or 1. Some information

on this subject may be found in the larger Syriac Gram-
mars; more in Ewald's Abhandlungen zur orientali-
schen und biblischen Literatur (Gottingen 1832) and

Bernstein's Preface to liis edition of the Gosj:)el of St. John

(Leipzig 1853), which latter work is printed in a remarkably

clear and beautiful type. I should mention that 1 have
inserted the points riikach (^o?) and kushai (^a^) only

when they were found in one or other of the Mss. that I used.

The Aethiopic text is from the edition ofPetraeus (P. in

the variants), collated with one Ms. in the Bodleian Library

and one in the British Museum.
Finally, the Arabic version is taken from a Ms. in the

Bodleian, and is, so far as I am aware, now published for

the first time. The Ms. is unfortunately rather carelessly

written, so tliat I have been obliged in one or two instances
to have recourse to conjectural emendation, a remedy wliich

I am always reluctant to employ.

Subjoined is a list of errata, which the reader is

requested to correct before making use of the book.

Triniiy Colleg-e, Dublin.
November 1856. \^r^
: : : . . :

p. 2. 1. 2. r\]) . P. 67. 1. 25. ni:j?-]lD.
p. 4. last line, nole h) i<J*in"jN*. P. 75.1.11. (DAO-:
P. 5. 1.3, ^1; 1.4. -2i^\ P. 76. 1. 7. (DZLCWl. 15.(DZ.*S.:
P. 6. 16. i<^n-. Aner 1. 20. A,^^^ :
1. 8. mc; 1.

P. 77. 1 1. (DZ.CUfl)
all 5 jfl IS perhaps nolhing- bul
P.78.I.12. (DA5:i.l3.?iZ.^P^:
an abstract noun from ^Jf , mean- i.2o.a)<?^óT^:i.26.H*s.^:
1. 29. Xhl :

ing- /"^or, and used (liket^n^n"
P. 79. 1. 1. -IAi"?^: last line,
and ]aV..I") to denote the object
feared, the deity.
P. 80. 1. 8. (D-t-AWA: 1. 17.
P. 8. 1. 9. iDiN. hji<^^^\ last line, XE AAflV:
P. 9. 1. 7. cn'.Nt.
P. 81. 1. 7. — ^: 1. 17. AZ.Ci'?:
p. 11. 1. Iv^: 1. 14. -^ij;3.
1. 25. I^.
p. 13. 1. 14. ^o;j; 1. 19. ^rni. P. 84. 1. 1. /hJCZ.:

p. 15. 1. 6. AflerK'kS add: (pron.- IJ'X). P. 89. 1. 14. *iuz.:
P. 17. 1. 21. N-1-. p. 91. 1. 11. imper. QTil i. 23.

P. 19. last line, H^tSN. 5i?n.Ei
P. 20. 1. lQ.i<^:c!2.' p. 92. 1. 14. -JAZ.:

P. 22.
p. 95. 1.^Z.:
1. 6. N.^c-;i. 9.
i^. P. 100. 1. 11. UZ.Z.: and Aóz,z.:
P. 23. 1. 2. D"^n: ; 1. 3. Epiphanius;

last line, (npil).
p. 104. penult. :i;c a:
p. 106. 1. 7. ^ri; 8- l^Vi;
P. 25. 1.2. |T>\"
P. 32. penult.
1. 18. AA*z
-i2J7 •

P. 33. 1. 17. hv/."' p. 110. 2.
P. 39. 1.3. Nnr-
P. 45. I. 3. ^^r\\.
p. 111.1. 12. oJsL^f.
p. 123. 1. 7. ^al^
P. 47. 1. 5.
P. 49. 1. 5. ^.n'ni. ; 1. 12.
^vv^V P. 128. 1.17. X^.
In several places 'in the Syriac P. 129. I. 4. iLi^; I. 13. \x>J>l..

text a point has been broken off; P. 132. 1. 10. V^t-^-
e. g-. p. 49, last line, ^JiiLi* P. 135. 1. 11. v>:

p.50.1.2. |U^o;l.l7. P. 136.1. 14. D3;»]^.

P. 56. 1. 21. Ui^CT. P. 138.1.22. ^tXS.

nn'oS TCN 13 riJV cv " dip p nNirj cjns rii-i i

jinntt'ia rp^^D nx rhv. ^2: pni .snrn .srnp '\:^:h ^tn cp 2

T - T : • •-:•: tIt: I • t" : I -: r: t It: t tI: •

n2 nnii ptisn dh-ii i^j^-h '')
k^tn- n?':;n n^ti'ssii -iDi^ nri;i

*.T- ^c^T ^^^r^:^' Q'R. i'? ^^?!r I'insj^ Spo"'? 4

•')]"*n2Q ^'cj^N*^ «»:^ ^<c^{!^?l
^*'^.? f^! ''^}'' ^'i'^r^ ]"i^? n^b

2"1.pi tTjIC-l 2'2m Jn^dSTI ^^li^' r^'V.I^*'' ^)i^L!^ ^J^l 6

- :
--:- • t: tt '^• t: tIt: I • — : • • t I
t t-.-;

^p. ^T) ^K^'P^"^ ^) ^""Ir Vi^.l PtIJ! '^"'^.^ "i^^! "n?'!'^

bn w*? |jJ2 i^n n^^ ncNi :mJ1> ^j? n2-j;- t^Ki j^dij; id-i') 8

t^^n '')N"i^N
' T ••
••- :
IT •
'It:-; hdv w^
t t
Nint t
t :
'l- •

ria (" D^n- 5 D^-rn.n^ (^ ^'?vsi(^ n^n3,n^nj ("

— 2 —
1 i^^n-;i : «n-^zt: n^i ^<»! n: 125;- ^n"j n^' N':^c-f 1 ^<^l^N ^>

^VT ^".^ «i?1?:^ Ni-HD n^i? ncjc^i n'si "')N^^n- «n23

n^'plii^nij 'p^ict t^: >-^:N ^b^r i<^i ^*^*f?l^ ^rv'>.^ "^^r-T?
14 ]jJ2 Kb ;i vs:n^y2 b^zp. 1-1?:^;. 1] -£ ^)'\i<^k'^] '.pn^^.v O^P.^
D- n2in i<:hv inn n*?! inn n-23i ')n'^Dj nsina nz^j

16N2-] t<^^rn Nn;: ibin"o :n^^iij'n:c ns^ n:i n*s^^ "'nic"]i

:im: mji " cip ")n2"! t<n2i^ ncto " cip p

1 isT^n N':^jn vs^>:c2 ny^i nini n:"*'' n: p^2c^ n*2-t n'JU

2 :wi:-i
T -
• T
: : • ;:
t rr:
• ~ :
It : ••
t t :
j •

4 '')nH;^ Na^_- N±2 '''')
Njpcij?^ ''^.n"'Pii ^'HiJ?? ^C~?V. ^n^y2

T :
tt - : • ;
1 '
"h-id^d o-ip
1 t ; •• tIt:
^d n"'2"inN
• • it ; •
• -. ..


'vi C' kSpj;-c C'
— 3 — •

^^i^i\l ^r^.i;, p-^^ ^^^'^ pn^ ZDIPN- 0"inNCT Nniyto lo
Q^ifN ^)nmjT T]Dip DnpN >:3-i^':5 nxnix nnsi^na
- :
T :
- -
t It:
i^iiD ^lj'd: ip-iiD


nD>D^ n^j^:n n:r cy " cnp id hni^j Dine nini i

n NPN1DJ m n^j? ^2;r^^l ^Pr"! i^^Tilp -^O.^''?^ '^V^! ^V 2
"" cpi S'tcd n^s* 3
T- i^oinss
nii^Ji ni:i.:S t?TNi n:"!^ :"nx2y
: •: tt: •: ••; •: --:- t It: It • - ••t-; :

- ••
T ' T
• : I

I- -: -
t -
: t :l-

niJ'':i i^cv |^>;2^« pjid? -i??vXt_ t^^dni in nd'j"' "q^na xnip?
Nc"i2f -nni in N'lp*??^ n;i;i: ')^^''^,?5. ^j'^^'HI -'^^cnrp 5

mh Ko|riB KJ:?pi tiinn-ij?] "iJTl pn?!?? TRi^ ')^"ic^^! 6

n^liT '')''^'^-^
'IV'^i n^.D^c ^PT^?? Dp? ^l^^^l ^?<^
no^j icNi TnDNi iJ^c'icp ';^;? 2inn, Np^is' iD2nNi n^iD 7

' t
t • :
T Tv:
- • :
• -; : :
t: -
m^nc - . . .

nn;3 -rn^Ni yn^ ]^ 'jinni^-i iserLcn ]c^ npi^^^s 9

pnnnnctD an i-'n pnnDiy ^\ Dip^ ]^^i :")"i2ij «S} n^nn lO
iin^ n2j?c^
- ' 7I :
n •
r : •
1 •
zmt :
t t •

2 1 ^2|^ -icNi '^ Dip^. '''?i:i : rpjp Pj^pni i<2i N'I^^d nJV^ K'jcsf

3 nx lip iti: •(j;3 2D \^ ]3;zi :'')xn;i'i2 nxn\x'>'D
4 p?:i irih p)>pn M'n^n ^^^ icxi :^)in!S!-o riiD\xi 212

F)"iD2 ^n'TiD ^Tn':^ "13; >^hr2 nninn D\n^i ONn'p^p
6 ^?.ijD^ n:i' ")|Q S^j; p^^pi jvp^p Q^n^!?? ^,? p^Il :^'"^,":p

•'"'^''^ '""1 ^') x3-ix^ rp^'n nSid
P^V. ^J? n^'^'ki^'^c r,">b *?:;

xji^n ^j; XK'CK^' •')nriD::") *)xnp"'r-^" xcnp nn ^"i.

mcxi 2t: "icxi •'j
t^t^^b n^irc: Sx'^^'i "'M'^ni^''xi njin
9 ^^^] ]"i^TP '^i^
*)^pn N-jn^n n^j^^ ^;. ^cnt :'')r.!s;-p

lO|i^p>P b]} ON{i"?cn nx >;. ^cxi li^nio ny ^^^ F)ipn N?"in^
n;'?^^21 nin ]i-r, x^^^!?2 ^- ri>r.>2"i x^i n^2 ^)r\br;v. x^i
11 n\x-7 Nn2T xmp ro.r: ^3; onx x^ n:x5 :-2x •*)xnnx

niCXl ,mcXl C X-ki'>2(^ ]]7^(^ Some edd. add cp ("

xmci c 'n2-f' C" ' lir^r-] r ^ni?i? C'
ncp^. C' nric::i. (" sxp\-^j'"f lj'xzI (^
i<ir\b72V, yPhavA^ rpri (^ f^'phc mn-c ni^x- (*•

xi2-i(' "^'"xi-iTix ("

6 o S S AR Y.


nZN, impf. -ZN'^, 1?"., perish. V. -id"*" (TD", "2-)

destroy, and intrans, perish. In bibl. Chald. a Hofal

"iDin occurs, Dan. MI. 11. — Heb. "iZN, Syr. jL],

Sam. T^A; Aeth. A-fls: ^<? wrt-? (comp. -^en-z': -iri<^

Jerem. IV. 9). The original signif. is simply go\ Ar.

t>Lj, impf. cXaaj, y^ a/vay, perish; Jul /7//^ away; cXb
eternity (comp. a^w^^, aevum , from the Sanskrit rad.

?. go)-

"13N ^Z/-^. — Ar. ys^l, Syr. j^j.
"i:n, N"1jN', hire, wages, reward. — Ai'. ^f, Syr.

It^l , Sam. g'^t

hv^^, impf. ':ri, imper. "riis;, inf. 'rrc, ^^. — Heb. t'lN, Syr.

Vll , Sam. i'^A; Ai'. J lv, impf. J*jJ, wm'^ «5';^'ó'y

from a place; Jt; , impf. JfCj, remove, intrans. cease;

also J-.f, peipetuity , eternity.

-^MiS' not used hi I., tje Jjehind. lU. -riN, put off, delay. —
Ar. >s>\-> leave behind, keep back, retard, Aeth. A'JZ.I

Heb. iPiN, in. "iriN; Syr. j-Io), delay, remain.
— 6 —
]"ir|N and pniNS WT", other, another, f. Nn:?']";

pi. m, p:"]", f.
]^n~- I^ the dialect of Jerusalem

nin, Sam. y^X!^ (V); Ar. li^f, Heb. "iriN, Syr.

'N note of interrogation pref. to pron. and adv., as ]"'"1''N,

f. N*"''f<, which? -ji-D IN whence? ipc "sN ?vhen? etc. —
Ar. ^1, Aeth. h^'. who, which, tvhat? Heb. ""N, n^iN,

Sam. /HA, with sufF, pron. ;^'Atf;'<?.^ n*. "lii which? ni \s*

7vhence? ^'^C^]^ where? Syr. J], ), in ^L^j where?

I^aifi^f whence? „kilo] when? etc.

n\N //^^r^ /*, etc. with pron. sufF. ""n-iN*, "''n\S' , ^ri'in"'N,

/ <^/?^, //^(9^<! art, etc. — Ar. Q>*jt obsoL, Heb. t:'';' and
t^'N (2 Sam. XTV. 19, Miclia VI. 10), bibl. Chald.

\75<, Syr. ^j^ Sam. AHtA, AA, A/Tl; with the

negat. ;/, nS, are formed, y^, n^'?, ^^^ , A(Tli.
'^'C~' ^ ^^^^' ^^^/ pi- ]^ij!?»>!' ^'^.r'"- Ar. 8^1 or

aJI^, with the art. aJI^f, con(r. aJUt; fem. ii^c!^!^!, contr,

(o^f [AXiXar, Herodot. HI. 8, ed, Schweigh.) ; in the

so-called Sinaitic Inscriptions *) n'^N* (e. g. rb^ ND jPO

priest of the god Ta, Tuch in the Z. d. D. M. G. vol.

III. p. 212), in the Himyaritic r^N, f. rn^X (Rodiger's

Excursus to his transl. of Wellsted's Travels in Arabia,

p. 380-1, 390); Heb. nl^N, Syr. loX^ Sam. "^^iA.

*) Really the records of heathen Arabs , pilgrimag-ing to Mount
Serhal (JUwu/). They dale in all probability from the centuries

immediately before and after the time of Chrisl.

As to the derivat. of the word (aJf, worship, being a

denom. from jjt, and xJI, ^^ sMcken with fear, a

variety of U:), it is probably connected, as Arabic

lexicographers suggest, with s9=I.!9, shine (comp.

Sanskrit deva-s, d-eo-g, deu-s, from the rad. div, shine,

and sura-s from sur, shine); they however derive it

from s!^l in the sense of create.

NS^N f. a ship; pi. N^^S". Syr. i^X.

Ci< if; CND (ht. 7vhat if — ?) perhaps. Another form is

]N, ^\n; Ar. ^\^, Aeth. 'h<3=>: Heb. Phoen. dn% Syr.

Sam. -^ilA, 5 A.
|CN* not in use; Heb. "i^-^, prop up, suppo?i, ]CN, be faithful,

Ar. 'wxit ^<? z'O^V/ of fear , secure, confide m, ^j^t ^^

faithful; Aeth. 2i<?^i: /rz^*/, believe (comp. jCf3iLtJ /r/y

e^o;?, from Jc*! j»r<?/> ?^). Hence V. jicin believe;

Ar. ^t w'/-^ *<7/?, protect, believe, ^j^*^ protect
v tl;^t t| t^od. Syr. ,_^(n believe. This verb is an

4^'^/, not a Pai'el, and one of the very rare examples

in the other dialects of the Heb. form Hifil ; comp.
in Arab. Sili for jtri i'm/^,
^^"^ ^\s\ pour out,

eA^ for ^ give (imperat. of ^\)-, '^)y^ and v3^
be quick ; perhaps also Ijltf ciit, prune, and IJy^ ^^<?A-^

violently, annoij,

1CX , impf. "ICNV. , "i??\'', imper. -i?:i< , inf. ic>?r, *«y. —
Heb. Phoen. "l^^:; Syr. jic^l , Sam. '^•^A, sutj, order

Ar. yA order.

I^Nvr, -in>c, N^p", %w</, speech, order; pi. p'^^D'c,
— 8 —
Nn-. Also used to denote self, partie, in reference

tJ God, e. g. IT, 5. — Syr. j^^l^c^ Sam. ^^^m*il.

m ;2'/i^;-<?.^ 7vhither? |N3c, |.^c,
whence? — Ar.^jjt, ^J-5t^J-«;

Heb. ]\s*, |\x^, ]XD (2 Kings V. 25, k'tih)\ Sam.

n:n: (rijN) /•• pi. i:-3is',

LLlT); Aeth. Ai: pi.
i:";. we. — Ar. 13 1,

J:^, 01^,

Uk pi. ^-. Sam. A^A, ^^A, pi. ^^A,
)^1^^A; Heb. >2:n, ^:n (Sam. iTl^^A, Ht^A), pi.

^jnikS, later forms ^JvS (Jerem. XLII. 6, k't'ih), jix;

Phoen. -JN, pi. |m:x.

jl^N. See Nin.

ti'iis*, li*:, NIS'", a man, person, individual; pi. jMi'JN

(constr. \:^:n), j^ti''^. — Heb. '^Yj^,, Syr. ilj)_ pi. Uj|_,

Sam. '^•^pA; cognate forms are Ar. ^Uvj| (with the

collect. J.ljl J.Q), ,jLj[ mankind, Aeth. &5fi: (rare),
Heb. 15'"'n; (for p*j^), Phoen. Wi^. The respective fem.

are: Ar. zlSLLjI (very rare); Aeth. Kitv^'. Heb. T]^'^

(Sam. ^A^A or. '^t^A), pi. cv^i^": ; Phoen. r^^',

Chald. N*rs* (^pn), Nrrx, «nr:iX, pi. ]^'^'y, Syr. jzjf^
pi. Ui; Sam. ^AA, ^AAA, pi." |]m-^^, ^^^'}'

PON, rjs!, thou: pi. m. |in:x, i^riN. f. |"'rj5s;, [""riN. — Ar. m.

v:lit, f. v;;^it, pi. m. ^\ (poet. lUil), f.
J^f; Aeth.

m. A^t-: f. Ki-t: pi. m. Al^^: f. A5-l: Heb.

m. nnN, f. >rx, pn, pi. m. Drx, f. j^n, n:nN: Syr.

m. hS\ , f. ^^r, pi m. ^h^]\ f. ^^J)^: Sam. m. "^ AA,

AA, f. mAA, pi. m. ^tAA, f. jl/TlAA.
— 9 —
icj<, imperf. ItO^", tie, hind, gird on.— Ar. y^\ . Aeth. MUZ,!
Hebr. ncN', Syr. j^?, Sam. -^^A-
n":^5 ?valk, go. — Heb. nnx.

rr^iN, ni'it?, Nfjl^^? f- '?' ^^''Jyj. road, custom, conduct

(comp. "^"i"!, JocAA*., 8wu«); pL in'iN, t^nrr. Heb. n^t?,

Syr. Uiol, Sam. V^tA and V^mA-
i-^.N Mrt'/^ because; also DnN. Connected, as well as rx
/<?, with nfc<"l *<"<?.

yiN , Nj/^N, f. /^^^^ ^<7rM, the ground, a country. — Ar.

J,jT, Heb. Phoen. y^ii, Syr. \£i), Sam. ^V^A- —
The change of ^jó, ^^, y into y, n is very frequent:

e. g. O^ : ^':;, y^ or nj;; J<iV happen, '^^'f^ or

j;>;; ^Ló, jt^if, ]^v.', ^<^C' n^.y, ->cj?; J*-*^' PV.

pi:i; ,jlo change money, J^jl; HiJ"] , Ny"};
yr2'^ hoi ashes, ]V\vo^; *JLo , y*:^. , ^<j;^y, 1.:^; HV"!^,

Nn^ynj; or Nn;j;niN; xAIj, ny^r, nhv^^' 1^-^; 6^^^'
yilDii, |lJ""^iy, |l?9ol. Some words have passed through
another stage, and converted y, n into p, 3 : e. g.

pn^. Ifj^, .^.
''y"iK, n'JJ", NP", the lower part, the bottom.

nx. See niist.

«rN, imperf. 'pi, inf. ^n""?:, r<)w^. V. ^n^N ^n>?^, ^n>?^ o;?,

<^n>?^ /(? /?fl'^^; inf. nt<n^l<. — Ar. ^f, Heb. nriN,

Syr. |z I
, Sam. AAA ; Aeth. AO) : return home, enter.

inN, ^"'nN, place, dwellingplace , counti^y ; pi. N^^rt?. — Ar.

"Ijl, Aelh. ^C" footstep, trace; Syr. ]%/), Sam.
— 10 —
^'^AA Hence ^r52, nns, ^Ls, ^AS, ^'t^ or ^'L?

(viilg, wjLj hatha?'), after; in Syr. it takes the pron.

suff. in the sing., in Ciiald. either in the sing, or plur.;

at least we find nn2, "^TC^, as well as nn2, ""rTiin^,

3 in, at or near, hy, with, on account of, etc. Ar. u>, Aeth.

n: Heh. Phoen. 2, Syr. ^, Sam. 3.

•ii'{<2, impf. K'ND";, ^«^ ^rt'</, unpleasant, wicked; ^nibj? K'NS or

n'p, /^e ?«J<75 displeased. Another form is ii*y3. — Heb.

irN? smell badly ; Aeth. •flTil <^<^ had, wicked, diffi-

^w/^; Ar. g^jjo ^^ w?' etched, ^j>,yj he t?old, da?'iny ; Syr.

w^lil, wiiil, do mischief ill-use', Sam. -^ A3, -^V^.
^12, N2">2, f. ^<i:'"'2;, ^^^*''2, /y^rt', Jincked : as a subst.

usually in the fern. iNT'^">2, pi. Nri^^S, ^w7, wickedness,

fnise?'y, a calamity. — Syr. j"^ >^ ^
f. |L*-kS ; Sam.

^^m^, f. ^A^ma
"^ns. See ^i.

V^3, imperf. y'^?^^ swalloiv. — Ar. IaS Heb. yt)?, Syr. "Ols,

Sam. VZ^y Aeth. flAD: ^^//.

N^2, imperf. "1^2";, sivell, hod or huhhle : ask, eidreat, de-

mand. — Ar. ^j swell and fester ; he proud, lustful,

insolent, unjust ; ask , demand; Heb. r.>;2 7)iake bod;
ask, demand; Syr. jls desire, ivish, ask ; Sam. fHVS
and W^. — Chap. I. 4. Nl^nN^ ^*'y.2^ <?/ /-^^ point

of heing wrecked. Comp. in vulof. Arab. ^il V'^'
— 11 —
^Ij, the wall is going to fall; and even in the

classical dialect c^^ ^\ o\>.\, he was going to die

(v>lj t /m^). where later writers omit ^\ (see the Z. d.

D. M. G. vol. VI, p. 210); so in Pers. and modern

Greek the Fiit. with Iff»t^^xo and d-eXw, I wish, and in

our own lang. with ivill.

v)Z, n^jJS, ^r\~ , petition, entreaty ; Syr. Uoi^. Hence "iyi:2

pray (qiiaeso, obsecro); Syr. oLLs, Sam. '^V^^, gen.
tV5and<TtV3 (Gesenius, Carmina Samarit. III. 22. 1),

Heb. "i^ for "ijjs (this derivat. is confirmed both by the usage

of the other dialects, and by the analogy of the vulg.

Arab., since in the mouth of the Badawfn yu3 tahghi

has become tahl, Z. d. D. M. G. vol. VI. p. 210).

"1^J?3, NT, a beast of burden, and collect, cattle; pi. jiTjJa,

j<n". Heb. -iij;^, Syr. \r^:i^\ Ar. 1<ulj a camel; Aeth.

no^'E: 'no^x: and -nó^: an ox, pi. aqoC"
"IZ;, N~!2, a son. — • Syr. |^, Sam. '^'^S, in the Sinaitic

inscript. ~!2, and in the Ekhkilf or vulg. dial, of South

Arabia ber. The pi. is ;i:i:, n^;3, from js (see Arab.

gloss. ^1); Syr. ^jld ,
Sam. ^Ol^S, also )(Tl^^;
in the Sinaitic and Himyaritic inscript. '':2. In like

manner Mn~2. a daughter, constr. nn:;; l^r^, consfr.

^cs; "^A^S, constr. A'^S; have in the pi. |J3, Nn3i;

though ^^3 also occurs. — Derived from \^, N"l2,

N"12, Ij^, A^3, create; not from -n2 ^^ simple, pure,

innocent; comp. jLl;, i^, and Sanskrit aw^^^- a, son, from

the rad. su, beget, bring forth.
— 12 —
C12 truly, indeed; hut, yet, 7ievertkeless ; Syr. >e^i^ . Sam.

^'^S and y^% Hilzig on Daniel, II. 28, derives it

from tlie Sanskrit param, fartlier, after, but; Gesenius

views it as an asseverative from *o or -.ol twist,

make firm; Dietrich, in his Abhandlungen zur Hebr.
Gramm. p. 226, as a contraction from nc 12, „ausser
was (das Folgende betrifft)."

^n^. See inN.

122, «12J, Nl?-;, Nl^i:, a man; pi. Nnp:. ,-2-1. — Heb.

12;, Syr. Ih=»^, Sam. ^^'^\ Ar. y^, according to

the Kamus, 04*7^'; <W <^4*^'^ »iJl-Q'^ >5^ ^"^ ^"^

a slave (so that it is one of the words which have two
opposite meanings), and a man" ; Aeth. I-OC- a slave
or servant.

in, cut, ordain, decree. — Heb. lU, Syr. sy^^ Sam. ^"^i;;

Ar. rC. prune, slaughter. With. Ncls ITi, HI. 5,

and NC^p it:, conclude a treaty, comp. n^12 ni2,
> . n .rJ? ..acis^ 2vC^3* V^C, and j^^, ^i, ^o^ etc.

{^TT:, ill", NH"}", a decree. — Syr. ll^v^and ]i^,
Sam. "Si^^X.
hi a heap; pi. yhi, waves. — Heb. '?J, pi. D^^;; Syr. ^.\S'^,

Sam. -^mZZIf.

N*?:, impf. n"?:"", uncover, unveil, reveal. — Ar. '%^, impf.

J^ , uncover, reveal, polish, brighten ; Heb. n^: , Syr.

U^, Sam. AZX *— Chap. III. 10. j'^: for )fyL^, nom.
pi. m. of the pass, particip. vhl or >'^i.
— 13 —
p3 not used in I., cover; Ar. Heb. p_. V. |-IN cover,
shade, inf. N:i5<!; Syr. ^f. Hence in all the dialects

the word for a garden, iUs-, li^: |: and r\ll\ \X,

1. See "»"i.

N-q. See p.

n?!, iniperf. n3"l>, slaughter, sacrifice. III. nST, sac?'ifice

often or in great quantity, inf. {<n3'T,. — Ar. ^j,
Aeth. H-AA: Heb. Plioen. n?T, Syr. ^?, Sam. ^^T.
n2~, f^rrn, « 2^/6*^^^, sacrifice; pi. pTO". — Ar. ^3,
Heb. Phoen. nzi, Syr. i^?^ Sam. ^^3T.
]n or p, perf. ]-, imperf. ji"!^, i^^-y , judge. — Ar. ^t3,

imperf. ^jojó; Heb. p; Syr. ^?^
impf. ^oj-.; Sam. j]T,

impf. ^fHT^n ; Aeth. ^Zi '•

^y>''\i2, i<n:~, a province, city; pi. t<ri^"- Heb. HJ^^D

a province, Ar. Lojuó « city ; Syr. Iia.*.^^ Sam.

hrn , '?>n"n , impf. br\'\ , be afraid, fear, dread. — Heb. '^H;

creep (a serpent), approach with a stealthy, timid pace,

fear ; Ar. J^ssT^i enter into a hidingplace (JlL5), retire

from fear, Jls&.3 hide one's self; Syr. Vl? ^ Sam. i^T.
Another form is n^~.

T • : '

^'^l> ^^'rO"> A''*, reverence; hence, that which is
— 14 —
feared, a god; pi. rn^n*. — Syr. iLlxi*?, Sam.

n, ~, 7vho, ?vhicJf, that; conj. that, in order that, because;

Aeth. H: Syr. >. Sam. T (comp. Heb. i;^'n). Like H." ?

and ^, it is used to cu'cumscrilje the getiitive , as

t;- •
T*- 5<yiN"!
T:- fthe
same construction

precisely is found in Pers., for in ^^LbJLw ^^^^
Sultan s fermdn, the connective vowel / was orig. a relat

pron. (Sanskrit yd), and in the older Parsi is actually

so used; comp., for example, ptaishn i yazdan, die

praise of God, with u in da?ya?viha i pa y'eh'an, and
these seas which (are) in the world. Spiegel, Granim. d.

Parsi-sprache , p. 52.]. "With "; or - annexed, ^"i- or

"11", it is used with pronom. suff. to express the pos-

sessive adj., as 1/"'" or n''" mine, "':"i~ thine, rn''"i his;

Syr. 'Vfc? , Sam. 2«fnT (Heb. — particularly in the so-called

Song of Solomon and the postbiblic writings— and Phoen. Sv^,
for t'-iii'N, Cant. I. 6, II. 7, n^v '^m; T\•^^^^^,, hz'^Ts bw Tr.D,
2ni b\i^ D12, Plaut. Poenul. V. 3, 22. Ifau amma
silli, i^:r' j<c« in, hauon bene silli, '^'iw ""J^ jiin);

with 2 prefixed, ':)n2, ZI71T3. on account 6>/ (^ "iirN^,

b'p'2). — Besides H! ? and ^, other cognate forms
' s ~ ^
are .j in the dialect of the Arab tribe Tayy (j=|^);
in tlie Sinaitic inscript. (Z. d. D. M. G. vol. III.

p. 192); i in the Himyaritic (Rodiger's transl. of

Wellsted, p. 383, 393, 400), e. g, pini rin^2 =
^3M>3^j ^5 9-? ^'^ ^^^^ month of Khar i k (or the period

of the monsoon); V, as mark of the genit., in tiie

— 15 —
monument of Carpentras and other Shemitic remains
brought from Egypt (Gesenius, Monum. Phoen. p. 228,
242; and T as mark of the genif. in Phoen. (inscr.

Massil. 1. 6, 10). — I may add that the Phoen. in-

scriptions furnish us also with the intermediate step be-
tween -it^'N and .It' in the form ii/i<, e.g. Massil. 1. 20.

riNtt'D nj^^. K'N jrib^D, Athen. IV. h^;r\\ ^h f<:p^ trx (the

monument) whicA Yittenhel erected for me, Sidon.

1. 4. r\yz K'N cpc2, and in the formula "Tij :rx, —
which vowed —
HD"!, impf. "^Sl.S remember. II. "iD^N he remembered; call

to mind, remember. — Ar. 'I3'5, Aeth. H^^^.'Heb. irT

(Phoen. in reme)nbrance), Syr. jl? , Sam. ^"iiT.
Q", NC", blood. Other forms are CD^^? and q~n*. — Ar.

*4>, Aeth y.<^\ Heb. c~, Phoen. (according to Augus-
tine) edom, Syr. jc?, lie?, Sam. -^T and -^ilTA.
"b" ("?]c~), impf. "i?2"i^ , */«?^/?. — Syr. ^t , Sam. :ii^T.
•^llDl particip. adj. sleeping, I. 6. — Syr. .^? ^

jl, |n m., N'T f., this, that; pi. ]iKx. — Sam. ^^ m., '^T
f., pi. ^mZA; Aeth. HT-t:: m. H-t: f., pi. m. TiA'^-t:
f. JiA?'!'.' and in the Himyaritic inscript.
p (Rodiger's

transl. of Wellsted, p. 398, 403).

TO", impf. nj-% rise (the sun). — Ar. ^y^, Aeth. UJ^^:
Heb. nni, Syr. >_.i?^ Sam. V)]T: cognate forms in

Syr. are ^i^ and .^if.
'"1^"'?' ^~y f the place 7vhere the sun rises, the east. —
J-^, Heb. n-jjc, Syr. jlj^^, Sam. '^V^T'iJ
16 —
( I

n interrog. particle; Ar. I, Sam. ^, Tlie fuller form is hn,

Ar. Ji.
]-in, |nn m., «-in f., this, thai; pi. p'^NH, yhy\\ comp. of ,vn

(Syr. ]d) ^/^/>, and ]l. — Ar. \d^ m., »j^, ^j^ f.,

pi. eSiy; Heb. nin m., nXTH f., pi- nJ^NH; Syr. Ijd m.,

)ói f., pi. . t^Noi.

j<in m., N*"?! f., he, she, it; pi. m. ]13N*, f. \i;^, and in bibl.

Chald. |1i!?n, liJr,. — Ar. "^ m., ^ f., pi. m. "^

(poet, lie), f. ^ic: Heb. Nin m., N^n f., pi. m. en, f. |n, H-'n;

Syr. o^ m., ,^01 f., pi. m. ^aJq , ^qj|, f. ^Jq , r^l-
>A\r\, n^^n, impf. Nini or ••n;', inf. ""ViD, ^^, happen. — Heb.
n^^n and nin (Gen. XXVn. 29, Jes. XVI. 4), Phoen.

Nin (inscr. ErsT. 1. 3. Niri'': comp. Eccl. XI. 3), Syr.

]o(ji, Sam. ^'t^; Ar. ^y fall, happen.

bzTi, i^~ , any lai^ge huilding , a palace, temple, church;

pi. tr'^Z'Tl. — Ar. jJCl^ be tall and stout, jXl* tall,

stout, also a palace or temple; Aeth. U^TlA*. Heb.
"^DTi, Syr. )L-.^oi.

-^n ^<?, ?^v7/A% little used in I., gen. in III. -'"n; Ar. dUGe, ^JLL»,

die; Heb. Pboen. Tj'-n, Syr. ^^oi^ Sam. ^i^. Ano-
ther Chald.. form is ^in, perf. "^n, an exact parallel to

our walk , except that we retain the / in writing.

T]^nc a walk, journey. — Heb. ""pT^tl.

"Cm tu7m, return; change ; overturn, destroy. II. TjDnnx he

tui'ned, changed , destroyed. A cognate form is T]&x
— 17 —
tu7-n, flee. — Ar. viJlit move, I'emove , but most freq.

used in tlie sense of tell a lie (comp. Prov. XVII. 20.

IJifi'^a ^jC'rij), in VIII. 2JLiijJ he overtuinied, whence in

the Kiu'-an, ^\X^^\ (sell. ^^J^t), Sodom and Go-
??io?Tha , also called by the Arabs 'kllX^S Jó)!^f

(from vjJi turn)', Heb. •qcn, Syr. .^oi^ Sam. ^3^.


1,1, and, but. — Common to all the Shemitic dialects under
the form wa, w', it.

i<2], OT, impf. "•^P, be pure in a moral sense, chaste, in-

nocent, just. — Ar. S'; , Heb. npj , Syr. ]^y ^
'^^'^. In Aramaic physical purity is expressed by the

cognate ^21, ^-i^ ^:iiT.

OT 0^1, \S3l_), nN3T, f. Hi^^l, «n^2i, pure, innocent,

Just. — Syr. J^y.

]CT not used in I. — III. ]_T jfrepare, make ready, appoint,

invite. — Syr. ^].
-lyi be small — Ar. yLo, lils, Heb. -ij?, Syr. i^i and

(in the sense of be despised) -^^^ Sam. '^V^,

I^J^! . ^*T. f- ^yV], ^^nn-, .cw^?//, little, young. —
Ar. ioLo, Heb. "V^s, Syr. lioi]^ Sam. '^^tV^.

hyr\ not used in I., be corrupted or vitiated, rotten. III.

':)2n corrupt, destroy. — Ai". JiaL /><? sprained, out of


— 18 —
joint or otherwise maimed, he mad, II. J4i> put out

of joint, maim, disorder; Heb. ^2n, Syr. ^^iil^ Sam.

23^. See Gesenius' Thesaui'us, rad. ^2n.

hzr\, b2n, $</", coj-ruption, injury , destruction. — Syr.lirL^.

">2n not used in I., })e united; III. "^^n ?//^/^^, combine. —
Heb. -i2n, Aeth. -J-flZ.: Syr. ^\
"12 n, 12n, ^<"i2n, ^/^ associate, conqmnion, colleague;

pi. pi, Nn-. Heb. I2n, Syr. ^^ Sam. ^^5^.
Preceded by 12-!, M^ <);^^ — the other (comp. r"'5< or

D"]i< with HN!, n> n^^Jj)-

"in, f. 5<Tn, «/^<^. — Ar. Je.1, f. ^J^j.; Aeth. AAS.:
f. AA-t: Heb. inx, f. nnJs*, Phoen. "inj^; Syr
Sam.T^AandT^, ^T^, f. ^^^, AA^, AA^A
The rad. is Jes-j, nn^, ^^ single, at one with, united;

Aeth. 'l'(D'/hS: (^^ united; Syr. -^ - — /^/^?, solitaj-y

^11 unite.

N"jn^ ir;'_y, excessively.

Nin, nn, nn_, impf. nn;., ""-n^ he glad, rejoice. — Heb.

n-n, Syr. .'^^ Sam. -^'t^, HIT^.
Nlin, ^7)^'^, joy, gladness. — Syr. ]o^^ l^c^^, Scm.
f<"in not used in I.; III. tin, t^n, announce, tell. — Ar.

^5 7r^^rt'/; Heb. n^n, Syr. ^a:,Sam. mt^ ((713^,

2in, perf. 2n, cojnmit a fault, sin, he in deht. — Ar.

CX^, Syr.

2"in, N2~, a fault, sin, deht; pi. y2^T\. — Ar. oL&., v>^
a crime, Heb. 2in, Syr. jliol.
— 19 —
N2"!n, Nn^-, id.; pi. Nn2-. Ar. ib^, eb^, Syr. iLoL^
Sam. ^3t^.
Din, perf. DP, imperf. CID^. (Din;»), ^^z^^? compassion upon,

pity, spare. — Heb. ci n , Syr. aal ^ Sam ^^.
NTH, impf. iTn;>, ^jri"' , ^t:'^, observe. — Heb. nin, Syr. 1^^

Sam. '^^^ ; Ar. lC~k divine, prognosticate , from
watching the flight of birds (comp. nih, ^^<'"^).

F]^n snatch, carry off, plunder. — Ar. ulkis., Heb. P]pri, p]nn,

Syr. ^^M.^ Sam. 3^V.
pjlJon, NC~, rapine, violence. — Syr. )_Isa^uik.

N*^n, imperf. ipi^ , in;", //?^. — Ar. ^«A^, ^^; Aeth. A^®:
Heb. ">n, PiTi, Phoen. avo, hau, hauon (Plant. Poeniil.);

Syr. ]1m.^ Sam. ^(^H,
\''T\^\. life. — Heb. tZi"'''", Phoen. DTI, Syr. ^---^ Sam.

pn, perf. |n, feel compassion, j>ity , be propitious to. —
J^, Heb. ]n, Syr. ^.
]3n, NJ", coinpassionate , merciful. — Ar. ^Ll&., Syr.

fii".. Heb. p^n, Phoen. Hanno, Jvviov (comp. ^';/-


21L0 be good. The various parts of this verb are furnished

by tliree cognate radicals, 2N**ip, 2^0, and it^_. — I.

perf. 2NP, imperf. -yoi, l'^>\, be well, happy, joyful,

often used impers. III. l'>^y^ improve, benefit, jn^epare,

make ready. IV. d^^SN. V. ^"'DK, S^SJN, also D""!?^;], 3'iDin,
, ,

— 20 —
with the same signif. as III. — \1. Z'CTii impers.,

chap. n. 9. — Ar. GLb , imperf. J^l , be good,

pleasant, cheerful; Heb. 2b, imperf. 'yc'^W Sjt. ^\.
2t2, nd::, f. N2:, ^<^T^' good, pleasant; followed by ]^,

^(f'/^.?;- <f/^^/^. — At. ^Jj^, Heb. 21::, Syr. ^ra4,

Sam. 3^.
')D^, ni*, Nni", goodness, bounty ; pi. ]]2;9^(]p^).

s/r. I^icll, l^ak4, Sam. ^NX'^^
lltO, X"?", ' mountain; pi. Nn". Heb. liii, Syr. }ic4

'?'?3 not used in I.; III. ''iip_ shade, cover. — Ar. jjj,
Aeth. AAA: Heb. ^'Ti and Hip^, Syr. v:^.
^VJ, N^^ID (for N^p), */^<7?«?, shadow. — Ar. j^fc, Heb.

'p^ and h^, Sam. 2,^.

N^:2D, n>'pp, NH^tCC, ^/ ^•/^o'r/^ or covering, a (lightly

built) hut; pi. ^^^:c. — Ar. luiix, Aeth. cPAA^:
Syr. |kx^ and uk^, Sam. 1^^,
^?J;;0, impf. 'jj/lCi, ivander , go astray, err; cognate form

f<pr. — Heb. rij;n; Ar. ,^iJ5, (5*^? ^'^ disobedient,

rebellious, impious, Syr. )i>4 ^ Sam.. ^V^.
1J?L), nr, Nni- ^r/-^?;-, an idol; pi. NHij;.;: which
some derive from a sing. Nlj?p). — Syr. wAa^ and

]zq14, Sarii. ^AtVf ; Ar. ^^ an idol, Aeth.
^i^*: whence the denom. A^[J(D: worship idols.

DV.L?, imperf Dj;JO^, ^^5/^, eat. — Ar. Ixb, Aeth. "^t)<P\
Heb. Dj;jo, Syr. >c^.
— 21 —
ncp strike, clap the hands; denom. from nSO, which orig.

signif. the open palm of the hand (Syr. w^ spread out,
Ar. X^, Aeth. ^<ii\" ^4tfh: fi4tfh: breadth). —
Aeth. XIl4^/ii: Ar. ^|~o, ^^i-l, ^J-a^, j*a*«, Ai^o,

Aeth. A^O: Heb. pSD.

B'D;', tS'^I!^, impf. tJ'Di^, ^<? <//'^, r/?y ?//, wither. — Ar,

JyoS, Aeth. P-nii: Heb. tS'D^, Syr. ^J^, Sam. -^^ITI.

5<r*^31 M(? «?ir^ ground, land ; properly the fern, of the adj.

It'i3^ = ti'Z^ (Ar. (j^Laj, Syr. j.^.n'!). — •
Heb. HK^'S^ n^'3!,

Syr. lL.^1^ Sam. ^A^SlTl.
n^, NT, NTN, f. ^/^<? /?r///^/; pi. |n.% N^l^^. — Ar. jLj (viilg.

3Ó, JoD' Aeth. ?iJC-: Heb. t, Syr. ^^ f^j^ Sam.
Tm and" TA.
«n^ not used in I.; III. ni confess. V. n"JJ< confess, give

thanks, praise ; Heb. nnin , Syr. ^'jol ^
Sam. ATt! A.
n^niN, NTNHIN', ^^nn>^ confession, thanksgiving, praise ;

also written ri<"nn. The corresponding word in Heb.

is rriin (also used in Chald.), and in Syr. lL*?o2.

j?"l^, imperf. yii (yi^O' VT?.j imper. yi, inf. y-nn, particip.

and j?n,S ^;?^/y. — Heb. yT, Syr. ^^; Aeth.

/i^.C'D \ make knomn, announce.
2ri% imper. zn, particip. 2n^ and DCi^, ^/«^^. The impf. ]n^

and inf. |nc are from |nj, not used in the perf., imper.,

and particip. — Ar. CfS^^, impf. v-^-S' imper. v^;
Aeth. (DUn: impf. indie. flMi: subj. PU-fi: imper.
— T2 —
IJ-fl! Heb. 2m^, scarcely used except in the imper.

:n or n^n; Syr. wssil; Sam. ^'^fH, conii)lete in all

its parts (imper. sometimes \i^ and 3A).
nin^ collect, ^/le Je)vs, Judaea.

\N"in^ O^T)j Tii^n-, « z^?;?).

C'i^ J<D-, « </r/y; pi. jic'!'', s<^^D-. Ai\ *'^, Aeth. F<?^:

(today, norv), Heb. D1^ Syr. ileal ^ Sam. %*^^. —
Hence, in comb, with "iriN, T^d tomorrow, in Chald.

t:t and nn?2V
lT:r as well as inc, Syr.
i:'^ '7
Iv'. Sam.
^^^. Examples of similar mutilations are j<n*^'ri

(xny;^' t<r) «<>;^^, Syr. w*.d and ).lai; vulg. Ar. LlJ to

this hour, yd (for x1L!JU); npnii^'N (Nri^??1p. ^<^•k^') last

year, and N';";^''^ ({<"n NF'ii') M/^ y<^^/;-; \ailg. Arab.

klwJ for kll J,
?>« the niidst; etc.

i<n'' not used except in V. TjlN*, Tl?*, hasten^ make haste. —
Ar. ^'^ and V. ^-s^P* hasten.
r3\ See zi:.

^1 for nirp. Whatever be the correct pronunciation of

the word mM\ Jehovah (or rather lehovah) is certainly

incorrect. The vowelpoints belong to a K'rt jferpe-
tuum •':i< or C^rirx; and hence .we find, not TiypS
and n^in^l, but n'in''^ and nippi (i. e. iJiN^ and ^:nj<i);

not niPP. '•JIN, but always n"iri"> "iJlN (i. e. C^n't^N "iJIN).

To pronounce the name Jehovih would be quite as

correct and reasonable as Jehovah. The evidence of

some of the later classical authors and of the Fathers
of the Church (who write IAD., lAOY, IEYS2,
Jaoh, JahoJ leads to the pi-onunciation niPP for rTiPO or

— 23 —
nin^ (comp. 2b] for 23p:; Wip), up] for n"ip^), accor-

ding to the form 2pV,l, Dl^H^; but as Theodoretus and

Epiphanias give IABE, the former adding that such

was the pron. of the Samaritans, it is extremely probable

that the correct form is 71)7^1 la/weh, from 7l\T^ =
n^^n ^<?.

hy, h^'D^ impf. 'pid;', inf. b^D, be able. — Heb. ^i:> (impf.

^DV), Sam. i^m; Aeth. ^UA::

n^ NX5^ the sea; pi. pai_, ^\l^\. — Ar.
(vj, Heb. Phoen.

d:, Syr. ilal, Sam. ^^m.
(r^!), N^", f. the right hand. — Ar. (j-v^J? Aeth. P<5^1

Heb. pc;, Syr. ji^, Sam. ^m^m.
P]D> not used except in V. F)Dli<, ^''DlN, ^/^</, increase, do
again. — Heb. ?]D2, ^^clH, Syr. wsaol , Sam. 3^^A,
F]p\ See Fipj.

"ip^, impf. "ipt^, he heavy, hui'densome , valuable. III. "ip]

honour. — Ar. "IS'^, li'j, ^^ heavy, grave, sedate,

"Jal be deaf; Heb. ip^^ , Syr.
^ ^
Sam. '^CiTl.

Ip"*, $<"!", worth, honour, pomp. — Ar. »Li'« dignity

of 77ianner , gravity, Heb, "ip^, Syr. lijl*!, Sam.

n^ a word pref to def. nouns in the accus., identical with

the Heb. nix, ~nx, nx (Gesenius' Gram. 16th ed.,

§. lot. 1. rem. 1, and §. 115. 2 with the note),

Phoen. n\x (Sidon. 1. 4. i 22:^'D n^^^ nns^ ^N D1« ':'3l),

Syr. ^; Sam. AiTl, e. g. "^V^A. (nn^s) ^A/TIS-
— 24 —
^^tlTi' {"12) ^^((U^ (see (ielger's Lehrbiich ziir

Sprache d. Misclinah , p. 36, where are cited among
other examples Dl^n inlN, nits' H nniiS); perliaps Ar.

Gj, used (like Aeth. ^p:) only with pron. sufF. 0Gl,
sLI , etc.

zn% 2\"l\ impf. Dn^;*, 2n^, imper. 2n (d^h), inf. zr.ic, znp,

^^y, d?ve//. — Ar. Co., impf. <._^, imper. vl^j, in the

Himyaritic dialect *// (generally kapj, v^ Lj . ^/ sea/, ,^Z
stand immoveahle ; Heb. Z'l^^;, Syr. ^^h.^ , Sam. ^AHl,
imper. ^A.

3 as, like, accoi'ding to; Ar. J, Phoen. r, Sam. •^. —
ND3 ?</.; Ar. Lj". Aeth. ^^: Heb. IDZ, Syr. )^\ ^

Sam. ^'il^.
t>2 ("^2), n';!:, N^r, //^^ totality, the whole, often to be

transl. as an adj. whole, all. — Ar. J5,
8 >

Aeth. TP-ibl

Heb. Phoen. ^s, Syr. v^ . Sam. Z^ and 2^^.
jZ A-^, M//*; Heb. ]2, Sam. ^^; Syr. ^ then: prob. con-

tracted for j-i3 M-^ ^'^/^ (Ar. ijj^ and ^dS", Aeth.

^^*H: M?Ay). — |3-'?j; the?-e/bre,

i<U2 gen. used in 111. icz, cover , conceal , clothe or ^/;-^.c^.

IV. 'DZHN* he covered , concealed, pat on clothes. —
Ar. Liy clothe, Heb. n?r gen. riDZ, Syr. jjaa gen. ^„jaL^

Sam. ";^^.

]5;2 ;?<?;«^', a word of doubtful origin. It lias been thought

by some a secondary formation from p (comp. |2~1};

Nehem. II. 16 with ]3;2""V Ezra V. 16). whilst others
— 25 —
have derived it from the Arab. rad. j^ come into

view, happen. Possibly it may be connected with |"nj;

time (comp. njJr).

n2 only in V. ilDN cnj aloud, proclaim, pi^each, declare;

Syr. 1^1, Sam. ^'^:!ii. Prob. from the Gr. ii7]cvoo(o.

NOnr, ^D13, icni^, N^D", a throne; pi. ]lDir, - ni2. Heb.
{<D3, which is the orig. form; Syr. ^.jejas, Sam. fH^'^ii,



b to, for, according to, etc. Sign of the dat. and of the

acciis. — Ar. J and with pron. suff. J, Aeth. A .'

Phoen. h, Syr. '\, Sam. 2.

vb no, not; Ar. SI, Heb. ^, Syr. }] and alil^ Sam. AZ.
It supplies the place of the Heb. Phoen. 'ifh and ^n,

which latter does not occur except in bibl. Chald., and

is likewise unknown to the Arab, and Syr. In Sam.
however we lind 2,A, and in Aeth. AAP ! there is ?wt,

AA-flP : / have not, h^-iXHl \ etc.

zh, N'2^, with suff. 12^, the heart, pi. j^sS; also constr.

zib^ with suff. ^-22^, pi. ^\2'y:. — Ar. vlJ, Aeth.

A-n: Heb. Phoen. zh and 22^ (inscr. Eryc. 1. 5, 6),

Syr. vkl, Sam. ^X and 53Z-
wd"?, ^"»2^, impf. ^'2h\, put on clothes. — Ar. yl^J, Aeth.

A-nn: Heb. ]V2h, K'D^ Svr. ^ii^:^, Sam. ^^X
t'12/, NIS'", « garmeid, robe; pi. ]"'t5'". Ar. \^yj->
Heb. i^'-iD^, Syr. vlor^, Sam. ^-^tSZ-

— 26 —
>nS impf. ^^'p^ lahour, he trcaricd , fatiyued, disheartened,

y.^rh^tire, weary. Sliafel '^rhl' id.; Ishtaf'al ^rtrZ'^

be ivearied, faint. Cognate forms are iN^ and ij;^;

Ai-. ^"S be slofv or lazy , ^' misfortune, difficulty

Heb. r\^ and nn^; Svr. ^q . Sliafel ^r:C^ \ Sam. '^VZ,
whence t^Vi, XNX X^X ffitiyue.

vn'^rik^f^, ni~, weariness, faintness, despondency.

ni^, ni^, with siifT. ini"), jinni^, «^, near, to or towards;

Syr. ^Li!», Sam. A^^Z. Properly a noun denoting

adhesion, connexion, from N1/ or il^ adhere, be united,

Heb. ni'^, Syr. ^aV. . Ar. ^: ^<?' w^^/r. With the same

rad. are connected ~^N, ^, and Ar. JU
s^nn'^. See in.
^""l?' ^'b'^h
(from ^ie form ^'rib, Sam. fnZ^TlZ, used as

an adv. t)y niyht), niyht ; pi. jl^t^?, jl^^b. — Ar. Jill,

Xjll', Aetli. AA,^: Heb. ^^.^, rbh_, Syr. |IliJ^andi£X, Sam.

n""^. See n\N'.


wXC, nc (TiC, n??), what? 7ihat, fvhatsoever ; as an adv.

?^%.'' ho?v! — Ar. Co, Aeth. ^'. Heb. nz2, Syr. )ie^

Sam. ^*ii. — CNC. See cn.

W~, rt'/^y ai'ticle of furniture, pot ov vessel, instru-

ment of any kind, dress; pi. ]"'JNC, N^J". Syr. |j}io

Sam. ^)A^, Ar. ^^Uc.
CjJlc a word of obscure origin, corresp. to tlie Heb. nOiX)?,
somcthiny , often conjoined witii nJ to give addit.

__ 27 —
force to the iiegat, — not a single thing \ Syr. >c^^.

Fiii-st (Chald. Gram. p. 97 note) and Dietrich (Ab-
handlungen ziu' Hebr. Gr, p. 225) derive D!;~D from

y~D = ny.l (rad. Vji) and n^S, comparing 3;nc, and
view >cfi^^ di;d (d'P), '•1"'^, as a farther contraction.

This derivat, certainly seems more probable tlian that

proposed by Bernstein, ^? ^ pars partis, aliqua

pars, particularly as nciNp seems rather to be derived

from D1NC, CIC, a flaw, defect (lience wliat is wo?'th-

less, insignificant, tri/ling) than from mCI T\0- See

Dietrich, Abliandl. p. 233.
nio, perf. n'C, impf. niD^ (hid;'.), inf. rit2r2 (riDC), die. —
Ar. iIjUc, Aeth. ^: Heb. n?p, impf. r\yo\\ Phoen. nc
dead (Massil. 1. 17); Syr. ^^; Sam. AA^ and A/Tl^,
impf. At^m.
niD, NH", death. — Ar. ^Ca, Aeth. <P^: Heb. niD,

constr. niD, Phoen. nD (inscr. Eryc. 1. 7), Syr. ]laL

Sam. -^At^.
N'np, impf. ^"IC\, strike, bite or 6-//;/^ (an insect), — Heb.

NHC, rn^, Syr. I^Vfi , Sam. ^^*^ (also written with "^
TT TT *- '

or V for H, and with X or <7l for ^).

N^'iTD, imi)f. ^:c% come to, reach, happen. — Ar. ^^^ go;
Aeth. <PKK\ come, find] Heb. n'^c /?//f/; Syr. j4^,
Sam. ^^^, mf^.
]"C, kS^D, constr. "'C,
water. — Ai*. eLo, pi. 8L>uo; Aeth. ^^.'

Heb. cc, Phoen. id (Eryc. 1. 6); Syr. ^-i:^, U:i,

Sam. ^m^.
hhr:^ not used except in III. ^^n, ^yy^rt'X-. I\'. '^'['.CPN*. Heb.

^'pc, Syr. v:^\ Sam. Xl^,
— !28 —
riliip, impf. "I'pc'', counsel, advise; rule, reign. — Ar.

iJULo possess, Aeth. (PAHW Heb. 7]^, Syr. ^^v^
Sam. ^i«i.

•qSp, N3/C, a hing\ pi. |^r^^, vS*;^3". Ai\ ^kix, Heb.

Phoen. "Ti^JD, Syr. )Ii^^'^ Sam. ^^Z^.
tD'PD, ni", ^<^1", pi. ntiD", sovereignty, royal dig-

nify. — Syr. Uckli^ . Ar. kl>SXa, Heb. niD7n =
Ar. uCJUjo, Heb. H^'^Tpa, Phoen. nz'rcc (inscr. Sidon.).

]?:. See ]NC.

|D i^/J<?.'^ ;«^'^6», whosoever. — Ar. ^, Sjt. ^^ Sam. ^•^;
Heb. t.

]p from, of, out of, etc. ; after an adj. than. Orig. the con-

struct state of a noun |d a part or portion , from a
rad. po ^= HJD. — Ar. ^j^. Heb. Phoen. |c, S\t.
Sam. ^^; Aeth. 'K<^\ and ?i<pi ::

N3^c the belly: hardly used except in the pi. p>;D, J^^JiC, the

intestines, the belly. — Ar. Ijw and ^kx ó';? intestine,

pi. &Li^f; Aeth. Ac^^Ol^: pi. Ac^óT^: Heb. D^j/'c;

Syr. ^i:^; jj^^ Sam. ^JTIV^.

N2: not used except in IV. "'ZjPN* prophesy. — Ar. CIS,
Aeth. -tiflP: Heb. N3J and N2Jnn, Syr. ..^j.\\ denom.

from g^, '^', injB: j<^2^, MN12: or n^z:, i-LaJ

AHl^^ , ^/ prophet.

mNIS;, DHN", prophecy, a prophecy. — Ar. sllS,
Sam. ^At3|].

— 29 —
13:? draw, flow\ Syr. ^4^ be extended, long\ Heb. "ii:, Plioen.

Iji (inscr. Eryc. 1. 6), be spread out, poured out,

flow. III. 134 bolt or bar, cliap. II. 7, denom. from t<i2:

(Ar. ijyjssó) a bolt or bar. Several edd. however have
in this passage mjJ or niJJ (ni^j), from ij:, impf.

IIP or 11 -13% <//'<^;^', /<^<2r^; Syr. ^ impf. ^^ Sam.

Ii:, impf. 11% ^>^;^^. — Ar. r'j^, Heb. Phoen. 113, Syr.

r^j, Sam. ^t).

11J, Nil J, a vow\ pi. pli:. — Ar. ^jj, Heb. 11J,
Syr. )i^3^ Sam. -^^T^.
in;, Nin:, N~^n;, a river \
pi. innj and ]nn;. From the

rad. ^_^ flo7v, Heb. iHi. — Ar. j..gj or wg.j, Heb. IHi,

Syr. ]iau, Sam. '^'^^j].
m^, perf. HJ, impf. niJ^ ^<? ^?//^^, tranquil, cease or desist.
— Heb. nj, Syr. u^, Sam. ^^.

|i:, i<r, a fish\ pi. pm — Ar.

Syr. )jaj^ Sam
m^t^, constr. Am)t^.
blli'ra, n'^", a sto7'm\ pi. p^-, waves, billows. Syr. jJal^.
It seems to be connected with the rad. h'Z'Vi.

nn:, impf. nin;", nin;), imper. nin, inf. nn?:D, descend. —
Heb. nm, Syr. hL^ ^
Sam. A^)], AV^. A secon-

dary formation from niJ, like nni^", Hl^t', from

^£03, impf. '?i:£% imper. ^ito, ///? ?<^, carry, set out on a

journey. — Heb. ^tD3, Syr. V^j be heavy, Sam. X^^
set out on a journey.

2Dj , D"'DJ , impf. 2D^ , imper. 2D, take. — Syr. ^^iki , Sam.
— 30 —
pDJ. See phc.

hOj, inipf. hB], h'iB], ^V3:^ ill bibl. Cliald. h], fall — Heb.

'rcj; Syr. V°j ^
impf. Vk5; Sam. ^3^1.

pDj, iini)f. pV3^,, p©";, iniper. piD, go or come out. — Ar.

(^^aji come out of a hole, sett )vell (merchandise) ; Syr.

-all, Sam. C3^.
t:*?], Ntfr;, f. the breath , the soul or spirit, tife\ pi. \^^\-

— Ar. yliS, Aeth. i^fl.' Heb. t^'c;, Syr. ^aj , Sam.

'^'^"^J. Used in all the dialects to express self,

e. g. •'i&'sj /;^y^^^ like cir;, ci:, ^!^, >cq-lo, etc.

p]p: not used = Syr. . ^^li ^^? joined, adhere, follow ;
Heb. F]p3 .v^/vXr. V. P]"»pN y^//^ ^//^/y^, ^« round,

surround. This form is often wrongly referred to a

rad. r]p\

jfiJ ^/^'<", not used in Ai-amaic except iu the imperf. jn"",, |nj'.,

Syr. ^L3, Sam. ^AfH; and inf. |nc, jnirp, Syr. ^z^^
Sam. ^A^. — Heb. Phoen. ]n:.

N2D, ^jp, impf. "i^p"'
gron\ increase, he great or numerous.

V. iJiDN augment, multiply, magnify or ^.iy///. — Heb.

n3^, N^^ti', Syr. w.^, Sam. Alf^, miT^. Cognate
form yjD.

N'^ilD, UD, f. nvV^D, ?;^^/r//, numerous, great: \)\. m. I^N"*:?, f.

]N-. Heb. N^Jii', Syr. ^Z^, Sam. fnit^.

?])D, perf. f]D, imj)f. =^10^ (^v^*^/, r^-^/Ay, perish. — Heb. p]D,

Syr. ^, Sam. 3^.
— 31 —
P)1D, i<^', end. — Syr. ^^r . lioa^ Sam. 3"^^: Ar.

olI«, a particle pref. to the iniperf. when it denotes

fiitiirity, usually abbrev. JL.

p)1D reeds, searveed. Occurs only in the phrase f]iD"1 \^y^

from tlie Heb. f]iD~Cl.

"inp go round, surroiauL — • Heb. inc, Sam. ^^^: in

Syr. we find the deriv. \s^^ a stroilint/ mendicant,


"linp prop, a noun signif. circuit , circumference (Sam.

^^^, '^AiE^), but used as an adv. a?'ound, round-
ahout, and commonly repeated h ^inp ^\T\\:;. — Sam.

^^t^, '^^A^, ^^Ai^, and with sufT. A^^^,
hzp C^^ii') look upon, t)ehold, contemplate, consider, under-

stand: hardly used except in IV. ^2npN. — Heb. hz^r,

Syr. Vi^isJ. Sam..i^A^A.
p^p, p'l^D, impf. pp^. (for p^_p'_), imper. -c^Z:
(for p'^p), inf.

pDD (for p/Pc), ^^ up, ascend. III.
p^p w/yX:*? ascend,

raise, remove. IV. p'^rp^*- V. ppN (for p^px) make
ascend, bri?ig forth, offer. — Syr. "V^'^ , Sam. YX"^.
— A rad. pDj does not exist in Aramaic, for C^^ in

Sam. (Gen. XIX. 15) is not for C^^ (as 3^ for

^^^, C3, tZZ>, Uhlemann's Institutiones, §. 26. 1.

annot.), but for C2^^; and ^a is the usual form of

the i^erf. in modern Syriac, e. g. in the Creed,

^lia^v^ si^xajs ,_-aic«ji| jjj' / believe (that) he ascended

to heaven (^v-^^ for cj.:^,. ^v^ )- See an article by Ro-
diger in the Z. f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, vol. II. p. 91.
— 32 —
':5kSCD (^cc) and bnr2t', def. uh', the left hand. — Ar.

JLU, Heb. h^rit\ Syr. U^^ Sam. '^ZA^^.

iTu-^is? Sam. '^'^rn3^. The word prop, denotes a

large decked vessel, from j5D cover.

]CD, «r, <5r W/(??r; pi. t{jj-, Syr. Jj^.

pC? ^yJ^ ^7^^)-> coarse cloth, sackcloth: pi. ppD. — Heb.

pir, Aeth. IU4»: Syr. )^^ Sam. -^C^. From the

Shemitic lang. the word has passed into the Lat. and

Greek, aorxxoc, saccus . and thence into the modern
European languages.

W (ji;)» ^\~-> cc'llect. sheep or goats. — Ar. ^Ló ,

]X:i, Syr. ji^j Sam. "^^lAV; in Arab, however ^Ló,
Individ. ^L2, is limited to sheep (the word for goats

being yuc, indiv. y^Lo), whilst sLi (Heb. nti;') is an

indiv. of cither sort, the corresponding collect, being III.

I2y, impf. "izyi, "2^1, ^/^. w'A-<^. — Syr. ^Li.^ Sam. ^SV;
Heb. nzj/ labour, se?'ve, worship a deity, in wliich last

sense Ar, ju^, but Ju^ = Heb. Phoen. iDj;, Syr.

I^iil ^/ .y/n'zr or servant.

"12"*^, ^<"?"J /^'^^>^', ^^<?^/, fict. — Sam, ^^^V.
N'^iDV, NH")', woi'k, business, trade or occupation. —
Syr. ylr-^, Sam. ^ATlTlSV.
2~i.y, impf. ~12J7.1., 12X^^ Z?'?*-^ ^^y ^>r ^>'^'^''- — Ar. "Ss., Heb.

ng;, Syr. H^, Sam. -^^V.
— 36 —
Ij? QOi\]. fvhile, nntil ; ^re^. dftrin/^, until, as far as, till, to. —
Heb. "ij;, Syr. ^^^ Sam. ^V. Properly a iKJiin deno-
ting in'ogi'cssion, from the verb

N"iy, impf. "i-j;i, pass, with t^J?, i)ass ove?' , come upon,
befall, with j^, pass mvay, recede, V. "'"ijN make pass,

remove, cast off. — Ar. Ijlc, Aeth. US©: Syr. |^.

Dl J?, Np"j;, « /<9/; pi. Hence pD"ij; N?:i. ^= b^on

nlt'"}1^ cast lots.

pij; ,
perf. pj;, ^^ nai^roiv , in distress or anguish. — Ar.

^•Ui>, impf. ;3jyaj; Syr. .-ai; AetJi. A^(D*: and

A/?0*l contract, compress, distress; Heb. piyn and
pij;n, Sam. CjTlVA. — Gen. used impers. r\\ npj;

(scil. rtJ'^j) = nuJ^ oJL^ = i t' "1^*; comp. Syr.

oCil ^i^. ai^ ij)vc ^<^ /(^yy.c shocked or disgusted.

^\Ci-> i^p-JJ' ^*CPH'
(f^^^^'^^^' anguish. — Heb. Dp:;, Syr.

\i^^ Sam. ^CV.
bhv, perf. ^y, impf. ^'ij?"', ^lj?', imper. bij?, H', inf- ^VJP.y

go in, enter. — Ar. Ji insert, Heb. bSiy (Job XVI. 15),

Syr. V^, Sam. ZV.
^j; above, upon, on, over ; in addition to\ against, etc. —
Ar. j^, Heb. Phoen. ^y, Syr. "^jI, Sam. 2<V. Hence

'p^:?2 (Ar. Ji ^, Sam. 2V. ^^) off, from.

bj;, Sj;., prop, a siibst. denoting the upper part, hence as

an adv. above, over, followed by |c (b t'J?c); often

comp. with ^, h^h upwards, above (Syr. v£^^ Sam.

ZVZ; Aeth. AOA: = Jsi); and |^, 'p^y^Q />w//

/z^<?y^ (Syr. VL:;^. ^^ Sam. iVi^; Ar. Ji^
J^ or

, ;

— 34 —
(Jlr ^jje), opposed (o vi?^, (y"l^< i/te ground) from
helom. — Both h^_ and ^j; are from the rad.

^^ or ^'py not used in Aramaic in L, be high, exalted, go
up, ascend. — Ar. ^kx., Heb, n^y.

D^j; (n^J/), NC^y (^'C'^Ji).
(my long indef. pe?iod of lime,

eteniity , the universe or ?vorld; pi. V'oh)) (p^^y). —
Q - ^
Ar. jLx the universe, created being s ; Aeth. ^\<^'.

Heb. Phoen. o'^^y, Syr. )v^"vv ^ Sam. ^^^V7
cy ^wM, along ivith. — Heb. D>;, Syr. >aL Sam. -^V
Ar. *x) or «x». Prop, a noun denoting union, from
tlie rad. D;oy collect, unite, Ar. Ii. include the ?vhole,

e. g. sL+^yJI ioL.s^Ul c^MX ^/^^ r/o//^/ covered the

whole sky, cyCcC^ (
i Q? lij M<:' ;^.r//t^r supplies all

the baths. Hence also
cy, N*sy, a people or nation, people, a multitude or crowd;
pi. Vcny, N^^cpy. — Ar. li and 1^ <? multitude,

Jwli ^/^tf common people ; Heb. Phoen. cy, Syr. ii(^
Sam. ^^V.
^cj? labour. — Ar. Jl^, Heb. ^cj;, Syr. vL:u.

pcy not used, be deep. — Ar. (jii , Heb. pc);.

pcly, pDiy, Npciy, rt- </^/?//^, r%^^.. — Ar. Jj^l, Heb.
pcy, Syr. Uiaal. Sam. '^C-^V-
jj;. See jnj;.

npy^ f., N-ioy m.,. /^v/. — Ar. ^, L^i: Aeth. OIUZ,*:
Heb. -liry, nnit'y^; Phoen. -loy (inscr. Sidon. 1. 1),

DTii'y (inscr. Massil. 1. 3); Syr. -^^ fjjai: Sam.
^t^V, '^'^^V. -Hence icy nn m., -^-^jy^ ,smn f.,

twelve. See inri.

— 35 —
'pj?, ^"^"5 f^^^ ^'^'^f (^^so the stem) of a tree, base, origin,

sou?'ce ; pi. pjpj?, «n " . Syr. Yr^L; Ar. ^ll.

p-iy, impf. p'-nvx, p1"!VS Ar. — Syr. w='^, Sam. C^V;
Ar. ^yi set out, depart.

n^D, impf. M^C'', labour, se?'ve, worships deity (comp. ~2V). —
Heb. n^rc, Ar. XT, cleave, plough, cultivate; Syr.

. ..S% , Sam. ^X^,
(H^ID, N'^rr, work, servitude, fcorship. — Syr. jilii^s,

Sam. ^^VZ3 f.

\dlB, impf. :^P% £2'!':'?^, 2w;//y, Mr^/(?j up. — Syr. v^wl^Is.

p"lG), impf. pI'lC'J, cleave, separate, pull off: rescue, save,

redeem. — Ar. ^"S separate, Heb. p~iD, Syr. -x^^
Sam. Y^:^,

IP") 11;, Nji^", liberation, preservation, redemption. —
Ar. ijli'jj ^/<:v?/' and convincing proof, victory ; Aeth.

4^Z,$1: deliverance; Syr. ilr^i^. Sam. ^^C'^^.

CJHD, t^QJl", pi. X"!?", a word, message, decree, and in a

wider sense affair, matter (comp. 11!"); Syr. ).ifi-^^.

It is borrowed from tlie Persian, in which lang.

iUL, *Ul>, or jiUj, means «w^^.c^/^<?, (whence IC^aL
a message -bearer, a pi'ophet) , comp. of the insep. prep.

"^ (rarely oG , b , and ^ jo , from the Sanskrit pi'ati,

Zand /?<7/^/, old Pers. pati. Pars! /?fl'^/ and yWrt'^, Gr.

nQOTi^ nor I = tiqoq) to, towards, against, and the

— 36 —
Sanskrit rad. yam, go (comp. Pers. l\S step ,

The same word presents itself in the Armenian patgam
or padkam , message. Other words of Pers. origin

comp. with this prep, are: :2nc, yWT\ (jllS'lB), ^3nc,

U\i, perf. c^, impf. cia% fast. — Ar. IL, Aeth. i^^.'

Heb. Di', Svr. ic",.

El-i, NC-, a fast. — Ai-.
^^, Aeth. ^<^\ Heb. Dls:,

Syr. li^c^.

N^ ^^/?</, stoop; i<j")lN N^!i incline the ear, listen, attend to

(Syr. ^j,j y^, Aeth. AA(D: ?i*Hi:). III. >=:?h, ^S^.pray;

Ar. J^, Aeth. XAP : Syr. ^^^ Sam. mZ-m.

"i^, ni", NHl", praye?\ — Ar. 'iyL^t, s^Lo, Aetii.

AA-^: Syr. jz^^, Sam. tZ-iTl.

1D1J, vS'"l?y, the dawn, ?)wrniny. — Syr. \'t^\, Sam. "^^^^ni-
Connected with '^^Z' be beautiful, pleasing (Heb. "iDtt',

Syr. i^^-. Sam. ^Z)"*^; Ar. Illw dawn), whence vX"iSlB:r

(.x"^D") and 1°^°"*-^ M^ moiniing.

j-iA* only used in IV. ~"]ir!iX /^^^"^ /?<^^.rt^ 6/^ i^^ in jvant of,

he poor. — Syr. >^^^]:. Ar. Jw? be poor and mise-
rable; comp. ZSa^l have need of Hence 7]"]ii wants,


•^niJ ?/^^, usefulness, advantage or profit. T^'y^ jins n"»^

= ^3^ inv'^^ i<^, ^/^<"y ^'"<^' good for nothing at all.

— 37 —

h2p^ he opposite, come or go towards, meet, in wliich sigiiif.

it does not occur in Cliald, Hence III- bzip receive

a visitor, accept a present, listen to a request or prayer.
— Ar. I. Jui" and V. Jjiij receive or accept, II. jli'

X/.y^, III. Joli' he opposite, compare, IV. Ju.if advance

towards, undertake, VI. J-jUiS' ^6' opposite one another

of two or more individuals, VIII. JJlxit hegin, X.

Juls^-wt ^^ /^^ w^<'/'; Aeth. ^flA: meet, receive,

accept \ Heb. 'psp receive, accept, ^"'2pn <^<? opposite

Syr. '^.lus w^6?/, witli V:! ^
iiphraid or complain of
(prop, advance towards in a hostile or threatening

manner), as also in Chald. ^Dp , impf. 'i^Sp^, ^iSp"*,

complain of, cry out for help: Sam. 2,3? receive,


Dip not used in I., (^(^^ //<» front or hefore, precede. See the
Syr. gloss.

Dip, prop, a noun signif. the front, but used as a

prep., in presence of, hefore', preceded by ~, l, 'p, it

takes simple sh'va instead of -^ , as Dipl, D"^P1, D'Jp'?.

— Syr. >cH=, Sam. -^TC. Contracted cp, Sam. -^ilC

(so also Ni£p /?>•*/, ^A^A'^il? heginning).

Dllp, N*C", //^(? ^"rt'i'/, M^ east wind. — Sam. -^^T?.
Heb. Dnp. — The east is called Dip, DHp, as being
that quarter towards whicli the face of the observer is

turned, or supposed to be turned, in describing relative

position. Hence the west is "iiriN (Ar. .^o the wesl
— 38 —
mnd, from lii the back), the fiorth h^i2\2; (Ar. 3l^
f/ie north, tlU^ ^/^^' Icff, [lUJ! %/vV/;, the ^(?^/M ]'c;

(Ar. Aa4j ^/^^ ^v^/^/, ^j^^ Yaman or South Arabia).

So in Sanskrit piirva, //^^ east, avara, M<? /^r^/, dak-

shina, the south, the Dekkan.

li'-p not used in T., he clean or pure, holy. III. ^"^Ji hold

sacred, consecrate. — Heb. Ji*!!^, t^~.p> ^^i'- u^i^J''

Aeth. 4»S: Syr. s-».;i, Sam. -^^C.

irilp, U'l'ip, N^'"lip, holifiess, sanctity, anything holy

or consecrated; ~;^'"p"! N>t^lI ^% ^^^^ temple. — Ar.

y!,4X9, Heb. I^'ip, Syr. w*.o^. ll?a^ , Saai. -^^^TC.

dp, perf. cp, impf. cipi, m/?, .c^rtrM — Ar. "^Li, Aeth.

*<p: Heb. cp, Syr. >al , Sam. -^ilC (^V?).
"p, t<C", standing, fiinn, lasting; living, being. —
Ar. ^Ói, \C^, Syr. ivIL=% Sam. -^(TIVC.

D^cp, N^tpp r/^/^<^.c. — Syr. lio^ui, Ar. *xi', |.Ui' dust.

]1''p''p M^ casto?'-oil shrub, ricinus communis (Ar. p^y^l'
Pers. IajsvJ)! Joo). The word is derived from tlie EgA'pt.

name of the plant, written by Greek and Latin autiiors

YWAi, cici and in the Talmud p">p (the proper Gr. name is

xQOTwv) . The old translators and commentators usually
render it, though erroneously, by xoXozvr&rj , i<^i<f^'.

^r^^ ilji, ^^j.fh>, c^5J, nj^b"!, all words denoting

the gourd; and this blunder has of course found a

place, amidst thousands of others, in the received

English Version.

hbp, perf. ^p , be light, swift ; small, nwthless. V. ^pN make
— 39 —
light, lighten ; hold light, despise. — Ar. Jo* be few
or small, Aeth. *AA: Heb. ^p, Syr. vl, Sam. 2<C.

np, J<^";p, N-np, xnip; and N^p, ^ly^-C),
n;^"; and (nnp)
Nnnp., f. a town, citg ; pi. Pinp, ]^nip, and |nip. —
Ar. ijp, in the dial, of Yaman iJli' ,
pi. ^^; Heb.

nnp, n";;p; Phoen. n~ip, e. g. in (he name of the deity

Melr/M^d-oc , mp^'C or ip^D (for n^p l^c) Carthada,
Carthago, KaQp]chjv = Ntanokiq, ni^nn mp on the
coins of Palermo; Syr. |^. U^ jj ,
pi. jlvaj; Sam.

^ITI^C, ^A^C, pi. ^Am^C, and ^m^t?, constr.

2"lp, 2np, impf. Z'^pi, be nea?-, approach. III. 2"ip and
V. znpiS!, <^/v>/^ /?<"/?7% o/fe?' a saciifice. — Ar.

6^- and C,Ii-, II. j!, Aeth. *Cn: IV. A*Z.a: Syr.

^;^, III. w^h; Sam. 5^C.
2np, J<2", /?<"^/-'% related. — Ar. >--aj>j', Syr. wri*^,

Sam. S/Tl'^C; Heb. Dlip.

'\^'y\^ an offe)'ing , saci-ifice. — Ar. ^Lws, Aeth. "I^^Cl^

Heb. ]2np, Syr. ^'i^. Sam. ^^'^C.

221 not used in I. be large, great, immerous. — Heb. 22"),

Syr. ^'^.

2"?, J<2';i: f. ^<2"], Nn3"l, Z^/'^^, great, fiumeroiis ; as a

subst. /^^ headman in any department, prefect or

magistrate, general, teacher, etc. — Ar. Cjt possessor

or <>;^7/^;-, <^J| /^o^/; Heb. 2"i, Phoen. 21, f. n2i:

— 40 —
Syr. |Jii . Sam. ^S*^. (Jther forms used as siibst.

are ]3"^, ^i, "IS^. pi";, and as an adj. or subst.

j2"l2i not used in the sing. = zy, pi.
^ ~°
5 ^o'^


nobles or chief men of the state (Ar. kJ.jJt ^j!^)' ^^^^

cornerstones of the state). — Syr. ,_-j^?cV.

12"1, «12":, f. ^^/^ thousand, a myriad; pi. JIS";. —
Ar. lb!, also 'i^\ and so* : Aeth. /.flTl^: (from a

sing-. Z,D!) Heb. n2Z"i and "*2": : Syr. irii. Sam.

N2-;, ""Z-;, iiijjif. ''I"1;, increase, he augmented, grom up. III.

iz~i wn'/Cr gi'on\ rear, educate. — Ar. G^, Heb. HD"',

Syr. Ui . .^h . Sam. ^S'^.

i;?";i< f" N'3/2"}N m.. /^^w. — Ar. ^J, ^J- Aeth. ACn^J^-t:

Heb. j;5*^i<, n<?";iN*, Phoen. J;2"^* (inscr. Sidon.): Syr.

^h\, y^sw Sam. V3^A. ^V3^A. — PI. pjJa-^t?

/^/•/'y; Ar. ^;i}T, Aeth. AC-H^: Heb. C^^^'ZIN, Syr.

^^n, Sam. -^mv^^A.
T3"l , ^^ agitated, anginj. — Heb. ^"^ , Syr. -^s ^
Sam. ^'Y^ '•

Ar. Jo... tremble, C.:^3 and yjsvjtj /;<^^// (thunder),
of thimder or tlie cry of the camel.

in and nn, ]3T*, ^i^l"^? agitation, commotion, anger.

— Heb. n^, Syr. ]>^c» . Sam. ^-^l'^; Ar. ^^^y or

y=>.. anger, punishment, a c?'ime.

ni"), Nni":, m. f. hrea/h . ihc sniil or sjiirit : the 7vind. —
Ar. .. breath, ^. ^dvW.- lleb. Plioen. nil (inscr.

Eryc. I. Ó). Syr. \LzS ^ Sam. ^^'^. See the Syr. gloss.

— 41 —
en, perf. D"), impf. ciy, he high, uplifted, proufl, rise.

V. ci-!_i< make high, exalt, lift vp, raise ; nn c^'^N =
"1"^ '?"'L:ri, raise a storm. — Heb. CT, Sam. -"il^, Syr.

>a-k?l and ic?ol (from a rad. >c^, Ar. I»: 5/^<?o/ ?//?,


cni, CnT, /^?'<:'. II. cnnnx he loved. lit. cni love fervently,

have pity or compassion vpon, IV. cnnPN* imi)ers.

compassion is shown, chap. I. 6 , III. 9. — Ar. 1L»
hrood over ,
^J ^<^' soft or gentle, 1£^^ cherish,

I^r /<>i'^, />%, l&r /^rt'zv^ niercy or compassion npon

Heb. cn-i, Syr. >cii, Sam. •^^^, -^V^
]crn, t^^C", compassionate, merciftd. — Ar. ^jl»~v»

gen. with the art. v»~-^J|, the Compassionate , God;
Sam. "ym."^.

prn, pTl'^, ^<^ distant, retire, depart. V. pn^N remove, lay

aside. — • Aeth. CSi*: Heb. pun, Syr. wn^Ii.

irn , Nli''n , M<? head; pi. pLJ'n. — Ar. ,j«L, Aeth.

C?i: Heb. 'ti'i<-i, pi. c^^'NT, Syr. |l.i, Sam. ^iTl'^
and -^^A.
Ncn, impf. tc'i, //^;w^', rrt'.y/.

— Ar. ^f, Heb. nc"], Syr.

jL?^ Sam. '^^'^; Aeth. Z;<J^P: mound, proi). with an

arrow or spear.

Nyn, impf. ij;"]"!, tend or /r<^r/ a flock, match over or /(Tz/rtf

crt'7'^ of, rule, govei'n; intrans. graze. — Ar. ^.
Aeth. cop: Heb. nyn, Syr. \Lh Sam. -^V^.

n*j;t, impf. ij;"^,"), ^^ pleased with, jjropitious to, delight in,

love, desire. — Ar. ,1^^, Heb. n^, Syr. \Lh ,
Sam. ^l^'^.

— 42 —
NI VI (Might, phasurc, yoodmll, desire, msh. — Ar,

^^ or l^S'y^y Heb. jia"), Sam. X^%


^N*i£^, 'pNli', impf, ^N'K''', n'^X", demand, en&cat. — Ar. JLl,
Ae(h. AA: and ivhK\ Heb. W, Syr '^Vl^ Sam.

nzi^" not used in I. — III. nz2^ praise. — Ar. X^, Aeth.

-flA." Heb. nsLt'', Syr. ^J^ ^
Sam. ^S^.
i<n2'^"in, NPfG", ])?mse, glory, a hymn. — Syr.

liLo^z. constr. i^l^Li^^ Sam. ^A^S"^^A an J

^^A-^A (Exod. XV. 11).

N-^" //^^ ^//l?. Cognate form N-y, Heb. i:i, whence "iij"?

or l^ii"! towards, ay a ins t ; Syr, ,>»^ or ?]? ?>« the pos-
session of, at or in, to.

JIt^' in Chald. swim, in Heb. ;-<?;«', denom. from :o;i^ ^//? ofl-r

(twin form to Dlt'', Ch. n::")^', Syr. |.^al , Ar. J^jll,

a staff, rod, ?vhip), whence in Chald.

toy^ a rower, pi. |"i:;'1^'.

D^Dli', impf. 21212^^ lie down. — Aeth. fi^n: Heb. Plioen.

3Dtt^, Syr. ^aL». . mipf _=^Lj ,
Sam. 3^-^.

DD:^ impf mD'^), inf. nrti'D, />^^; gen. used in V. royj^,
nr^n, impf n2t?'':, nSK'n: . — Syr. wJl».|, Sam. ^C-^,
gen. ^C^A.or VC"^A.
>ri^;t'. See. in^.

'p.^', C'l^li', impf. c'?li'i, ^<? <^////>'<?, safe or ;'^'//, complete
or finished. III. dW w^Ay entire, complete or finish.
— 43 —
fulfil a vow. — Ar. iJLl, Heb. zb;^ or zh^^ Syr. >aixi^.

Sam. 'ilZ^.
Cli' and more usually nilt'", ^'Ct', a name, pi. jncii'. — Ar.
So G ^ S J
|V-wJ, rarely ^, ^\ Aeth. Heb. ci^''; Syr.

>^, i^l..^ pi. ^oii:^, ^ki^; Sam. •^^, pi. ^^«i«*.
Derived from ^j^l mark, jl*^ a mark,

K''l?li' //^<? .?%, the heavens, heaven. — Ar. ?.U1^, Aeth.

^.E: Heb. ccti', Phoen. samem (-en, -m) [Plaut.

Poeiiul. V. 2, 67. Gune hel halsainem (en), 'pz »J'ii<3

CCti' ^y2; halsamen, according* to Augustine = domi-

nus coeli ; Bseloafirjv = nveiog ovQavov, ^afxij^Qovfioq
= 6 vipoveaviog, iDn W^tl^i/ (Movers, Phoen. Texte, I.

p. 56), and Ziocpaorifiiv = oveavov xaTonrai, ^siii

D'>12^*, in tlie fragments of Philo Byblius]; Syr. iiio^,

Sam. ^/Tl^t-^. From L^L he high (comp. /\CP<?^:

from on).

'<i}'CiVJ, kSti'Cti', m. f. flic sun. — Ar.
(j«-»-c, f., Heb. Phoen.

Wpi; m. L, Syr. \jLu^ gen. m., Sam. --^"-^-*^^

{<nf, impf. i^t^""., loosen, untie; set free, pai^don; from the

signif. of untying and unpacking arises that of encamp,

^//r^//, remain (comp. J^^.). III. ''IK' ^<?^//«, co7nmence

comp. ^nn). — Syr. 1^^^ HI. w^\ Sam. A^^, III.

^^Ax*.. Aeth. Z,P: pardon.

vsn*^', '•ntJ', "•nii'K, impf in:i'>, imper. intfi'" and "•nit'V^ f//7>;A-.

— Aeth. ^P: Heb. nriJ'', Syr. ^L^l , Sam. ^A^.
pnii', p^HK impf p"!r<i^\ he silent. — Heb. pnti% Syr. ^oL*,,

Sam. CA"^. — Cognate forms are: IpV , Sam. ^T*^,

Heb. trpti', n^3pn, Ar. clJl^.
— 44 —
p\nii', ap^-, t^i^TiiS "^'''^'^^^ '^^"^^ '^ ^^"^
^^R'' 'P

(chap. IV. 8) , an eastwind so gentle as lu be scarcely

perceptible, — Syr. .^^^^ Sam. CA*^-

-12P, inipf. ~l2n^., ^/rn'A'. 11. I2nis* l^e broken. Cliap. 1. 4

(wliere some edd. have IV. "^snkS). — Ar. C3" break,

"y^ perish, "S^i desiroij, perisli; Aeth. fli,: Heb. nzii'.,

Syr, i-cz, Sam. ^3 A.
Cinn, N?:", ^//6' ^'*^^//; Syr. i^c'dZ^ Sam. '^^'^^A. Not

an Ai-am. word, but merely borrowed from the Heb.
2\-|, perf. :n, im})f. 2liT, return, repent. V. z^^N wr/A-^

7'eturn, briny forth, turn away, answer. — Arab,

v^li* return, Oó repent; Heb. l"^ , Syr. u=^, Sam. ^A-

"I'^n , t<"^^in, ^//^ ox, collect, cattle; pi. ]nln. — Ar.
Aeth. jr«C.' Heb. -i"**k2/, Phoen. 0w(> (according to Plutarch,

but the inscr. ^lassil. 1. 3 has rp^, Heb. ^tct), Syr.

IScZ^ Sam. "^^^A. Derived either from 'I U *^^ 6//;--

red up (dust, tiunult, anger), IV. \!i\ stir up (dust),

plouyh (comp. "ipz; and armentum), or from jU = rLl,
impf. \y^.-> spriny upon, attack; more probably from

the former. Misled by tlie similarity of sound, many
liave identified with this word the Gr. tavQoq, Lat.

iaurus, but these are related to tlie Sanskrit sthura-s,

strong; taurus consequently stands for staurus , Germ.
ticr, Eng. steer, Dan. tyr, Swed. tjur.

ninn below, beneath. Under. — Ar. v:L^', Aelh. d'^'t:

— 45 —
Heb. Phoen. nnn, Syr. zzJlA^ Sam. A^A- — From
nin = r\W sink, descend, Ar. ^\j and ^LS" = XU^-
N^n, impf. I'rn;!, /<^/?_^, suspend. — • Heb. n^^ri, Syr. pz,
Sam. AZA.
nj;'?'iP, kSnj;':'jn, a wor?u or caterpillar; Syr. jL^Jiloi. Most
prob. from the rati, y*^"" //cXr, hence lick up, consume

( Ar. ij; /(T/^J ; see however Gesenius' Thesaurus,

art y^n.

T :
f., Nn'^n
M;-^6'. Ar. e)^, RjSU; -^
Aeth. UJAll-t:

Heb. i^'l^tS', nii''?^'; Phoen. salus (according to Augus-
tine), rwh^ (inscr. Massil. 1. 9, 11); Syr. i^z, 1^^;
Sam. AIA, '^AZA.
|5|r, there; Syr. ^i, Sam. p-^A, ^I'^A. Another form
a- a- a' ^s* o*'
is nan, Ar. |VJ, i+J, //c*?;-^, |vJ, v::mJ, v.::^', ^>^<?/^;

Heb. CJ''
and nsit'.

N:n, impf. "i^n"', prop. <^^/^^, fold, hence ^<? again, repeat.

— Ar. ^, Heb. njK^, Syr. ).jZj Sam. "^^A.
p:n, f. t^J^-, second. — Sam. ^(71^1 A, Syr. ^i
repeating, subst. repetition.

niJ''jH, prop, repetition, as an adv. a second time, again.

— Syr. zaiLi ^ Sam. A v^rH^A.
P]pr, ,
^"ipn, impf. Plpn";, /5»^ strong, violent, severe; impers.

n^ ?ipn = "i'? nnn, /^^ ;'^wi^ fi^^gry. — Ar. ljUu />^^/,

5<7/r^, ^^//y^ possession of; >_4q ,'^'
^<? active , sagacious,

talented; Heb. ^ipn attack, oppress ; Syr. ^z, Sam. 3CA-
rjlpn, f^pin, iXBp^n, ^^Cpn, strength; vehemence, vio-

lence, anger; a strong place, fortress; pi. ]"'Cpin

l^spn. —Heb. t^pn, Syr. |I^oi, Sam. ;3tCA, '^^CA.
— 46 —
111 chap. n. 7 i( corresponds (o the Heb. cnni: bolls

or bars.

r]i|?n strong, povei'ful, vehement, violent. — Syr. «- ^\
Sam. 3fnCA.

jnn, f. pniP, tn^o. — Ar. ^JlIi^ ^t^lij and ^Uli; Heb.
C^:ii', C.nii'; Phoen. consfr. ]w (for '•ri!') , iiiscr. Melil. I.;

^^j ^^'^; ^^'"' ^nl'iA, 'p/TlA'^A. Hence
"IDj; nn, f. ncy Nn>"^, tndve ; see -iDy..

"I'^n not used in I. — III, r]in <//v>^ /^//", ^.i/?^/. IV. ""^rN ^6'

driven out, eipelled. — Ai\ J J> /^^/^'6', abandon.

V, , .77 V 7 7 Q P P t^ 7

^^•i .^. /a: '• •

\ • 'o • • ^
• Ni ^ '

P., -"•",, ,
» •• 07 i^ '7 P 7


|.^9 cn^..A.p av^ Lm2 —a9 ^a_*. . .ctrLUaO
'^ \ >•' i *

]^ --^


,Ja_? "^T?^ Zuals^o .|w3 Q-iioilo .. t\S ZZ| _iio V^Cas

^) On the marg. of one Ms. wo^o. '^) Var. jJsa-ilik j^o-i^ }^q»»^.
ci^2i;Jbcui.. '^)
Var. «^-»lo?.

'^) A ms. adds ^^Zo^^ .
) 2 mss. oj^jo.
^) 2 mss. oAii .
— 48 —
9 .Uf ]1^ .^'^ ^=^ ')-M •>')i^ ^jT ^f

11 ••')r=J( -['^'^ !-?= -s^ Ujio >=yJ ^? ,sJÓi l-iLjl ai»r^?

12 ^Js-^^-*. •'s:^=-^ \®^^ jt^ ^.Nn ^*^?i^o ^il "j]<n

psi? Pi '^i-i;? V^uifi --i^ pa-i. U-aJo . jy.n ,.^cpo|o

1=3^ '^if pil? 'C^:^ .i-.^!*.] pc )*-.\ r-^fi? ^iJ«n

^5^4^ .Ui-I p£? ^iS\ v-Ci^Z Po .pn Ir^? ?i-»-2is

15 ^s_Il^ ^^-N-t'^s .lS\ f^i ijf U[? :t--)= -^r^ p'' '^1?

16 ^V"?^ .-. ..>fi~ V> A. ^v» v£ pA ^M^22|3 . 1 y.a ^sis|t~A>o

jljyS PL=? *»r:?= P.ji£ ic^ ^ jZ^i l^-^? v^=i
7 V

1 ^qI ] = ?!= .,J=-ij^
^^^-^tVr^ '^' '^'^ '-^r^ -=W =
2 ^=4 wj^^To ."Xi- 's ]£^Zo ^yy''^) l£Ji^Z .iioJ? ^eiaLlas

••• 'V ^ "'
A^y 4,c ?wkX. '^i--*.? 'suSfJz "^ ^5 .^^ir^o ^hr\'^<

4 .c-nl^ .
^^f-u. |)nJ= •
P^? n ^i\^ pL^:.:^^ ^^^^.k^^js

•;• ) 4 » , 'i |\^ *^ li
My\ p] H.^^:.!: '^a 'jy . ).»} i \ >:|-s —^
6 P^? fTt'L^]jzz - •>
- pfsciZo . ) 4°i\ p£^ V^. ..^c^rM

One ms. IJ] pci. r^/r^ pi-,) ^=, another pnii p...!' ^Jl?.
') One ms. jlc] . J)Onems. .cn.;!ii.

) Wanting in one ms. ') One ms. ji^l.

•n) Lee o^LzZ\o. »') One ms. .^.
— 49 —
r — s'
•> ^(TlJk. ]-^'f^ Ua,«« —lO v..«JLm ZuOajo . >n\S\ ^,ta). 8

f", 1 Sr M i Vi I^uOa-^ ] ^^^^? ^r^? "^^ •'i^r^ .^Si' .uv^ 9

jicj^iiL^ ^-^.1 ^•j ^Z!>i? '^s-^ "^ U-r^l "^-^Tsj^s I o cno 1

ji]? |q"|6iJ ói_J^^ lH;.i° • ]^? ^-^r.^ II.*!!^ ''^I
>ca-o 2

)aldJo .^Ijic? oii-I^^ ^l |n1 tl\ ''^•jlo ^a* y=^o -i-^ U] 3

.l^ail ^.y^yjl }la^ -r^lo l.Hi)? -r^ l^a-^ r?rf I'l''*.'''^ '^Vi\
).iac.: a.AJ)Lso .^oiS) ^ jaJ-^? gi^«.l] n 1 Vi toio •:• ).asai2w2^ jol >J ^

£w{Ciiob .óoi-? nNiN ) Vii So .oai «T pi>'oV r-^ . )-°^ a a''^\6 O

_>D . jaXftXs ^^oj^jo o]i-=|o IJifi^uVik >_c£i-»o jjaJS w^iil^o 7

. jjlko jVoZo |i..«;JLr;ó ).,4 Tt 1 n .^aisJ.r370 7?9 j -i\v? p^xos

w*j] >^2^;xJc . ]} "} "^' joil^l) aiJo-,_aJo ]i
->^^ ) a1 *1 n ].£US

'^ pl V -:• ^oiOt-fc).2 ^]^ l.*^a4-^ _:^o . )"Aa *-o oumSo] ,_^ 9
oi'^o?? ]ZJ.ifl-i» ,-iia5 smoli o . .^'N^ >=j» i^o MjaiJ^ )J^£^^ .]

K '«
y ^ .6oi^j»?cl — ibo 0-?^? tOf-ii-T^^ ]aiJ^ lv*? -^
r^ 1^ 11? 10

. dJ ] i-so I Jlo oi1~o« I
i,.i^ij» .óouliiO -^i")?

.^«:^^1.^ 1-2 ] |:S ^^.^iJ^ |?ai Zosi P .)-*r^ tol .17^]° }-*'r^ ^^

oj One ms. ^©j P") Zj^jz] 'J)
l?r^, l?tr*7 I? r^-
•*^ One ms. - -.^ ^t i^ .
^\ One ms. jjaj)© Ih?'? *) ^"^ '^^- U^^^ )(nX.
— 50 —
L^om'^'fl . .^^M h b^ ...^ p^fL ^cn P^t^ ")Uói V^'^c

6 ]ouik' Uj^^ fsi Vi^r^^i^ ''^ -•'.r^ ^ Ih^?' ^"M^
''o; |i^ jocio -^3-* '^'-'^ nNrffo iiLo .]|jx? |?6^-»^

)^Oi-4.£ OLA <^Q- ^r^ . 01 £.A^ ,-^ 01^ w^Ójjo . 01_4_k?

^ ^°iV ]2s^ "^^.6 ^VwSfi42|o ^J:^? a-^^f^ i-*.liC^ 4-^ • c

9 wfii'. ^o-l:^ ]5i!X il^ j.£i]o o-i-óir:!"
^ Ml v_ai' ^i'ci

^H ^-r^ '^^ r^)° -llt-^? I'of^ VL ^^ L^ i^

ei iW i^O j.^ OUk^;^^ i^9 .^01_k^^^9 |Jo OIA) I^P ^9

") One ms. |5ct.
One ms. ^'..i^v^'^ "') One ms. |)j_c, |ici^:ij..

wS^4|o. ^') One ms. ^] ^ anolher ^|c.
^') Onenis. ).Alilr?. ^) One nis.!o a . ^V

v^l ^ )-pl ^
a father^ pi. ^"aijal
^kil ; with siiIT. ^\ ,
^a^*! ,

^010^1, etc. — Ar. ^«j|, Aeth. A-fl: with. sufT. Afbi:

Heb. 2N, Chaid. 2N', N3f<, Sam. SA.
,15 1, impf. r^JJ^ perish. V. ^©1 destroy. See Chald.

gl. ISiX.

^o1 inlerj. 0!

Vll^ impf. V-jp^ imper. '^'i ,
go; -^jiioo V-|l == Tj'^n

"IJJb^ becoming more and more agitated. See Chald.

gi. \\^.

^ I
impf. »q1p ^
/rt'y?:^ , ^^;><?, /^»/(?/, possess, shut. — Ar.

J,kT, Aeth. AfH: Heb. TPIX, Chald. -[m, Sam. T^A
^^1^ )Jr-1 ,
l^r-1 ,
O'^'^^^^, another; pi. m. ^j-i, f-

^•^]. See Chald. gl. inx.

I'^l. See ]L:\.

~^] as, according to, about (in stating numbers), — Heb.

T]iN ho)v? Chald. "^ji^;, Tj^n, Sam. iiJTlA. Comp. of J]
(see Chald. gl. \x) and -^ ^ 3; and therefore prop.,

as in Heb. and Chald., an interrog.

— 52 —
l^'j ivhere? where. — Heb. HD^N, Chald. NZi^^i. Comp. of
J] and \L here (Heb. ni, Chald. ^i).

f^v^ ^\ whence? whence. Comp. of ^1 and \s^ hence.

|j-kl . f. Tp-. 1
. -'^'Z^^?, ?vhich, what? pi. ^-'^•'l: ? ii-^l ^^ ^'^<?.

— Chald. p-i^N , f. N"\s. Comp. of J] and |ioi , f.

|?CT ^ this.

Lu I
//<(?r^ /5, etc. ; with siifT. ^l^ \ ^
^^.Jlu ]
, ^oioLi j
, lam, etc.

Comp. with 11^ Lfcll there ts not, etc. — See Chald.

gl. n\s'.

\i\ if not, unless, except, but. — Ar. Sfl , Aeth. AA! Chald.

N^^<, Sam. AZA; Heb. Nt^'CN. Comp. of ^l and |3.

ik:^ a god, God; pi. jk:^. — See Chald. gl. n'PN.

w^, jix, f. a ship, pi. ux. — See Chald. gl. iK^h^.

^1 . — V. ,_v^CT believe, believe in. — See Chald. gl. pN.

•^] , impf. ft^U, inf. jiaU^, say, order. — See Chald.

gl. 1CN.

^j if. — See Chald. gl. u.^,

),jj /; pi. ^1 „1 1 ,
gen. ,_L», ?ve. It often expresses the verb

be, and is then written \4\ as p} jj'] lam, )j'xJ»?

/ fear (am fearing). — See Chald. gl. njn.

^oJl, ^J|. See en.

^\ , ill], a man, person, individual; pi. ^v

^ U^l- —
See Chald. gl. wi^.

'lS\, f. ^ol, thou; pi. ^'hS], f. ^Lj'I, i/ou. It also expres-

ses the verb be, as hS\ ^^ thou doest (art doing).

See Chald. gl. r:N.

^s] also, likewise, moreover : jLl neither, nor. — Heb. Phoen.
f;K, Chald. p]n and rji^^.

— 53 —
,_isl^M\ the face ; front, surface, external fo7'm ox: appear-
ance ; for ^i^j. from an unused sing. ^aj|; Ar.
i.»ajl, Aeth. Ki^\ the nose, Heb. f]X the nose, du.

C^ax the nostrils, face; Chald. XCJJ^, NDN, pi- jiDJt^!,

pCN, niox; Sam. -^rn^A- The Syriac Grammarians
and Lexicographers wrongly derive ,_isl from izj-a

iLs, Heb. riND, Chald. NnN9, NHD, the face.

«-.»(o]j l^'ol, f. « way, road, journey; custom, conduct;
pi. ^5o]. — See Chald. gl. niN.

"^ri^ ^'l^ ^- ^^^^ eai'th, ground, a country; pi. ^vf. —
See Chald. gl. V"in'.

IL*.) //^<? lowest part, bottom, base; pi. _ii-4.] ^/^z/^^. If is

prop, the stat. emph. of ^ ^
which occurs, for example,

in the compound |Lio|a^^ pi. Jij'li^ , the base or foun-

dation (of a wall); Ar. o*.I-t and ajcl podex , nates
Heb. n*^", pi. nln^'; from a rad. T\Tp = T\^'^' place.

jz], impf. Izp, imper. s. m. )!z, f. ^z, pi. m. oi and ^ooz^
f. ^Ji and ,-^1^, inf. jzjiso ,
<:•<?;;;<?. — See Chald. gl. ndn*.

jt in, at or w^fl'r, by, with, on account of, etc. — See
Chald. gl. 2.

wA.}^ not used in I., ^«? (^a-^. V. ^^jlil, ^^.^l, injure, hurt. —
See Chald. gl. ]v\^'2.

-^ >^ i-^"^^^ f. 1 f >
^ |2LiLu.r;^ bad, wicked; as a subsl.
^ ,

evil, wickedness, misery, calamity.

al-k£», zal--s^ lia > i ^ ^ wickedfiess. — Chald. Vii'^a.
— 54 —
^i-..£ and ^1*L , contr, i^ ^
hetiveen , among. — Cliald.

p2, ''2, '•r^, n:/?; see Aeth. gi n^i"
vi:Is , impf. MsJiLaS, swallow, devour. — See Chald. gl. ybl.

ts-. . Ij^V'-'^ a beast of burden, coll. cattle; pi. ]y -^^ —
See Cliald. gl. niyz.

jLj li^j a so/t; pi. ^io, Ijoa . — See Chald. gl 12.

^Ipc* -AJjis^ « human being, pe?'son , individual;

pi. yljl v{n^ \H^. — Chald. i^JN "13, ITJ 12 (Dan.
VII. 13. n^n nr^* ir:j< "122 n^c-i^' ^jjy-cj; n^i and
see! ?vttk the clouds of heaven there ?vas coining as

it were a man, the figure of a man — not „one hke

the Son of man") ; Ar. iLlQlj, iLlilj, a word borrow-
ed from the Nabathaeans; Heb. Dn5"]2.

pS , l^s^ uncultivated groud, a field, j»/(«^>^, desert. Hence
with prep, j^v out, outside,
^ ^^v outside, besides,

except, i^v ^ frotn without (comp. 1*111). — Ar.

II, adv. \Z, i\yi C, G ^x; Chald. n*';2, N"12V, ^<^2^,

n-]2^d; Sam. '^'^a '^'^SZ, etc. 0pp. to al^, la!^, //^^

centre, interior, a«Io ?vithin, ol^. —ii e.^^, a-sr^ ^
(Ar. ^, adv. t^; Chald. 1J, ni^, constr, U, 1J|2, i:^
etc.; Sam. tt, Xl^, etc.).

jla^, TiA^, a man; pi.
^r^. — See Chald. gl. -^23.

-^r^ happen, befall.

r-^. t-N^, y^^Q' f^^'- Like the Gr. word, it never commences
a phrase.


^•^vv'^, ^-\? ^^''?'<"*. — See Cliald. gl '73.

^iL, impf. 1x^5, cf'f/ out, call on; of animals lo7i\ helloff.

— Heb. nv;, Cliald. NVi • Cognate form ]^.

)vho, which, that; mark of the g'enif., as U^? oi^^l tJie

hold of the ship; conj. that, in of^de?^ that. — See

Chald. gl. n.

..A saci'ifice often or in great
^ ^^t^ , saci'ifice. III. ^.i^s?

quantity. — See Chald. gl. "2".

^Ic? a victmt, saciificc ; pi. ,_—.^7 •

impf. o^ ,
J^fdge. — See Chald. gl. ]n.

)1^^, ]^i^^ , a city; pi. ,_L:^.
V^?, Viyi, fear. — See Chald gl. ^m.
U«? l^^ii-»?, fear, dread, reverence, an object of fear
or reverence, deity ; pi. ,_^"?

^?^ de, hut, yet. Like dt it never holds the first place in

a phrase, gen. the second.

C^y impf. ^pi, rememher. II. ij;?z] ^d? rememhered ; call to

mind, rememher. — See Chald. gl. ion.

-.>v% make turhid, distu?'h, agitate. III. w.^? id. IV. .

pass. — Heb. n^"n, Sam. CiT.
>o?, Jic?^ ^/(9<></. — See Chald. gl. on.

^ic? , impf. ^,i, sleep; part, ^-'^f sleeping. — See Chald.

^Io?j, i^?, particip. adj. sleeping.

wJ?, impf. w.Jji, m^ (the sun). — See Chald. gl. n:'.

^f^ , iI»JfL , the east.

\lli^ , f. liLl3,Io, eastern; as a subst. the east.
— 56

Iri he, she, it (Cliakl. .sr : Phoeii. j<m , inscr. Sidoii.): ;i<lv.

here, there (comp. n;) ; interj. lo, see (Ar. L^, Chald.

NH, NH, Sam. A^).
c<^ m., -n f., he, she, it: pi. ^p m., ^Ji f., and as

accus. after a verb ^=j|, Often used to express
tlie verb be, in which case it is gen. written coi. ^si

(as csi :jf thou art, Jn .^^ she is); sonietinies, how-
ever, 01 is suppressed (as sjlJ ?vho is?), or changed

into ^ (as ^zn he is). With words ending in ]1 and

]1 051 and ^n form tiie diphthongs au, oi, eu, ei, as

cci i-jj -CI Pi Ififft, =^1 fi'here is he? cai |I? he is

pure ; except jjci . which makes ^oi j?i this is. — See

Chald. gl. Nin.

cCT m., J< f., he, she, it, this, that: pi. m. ^rx . f. ^ci.
Contr, for oq \r^^ ^n ]n (Heb. N^nn, N^nr).

1=ci. impf. l
= nj. ]kj . be, happen. When a mere auxil.,

01 is suppressed, as ]coi V;Js he 7vas killing, V^
]efli he had killed, jooi ]óoi he was , |=n l=n he had
been. — See Chald, gl. Nin.

v''^; .^ Ui^oi. a large building, temple, church, palace : pi.

^:ii.:i-.oi'. —

See Chald. gl. ^r^n.

. CT ij'ci m., ifoi f., this: pi. .^^-^'oi.

^01. impf. -^osoii. tu7'n, return ; change: overturn, destroy.

II. ^ciz] ^<? turned, changed, destroyed. IV. «^oiz]

(versatus est) stay , reinain , be on the point of. V.

^oil turn away, avert. — See Chald. gl. l?r.
— 57 —

o and, but. — • See Chald. 2I. \

_£)1 JJ-sL time; pi. ,-ixs^ times (vices), in which sense it

is fern., as ^••-i i^z thrice, ^Jlc] ^-^'i? « second

time, again. — Ar. ^/>-. and ^jUj , Aeth. ll<J^i'.

Heb. )CT, pi. D'^Dl; Chald. jci, njdt, pi. ]^jdi; Sam. ^S^;
it has also passed info Pers. as jjCo^ and 2óUó\. Ano-
ther form is |ls]^ 1 -^^1 , P^- 1^»1-
]l-\, impf. Jj]i ^^ j9wr^ in a moral sense, chaste, innocent,

just; conquei'. — See Chald. gl. i<DT.

^ \^ lis \^
pure, innocent, just ; victorious.

^y^ impf. -^Y J
be small; be depressed, despond. — See

Chald. gl. lyi.

jioLij f. i-Tjoi]^ small, little, young ; pi. m. ^VoL]

Va^ not used in I., be corrupted, vitiated. II. Vsil corrupt,
destroy. — See Chald. gl. 'pDH.

U-a- co7^ruj)tion , destruction.

•^£^ |>iu» a co?npanion or associate; pi. r^t^- — ^^^

Chald. gl. -i2n.

L» impf. v-A-ok^j */<w^ ^/j'^, confine, imprison. II. '-•-si-^J

pass. — Ar. J4^; Heb. ij'zn bind, imprison.
— 58

fL^ f. j,L», ofie. — See Chald. gl. nn.

-jL. . impf. ]^. ^^ fff^d, rejoice. — See Chald. gl. Nin.

]a- not used in I. — HI. ^ol show, announce, tell. — See
Chald. gl. Nin.

impf. ^ra^^ have compassion on, pity , spare. — See

Chald. gl. D^M.

1^, impf. \y^ ^ see, observe. — See Chald. gl. NTn.

^.s4-^^ hnpf. wsi4u^ snatch, carry off, plunder. — See

Chald. gl. f\C'.

\1j», . impf. ]I^ , iZU . inf. ]
^V^ , j_,»)^ . live. — See Chald.

gl. kS^n.

^. Ul, h/e.

>iJ . impf. >alj . l/e hot, warm. — Ar. 1^ wai'm, he 7varm,

Heb. Chald. en. See Aeth. gl. ^<P".

1%:^ heat, passion, anger. — Chald. i<ncin heat,

Heb. nan.

wJu sigh, g?^oan.

]VJ1„ a sigh, groan.

V*--,. See "^*

^Uy impf. ^l4J , be well, happy. Joyful : often impers. •
— III.

wal[ prepare, make ready. — See Chald. gl. 21D.

>-s4, l-a4. f- 1^', )V=4;, ^0<><i^; followed by ^^
better than; as an adv. )vell, very, excessively.

<^£^^ Z(L£ij4 , i^Q^ikJ^ goodness, bounty; pi. jzlslilJ.

?=^^ l^c^. a mountain : .^f:Li. — See Chald. gl. mt:.
— ;

— 59 —
'^ not used in I. — III. VilJ shade, cover. — See Chald.
gl. ^^£0.

lK| shade, shado?v. — Aefh. ifAiV°^: Cliakl. ^ihh'C,
T T :

^ " '
Sam. ^XXV', Ar. JiUb anything that gives shade.
I^^v^^ ^ shade or covering, hut; pi. UliL^Cifi.

"^^ .^
impf. >a:l4Lj, /'(^^/'. — See Chald. gl. nyL:.

^3^ stiike, heat. III. ^^ distress, afflict, vex. IV. ^^zi
pass. — Ar. v3pó ^/r<? a hloiv , ivink with the eye
Heb. ^;y^ tear in pieces; Chald. P)"iip, Sam. 3^^^.

impf. ,_4ip ^
he dry, dry up, wither. V. wA^e] ^/^y

2//?, ^^rt-Av 7vither. — See Chald. gl. ]i;'y>.

) 1n r c'/'y ground, land. — Ar. ^^jiZ<i, Aeth. F-fli:

r^, li^l, f- the hand; pi. ^^], 1-Ip.). — See Chald. gl. t.

1^ not used in I.- — V. .^'jol confess, give thanks, p?'aise. —
See Chald. gl. Nn\
^'ioZj jLu'joZ^ confession of faith, religion; praise,


VjH^, impf. '^vJ"^ iiif-
'^'r^^ imper. ^s^?, know.- — See Chald.

gl. y-\

wsoi-I y/^t' ; imper. ^^oi, part, wski^ ^.a-iaux; impf. '^•i^j^ inf.

V^ifi^ from a rad. '^aj =r jnj. — See

Chald. gl. Dn\
voal y^ol a day ; pi. —ki^calT, J^lI^ and jLiooli". — See

Chald. gl. Dr.

>3l-.l, jIoLl.]^ day (as opp. to night); pi. ^iViSnyJ.

Chald. x^?D^ day, UDi^ hy day = NTC''2, )\iVt)-s^ CDV-

loTiTcv^, Joppa or /rt)^/.
— 60 —
iLal llie sea; pi. ]^<^^ — See Chald. gl. cv
^.^iflj ]L,inI f. f/ie 1'igld —
hand. . See Chald. gl. ]i?d\

. oM> not used except in V. ^o\ add, inci'ease, do again. —
See Chald. gl. f]D^.

\L^ impf. \^ ^
imper. ^^ ^
slioot up, grow. — Chald. nj;^;

identical with Aeth. ®!^A: Heb. {<y^ go out (comp. in

partie. CNiJNli shoots, and KtvKK \ an e?nb?'go or foetus).

^^Ll ^
impf. •^hl ^ imper. ^z^ sit. — See Chald. gl. 2n\
jL* impf. ?ip J
remain over and alcove, be abundant,
abound, make gain or pro/it. — Heb. *in^, Chald. "ini,

Sain. 'iAm.
'fSl \''r^^ , f- li-^'^, l^i-*"^ abundant, excellent ;va^
v^ z?^<?;v /'A^;?/ as an adv. very, much, more, besides

(Heb. nnii). — Chald. i^n^ Sam. ^171 AHt.

j^ perhaps. — Heb. Chald. 123 /o;?^ ago, already, per-

haps (comp. Jki" already, pej-haps).

^ when, after ; ivhilst ; although. Comp. of ^^ 3 and the
relat. ?
(corresp. lo Heb. TiJ'N*?^ "V'^)-> and hence its

frequent use with participles and adj., e. g. •^\ ^
saying (lit. as one who says). — Chald. ns, 13,
Sam. T^.
Vs lis, IJas, M^ totality, the whole; all, whole. — See
Chald. gl. ^2.

^is cover, clothe, conceal. III. • ^^^^ id. IV. - .m^ /| ^t' <?<>-

vered , concealed, put on clothes. — See Chald.

gl. ND2.
— 61 —
^•fS ^
impf. ]i^^ be painful, disagi'eeaUe, g?icve; only used

impers. oO:*, hl-^^ etc. (conip. oiia. aJJ:*©). — Chald, xns,

Ar. \S he unpleasant, s^/ he ave?'se to, dislike.

lia^jj pain, grief.

y^ not used in I.^ — V. i^l pi'oclaim, preach, declare. —
See Chald. gl. ry2>

\lo-^ a p?'oclamation or announcement, preaching, the


^^s impf, >^oiJJ^ ffo round, surround; wrap up, protect.
Chald. T^^. Like other radicals of a similar form

(wil^ provoke, w*^ disturb, \i;2^, WDV^, V^lt^), ^-fS is

a later formation from jijj^ from the rad. "il3.

ua^ Ijc^j f. the belly, the inmost or deepest part ; pi.

\hja-^. — Ar. yiyS, ^S the stomach of ruminant

animals, Aeth. ^CW: Heb. S'-]^, Chald. N*cn3, Sam.

s^^joa jlifljas « throne; pi. jzaxsjas. — See Chald.

gl. f<D1D.

u.4.Ls strike, strive or contend, IV. v_*.zL^z| *^;ve;<? ?e^/^^ w?^

another, fight, strive or ^.r<?;-^ ones self endeavour. —
Ar. ^dS, Heb. iJ'n^, Chald. u^n?, Sam. -^A^.


'^s^ to, for, according to, etc. Sign, of tlie accus. and of the

dat. — See
• Chald. gl. h.

|3 no, not. — See Chald. gl. )^.
— 62 —
JQ labour, he fatigued, exhausted ; perf. 3 s. f. iJlJ ^
2 m.

iw»lJ^ f. ^iw-p. etc.; impf. jlil, imper. ^y, inf. \\^ ^

1)3, ]|3. — See Chald. gl. ^n^.

I^'C /)^<? /^^«r/, the vi}ie?inost pa?'t or midst; pi. jzLkiii. —
See Chald. gl. i\
. -'^^ impf. -.s-sLJ /^w^ (9/^ clothes. — See Chald. gl. Mizh-


z'ii^ at, near, to or towards. See Chald. gl. ni^.

vv f-vv ^ night; pi. ]zn\'v\'. — See Chald. gl. h'h.

)Ie ii^L <7/^y article of furniture, j)ot or vessel, imple-

ment, dress; pi. plL. — See Chald. gl. |ND.

>c^ something. — See Chald. gl. CJ/"^.

i^j^^ impf. ZaLiJ, imper. zaio^ <//^. — See Cliald. gl. niD.

VioL death.
)''..v^ impf. I
"^"^y strike, bite or .y/;>?^ (an insect). See Ch. gl. f<nD.

'^s.l^ P!*-»L a storm; pi. jJsLlIL ivaves. — See

Chald. gl. hwxxi.

V4Csc impf. U^^ <70W6' /»^ happen; part, .^oio^is i^io /<6'

7vas able, had pofver. — See Chald. gl. n:?2.

V^lLc on account of, for ; jV^ because, since. — Chald.

'piJ^Jp, b^ICCJs*. Prob. comp. of <4^, ]^a-4>-^^ ^^'<? pe?iain-

ing to r? jia^oaii; //^ relation to, in consideration of,

because of; Chald. rtTCN*) and '\.

_i^. -jLiJj jj^j water. — See Chald. gl. jii^.

)jii^ hence; 'KXziLd hence to \. e. within, in. — Chald. N2jp;

comp. of ^ and \L here, Heb. n3, Chald. ^<^.

V*^ from this time forward, any longer : now, therefore.
— 63 —
Comp. of ^ and V^^ = Chald. |n2 hei^e, whence
yA^ri hence; comp. V^ioi then,the7'efo7'e, \^^ hitherto.
'\^ not used in I. — III. '^.1^ speak. — See Chald. gl. 'p^z:.

|so^ ] \ ^"^ , a word, saying; thing, matter (comp. "id~).

pi. ^ySi^ , U_^'. — Heb. Chald. n^^. pL Ci^.c, )fiji\

Sam. kv^, pi. -^mZ^.
jlii^ f. salt. — • Ar. XL, Heb. n'pc, Chald. rbo, Nn^c,

Sam. '^2,^; in Aeth. there occurs the denom. verl)

<P^^\ salt. From this word in the sense of the sea,

is derived

-v^^^ ^^, fi sailor; pi. }^vj. — Ar. _1^, Heb.

Chald. n^D.

-pio, iinpf. ^Xv^;^ counsel, advise; he king, reign. —
See Chald. gl. -j^jq.

^'v'^ )^'V^ a king ; pi. ^.-^v^^

^ roho? who ; also a particle = Gr. ^itv. — See Ch. gl. p.

qjlLj (for ooi ^) who is? also used for r,\C what is?
Chap. I. 8.

^ from, of, out of, etc. — See Chald. gl. ]?2.

^^ jlL^ 7vhat? what; adv. /^^.'* ('j-i'v/^X^ From Jjsa^

^'D, no, ^'/«/.'' and .n.

ai^ (for o 01 jiic) what is?

—li^i^ l-^i^, ^>^^ intestines, the belly. — See Chald. gl. iXyr.

fL£> li^as a possessor, owner, master; pi. _*j^. As a title of

respect, ^^^ = "t2"l, y.vQie, my lord, sir. Lord! ^ our
Lord (Christ), >aA^l ^j^ Mar Ephraetn, - ^ nov! ^^
J/«r Jacob, etc. A cognate form is

\^ J \l-^\ pi. jl^, ]zJ^. Def. )J!^^ Ó ;(i;(>foc,

64 —
the Lord. — Ar. g^c, g^/o, ^y_^ ^ man ; Chakl. -:c,

NIC, nc: Sam. '^^ 01^^.
-£io Mard-aioq, Matthew.

jlij ^ prophet. — See Chald. gl. N2J.

jzalaj prophecy, a jrrophccij.

^ be e.xtended, long. — See Chald. gl. ij:,

jj^"" long, j^rotracted, slow, gentle; jj^oj? j^.*^ = ""in

C^CN slow to anger.

r^J, inipf. ip^ jop^ ^w^'. — See Chald. gl. Tij.

|i^ « V07V ; pi. ]i,i.

]ioo « river ; pi. jiov^u — See Chald. gi. nn.*.

^ ^^ ^?//V/, tranquil. II. ^>v/v| r^^/, repose, cease or

r/<?^/^/. — See Chald. gl. niJ.

p'ij a fish ; pi. jiaj. •

— See Chald. gl. ji:.

:-iIj j iiiipf. ^s-Ij descend. — See Chald. gl. nilj.

i4j^ impf- r^^ ja^i, watch, protect, presei've, worship

(comp. *1CI^')' — ^^- y^ '^^'^' ohsei've, inspect , lSaJ>

watch, 1^ help, defend; Aelh. i&L,\ see, observe;

Heb. -1^:, -i:::, Chald. i:::, Sam.^\
^sjaJ impf. wsiiJ. imper. w:s. /^//iY'.
— See • Chald. gl. 2D:.

~° 1 impf. ^iki . imper. wXi= go — out. See Chald.

gl. pE^:.

• -°i )_4.sJ, f. Mt* breath, soul or spirit, life; pi. j^JUJ.

See Chald. gl. t^'sj.
. ;,

65 —

^..^ ^
inipf. Citi ^
grow, increase, he great or numerom. —
See Chald. gl. md.
-Z^, 11-^, f- )i^^. Ul--^^. much, fmmerous, great;
pi. ^U^', \]^, f. ^i^', |ili^\
|)_/a^ , constr. ^I-Jaa, fi great quaiUity , abundance;
with suff -j^a.»
^1-^0^7 ^foil^Qj^ ^
etc. — Chald. j<j;2'iD,

nwic, i2')D, •'JD, 13C; Sam. <TJ1^, <Tltl^; also ^Atl^
« myi'iad.

i^, impf. joiifli, <:'A>.9<?, *^?//. — Ar. jt^ r/rt';;^ « stream,
Heb. -12D in Nifal, Chald. nsp. Cognate rad.
liD, IJC; Aeth. AWIZ^: r^^r/^ /// a net or .9/?rt';'<?.

jjlsQjs a holt or (^rt-r; pi. j^a^. •
— Chald. N"iriD.

nV^w^ impf. ^^i , imper. wj», inf. ^^<^^ go up, ascend. V.

--ajo i
w<7X.r ascend, bring out. — See Chald. gl. p-^-Q^

wimio, \L^ ^
(Cast ell. jjimie) time of ascending, rising

pi. j.asa:sc

UiliS f. //^^ /^A lumd. — See Chald. gl. '^^y^^.

XLL coarse cloth, sackcloth : pi. pia. — See Chald. gl. pD.

^j3jj» not used in I. — III. ^^ empty, render vain and useless.

— Chald. p^D.

^a-kjjc. JjLjjo f. l^Ljj:, r^n-ijjo, empty, vain, useless : pi. ni.

U-^-fSi ^
f- iLL-jjij. — Chald. pnp.


jliv. . impf. pliiJ , do, make. — See Chald. gl. 12J?.

y-^ Ir-s^ . ^^'f^rk . deed or «^/, business. — Heh.
— 60 —
jjik. iiiiiit'. i-aii .
pffss bij or over. — See Cliald. gl. "i^y.

^I^ijI """^^^j;, ó'fl^*E! 3lllc, Hebrew.

U>ó^ ^/.v /<// ^/A-, w;?^//. Comp. of ^^ "j;, ^/^ A^* as, till,

and j::^^
,a:I be narrow, in grief or distress. —

See Ciald. gl. py.

jj!:^ ^ji^ jila:^ distress, anguish.

,_*i.^ )-i'.-r
f. the eye, a fountain; pi. \XiL eyes, \il^

fountains. — Ai'. JjI, Aeth. OJil: Heb. jy;, Chald.

N^^y, Sam. -^^ITIV.
V:!, impf. '\ali , inf. V^^ part. ^J:^, f. i)^ ,
go in, enter.

— See Chald. gl. b^y.

'V:! above, upon, on, over ; in addition to; against, etc. —
See Chald. gl. by.

Vil proj). a siibst. signif. the upper part ; hence as an adv.
'\jI^ upjvards, ^ V^ above.

Y''^^ . iifi^. any long indef period of time, eternity, the

universe or world. — See Chald. gl. D^y.

'/iL 7vith, along with. — See Chald. gl. Dy.

>a:I i'^^ . a people or nation, people, a multitude ; .-^C^v^

]'^v>^v — See Chald. gl. cy.

piica:^ a depth, abyss ; pi. jjii^ca^. — See Chald. gl. ^ry^.

\2lL or )iii f. sheep, goats. — • See Chald. gl. ]iSy.

jjiL f, Ijja:! til., ten. Hence jjiL?z m., y^soLhl f.. twelve

(see ^Vi.). — See Chald. gl. -loy.

wx^. impf. ^jsspJ .
/7rt^ — See Chald. gl. p-^^c.

w^lls throw up, vomit; Chald. ^Sb. A more usual signif.

of this verb is escape, in which sense it occurs in tiie

other dialects ; Ar. clJil, v^iJUj-, Heb. dSd, Sam. ^23-
\L> , W-J.S , impf. }iaj , ti/r/f, i-cturn. II. _o^z i
id. — Heb.

DJD, Chald. «>:^, ">;??, Sam. ^^^3.
^M^^ impf. >_cQ.L£ij r;//', decree or appoint. — Ar. (L^LJ
of fruit that ^^//Z their outer covering when ripe, e. g.

the date; Chald. ppD, Sam. C^3.
iji , 1^5^, « /^^zr/' w poi'tion, a lot; pi. ]^. — Ar. (joj

apiece, Chald. {<hC), NHliC). Another form is Jjas .

Uis. Chald. D^C); Aeth. l-4.: cr/^^ /o^*.

lys not used in I., sepa?^ate, open: Ar. ^-^i, Heb. n^*3,

Ciiald. kSiiD.
T :
III. ^Zs^
deliver, save ; Ar.
^lai. Heb. ny??,
Chald. N'^e, i^D, ^-^9, Sam. ^^113.

,_Ia , impf. jIsj order, command, decree. — Heb. 1(3B,

Chald. -1,^©, Sam. TC^.
^^as^ ]j^as, ff/? order, command, decree. — Chald.

npiD, Sam. TCt3 = Syr. \\L^. suitable, fitting, useful ; gen. used in the sense of it

is good, fitting.

^^, impf. '^o^ compensate or ;;?r/y(-<? ?//? /br, /?(fz^ a debt,

fulfil a vow, requite. — Chald. y")©.

_:^9as, jJLiIjcus, fulfilment of a vow, retribution, re-

quital, revenge. — Chald. \vrf\B an avenger, rT'rni©,

Sam. "^rn^^, revenge.

yL^2 . 1^4^^ . ''' word, message, decree ; matter, thing ; pi.

\Sjx1l2. — See Chald. gl. criE:-


j^. impf. I^ji 7vish, desire. — Ar. \SJo impf. ^-y^ love

Chald. 12V, ''?4' Sam. m^^,
>o^^ impf. >cc^, fast. — See Chald. gl. u\^.

y^ol a fast.

^^ he bright, shine, be hot. — Ar. ^L^ the sun, sun-

shine, 2 -^^v^- ^~»^5 ^^ ^/(f?<?r, evident ; Heb. ny ^^^

;'///^<?, n!i ^/^tfr, blight, wa?'m : Chald. Hiinv polish. —
See Aeth. gl. O-h^"
p , impf. p^ . ^^/2<^. ni. ^.Jii.^ prag. — See Chald. gl. N^K.

lia:^^ « prayer; pi. li^^^.

>o^fi impf. ysOfO^ be before, precede, anticipate or be be-

forehand with, in old Engl, prevent. III. >c'^ ;/«tfA:^

precede, do beforehand, anticipate. ^-^^ ^ .©Lij r^r* r=

*m<?^ y^ ^r^ aivare beforehand, ^^) .
-V ji^) >c^
jy?^ brother told me beforehand ; .ck^ q-dj^..* aic^
oifiaio-^-jac I
all the astronomers foretold; ac^^ ^nxh

n w/. ^ V ^,« outran Simeon. — Ar. ItXi" precede, |*jJ

approach, ai^'ive, IjJ <?•(:' ancient; Aeth. 4>.c<3^.' Heb.

Dip, Chald. D-ip., Sam. -^i^C.
>o^ iio^ //^^ front : as an adv. before, in presence

of — See Chald. gl. Dip.

"C^^ , f. i'Lkic,J ,
/5"r.c/. -
— Chald. HNC^p , Sam.

^A*il^C. Aeth. *?<^se::
— 69 —
«A,pj5 not used in I., he clean or pu7'e, kohj. III. ^'^ P'f^^'fy^

consecrate. — See Chald. gl. ^ip.
wA-4-^, \-LJfl , f. l-^rJ=, |iC.4-i.>i, holy, sacred. — Ar.

(j-.^tXiiJt or y^^jLftJI 6W; Aeth. 4>JC.£i: Chald. IS^njP,

Sam. -^^frlTC; Heb. Phoen. i^'ip (inscr. Sidon.).

Vd^ iL\ M<? voice, sound; pi. Ui". — Ar.

Jli, <?

word, saying; Aeth. $ A." Heb. Phoen. ^p (inscr. Melit. I),

Chald. \^, Sam. 2.C, itC.
>cu5, impf. >calj, imper. >caj=, m<^, ^/V/;?^'. — See Chald. gl. Dip.

>a4uD impf. >eQ4aiJ, <"?//, break. — Ar. "A^ cut, bite, Chald. c^p.
>a4u5 . ^ia^uo . ashes. — See Chald. gl. CLTp.

Vo be light, swift, small. V. Vif lighten. — See Chald. gl. hbp.

^.2^ i. e. ro'Uai, xecpaXatov, a chapter or section; pi. jlio.

]^, impf. ]^. r'//^ cry, proclaim, call on, invoke; name,

read. — Ar. Q; Heb. N-j|"^, Chald. N-jp, Sam. A'^C.

11^ rt' gourd. — Ar. Cjj', itcj.*, Chald. ^^-ij:?, np.
^i^, impf. _cc^ ,
be near, approach, — See Chald. gl.D"lp.

.a? not used in I., be large, great, numo^ous. — 'See Chald. gl.22'',

-s, i^i , f. }^?j 1^^'. /<7/'^6', great, numei'ous ; as a

subst. //^<? headman, chief, magistrate, etc.

ijLcjoi not used in the sing. ;
pi. llsjoV chief men, nobles,

or}?, lio^i , ^^^'f thousand, a myriad; pi. jioisV.

j^. impf. j^ji increase, gi'ow. III. ^^i »««X:^ grow, rear,
educate. — See Chald. gl. t?31.

'^sl f., U^r:?! m., /^^/;v; pi. ^^^h\ forty. — SeeCh. gl. y2"l{<.

i^L^K I"- lK^:^s. A>^//-M. - Ciiald. nNy^3-i,Sam.gAV(7l3'^.
—- 70 —
)-^? . iiiipf.
1 Jji , be anyry. — See Chald. gl. m.
I^^ei angei'.

]?? impf. Ijii, prop, tread, hence go, set out, flow; bestow
paifis 01 labour upon, study (comp. *^"}"), educate;

chastize. — Ar. ^S^ tread, stamp, crush, go, ^Ss
perish; Heb. TTn tread, yo, rule; Chald. «l"i flow,

spread out, plough, row, chastize, rule ; Sam. ^T^.
\rtL^ a journey. Also iLkjjio.

^^Ih be 7vide, spacious; have ample roo77i ; be refreshed,

relieved. V. ^-^o' 1 ndcn, expand ; refresh, relieve. —
Ar. I..r be wide, spacious, Heb. nn, Chald. nn, Sam.
^t^r^S^. Pi-ob. "^y nn, stands for
^y nzi,

transposed from Ch.^\^ -u'] (comp. ^'t'^, jiw^oj, with

3'n"l, ijli:^^; and ^|TI5'^, '^^'^^'^
-7l)- Comp.

"^y ^:^i'm, opp. to ^U, p^v^, n^, n~^^, etc.

Jk ^ impf. -^c jj . breathe, smell or _$(^/^'<? scent; from the

drawing of a full breatlj are derived the signif. of

'being reheved' or 'at ease', whence III. w.ulf soothe

or appease; and of 'rejoicing'. — Ar. _tr, impf. «^i^»

^/o;^' (the wind); L, impf I ^j or ^^-j, *wt7/ any-
thing, Heb. nnn, Chald. nnvv, Syr.^^0, Sam. ^fil'^ A;

_t^, impf. ^!^T, ;<?/-o/r^.

.„.koi^ )-Ic9^ m. f. breath, the soul or spirit, the witid;

m. M<? Holy Spii'it. — See Chald. gl. nn.
>c*I^ impf. >alii,' love. III. >a»Ii /6>z'^, )^r/y^ pity upon. —
See Chald. gl. en"!.

jivn^. -^vo compassionate, merciful.

izaii.*^:^: compassion, merry.
— 71 —
^£«» not used in L, be soft, gentle. III. ^h hrood over as

a bird. — Ar. UiL^y ^L"., be soft: Heb. F]rin.

\xLjJ^ compassionate, 7ne?'cifuL

h be distant, reti7'e, depaj't. IV. wal^zj be re?noved, reti7-e.

See Chald. gi. pri"'.

j-^5. ^'//ó' /^''6?; pi. l^^y, — See Chald. gl. ti'^'*.

j^j throw, cast; used in I. only in the particip. ]:^l and |jLdj

(sometimes \Lhi) V. ^.^^f id. — See Chald. gl. {<d-i.

\.h ^
impf. J^ji, /'?/?^/ or feed a flock; in trans, /^-^, graze.
— See Chald. gl. N'y-i.

'^I-J , impf. '^^ili ^
ask, demand, entreat. — See Chald. gl. ^nlS'.

'^q-La. ,
a word borrowed from the Heb. ^%S*!^', which has
also passed into the other dialects imder the forms

fu^A.: S\^^, IXC^^^, and even into old Pers. as J^
shot and ^^C^yij sholman.

impf. s_calL4i, let go, dis??uss, pardon; pei'mit ; let

alone, forsake, abandon, leave behind (comp. ZS^v)-

Chald. p2^', Sam. CS"*^. Hence the exclamation of

Jesus on the cross: Elw'i, tlwi, 'kafxa oa^ax^civr.
^:r\p2\i/ nDh in':'^ ^nbif.

impf, ]^, throw, cast; Chald. \^~\^. A secondary

formation, somewhat after the manner of Shaf'el, from
the rad. riT' th7^07v (comp. DHt^, >c-La. , be black, from

on, >al, be hot; TW be blacky from in be dry or

parched; 'rpii', Vojk. , lift up, carry, perhaps connected

with Xi id.).

— 72 —
burn. — Ar. ^. ^ > ^w/v/, sco?'ch, of heat and cold:

A^ kindle, burn: Heb. Di2l2' /7«w^.

j^3-»r /<^tf/, drought.

., always with |
pref., ^.Jl*.) find, be able ; impf. w»Lo,
inf. oJ^Li^ ,
part. - ^-Tav^

iL., "-^XA,^ impf. U^^ cease, be quiet or tranquil. — Ar.

^Ll, impf. ^JLIo; Heb. n^l^', 'b}i;, Chald. i^r^, tt^ii/.

>clLi. , impf. >cIiLo, be entire, safe or 7vell, complete or

finished. III. >ai^ ^
»z«^^ entire, finish, fulfil a vow. —
See Chald. gl. o'l'li'.

).V4. . )yv4^ ^^? *>y, Z/^^' heavens, heaven. — See Chald.
gl. N1DK'.

^\\.A., impf. ''^jaLi. /^?tf;% obey. — Ar. 1^, Aeth. i\.<pXi\

Heb. Phoen. ycK', j;^;^' (in'^cr. iMelif. T.), Chald. ycK/,

Sam. V^-*^, C^-^.
> ^v^A. , |-k!^aX . m. f. //^^ sun. — • See Chald. gl. ]^]2:f;

j.^ .
impf. -^L.! . be beautiful, please. — See Chald. ^\. *)DH.

j.=Ljk, . 1^
= a" , M(? morning.

Vilfc. . impf. "\c.jLkJ. ///' ?//;, car?v/ . fake atray. -~ Chald.

hpv;, Sam. i?-^.
j»J /i*^ firm. — Aeth. ^,L,'' found.

5=^ . ihz^ , a shoot or sprout, tendril.

1^. impf. jil*.j. loosen or ?/////>. 111. ^j.^ (^<^j//>a — See
Chald. gl. n-wi^.

-La.) (for ^p^). impf. )L*i , rt^W/^X-. — See Chald. gl. kXnr.
73 —

^z ,
impf. i^ii ^ hreak. II. -^z^. \ pass. — See Chald. gl, "i2n.

ioonz //^^ ocean. — See Chald. gl. Dinn.

Ci, Cli, ^ c?^o?im. — Ar. b', whence the denom. verb

'IS crown; Chald. N:n; from the Pers. i, Li. , inipf. wsoLj ,
return, repent. — See Chald. gl. Din.

^Soi «^ ox ; pi. I^oi. — See Chald. gl. *nn.

Zoz helom, beneath, under; with. sufF. ^-L^z^ -oioia»z, etc.

— See Chald. gl. ninn.

C^oi ,
def. \h:;^ol ,
a worm , cate?-pillar. — See Chald.

gl. ny^in.

<.z f., l2^z m., three. — See Chald. gl. ntTl.

lli^z third. Chald. HNH^'^n, Sam. -^AAlTlZA.
^1 there. — See Chald. gl. jDH.

^?z^ t:-"^*^,
^^'^? ^^'^' ^''^'^- Hence jjiL^z ,

\^h>l^ twelve. — See Chald. gl. pn.
\Ll:tz, f. \L^hz^ second.

<pó^4:: o:

®^i: $a: tiinh-nhC: -ia: prn: (da:?: A^-t: t

(D^ay\° :: i w}\ : (Dxh-c:^) ii^: inc: ^a^:^) (Dn-n^: 2
Ax?^: ^fi^: ^a.'O ^'QP-*^: -Jftp:: (Di^z.:pffi:«D't"?^A: 3
•firfbZ;: -fCAfi 'h<^ifi: "hinh-nOhC <D(DZ.s uiz.: h.FA:
: :

(DZ.^n: xhc^z.: H^i^ij-: -ntthi,:^) -tcfbti: (D-t^a:
/hcpz::'^) (D^q: ar**: ^n^: <?^fiAU<?^: -tcftif)

2i(?^iA: MRA-fi/ibC :: (DA<?^/tA: MaA-nrfbC i4.: ^a?: 4

(D-fi-t-: Orhc: (D^-flp:^) ^óha: Qrhc: ©-r-^^i^cn:

/h^C<7^: ti^p: j^nQC" (DACU-: ^W*: (DAotpo).: 5
T^A°cf^: -ia: Ac^^A^-tirc?^: (Dhti-vp^h-: (DiJ^s^'.wti^i

iQrhc: iTP-c^: ^<p: ji*A.A:'') acpc^: (Dcdz.;?: Fffi:
ar-r: ^ciu: a^pc: (DC<3«: (Dlrhz.:: (D(DZ.jc: -jau-: 6

Hrhsz.:^) (D^aA-: <p^^:j) jpiorcp^: i-lwTi: (DAgtó:

«)p. (Di^c: ")?. ii.^: uiz,: oqp: '^)p. adds "2
'') Yar. jh1Z,I *") \\'anting- in one I\Is. and P.
f) var.
(d^d: Slav: 0'r;5^A: ?i<?^i&: ") p. (Doap:
»')P. JP^AA: >) Var. HJii.JC-4:: J)Var. i^'i^f.:
*^) Var. (DAoro : ti<p: h<^\^^ :
5 : : : : :

— 76 —
7 (D-i-qutv: nn^r-tifc^: lo-: i^^ear: a)rK<?^c: no^i;

8 A.0 A : Fffi :: (d^aa^ : l°z.i : nnjii : (^"i^ ") /.^n-ti :

H±: ?iYxt-: ©ce^ll-:") iom: (bhcph^-^: <f^fiJ\Ki:

(DA^-fe: iTiCD-c: (DAji-t: -n/fbC^: (D<e^i-: ihH-n^::

9 a)JiftA'C^:pf:on^*E:Ai:")(DA<?^\^p:2i'2aAnrfbC:
lOAtfPA^: ^^ip) m-nz.: aftiz,: (DP-fi:: (DACU-:

(DhJ\(PCfD : 'ho^'i'^ : ó^cor :
") Kia^ : 7\<?^7/i : Ji^zaA-fi A,c

11 'r:5^A:?ic;=: iic<^:: (DjiftAjD: c^'i-r: tii^: iz;a^:
(DJif5J^•Ji:'^) o/hc:") 'hticp'.ji'tmD'ii: a^c: (D^^iuiA:
i2^<!jnA: ^a^:: (D^aA°c^: Fffi: l\"2t£: (DarccD-l*)
arfi-r: aihc: (dp-jjc-7^<^ : aihc:") Ai: hh<pc:')
Hi(f^: ati'i'thp: ^/tA!a<?^: mi:: ct^óiia: ^aji::
13 (DZL^;?.:^*) ^cp:^) fi-cppii>: <Pi-iA: (^j^q: k^t^^-i*:

14 ^oaa::^) OAorpd),: W7\«<^: rsaz.: -n: ^laA-nrfbC:
(D^ayb: rh: a^: Ma^: ^rf'^4:Ai: nn^i: i^t/t:
Am-P: -fiTia: (DA^^z;a: aoai: ^c^p: f{^^: htKJ^:
1 All- : ti'iiUi : H^^ : a,^^^ : laca : : ^) a)i wj^p :

AFfa: (D(Dz.(irfl): ora: aihc: (DAC^^'^j^^:") aihc::

1) Mss. og »') p. <pj. ••) p. <?^5^
»)Var. andP. l-flZ,: MaA-flffbC ! Ai :

P) One ms. adds (Dt^^^C^C
var. >iS(ir : -^cv-r: ^ap: i?\a<?': ht^cpQfD: ^i<^:
') Var. ^-^.C-li : ^) Var. i^^ÓflA I <) P. (DCDCd)-! I

") Var. cr^óiiA.: ^) P. A?i<PC>: '') (D-t-QAa:
^) Wanting in one Ms. and P. > ) Var. £^A05l .*

*) P. (D^^iui2\ : ^: \" «)var. "^nc:
") Var. (DAC<^<P:

~ 71 ~
(Dwo: AMH.A-fixibCi'J'WTo-i :(Dn^2i.:-fl^A-t-:: :: ::

(p; B:
(DAHh: ?iaH.A-nA>c: o^nz.: ^ap: Pxhin:<^)APffi: i

(Difiz;: Ff: (DjU-i^cuj: aira:'!) ujA.-cp^A^-t-:*^)
(DUJA: AA.!-^):: (D&ap: Fffi: ami-:^) ^OJu: 2

Aini: ^n: MaA-nrTbC: A<?^AYb: (D^a:: Aorpar^: 3
n<?^i:cap: MaA-oA.c: a<?=ayxp: (D<?=^£:

narn-p:") ^cuj: *a£: >^^•ip:') (D<?=^£: $ap::
00Z.a)i: (D--p: Aa:J) afhc: (dd7*£: A-itAi: <d^^a: 4
AOAP: tp-a: ^óoa^^: cd^'z;?-^'^):: (Da^a: 2\a: 5

0\v\ a-p: cp*;cfi^:: orfliH:'") <^f : J^a^: i4:ap: 6
(Doi-p: *4^: orf-^-p: (D-pa^<^: c^^ap: (D--p:
i^ud-p: Ajc-ac"):: (D0z;;c'Tb: ora-p: (p^c-c: J^i-p: 7

o/for: cpfai-tv: ?\<?='4:'?^z.'P : ^A(^: (Ddq^: ")

A<?^fcP: 2i<?=i: <?^ac: ih^CD^P:: [in the Oxford Ms.

verses 5, 6, and 7, are as follows. (D?ia: •Pxh'V'AYPf-

^13: ^^(^^^(p: Aó£i-t^: UA-Ybj.: JiCAji: rqhv'.

cp^sa^:: AfiHHi: ^jb: ?ia^: c^^ap: *a£i: ru-:
C?iap: •pijj^^J': (ir-p: i*^±-p: a^c-qc:: uxdz.;?^:
ara-p: <p^c: *ft<^: ^Afh4»: i-ih-p: ^óo: ih^ol-p:

•=)var. (dahf: ?\: A^a.E: Ainzi: vhi^\
'^) p. D^n C : and above OlflZ. I ^) Var. ÓA "P I

^) Var. A JAP ! «) P. flOrfl-p : »>) Var. (STirt \

*) Var. ^CUJ:a^A:$A:/?'^fhp: j) p. adds *ap:
'') One Ms. adds 'h'i'V'. 4ÓAP: :5A;«:: ^)Var. litVi:
»') Var. (D'5HH£ : sic. Var. ^f-flC:

") One Ms. ^ÓCI and oniils the next 3 words.

— 78 —

9 4>^<7?^ /?Cii : : ^*sfi^ :: 5\A : ^^ft- :
^1+ (DA-r:

1 ixi^ : uiuAoc^ : : (DAl: r) <?==fiA : $a fi-fl'Tii-

(D-t-a^p-:^) KiucD-o: A^: a^mi: raj^h^: nihjJcD^p:

11 A^WP-IAMRA-flfibC" (DAHFiMILA-D/JbC: AOTAl':^)
AMz: jor^h: AFfn: (D-fi-f: <?=sc:') (DAorifh:

Orfi: c^^Q:: [in the edition of Petraeus these four

verses are as follows. (DtH^ra^: AXlILA-flxibC

fifi: -JA*^: i4:p: >icp\OAP: ^--nnfti: aa°^p:
-io^a: it: <p:: (d^aa: po^it: H\: ®: 7: ui::

©Aifr: n^^A: iiA^-p: 2\ii: a^: (DAmaró: a^::
'ff'j\?: na^tiHi-: hL^vHi: nfhjitD^p:: (D-i-ahh:

AKiRA-niibC: (ir?\*: uinz: ©Aor^h: AFf: (d-: <?^::]

cp: r!

1 (D^i: S'a: MaA-fliibC: Je°<^: -Jii: Ff: (D^aA-::
2 -tlwK: (Dih-c:') ii^: uic: ^aji:") (Dn-n^a: a><^:
3 n'n^: ^k^:') ti-n^a-rr') Whax^: hi" (di-iwa:
prn: (Di^z,:ii^:n^<?=: j^aA iMaA-n/ibC: (i>ii'SA:
^Qji:^) mc:^2i-t."^) AMaA-n/fbC: a)<?=DT.c- *it^:
'A<?^Ai*i5-: Ah'i^zc: cpmr. cp/hTZ,: lUA-n: cptóa:
HMc^):: (DAA*: fa?i: uiz.: n^:«) 'h<^hiTi,:

P) Var. Al : •!) Yar. fl^D^P- ! ^) One Ms. omits Gf'h'P !

®) One I\ls. omits these 3 words and adds APffl." after (DAflT/th I

*)p. (D/T<: ")p. i£T: mz.: oqp:
') p. H^.^C^ : • '') One Ms. and P. -fl^" '.

^) Var. ^a£: ^') One Ms. and P. Gfh-p '.

^) One Ms. has AAlRA-fl/IbC: (D<?=fhTZ,: UJA-h'. OA^:."
P. Atii : <7^mi : <?^rhTZ, : lu : : «) var. oa^ :
: :

— 79 —
<jA^: (D.Ea: hcifi: cptóa: ujA- •'j l--i A-i-*/\
ii^:: (DAiPf.: a-oa: ii^: n$A: A^jRA-firihC : 5

(Dj-inY>: i^p; cda-Oiy: nr*: ih-fK?^: cD^aF^^: iDhh-r-p:
h\(\iw<3^: (Din^: or-t-: a^p;?:: (D<p^: ^t-uj: 6
?i^: (D-r^wA: h<pi: <p'ia/^: (DAX-t-t: AAaaii-:
(DA-n: nr*: (Dinz,: ori-: ap^:: (Da"^: I7w: 7

AJi«: (DAon^-t::') (DjBa:nA:(D2\lii:(DAAU^-:
(DKnitj ^.
h,j£^-imu-: (\)h,<^'i^i: (Dh,je^z.DE: (D/x^fi-t-E:

^p:: (DA-n-: ur*: OA:') (DA^firi: (DAcirro). : -jn : 8
A-aaA-fl/fkC: '^az;: (D-j^c^: w- a?: A'np: <p^nc<^:
(D^(p^: HCD-fi-r: "A^'Eirt^^^:: (D^a^: ^i-: pa^c: 9
A<;^: ^^fh: 'hinhncLC (D£<J=^'i^: ^^iir-^:-!-: ^p^-t^:

(D/s.iPdr : ?i^^:: <S)Chv: MiiAniftc: <p°Jac<?^: 10
^ip: ifirif : 7i^4:^-i-^ : A^^ : "hiKh-ndtd.-^) itith:

'h<^u: mD:^)A^p: 'ii(p:mi\c:)\<jAU<J^:mh,i-nc
A¥>p :: :: ::

(p: v:
(D+iH : Fffi : ^ap : ^'aa : (DAHi ") :: (daap : -ja : 1

MaA-firhc:') (d^a: Ma^: A^f.: icpn: Aa: 2
a-n/fbCP: (DiiJil:^) Tfiii^: -Pijni^Y^: cftfi: t^^^p:
AAc?=c: vicp: cp/hz: Ali-: ocP-i-iriuA : Oi-*: <:?=^':

0-n»;5: (j^Hiz.!-: (Dhj?*: (D^ifi/h: n?iM-: ^u^::
One Ms. and P. UT Ajfi: cPT<J^:

*)So P. —
The one Ms. has (D: 1: Aii^ : AlO/i^:
(DA^aP-<?^: the othermerely (Da^: A^H^I^:
") The Oxf. Ms. has ©^Afl- : H-fYh '.
W^ '.

•) p. (DM f)
One nis. li^ijui : p. "hcPi : Hia/i :

*) These 2 words are wanling- in one Ms.
^) Wanling in one Ms. One Ms. adds '')
h(p\^ I

j) var (Daapi:
: : : :

— 80 —
4 ^-i^: <J=*E^: 'h<^\S(Xp:: (D^thA?: tiiKh-ndhC:

h<puic: (Diaz.: Al*ii: mc: (Di-nz,: iV^-t: Ai-t:

(Diaz.: rf-fh-t: aaa^^-: ?i^: jiLh.: B^HiGr'i: uic.
6 (DAHh: MH.A-a/ibC: iiK^'ih^: (Da*oA: ©iUA:
<p^<J^^i^: c-^fr: AFf:™) ^i^^: h.pAi<p^: e'hf :")

(D-t-zLWm: Ff: ^ap: ^tW'h: n'h'i't: A<?^/ii<p::

7 (DAhh: Max-arfbC: ai^j.*: 0^: (D^+a: A^^^-t:^)
8 ih<^ih<p: (D p-a^ :: (duj z*: e'^i^: ahh: p) MaA-aifbC
ifi: ^Li,\ Ha'(D'^: (DAfh<?=<p: e^^: c^ft-: AFf:
0AiaH: (Di-«i»o^^^:'') i^t^-: (D^a: ^-ixni: ^p^ei-:

y 'h<^ii\^(xr\\ (D£ai\-: AiaA-aiibC: APffi: ^*f.:
-t^Hi:'^) a^l-t: iii(?=/iic?^ : (D^a:') '^*: -i-in^:
10 Jifi^: A«p^'):: (D^aA-: MaA-aifbC: Al+: '\-<^h^\

/h<P/h«P: Hli.8<:P(D-i: (DA.<l'^^:") HAA,+ a4»oA^: :

n (DAA.!-: 'P+-:: (DAii-:^) A^<?^fh^i: Aii^: uic:
^a^: hua(d:^^) (D-fi-t-i-: -aJ^: z.^4.jc: \<^i:

i(DBpeK/v:^) A./\m-:>) 93^<?^: (DPc^^tc?*: m'h'itifi:

•aaf^:: :: ::

•t/i.«<p: HP-ffi: ia.E::

•^) \yanling- in one i\Is. ') Var. -fVlHYl
'") So P. — The one !\Is. (DAAA^ : Psl I : C?ifr : APffl : (he olhor

(D/iAA°: APffi: <?=: c: APffi:
") One Ms. and p. ^<p: ^^Ayv: 7\<?=^e'Ti£ : 2\<?=;hc?^^:
") One Ms. and P. A*H^:
(D^-tAo: •) Var (DUJ z,*: e: (DAHH:
") One Ms. (D+4»o^o : i-^^\ P. (Dt'^po's^D i^fi:

') P.^-t^*H: ")Var.(D^aA>: Pfn: ') Var. AiP^E^:

") p. (DHA.: ') p. (DAlri ^') Var HUA(D.:
^) p 'h<^y)\\i c-t^: (D^A^,-t: }^A4:: ?iA: >) var. a.r/i.a/ii-:

UA0: conlracled U A?', impf. S^M be.

\yS\\ impf. PUCD-^i: disturh, agitate. VII. Udr^ : impf.

Ji^UCDii: pass. — • Ar. dye t)e silly, simple, ti)«-gJOo

confounded, stupified ; cogn. I,Lp, impf. ^>-^j excite,

be excited, iSJ^\ violent (wind).

MIV. a city; pi. K^i'hO — I^'^'' and KWh^,\~L^'\^'^ Ar.

wsuo in the dial, of Yaman.


a: to, for, according to, etc. Sign of tiie dat., and also of
the accus. (see Chald. gl. h), with a preceding pron.

suff., e. g. Gen. II. 7. (Dl-nC: MaA-fl/ibC: A-flh:
}i<?^i : <:?=>^l' : <?=*.C'C : ^//^</ '^^? made man (lit. made-
liim, man,) of the dust of the gi'ound. It is likewise

used, with a preceding pron. suff., to circumscribe the

genit., e. g. 'h<^i\ J?^o^: A2iA: fC-fl'5: of the
blood of those giants ; AiA.^'^ I AAC^5 \ Pharaoh's
drea?n. — With pron. suff. A.-!*:: A^: A^:: A?*: A*::
Ai:: A^<^\ A5il:: a?<^: a-i: or j^-f-v.'.

— 8'2 -—

\{J<^: an ox: pi. KK^<^^\\
A-fi: the heart; pi. AAQ-fi:: An: Qfhc: == u\-zh^ the

depths of the sea. — See Cliald. gl. zh.

A-fl! impf. ^A-flfi: siibj. JBAflfi: put on clothes. — See

CliaM. gl. ^Vlb.

A-fln: a dress; pi. AAQfi " Ar. j^.
AOA: upon, above; to, ton-ards, against; corresp. to h^ in

the other dialects (see Chald. gl. h^;). With suff. AOAP:
AóA^: etc. 2^<pAóA! from off, a wan P'om, from
(bjJc). — Hence is formed a verb AAOA! raise, exalt,

and oilier derivatives, e. g.

<P^<3^^ '. an elevated place, top, summit; adverb, ace.

cPAóA! over, above.

AA.^: night; pi. APAJB" — See Chald. gl. ^5^^.

Al*: a hut; pi. A.1±1".': Perhaps from the rad. ^'
go in, enter (comp. Sanskrit vica-s , For/.o-g, vicu-s,

from the rad. vie).

AA*I impf. £A^4>: adhere, he united. IV. AAA*: make
adhere or approach, unite; intrans. be near or on the

point of, followed by tlie subj. ; chap. III. 4. (DAAii.*!

XQK: UIZ.: (we may supply H\(P'.). — Ar. ^3^,


ih^: impf. Pfh<P<?^: ^<? afflicted, sick. IV. AfhtfP<P: //^/;Y,

distress. — Ar, l.^*. warm, make anxious (see Syr.

gi. >c^). *-= //''/^v' fever, (^^s.): |V^ w^/Ay?, anxious,

— 83 —
fh^«?^! distress, disease. — Ar. IU_a. fever, IL^

rh<?^ih<p: a goiif^d.

/iicJ^Ci a ship: pi. Afh^^C"' Perhaps connected with Ji^la.


^(P^'. ashes.

itLL,l,\ be hot. — Ar. y^, Heb. in, Aram, in, -^1.

j^CI (formed liked 11 a /), f. /hCC"! (hirriirt) hot, scorching.

«^: prop, a verb optat. in the perf., absit ; ihil', AH\'. far
be it from thee I Ar. Jij \jXL, ilj Li-L., dLili*;

Aram, "q^ d", ^ aa*I, ^i^^ (Gesenius, Carm. Sa-
marit. II. 1 6. V. 6), ^ITIT^VZ* it^^ far be it from
thy sei'vantsl Gen. XLIV. 7.

ih(D: impf. JBdbA-: //>.

Afl^.' falsehood, a lie.

fi^l.\ impf. PAOrC: sLibj. £/T»C: (£xfrC:) imper. /T>C: (A-C)
go. — Ar. X^ return- Hence ATCJP" \S)^y=^


<?^/hTC' space or distance, a journey ; 2i<?'fhTZ,;

chap. III. 4 = "h*?^: <?=aiTZ,::

fh'H'fl! (T/ ^^>^/y 6/" men, tribe, nation: pi. /i^hH-fl .'.'

jya*., pi. v»>ysk.

fhHil and xhUi ! imi)f. PihH^: be sad, soii'owfui —
fhHH : cough. IV. AlhHH \ make cough, choke.

ih^U): impf. P/hP: subj. ffhPOr: inf. ih^Or: (for /hR(D-:)

//>r. — See Chald. gl. NTi.

£hX®^: ///^. — Ar. g^, iU^s..
— 84 —
iTifCA! iiiipf. £i!b.C'4^! stee7\ direct, protect, save. — Ar.

oJ^is. the helm or rudder (jLui^JI ^LXlw), Aeth.

ih>A: jPc'm/^. VII. 'Tih'hA: or VIII. •Tih'VA: id.


<PAfh4>: an anchor. From (^^.sJ adhere to, reach or


^A^: iiiipf. JB<^AYi: rule, govern. — See Cliald. gl. I'^r.

A(?=A^: ' ^<?^, God; pi. A^^^^:: It is itself, like

cn't'N, a plur. (remnant of orig. polytheism) from i^d

a king , which occurs in the Himyaritic inscript. (see

Rodiger's Transl. of Wellsted's Travels, p. 398, or his

,.Versuclr', p. 27).

<^fh^: and <?=>/hZ,: impf. ^c^^iC .'
subj. JL<^M,\ have
mercy or compassion upon. — Transp. from DPll; see

Chald. gl.

(Pf^L\ (mahhari) compassiojiate, merciful.

<?^mZ,T: compassion, mercy. — Ar. x,^.

<?=fh^: and iP/h^: impf. f<^5i!a: subj. f<pifi^: 7?//^,

<^tv^ : ;^7V/^ With sufT. <?^fiAP : <pfiA^ : etc.

^i: r^?/', pe?ish. — Ar. ^j^l become put?'id (esp. water).

^'^fif ! putrefaction, corruption, destruction.

^f-: (for ^ITJ-:) ?^'/^^? accus. <J=i:: Ar. ^, gen. ^,
ace. \jue\ f. aUuo, v.j^jje; etc. — See Chald. and Syr.
gl. p. ^.

— 85 —
(^"i^: what? ace. <^^'V\\ }s<^V\^y, not even a single

thing. Another form is <SW (Heb. ic who?).

d^5;cn: not used except in VII. l-cP^JfO: be afflicted, dis-

tressed, in danger : denom. from
<?^lJCn>: affliction, distress, danger: pi. <?^lJc-njP^::

Connected with Ar. i»jjó = .U a., danger, y>jó he-
wail the dead.

(PYlS.'. to, towards.

'Pf: inipf. ^(P(SF^\ subj. £<?^-: ^//t'. — See Chald.

gl. niD.

(P<SFl^\ and «P1^: coll. ;Mi^<^5, a storm; pi. c^^TIJ?-: and
'P'iJ?^:: Prob. from a rad. m^\ = Chald. -12: /7o/^^,

which see.

(p[)x^:: See (doa::
^oAA: coll. waves, billows; pi. ^CrflA^:: Perhaps con-
nected with isj; jy^-*^ % or <?^^?-, inundate (Jes. VIII. 8,

Nah. I. 8). See Chald. gl.

(P{)^ '.
anger, rage.

^;b: ivater ; pi. <H^^\\ See Chald. gl. |"D.

<^m: impf. £cP^^: subj. ^<Pi/^\ bend, turn, turn away,
avert; bring back, convert. VIII. 't'(P^i^\ turn, re-

turn , be converted. — Ar. ioLo , impf. iiA4.j , turn

a?vay , retire from , drive off; Heb. t:»D, Syr. «_^ifi

waver, shake.

(p.C'C* ^/^^ €a7'th, land. — Ar. .Joo clay, mud: Syr. |i^
r clod of earth.
<PQii\ impf. ^<H'^'\\ measure.
— 86 —
(Pih'i'. Measure, quantity, quality, )W7'th, merit (conij).

KtXi'). <^iM\ iiAJi¥>! as much as (whatsoever , all)

I have vowed. Chap. II. 10.

<PRK\ come, find. IV. K<^KK\ cause to come, bring. —
See Chald. §1. n:c, and add Syr. |^ able, -^^1
he able.


UIOA! gentleness, clemency, pardon. — Ar. J^^ be smooth,

level, lU. J^Lu; be kind UIUA to. Hence ! be gentle,

pardon ; and the verb. adj. ^UIUA. gentle, : gracious.

W4j1: obsol., rn^ji: and gen. THAfi-t:: three. — See Chald.
gl. Tbr\.

UIA^il^: or OIA^ilX: f. — iTi'E^: or —a: and UJA:
f. DIAfil-: (Ar. Iw'b) third

TUA-: M/T'd', with nouns of time, as ÓA^ ! and AAu"!!

UJZ;*: rise (llie stin). — See Chald. gl. njl.

UJ*: sackcloth; pi. UJ$: AW$*: AW$$^:: See

Chald. gl. ^^.

wo: inipf. ^TU(D-ó: subj. fUJ-O: sacrifice. — The Phoen.
nyiii (inscr. 3Iassil.), denoting a particular kind of offer-

ing, seems connected with tliis \er).

cPWTO: a sacrifice; pi. cPOIOTó : ^^^'WTód--::

C/h^ : inipf. JRCrh*: suhj. XCfh* : be distant, retire. —
See Chald. gl. pn"^.

Cih-* : (form lltS^J. f. Cfh4> : (rihhukt) distant.

remote. Cxh-* • ^O"! slo)v to anyer , forbearing

^^11'^' ^CfH^^ Geseniiis, Carm. Saiiiaiit. II. 19).

IjP^'. not used. IV. KC.<P<P\ he silent, tranquil.

Z.P: iiiipf. £Z,.: subj. £Z,.: put or j^lace (hence wilh

a: or A.ÓA.' lay to ones account, impute, chap. I. 14);

do or make.
C-flO: obsol., /.-flD-: and gen. ACQ'^'t: four. — See Ch.

gl. i?2-l.X.

^•n^^: — ^^: f. ^•n4'El: — ^^: and ^•nó:

f. ^•nó^: (Ar. LC) /(^z/r/;^.

CKH: the head: pi. ACl^n^:: See Chald. gl. )V^^..

C5iP: inipf. ^LK\ subj. ^C^^: imper. C^.' inf. C?i£: (fur

Cl^JB!) see. — • Ar. ^!^, Heb. TNn.
/.^fl : impf. JBZ.^l'fl I find, obtain : befall or happen to,

with ace. of the person, chap. I. 7, 8.

cop: impf. ^U\'' and ^C^I subj. J^COJ!! take to pasture.

tend a flock. VIII. I'Z.OP : /tw/, ^/Y/r<'^ — See Chald.

: but, indeed: always affixed to other words, as Al!
AAfi :

<?^U! impf. ^<?=*ó: /^c'^;-. — See Syr. gl. v^v^^*--

fi<?^: ^/ name ; fame or renown (as in Heb. CJ^n \l^JkN! Gen.

VI. 4, ci!^"''.^':^ Num. XVI. 2, D.:i'~"'':.nN2 p^;] Gen.
IX. 26, rather than the tents of Shem"). — See

Chald. gl. u-^.

A^JB: the sky, heaven: pi. ^J" See Chald. ^. ^^i::^'.
— 88 —
^P! \n\\)L fi'i$! rrater, in'iyate. — Ai'. ^Juw give to

drink, iryate ; Heb. ni^l'"; Aram. "(p^N, , . n *1 , (TiC^^A
and ^C-^ (Pa"el).

I'll!: when, nhihl: aftei-.

-flih! impf. JEA-fl&l praise, glorify. — See Cliald gl. n2t^*'.

fi-fl'h't' : praise , laudation. — k\\ x-sXaa», prayer, a


ll>^: inii)f. ^-flC: break. VII. l--flZ,: pass., impf.

.EflC- (yessabar) for JB^flC." a usual assimilation

in Aeth. (e. g. (DJiUJXIlflX'^: and I will answer them,
(DffiQfh! and may he celebrated) , wliich takes place

also before l*: Hi: J?! H: K\ ^\\ For tlie Arab., comp.

sncli forms as oJoj , J^Ju , ly(\X«^ , ^^^oj , in
53-^^ ''jS--^ J=^,^ 'jC^-,
the kur-an, for o^Joaj, v/^JuLs, tyf Jooaj , ^j^y-^-^? •

for the Heb., see Gesenius" Gram. §. .)3, 16. edit. —
See Chald. gl. iin.
-flK! coil, man, inankind, people (a single individ. is •flh,:

f. -nTiai-:).

fl^l." impf. f-fl^.' imper. -fl^l! proclaim, preach.
n'fl^l'l' ! jiroclamation, preachiny.

P: impf. f-t: snhj. f fi^ : ^/;7>//. — See Chald.

gl. NnB'.

J-JB ! Mr ne.vt day, the day after: the second day of

the week.

•li*: the ne.vt day. Ili'ild".' ne.vt day (the fern, siiff.

refers to OA^I). Ar. ^LS (viilg. ^^;.li), f- iujlj. -?^-

r(?/?</, Heb. ""r^, f. n^:*^'.

ilhA : from the Heb. ^INI^. — See Syr. gl. "^a-..*..
— 89 —
tihi'. impf. f>?i1: l?e tinable.

drO): not used. — 7i?j^0: walk. — Heb. xti'ir lead.

2i?jflil : cull, animals, cattle. — Comp. Ar. kx^Lo from

^^i^ walk ; Syr. |>Js^j.L goods, wealth (orig. flocks,

herds), from ^ois (Aeth. C/ll Heb. i^n, Chald. j:n"]

Sam. ^V^, V. ^m^A) /-^/^

/Il<:P: not used. VII 'Vtv^(P\ he plunged in, ijiunersed,


^AA niipf. £*A.A. : subj. ^4»AA : be light, easy. IV.

A^AA ! lighten, make easy ; hold light, despise. —
See Chald. gi
*A^: an abyss; pi. $Af^::
^UTA: impf. £^W4i: lash, scourge, chastize.

<:^^UJ4t^: a blow or stiipe, chastisement ; pi. — i*^!!
^A: impf. £*^A.: ^///. —^ Ar. jui, Heb. ^C|?, Aram. h'^>^,

3* A.! ^^^ voice, sound. — See Syr. gl. vl.
^^(f^\ impf. £4»JC"<?^: be in front, precede, anticipate. —
See Syr. gl. >o,-d.

^^<P\ the beginning ; adverb, ace. ^^(P\ in /ront, in

p?'esence of, before; with suff. 4».C"<^^.' etc. — Ar.

Ijjj olden time, Heb. Dip., Syr. ]^^, Chald. j'Dlp,

Sam. -^TC.
^yip^\ adv. before, formerly; H^^*'^: foi'mer. —
Chald. Dnp, Syr. >a-.^^; Ar. jvjJo o/</, ancient,

eternal ; Heb. C"!^ /^^ front, the east.
— 90 —
^Ti<J^: *i?c??*E: and — ^^'. f. — <^*E^: and -

«l>omo: not used. VIII. -t-^^o^D : inipf. ^^$nio: be indig-

nant at, disgusted nth. -V^^y}^', i^tt'. he was
weary of his life, cliap. IV. 8. — Comp. *illfli: and
Heb. Dip, I'-ip.

•po/lZ,! hedge in, sf/rroi/nd. — Ar. w^ai set limits to, re-

Strain, imprison, shorten, cut shoi't; ^oj be short;

Heb. ^i»*p, "lip. Cognate radicals, ih/iZ,! >.<r\n>, Ja^,
Chald. ni:n.

^/?C: ^/ hedge, wall; castle. — Ar. ycLi a castle:

cognate words, Heb. "^^'n a cou7'tyard, . Lo-s» ff fortress,
G" '
Sjjdo-s. ' cattle-pen, in Chald. N^piD-


fl! ///, <?/ or near, by, with, etc. — See Chald. ^. D.

•nUA : : This verb is very irreg. The perf. -flUA \ is

only used in the sense of contradict , oppose. In

the signif. of say , speak, we find as perf. s. 3 m.

fft: f. ^n.: 2 m. ^a: f. ^aA.: 1 m. f. 2in.: pi.

3 m. £fbA: f. £0.4: 2 ni. i-ftA: f. ^ftA: 1 m. f.

^fl> ; I The A ! however reappears in the apocopated

forms when they take a suff. , as JBIAi.! JBftA'!:

Imperf. £-flA: siibj. JEflA : imper. HA: inf. -OVA::
IV. aha: Vn. -t-nUA: ix. -TQUA: ^^/^^ to one an-

other, contradict one another, dispute.

flAUI impf. fflAó ! siibj. ^'OAD! swallow, eat. devour. —
See Chald. gl. y72.

— 91 —
QfhCI the sea, a lake, a Uwye five?' (coiiip. c, Ij); j)l.

A-fl^C .'
Ar. j,sxj .

•fl/h>C: a count?')/, ?iatio?i ; pi. 'i\&hLx^\ and fl'hCD'C^::
Ar. Ss-S!o.

n^poA: and fl^A! inipf. ^n^A.." shoot forth, sp?'Out. —
Ar. JlL. Hence R^A." a pkrnt , Ar. JlL, Syr. jLos.

•flJi: impf. ^-ftlifi: be bad, ?vicked, difficult. VIII. -t-IlAA:

or IX. lA: use viole?ice, st?ive, fight. — See Ch.
gl. ti''N2.

•fl?i.; a ma?i, a pe?'so}. 'fl^.^! a ?voma?.

pa: impf. ^i\(SrK\ subj. ^Q^: imper. QA: ^/^/<?n IV.

A-flA" Heb. N"i2, Ar. *b I'eturn.

n'H'?! ^^ ?mme?'0us.

flH-'?: (form 1153^), f. -flll^i: (bizziikht) 7?nich, ??iany.

fl." />«55 ^/#^ ?iiffht. — Ar. <i>b, impf. oyu.J, Aram. n3,
impf. ni2^ h2, impf. za.:i], A^, impf. AfH^m.
ft-t" ! « house, te??iple ; pi. A-fllf l' !."
Ar. ouo , Heb. n"*?,

Plioen. n2, pi. cnD (inscr. Sidon.), Aram. Nn;>2, NH^a,

nj2i : bet?vee?i, a?no?i(j ; for, o?i account of. — Ar. ^jo
inie?'val^ from rX^ be separate, j».aj bet?vee?i , amo?ig

Heb. ]^2, Aram. ^2, |i3, '^Hl^. Usually comp. with

'K<^\ "h^-fl^i." because, on accou?it of, co?icer?ii?ig ; or

ni Afl^i! and flfUKfl*: bet?veen, a??io?ig, on accou?it

of (comp. the forms in Heb. 1^3, n")Ji2, Aram. 'J^a, nj^2,

nio: tf ^/«6'^/?; pi. aq^o:: f. m^i-: pi. aq-ici^::
— 92 —
n/t/h: impf. ^flirih: subj. f-nHfh: come to, reach to;


qoa: vo)v.

-n^A^ .'
a vow.


d'/hl' ; unde?-, adv. do?im. fl tb/h-t: ; helow, beneath : Ar.

c>-sxj ^. — See Chald. gl. mnn.
•t-CftJfi: l^^'^in, Tartessus.

•t-HiW. impf. Ji-fe^H: ^^ *«</, grieved.

^^"H I (/rief, sorrow.


^A.^! impf. P'JA4»: /r//A peiish. — Ar. (^JLi. /v**:" worn out
(a dress).

^AZLI impf. P'JA4^! yM^*^ ^y, /?'^/,, or away, perish. —
Heb. F]t5n.

"Jfl. ! ^<?^ /W/^; '/', near; according to. With sufF. "JftP! etc.

JflZ^: and J-fl^: be united. — See Chald. gl. ^2"
fifbC (form lia':) united; adv. ace. 'ifbZ,.' together.

•JP: impf. Ji-Ji: ^(? <^^'//«^;% preferable.

-iJii: impf. P'JJC-'i: siibj. .2^K-T. leave, forsake. ^^R-li:
QfhC' that the sea may leave us, i. e. may subside,

go down.
-i^h: imj)f. V-i'i^'h: not to find, not to have. VII. -t-^^A:
not to be found, be concealed, withdraw secretly, ab-

scond. — Ar. ^J^i^ and I U^ | ))uss o tie's aim in

shooting, wlience ^ia=> go astray, sin, "^^tk'. a sinner;

— 93 —
Heb. N::n (conip. espec. Job V. 24. x::nn <':'i ?]iJ n"]p.?l

arid thou shalf survey thy flocks and not miss any-
thing), Aram. N::n, uL., A^^, ITI^^.


J-.' enclitic interrog. particle. Chap. I. 6, II. 5, IV. 'i. 4.

\.\ enciit. part. ^<?, also, even.

1^4: impf. Ji^ihC: ^//^A<". — Ar. lixj, Syr. j-Ij; Heb.

in^ //^^ snorting of a horse.

iWA: impf. £iW?i: siibj. flUi:^ : imper. lUlK: ///^ ^y^,

^^/A-^, receive. IV. AIWA! ///? <»//>, awake or rouse,

excite , raise the dead : wlience is formed as pass.

-rlWA: rise. VII. -fiWA! ^^ /^//^t-/^ IX. -ffWA:
rise up against, rcljcl. — Ar. Lió rise, g?'Ofv up;
Heb. ^<ii'J, Aram. Nii':, A^**^ (Pa"el, uprear, Gese-

iiiiis, Carm. Samarit. XII. 15).

iih: impf. ££ri5i! repent of, regret.

iC\1'. 1)olt a door.

(P'i^^ : or <3^1fil : a bolt: pi. cPf^i^ :

i^O: i^(? <^/y?, gape. — Ar. «jij r^/^^/, tear, Heb. yp:;

Aram, yp;, jlai, « ^//Vc/^ (i^O: a fountain, *aj «/;^o/

of stagnant water).

1^0^: <? '/<'/?, fissure.

JflZ,! impf. fiilC' AvV, remain, dwell.

<P?nC: ^/ w//, throne; pi. d^f-flC ! ^f-nC^" Ar.

1*jLc, pi. jjIavo, <^/ raised seat, spec. <y pulpit.

— 94 —
inn: impf. jBi-n-n: speak.

ia^: a prophet; pi. iaP^" f. iO^^ ! or iM^ \\

Hence inP ! prophesy, ^^flLi^: « prophecy. — See
Chald. gl. ^'2J.

CWE: <? ^n'/Zw; pi. C"W: (for — JCD-P^:). — Ar.

^^y, pi. ^5J*^y5 ^''^- From Gr. vavrr^c.

ii^: il^: rn:ij, VZ/^m//.

12i.' impf. ^'i'hli'. be small, young.

lli-: (form na'p), f. 12\fi^: (ni " ust) and i\tv\
(as if from a masc.!) small, young. In the Him-
yaritic inscr. CN3 (Rodiger's Transl. of Wellsted's Tra-

vels, p. 384).

C<:p: impf. ^i®'<^\ snbj. ^h<^\ sleep. IV. K^KP'. impf.

JPia)'(p: w'/^^ sleep. — Ar. *b, Heb. CJ, Syr. >ai.

"iTPI (7//// vtensil , pot or vessel, imple?nents, apparatus,

wealth', pi. "iTP^::
Jo: or i^: ^ow^.^ f. ^^: pi. m. "Jo: f. 1^::
illU: impf. PilW: r<?/]$;'/^ <^<? king. — Ar. JL^ drive,

chase, hunt; Heb. ti'jJ.

17-W: (form-is^), ^/ /^7>?^; pi. ilW^I f. I-^W^.' (niggust),

« queen; pi. 1'3Wd'^ " From anullier form i3m: (he

Arabs have derived the name they give to the kings

of Aethiopia, ^livlll.
ni^\ imjif. ^ilV. tell, relate.

ilK'. impf. Pi*?.?".' set out on a journey, depart. — Syr.

^ draw, also go, as .John Xl. 7 (ed. Bernstein) s^i!^

^£o^ ?ok^ "^iP come, let us go again to Judaea (see
— 95 —
Chald. gl. under "13J); comp. Germ, in ein anderes
Land Ziehen, and Ital. trarre.

i'^tv'. hreaih , the soul, life; i4tilP! / myself. — See

Chald. gl. ^^^,

i4.f1: the mind: pi. iASv^W


is..' not. When pref. to any part of a verb commencing
with the letter A: it converts it into P." as h.JP2i<:?^C:

he did not know (for KhtxcPl,:), A..Ecp/h!a: slu/ll I
not have pity F [for ^^^(pti^'.). — Heb. ">N (e. g. ippN
Job. XXII. 30, "112D-\X; comp. A.O-flF: humility).

}iA:: See h::
?iA4^ '.
ten thousand, a myi-iad; pi. AifiA4t ! A'AA.4.^ •

Ar. u2?, Heb. F)bN, Aram. ND^.S, j4^% A3ZA, all

sign, a thousand, in which sense 2iA.-4^: seems also

to be employed.

'K<P\ if — See Chald. gl. dn.
Ji^ ! 'K<Pi \ from, away from, out of of etc. ; after an adj.

than. — See Chald. gl. p.
K<Pl,\ impf. ^K<PC' point out, show. IV. KK<^1,\ know,

be able (comp. Turk. dUi? bilmek , Fr. savoir), impf.

.PAc?^c: subj. jp?icpc::

Jicp-l*:: See (ir^*::

A<?^i : /rwi-^, believe, believe in (witli II ) , n'^^.^r/ ^/.v tinie.

VIII. •t'A<J'i: /rw.?/ /o or confide in, believe. — See

Chald. gl. pt<.

K<^\ ipx, Amen.
— 96 —
ti<^i:: See 'h<^::
titK^'. ('snia), /'or, hccmise.

7\fiVi: ('ska), to, up to, as far as, till; adv. and conj.

u?itil, that, in order that. Comp. Ar. ^cs..

Al": impf. PA-*: depart, perish (comp. Heb. T]^n go,

Ar. ilUL^ die; ^^cuo go, idxA^ ^^.ójo /^^ has gone

/«> 7vay , is dead\ jb, Turk, ó^ gitmek, our own
he is gone, etc.). IV. AJi : impf. J^A^: cause to

depart, remove, take off'.

hi'. J; with the enc'lit. fi'. it becomes A^!! pi. ^^ill See
Chald. gl. kSJt<.

tx'itifi'.: See orCD::
tii^K'. a gate, door; pi. hC^K" From a rad. i^R'. con-

nected with ift>D : be cleft, J^Jij, 2p: pierce, etc. (conii).

"h^rllA! and H2\lflA: prep, and conj. mthout, besides, ex-

cept, unless, before that. Tlie latter member of this
s ^
comp. word is obscure (Jb state, cotdition?):, the for-

mer is clearly pN ?iot (comp. 'Al'flP; or 2i1fi: li(. it

is not in me, / ?vont , 'h'i'i\V\ -H^A: refuse; ?i^^^!
lit. it is not my knowledge or opinion,' perchance,


Alt-: thou, f. Al-t: pi. m. Al<?^: f. A^^l:: See Chald.

gl. n:x.

Al: f. ;M/r//. See H" Hence 'Ki^KV. —H\\ etc. 7mne,

thine, etc. n5\1: /<>r, on account of; fl2i1i:AP: o;?

7ny account, etc. (comp. 'pit'S and '?^"|2)-

?il^: M^;^ therefore^
— 97 —
tkYJ'. then, therefore; usually preceded by the iiiterrog.

endit. i-W

A'O: not.

A^P: impf. PA^: be bad, wicked.

K^JB: wickedness ; pi. 'hSl^^W
?i^.E: (form -ns':) wicked, f. 2\^ : (ikk"it, for2i!O.E-:

as (jdjo, pi. of (jójut white, for yó-o), as a subsf.

evil, a misfortune.
a®P(d:: See oarpo)::
AHH! impf. JB^*H"H: order, coinmand. VIII. I'AHH: obey.

In the Himyaritic inscr. ttn* (Rodiger's Transl. of Well-

sted's Travels, p. 380).

A^: who, which, what? A£"t: where? whither? KcpA^-t!

whence? — See Chald.^ gl. \s, |N.

h.P'A: lonnrj, Joppa.
AJ^: the hand, with sufT. 2iJ&U-: etc. pi. "hJfdr: and A?i:c(ir

See Chald. gl. -,,.

MC: M^ A^/; pi. Lie: and KK^O'. Ar. jk^ (in the

vulg. dial, of Syria U^j.), Heb. h'p^, Aram. N^Jl, IL^?,

MaA-fiiibC:: See iha::

!ftVh.: (k'le) m. f., ^Ah.'t: m., 5lA/-t: f. //^'^. — Ar.

"is, f. Iii5', Ujy, -^<?//^- Heb. C^N^^ //^-^ thinys of

different sorts. Hence ^\^'h \ f. "aAK^ I other, another.

•jnP-A- : ace. \^hp \ the totality, the whole ; all, whole. — See
Chald. gl. ^z.
— 98 —
Vi<P'. as, like-, conj. f/tat, iu order that, in which sense i(

is followed by the subj., as ^c?': JP^Ait: ih<PC<^:

in order that they might lighten their ship. HHKP',
according to, as. — See Chald. gl. r.

H\OP\ the belly, the hold of a ship. ^

— See Syr. gl. ^^s.

¥lll5: ace. mii-: what is vain or futile (^zn, p^"^., J^jt^');

Tll-t-: and fl^l-t: /;^ tr///^ (pn, p^-;^, >SlIi'*'p).

Oi: impf. f^Or^: subj. £>^: ^^, ^^cw/^<?. Like Ar. ^(?,

^i: has the accus. after i(; e. g. (Dl7-W£: KK<P\
^i: cpf^:*: (not -4>:) hS>i\ ^;?.u-: ^i-ui: (not

—w ! ) 5i<?^Ji2iI : ! (7/i<;? M^ kiiig , if he become a

heretic, is no longer king from that time. — Ar. rM^
Phoen. ]r, impf. p^ (inscr. Eryc. 1. 3, Massil. 1. 3, 4, etc.

Sidon. 1. 8), Sjt ^. — The orig. signif. of the rad.

]12 is be erect, stand; comp. Sanskrit stha, stare, with

Pers. oJL^ (is), Fr. etre (old esti^e). Span, estar.

(D: and; it must sometimes be transl. by in order that,
as chap. I. 11. <^^±\ 'KViV', lz;i\l : (Df "SJC-li :

QftiC- ?^'/^<^/ ///^;^ */^ó'// ;?'^ do unto thee that the sea
may subside (Ht. leave us)7 in .which case it is follow-

ed l)y the subj., as : and ^ in Arabic.

U)A.l»: impf. JicDA^: subj. fAJ?*: beget, bring forth. — Arab.

'iXJy Heb. -i^j, Ai-am. iv?;,
^^ TifH.
(S)S^'. a son, and in gen. a boy, youth; pi. drA-JC'.':

Ar. jj^, Heb. -^j, -ijr^, Aram. Ip!:^'^ '^l(H. — (DA^:

— 99 —
(for (DA-C-^:) a daughter, a girl; pi. ATA.l^^: and
(D-fhH: inipf. £(D-;h*H: subj. PihH: flow.

(DZ,®: impf. £«^: throw. — Heb. rr\\
(DZ:J?: impf. ^(DC^: subj. ^/^J?-: imper. U^\ go down, de-

scend. — Heb. "n^ , Ar.
gen. in the restricted sense

of ^<? /<? ?n>?^, ^Qt c>y^ or ©Qf ^j^ o'^.
(D'fl't': in, into, on, upon; with suff. (D'fi'tr^':: n®fi"t*:
G u
ivithin. Connected with a)'fi^: ia,^' the interior,

^j1^ in the midst of.

Or^m: impf. JBCD-'S^: subj. P-!?^: swallow.

(Srh-^; f. f^-t: /id?, *//^, ?/; pi. m. (D-K-i-<?^: f. (D-Ti-i-lF:

and m. 'K<^'i'^\ f. Ji^l*: (comp. Chald. pan). —
See Chald. gl. Nin.

(DOAI impf. J?a)'OA^! pass tlie day.

óA"! a day ; pi. OAtt""
c?=OA.l-: and *PDA^: a day; pi. ^TóA"
(D-OP: impf. Jid)-^: subj. POJB: ^^ ^«;7i^. IV. Aorup:
impf. J*(D"'^: (yawe'i) subj. f 0)*^: (yaw'f), burn, scorcli.

00 a: impf. £(D07\: subj. ^^'K'. imper. ^Til go out. IV.

AOTóA: impf. JCDOh: subj. J'CD'Oli: bring out, cast

out, emit. XIII. Kivt^^K'. bring out piece by piece,

in succession, lay out money. — See Syr. gl. iL^.


'^A^P ; any period of undefined letigth, eternity, the ivorld

pi. '^A^^: ages. — See Chald. gl. z^^.

\}<P^\ impf. JB^<?^0: act unjustly. — Heb. Dcn injure,

— 100 —
oppress, y^in, }'lDn an opjtressor (see Gesenius' The-
saurus ; and as to the interchange of : and n
comp. 4^11 .'
Z3.n he hungry, 09^: <Xo-=» reap), mo-
dern Syr. ^v-v [Rodig-er's Clirestom. Syr. p. 139. I. 5.

Jill v^^/>^^ )j_j>^ ^i }J > i^s> , a])parently : that Satan

may not violently inflict injury (Pers. ^j'^j) ?^^'^ '''^]-

0<^9I injustice, wickedness. — Heb. ccn.

^WC: obsol., ^W4.: ^WC: and gen. OUJC't': ^^v^. —
See Chald. gl. icy.

do: impf. POa: suhj. £0^=2: rt-^^?^. — Ar. „"^l.

DZ^A! not used. IV. Av^Z,A-! ^^ ^^//^/, stop, remain, rest.

<^<)ln^'. place at which to stop,place ofrest ; section, chapter.

Dn : hire. IX. -t^ft: hire.

OP: impf. PO.: rarely f^.: subj. ^ó,: imper. Oil!
repay, requite ; perform, fulfil a ^'0^v.

O^fll impf. P04»'fl! watch, obsei've , keep, guai'd, pre-
serve. \^S{. •t'U^fi: 7vatch narro?vly, espec. with an
evil design (whence (P^^'fi'. snares, ?viles). — Heb.

2|^57 lie in wait for, deceive or circumvent, nsp J7

craft, jvile.

ó-nz^*E : n^y , Hebreiv.

D-flP : he great, large. — Heb. rcj; he thick, dense, fat (Sara.

^SV), rr; thicken, condense, Syr. .^v harden one's heart.
Oa^: f. DO J?: ^/w//, /^/;-y^; pi. m. Oajl: and
un^'l-: f. Dnj»^::
DlnZi! <7 /(r/;'_$/r /fiV^, a wonl used to express the Gr.

y.rjTog. — Ar. l,j^ ((he form OlnC^ in Aeth. seems

— 101 —
OlflH.' faint, he fahii, fainthearied, despond. — Connected
with ^jIwI be dark, ^jLjL faint twilight (conip. ^^^, ^y^i,

D(I>-P(D: impf. POE: cry out, lament. ~ Ar. ^"^ howl
^^t (jjt the jackal (Heb. Di\y from a rad. Mit<); Syr.

\L^^ I o and )o]o.

^^: ^r> round. — Heb. -ilj? sun^ound. — Hence Oars':
« circle, an assembly (comp. aLJLLa.).

<?^ÓT^: ^/>r«^/^. The passage chap. III. 3. (D<?^óTS: *iS•^:
Tic^^Al^/C" : AAl*^ : seems inaccurately expressed,

since the words 2\<pA^*/C: KKi^K\ imply measure-

ment in a straight line from one side to the other.

U£l: the eye, a fountain; pi. K<3^V\^\'. See Syr. gl. ,^.
<)^\ a man, as opposed to Kitv\^\ (anest) a woman;
pi. ósor::
Ul: impf. POl"! surround.

^K(S>'. impf POA-: close, shut. — Ar. l.^.^ bi?id up a

wound; (c-»ai.l, Heb. n^j;, <7/<?^^ the eyelids.

<)S(Sr'. (form "la'p) f. CjA-^*: closed, shut.

Oe0: not used. IX. +^00): impf f^^eor: cast lots.

Denom. from
0^ : a tree (also M^ c?'oss or gallows), wood, a lot

[for purposes of divination the Arabs used to employ
small unfeathered arrows, or similar pieces of wood,

with certain marks upon them; comp. Ezecli. XXI. 26,

and see Gesenius Thesaurus, art. DCp]. — Ar. Laox.

a staff, spear, Heb. yg^ a tree, wood (comp. Phoen. T>

wood = Heb. nj;;;, inscr. Tugg. 1. 6. '^.i^'
CLl'^Tin the

— 102 —
cutters of wood, i. e. carpenters ; according to Augus-
tine, iar)\ Aram. j;n, Ny, AV, ^V, alsoNC^p, taL-c.

D^P: p}-oduce wo7'ms. Denom. from
<3'^\ a ?vorm, maygot, cate?'pillar ; pi. óSJP^II

H: f. "h"?!*: who, which, (hat; pi. m. f. 'KS.W Like the cog-

nate ~ in the Aram, dialects, it is used to cii^cumscribe

the genit., as ^1A<^V' }A^%^\ a psalm of David,

<^L\ W^^^W ©H^J'i^^l: a description of the
righteous and of sinners, "HA^^i? ! T^l-t .'
this is the gate of the Lord. It is also used as a
conj. thai. — See Chald. gl. n.
*HI accus. H! f. H: this, that; pi. in. }iA-: f. 'KW. Hence
TL<P*H: thus, 'K<^^\ after this.

"Hl-t: ace. Hl-t: f. H-t: arc. H: this, that; pi. m. "hA"?*:
ace. — -1-: f. ^iA^-t: ace. — -t-" "H^: and H^-t
ace. — !•: m. f. this, that; pi. ?\A.^: and ^iA^-tl
ace. — •t' !: With these different forms comp. Ar.
- i ^ ^ ^ -
13, f. ^b (.Js, b), pi. &^LI; J 13, f. Jb, dLo, pi.

JLjSI^I: Hiniyar. inscr. "i (Rodiger's Transl. of Wellsted's

Travels, p. 384, 388, 398), ji Qj. 398); Heb. m. ni,

f. IT, rit, n^?T, m. f ii, pi. \s% ns^'; Phoen. •
m. f

(inscr. Sidon.), syth f. (Plant. Poenul. I. 1, 1), jt (ijiscr.

Sidon.); Aram, n, ^T, "^, f. n", '^X "1» P'- j'^.i^N

^miA, '^n; in the Egj'pt. dial. >•, f. wXT (Gesenius,

Munum. Phoen. p. 242).
H¥l^: impf. JiHM: subj. f*H^C: rememljcr, Ijc mindful of
VIII. 'I'H^C remember, recollect. — See Chald. gl. idi.

P^l: the right side, light hand. — See Chald. gl. |id\

P-n : impf. XT-flfi : dry up, wither. — See Cliald. gl. ^Z\
P-ftii: the dry land.

P'fn: hovac, Jonah.
^'K'tW See (Sfh-t^W
f?iK: ?w?v. — - Comp. of £2i: = t^Ti this (as in ^Ji-t:),

and a subst. denoting ti?ne, which appears in (he Ar.

ó|, fjj, ?^'//<?/?, d^lXjkSi^ then, dljj^ M^«, Heb. TN, Aram.
p.N, ^iTlTA, and Aelh. ^?iH: when?


X(p: blood. — See Chald. gl. ci.
S.fl.' above, upon, on; with siiff. lELfLU-! etc.

iC-flC." a mountain; pi. AJCQCi! Sam. '^^^, Heb. "li:::?; con-

nected with Chald. "^^"C (see Chald. ^^.
^^i\ he safe, sound. IV. K^^i'. save, jyreseive , impf.

^^^V, (yadekhen), siibj. ^^^V. (yadkhen).
X\<P\ impf. Ji-R"!*?^: ^0 again, repeat, reiterate (comp.

n::'', N:in).
T T T :

^1<?^I second; adv. ace. .CI^p: r second time, again.

X1CV^\ and — <^^: f. — £^T^-: -c^: ;y^6"<?;?</.


l-nZ.: impf. Jil-nC: subj. Jiinc: act, do, ivork. — Ar.

"S^ set a broken limb, strengthen; Heb. ~D^, Aram.
"1?^, ^S1[, r^-^1, ^^' strong. As to the form, comp.

— 104 —
Ar. J^^x act, do, ^^llence Jc^ practice, as opp. to

jCJL theonj.

"Z-flC" rt- ^A/i'*? or servant; pi. Al-flC^.': See Chald.
gl. iz:.

•TIQC' /"/W^, occupation.

<?^'3QC* z*^'^^ <>/ acting, conduct, acta, j'es gestae; pi.

*iPI impf. JBjII: (^<:' humble or submissive to, serve or

?^^?,^, praise and thank God in a humble spirit. IX.

•tDiP! humble onesself, confess one's sins, give thanks

to God. — Ai\ U^, III. bLs>, VI. ULsDo, /?/// ;?r^-

sirate, Aram. ^<::i ,
ji,^^ //t' doivn.

lUZ,! and ló^.' r;y out, esp. from pain, g?'oan. — Ar.

vLs. cry out, Heb. "i;;:, Syr. j£^. chide.

T^C'. outcrg, groaning.

**HA!.' A common verb in Amliaric in the form 1H\ pos-
sess, rule; also found by Rodiger ((ransl. of Well-
sted's Travels, p. 398) in the Himyaritic inscr. under
the form n*;.

MH.2i: a ruler ov master ; voc. Kia^" pi. AD2i*H^:
and sometimes K^htrXr '. \ Hence KlBLA'flxibC : God
(lit. the Lord of (he Earth). — As to its form, A'iaJi

seems related to the intensive adj. of the form JJlI in

Arab., of which formation ~\\Zii, Zirx, and |iTN, are

remnants in Heb.

IKIu'. impf ^l.^'^^ 1 throw anag, reject, abandon, neglect. —
Ar. o jj> (see tlie Arab, text, chajj. II. 1 I ).

— 105 —
l/t! the face, cowitcnancc, surface, front.

1^^'K\ ove?iur?i, destroy. VII. 'tl-^^h'. be overturned,

destroyed. Appar. conip. of U^ tilt over a vessel and

pour out its contents , dash to the ground, and ui
break. Cogna(e words in actual use in Aeth. are *24iUr

attack^ insult (Ar. lis. dash to the ground, LL. in-

sult), and Al"!*: break (Heb. nQ, Ar, ^U).

*^^ \ very, excessively.

/Il4t A : be extinguished, perish. IV. h^^h '. extinguish, de-

sti^oy. — Ar. j^il:, Cliald. NCip, "iDt?.


ilAA: impf. ^ii.AA.1 give shade, overshadow.

S.\h^^\ shade, shadoiv. — See Chald. gl. 'p';?^:.

AAPi impf. JiAA,! pray, von\ — See Chald. gl. ^^'i..

AA"^.' prayer ; pi. AAp^!!
K<P<S> : not used. III. K<P<S> \ labour, bestow labour upon, be

distressed or afflicted.

if C5i ! a temple or palace ; pi. AitZnih ! ! Ar. w^
Heb. nni'.

AC"?: rr^ ^?^/. — Ar. ^^.^, Heb. n^^', Chald. rn.iJJ:?; in

Syr. we find lL«»iof a harsh cry , as of an eagle,

peacock, etc.

itZiiiS: r/ cry. — Ar. ^'>^-

— 106 ~
f^<P: impf. £ii(ir<^: fast. — See Chald. gi. DV:.".

^<^\ a fast; pi. /i/rT<?^::

A®0: and Adro: iiiipf. ^ACD-ó: «7ry 0?//, r^///, invoke. —
Ar. ^Lo, Heb. niy, y;iS Aram. niiJ, VS-iTl.

B^^^ : ((^6' ///^/, (i**!' truthful, tell the truth. — Ar. ^- Jco

/<^7/ the truth , ^^" Jco /^v^//^ , sinceritt/ ; Heb. pi a he

just, Syr. wxifl 7V/0/, p?-oj?er, fitting, Heb. p"i^', Aram.

i^?l , CTVn ,
'''^'''''''^ is jt^ist and right, justice, law.

j^^^ '. just, veracious.


B'h^; the sun. — Ar. ^:s>wi the time when the sun is

high and shines hrightlg, the sun; ^^ and i^ó the

sun. Comp. also L^v^o, /tm®: he clear, |o-»^ clear-

ness of sky ; and see Syr. gl. w* ,

e3<^: the left, the left hand.


A^^'' u river: pi. K<\T. — 431^:: Ar. %Si a small

stream, Heb. :hB. From a rad. AA"! '.
= Ar. ^Jli,

Heb. ^h, Aram. :^D, w<^, '1'Z3, sejjarate, divide.

Z.Ain: impf. JBAA.^: separate, distinguish. in the other

dialects the rad. ^^^Jj, :^?, w.^^^ means escape (see

Syr. gl.) , but the idea of cleaving or separating at-

taches to the syll. \>^ in Ji, ^e, f^^D, ^^?'

— 107 —
^isJj, >^s-ij, n'^B, jJj, ^li, (j-U, !iU, n!:©, nnd

cognate words.

AW/h: not used. VII. A^ih: inipf. Ji-ZoUI&: r^Vy/<?d?,

l/e (jlad. — Ar, ^^s-^oi be clear, ^^>-oj [*»j « clea?' day
oyr. ^^ I
; gladden or more [!rob. connected with 2>^
he wide, spacious ; coni^). ,L1Ó spread oui , VII.

Itlliij <^<? ^/rt-f/, —lwi ;'wV/^/?, expand, VII. ^^-ciJt ^^


ACU: iiiipf. JiACU: be a/raid, fear.

A^-^ ' iin{)f. .EA^'^' examine or survey, count; wish,

desire. — Hel). "ij^B examine, survey, ?niss upon ex-
(iminaiion or survey (1 Sani. XX. G, XXV. 15); Ar.

tXii seek what has been lost, lony for, jjii lonyiny,


A^®' inipl". .E AJ- ! ovv^'r/. — Ileb. n^C, Aram. x:, "•:©,

jjls ^
w--L£ . qf|]3 ^'Z''"'''' (verlit se), ^^iB the face ; comp.

aui.. AYV/r/, ^3>^" /W7^ towards, is^: M<^' /n'r^".

•4tCTt": a road, journey, way of life, conduct : pi. 4t5*(D";

4tfT!! Comp. ^"!"7., ""^in, J.a.uw, 8>x*^' >—*^<3oo,

^^'. 'm\{n. ^Zi^X,'. restore oi- make yood , requite good or

evil, fu'fl, perform. — Ar. ^tXi, Heb. Tr\B, ransom.

A-^A-"?' be more abundant, exceed, excel.
AJ^,^'. the yreater ]>art : adv. ace. — .'?: very, much,

with 'h<^i\ v,(>re than.

— 108 —
Z.fll4' iiiipf. J^A^Q- cj'eute. — kx.'Sa^. See Gesenius

Thesaurus, art. Hu-^.

-=t^^Z,^! creation. — Ar. s>iai.

L,K<P\ impf. JBZo/r<?^: ^7^^/, ////.9/^, fulfil VIII. •l'AA<^

pass. — Ai. 1^ cut. break, IV. l^t cease;

Heb. C!J©.


#^13 jjt ijjjiir
^,^15 ^"sr^ ^'ir ,^10^

p «&J Jyij '')^5^ ^ ij^^ <5^ vV^ ^Q^ oJl^j 1

jjL L^jó *^),^t>Lj^ lL^)bjt}\ iXiiX^S i^y^ ^Jl (^J-UoiCi 2

^^i r7^^^ ^^^^V^**- ^55 '^'" C5^1 ^^^5 S^/^' (t'^' C)^

iUi-wJf 5
Jj^ ;^5 Ljr^-^^' ^ l3'7^5
T^^^^- <-^-''*^

'*) Tho Ms. adds ;j.^
— 110 —

-S-C ^1 ^•"o-- O-'Cl-^ c-'-^-^ -- ?0 '>w"* ^-'
7 v_^iw'l IcXjc jv-LajJ ^y^^ l«JLjiS" aa^UoJ |v4-ix J^ Jl JU^
-»L LjJLM cyvLoJ IfcT-wJCrL: "-^-jy^ '^'^ iV^ ^.^^ e^-*

8 L; lilll ^1 Ij UJ iLil lie
^ \J\J^ 'ij'-^^

s_>Jt*u (^1 i%^5 viLovl ij^)i (^^'5 '•i>-^' i2>^' u^5 ^-^"'^-^ ''^

^^^ xj| I^^-L y^UJl vllj^J.I (m!^ ooLLo tJ Uo ^J l-'^"5

11 db *;-*aj Ij Ui aL* UU" (l^v^i:^! L»Jj '
vr^ $-'?'

^liD ^1 ^^ ^if? ^pf ji I ^f ,mt ^>^ ^
14 Liyu j-iixi- Si dp' ^^ ^^^"5 vp'' '^-^i '(tfU^

16^ ^Liti viUJ^i 0'yy5 'iL^Ci '0^*i^5 P^-''

^) Vulg-. for
^jj . ") Ms. lyjii and Uvi' . ") Vu!^^ for ^\d>y
') Ms. ly^vi^ and Lswi.

— Ill —
\^\(X>^ Vt^ ^i^^ '»^^>^5 ^^-^^^ ^r* Vy^^ (•iJo

^^^^ li (J ^ 0^^ ij^?^ ^«JjijU L4-v^i£ Lj^ Vr'^ '-iv^5 ^

*fcXJ' (C^^ U^^ LS'^J '^^ ')*>^^'*^5 (* "' *^^' Sr'^' '^

^5 0^^ ^^ #J^5 '^^-^^ c^^ ^ y^i 5-^'l y^-^^

o-- " ' "t u ^ ^ ^ c, , jua^^ -'j'? 9^

'')L§i^! oia^ Jy^' J^Llt ^Jl^ *^5^|; u--^^^^^'; t^' ^

^i 15^^ ^Joc^t 0;*^*° ^5 /'^'^ C5^l ^5 ^
0-, -^^ -*»r '"^r Hr '"'
"""^r c:^A^ I' ~-|- Q
oU^^^ V/-'' ^^/^^ cs^ii^ OM^:^! 't5^b C5t) " ^

pof; ^ ^j-y ^5^ o>(3i Uo^ ^l*^*^ "^ Vr*' jCvJI

j^ U^?^ ojv^ cu^t
(jwJlJI i-^^M

J)Ms. ioJb-^. '^)Ms. Lgi-:i£,!. ')Ms.^LoJ|. "')Ms.^Uó^H,
112 —

4 joLikJ '')
(^ jój
' (•Ql x-i-LS" SvAaw^ iUA^i *^^ °)oól5'

-^yM^S Syj^j^"^ ^y^^ '^7*5 ^''^ i*5y^ <-^'

,^X£. (j^^As^^ Lsv.Av-5
u*^5 *^^ ^7^5 ^h^T c^^ (*

^^}\ ^hi\ ^5 s=Ji.'i &i;^ ^j^ '^) (jLiSj Jr ^^

") Vulg. for oliy ") The iMs. adds SlUxj . »') Vulg. for | J^' .

'') Ms. LSLwwJI. '^) ^o Ms., according- lo the Egyplian dialect, for Jwo.

— 113 —

^^ '7 |vS^X^ |V-L [t-g-Lc 5y=>-^5 ^-^•'^^ '^r' ^y**^^

L5^ ^^x^Tscxi ^2^^• j;^'? CpT L^f C^T j.fji- jli^ 2

>o^^ "r " "" '{» >o--^ Jo---- 'ii'j vf
oi*A tXJ' (jA*-^Avjj' ^f^ '^^)T*5 ^^^'^*^**' ^<X'« ,^i>jLj 3

jj[^ <
'') iUiax) Jujs J lX^UI^ ^t^-^-'t
?r;^ ^J-

jjLi^, (j^In i^-Lc /«^;'5 *"^^^*^ £7^' *-^' 7^' Vr" ^'' ^

c-^^ i^'^ ^ih^
'V/"^ ^'^ ^^ ^'"^^"^ >^'^^
^^ J ,w -e ^^f- ^-»-c-o 0—'"° :^ ^ ^ ^^ o— ""* o*
jjj.i^ aJJi w«! wi^^if f**^' ^5 ' ^-^ L&.ji PvSJi tj^W 7

-• ^ ^ c ---'''^ o ^ '' ^^ a ^ o'^ ^ 0-- ^^ > o ^ "*^

jliJ. CJ»*-M X-kAn-Lu JLa/. *^L5 r^^yi^ (j^K ^^ (j**-».^M

") Ms. i^tXAAJ. *) For ^^. ") Several words are wantiii-

here , which may be ihus supphed from ihe London PoIyi;lol :

V) MS.

— 114

^) Ms. jLxjy) -^) Ms.
^ . >) Ms. jv^U>!.

\ inleiTOg. particle; always joined in writing to the following

word, as p\. — • See Chald. gl. n.

•^\ a father; gen. i^t, ace. bt; in the construct state, nom.

yi\, gen. ^!, ace. LI; du. ^\y two faiheis , also

father and mother ; pi. gCl fathers, ancestors. — See
Syr. gl. ^|.

^f. See ^.
^•f, impf. ^b, come. — See Chald. gl. XHi^.

So ^ Q J >
y2i.f /7 reward., hire; pi. x*a»f. See Chald. gl. -i:in.

Jc^l r^r?/^^ (to be carefully distinguished from J<^t /?7/^,

death); Jl.^ or Jo* I ,%.« ^/^ account of, because of.

- ^ * > , it^ o. , ^_ ^ a
j^t, inipf. tX-i*lj, iniper. tXis., /o'Ar;, óWz<?. VIII. cX^xj't

(for j^zxXjl^ or j^kjubl^, as v^s»o|^ receive hire,
ypl put
on the rohc called ^XS izar), take (for one's self),

choose, make. — See Syr. gl. ^ .

yi>| oM^.»% another, pi. ^^>-*-t and wia.|; f. ^vis^l, pi.
and cjGLLf. — See Chald. gl. "iriN.

— 1 16 —
ijóJ f. the earth, the ground, a country ; |)l.
^^^^ ijóM-
— See Chald. gl. yiN.

f^Mj\ • oee V 4 n»i

J^^l a root, origin; pi. J^l. Prob. connected uith JJ^:

y6>//^ unite.

'Jl def. art. the ; pron. by many of the Badawln hal (Z. d.

D. M. G. vol. VI. p. 'i 17); when followed by the

letters ^ ^ :>'Oy\^^^\jb^^^^ the

final J is assimilated, e. g. j^l the date, ^^*i^\ the

5MW, |JLIa.)l injustice. — Heb. Phoen. *n for ':'n.

jcjJI, f (c^'ij ^^'^1^0, 7vhich, that; du. nom. m. ^IJJUI, f

^l^'l; pi. ^jojjf, f. ui^XM or ^-i-M. Rarer forms

are: pi. ni. ^^^1? or ^^^If, f ^l^f, ^SS\ or ^:iUt;

very rare: sing. m. jJJf, f oJLfl, pi. nom. m. ^*jJf.

— i^tXJ' ^^ conip. of the art. J|, a demonstr. letter J
(see viUfo), and tlie pron. tj, f. ^j; and is therefore

orig. nothing more than an enipliatic demonstr., the

Heb. HT^n, T^n, Phoen. t^n (inscr. Eryc. 1. 7). The art.

Jt, and a cognate form of the demonstr. pron. .6
(wliich see), are both used, lliough very rarely, as rela-

tives. Comp. H: IT, n, ?.

s!^lt or ai-M a god, an idol; pi. aLgJ^; with the art. sSfjJf,

^J^I, usually aJL'l, God. — See Chald. ^. n^JN.

J\ to, towards, in addition to, untd : with suff. "Jl, dlllf.

_,M, etc." — Heb. ->^, poet. """^n. See Chald. gl. nb.

*|, impf. j.^, jjrop. precede, hence At'/ ^//^ example^ teach.
*Uof in front , before ; prop, the ace. of a noun ICol
the fi^ont.

Zx\, impf. %jcLj, imper. Ijo, order, command. — See Cliald.

gl. 1DN.

^j-«|, impf. ^L, ^<? void of fear, secure, confide in. IV.

^\ make safe, protect, with v^, believe in, vvlience

^Ujt (?'?//l^/^ /«/V/^. — See Chald. gl. pN.

^^1 conj. that. After verbs of wishing, fearing, ordering,

etc., and in gen. when a relation of design or caii-

sation is expressed, it requires the subj., as: ^ oL^f
Sdl \d JjIj / fear that he will do so and so,

iuojil IU\ ^i:^ós\ I wished to do him honour ; but if merely

introducing the statement of a fact, it is followed by

the perf. or impf indie, as ^Jc^ /Ul oa:^*^ / wonder
that he wrote, *Uj /jf *jLcI / know that he is asleep.

JjT conj. that , followed by a noun or pron. in the ace,

e. g. jjltX-y^JJ «^ (jO t^ltXiJ «-^^ (j^ *-:^^-y^ (j' ^5^
it is related that a certain shaikh in Bagdad had two
disciples , viJJUo ". ^^ ,
^1^ ^jt ^^^^^ ?^ ^-^ related that

there was in Egypt a king. With the sufF. 1 pers.

sing, the form J| is equally common with ,^\'
^\ conj. ?/." hi correlative clauses, as the general rule, it

requires tlie verb of each clause to be in the perf. or

the jussive, as: ^IjCL^ dUc> cUJii ^j|
or JoLóf ^jj^

dULaS" iUó ^T"
you do this, you (will) perish — See

Chald. gl. DN.
'— 118 —
a particle having (lie sense of utiquc or profec/o , and

followed by a noun or pron. in the ace, e. g. auUl ^l
oJkS" ^^ J^ jJLfc profecto Deus omnipoiens est.

In many cases it does not admit of any transl. into

English, e. g. eJlS* L^|_ *j ^^^^^ -^^^ ^'Jf^^- With the

suff. 1 pers. sing. Jt^ is used as well as ^^t^-

Ul /, pi. i^^-ixj Ke. In poetry the second syll. is often

short (u u) ; the form ^^^1
is also said to occur (comp.

Aeth. Al:). — See Chald. gl. njn.

^t, f. c>St, thou; du. L3t, pl- 111- (wi; f- (j^f- — See
Chald gl. n:«.

jjUwJt <3f z?^<^/^, ])erson, individual; j)l. ,j*,bl or ,j*-b. The

fem. ajLwjt
is said to exist. — See Chald. e'l. itóN.

J^l /-^<? family or kindred of a man, ^/^^ people or inhahi-

^<z;;/* of a place; pl. ^ybef, 4^'- — ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^"»'

means a man's tent, Heb. t^HK* (comp. ouo , HI? , and

'S^\ first, pl. ^y;r, j^l^f, J^'l: f.
^/, pl. J5f.

JLSSfy. See J|S.

1A time, a moment ; adv. ace. '^^Ij now.
ibl, ^^'/^<>:, 7i'liiclt, what? whoever, 7vha fever. — See

Chald. gl. IN. -— Lgjt b, or simply L^f , inter). (?.'

followed by a def. noun in the nom., as >j)JI L^jI

() vizir!

Ldjt again, also; pro{), the ace. of ;i iiouii (j,djt returning,

repetition, from (j2l, impf. (jó-^, return (comp. Syr.

^oz from ^s!^).

— 119

^f tvhcrc? ^1 J^ ivhence? ;^\
^J whither? — See
Chald. gl. ]j<.

y «>^, '/ or //<:Y/r, hy, with, on account of, etc. — See
Chald. g-1. 2.

wSXj f/«<? ^'«, « lai-ge rwe?' ; pi. ,L3o, ^j-^J^j, j-sxjI. —
See Aeth. gl. QftiC."

tjo, impf. IJlo, ^^^/>?. The form ^Jo, chap. III. 4, is


IT //^^ ^ry /«;««?, « plain or dese?'t. — See Syr. gl. ^^

Jkiaj, impf. JJo, ^^ in vain, useless, fi'uitless, idle. —
Aeth. flfllA: he in vain, Ileb. '^Loa cease from labour,

Aram. yt02, V^^ Z^3, ^yy^av, ^<?.c/*^.

JJcG part. adj. ;^?//^, useless; false, wi^ong , opp.

to ^3^^.

ytn; ^6' helhj, womb, the inne?'most part ; pi. ^j^iaj, ^jiift-

— Heb. ]LD2, Chald. N*:p2.

Jou, impf. JótAj, and iXxj impf. Jolo, ^^ distant, far off.

VI. tXftUj recede from one another , be removed or
—G -
Aeth. flOJ?: change, alter.
cXaxj, f. stX-s*J) distant:
G - ^ G - 5 - o ,

jJLT « /'^''^v/ or r%, province, country; pi. j^, jjtjJb.

iJLj, impf. *JLo' swallow. VIII. pl£?[ /^/- — See Chald.

^j, impf. ^^1^, build; &ii^| J^ ^ij or &Ai>Lj ^^' ^;<«/7y

«;«</ beget children (comp. ij'ps'p n,^? n:3 or nti'j; Deut.

— 1'20 —
XXV. 9, 2 Sam. VII. 11, 27; Turkish ^'^\ evlen-

mek, niarnj, from J ev, a house). — Heb. riJli, Aram.

^t a son ; pi. sUj', ,2j»>^- I" slating names of per-

sons, it takes the form Imt only when imme-liately
preceded and followed by a proper name; e. g. one

o-jlIuo ^ aJUt tXlt may also be spoken of isJyiJI

jytli [^T. — Heb. Phoen. |3 (-|2, -jl); in Aram,

only the i)l. p:2 ,
^vi^- ^ "^^^^ occm's. — Tiie fern,

is iLol or o^ r/ daughter, pi. cijLo, H^b. Phoen.

n? (for nJ~), with siiff. inr, Aeth. •n^l;'! in the phrase

•flll": D^^: the pupil of the eye; Aram. pi. |jZ, ^^
^^3. — See Chald. gl. -i2.

not used. IV. |*^f .y/^^//. X. ^^j^m\ he dumb.
V^i (^;
'/^ animal (we speak of „the dumb animals"); pi.

l^i:gJ. — Heb. ncns, Sam. -^^^S; Aeth. flV(?^: </^/w^.

jLj, impf. Joyo, ^0 away , perish. IV. j>bl destroy. Comp.

q^n, dUL^, and ^-^dix. —

See Chald. gl. "12N.

»oy>. See oly

v2^ under, beneath; ace. (jf a subst. v:!;^' //<<:' /^/y'^vv yyr/yV,

— See Chald. gl. ninn.

I^IS" translate from one lang. into another, interpret , ex-

plain, entitle. — Aeth. '\'^^<P\ Aram, cnr, >=^'^-

Hence Ar. ^U^p, Aeth. ^C>^^: Chald. ]cnin (nO»
— 121 —
Syr. Ijin^i .
fii^ intejyi^eter (Hal. turcimanno, Portug.

tiwgimuo , inigimoo, Fr. diogman , Engl, dragoman).

x»->>i' a translation , history, chapter or section; pi.

,Cs.Q. — Chakl. Dinr.
^_^*uu»,^, OaQOiQ, B'f^'ir, Tartessus. The geographical Lexi-

con entitled c!^Lb!^t Jcol*^ has ^j^j^Ji.

Jli, inipf. JJj, leave or abandon, let. — See Chald.

gi. nn.
Ij , inipf. Ij6 ,
^<" whole, entire, complete or finished ; finish,

— Heb. nn.

vIjIj, inipf. iw^yJ, repent. — See Chakl. gl. 2in.

^Q « cronm or tiara; pi. ^^Ls^". — See Syr. gl. Lz.

5^^, &-i^ G--^ G'^
au^" or xaJLj, f. cy^" or c^JJ, Mr^^. — See Chakl.

gl. n^n.

vL'li, f. iJb, M/r^. — See Aeth. gl. W^Ul"
^Uj|, f. (jUliJ.? (j'-^j ^'^'<^- Hence Ici^ Uj|, f. u1j|

sliii, twelve; vulg. yii.£LliL See wCi.^ and Chald.
gl. ]nn.

G —
»-óLj, second.
— See Aeth. gl. f-^"
.^- ^/? <>.r; pi. ,jIy^> — See Chald. gl. iin.

»L^, impf. ^Li^J, r;-^ 6"^/^, bellow; pray or supplicate with

cries and tears. — See Aeth. gl. 104, '•
— 122 —
JJl^ a mountain; pi. JL«s», JL^', J4^'-
IsD^*, impf. (V^., and |vv:i., impf. ^j^., buim.

Ix^v,^ a fiei^cely hurnbig fire ; hellfire, heli.
' '" " 'i i
tX^ impf. iXs?o, iXs\j, exert one s self, he diligent, serious.

iXs^ diligence, zeal, earnestness (opp. to Jjjc); adv.

ace. I4X&. exceedingly, vej-y.

yUL:^, impf. JJL^, ^/^. — Heb. is'^a.

V^, impf. -i^-gvTj ?//^//'<^, collect, assemble.

nM T" ^-^^ whole, all.

(X^, impf. <X^^o, ^.?wY «//<"'* AT^ labour, strive.

Cs>., inipf- «w»ys\j, cleave, rend; traverse (Heb. DJ). IV.

CJ^\ answer. Aram. 2"'jN, -^^^I, 3fn"fA.

:&L^, impf. i^^j, f<?zw^.

J,JL&., impf, y^^-A.^^j, //'>A/ hack, restrain, confine, imprison.

VIII. jlljia-J id. — See Syr. gl. ^^.a-..

c3L&. »* /^r as, till, to; adv. ^jt//;, also; conj. ////, Z//^//,

60 that, in order that ; when a purpose or design on

the part of the agent is implied, it is followed by the

subj. — Connected with J^ limit, boundary.

Ijca., impf. .tX^^J, match one article with another. III. ^jL^
he over-against or opposite to.

?l<Xi. the being opposite to : adv. ace. tfj^a. opposite;

fe|jc&.(^ from before.
. . ;

— 123 —
iiiipf. ^yo be sad, sorro?r/'uL IV. ;^js^\ make sad,

distress. — See AeUi. §1. /h*Hi::

^jya. and ^ys^ soi'row, grief. — Aelh. /hHli:

CjSu^, inipf. ,._,.-ww.^vj, count, reckon. To be carefully dis-

tinguished from .Jiw^ , impf. J^^^^ww^^x^ or ,.1a-1cs3J

^/^<?>?^. — Aetli. ihll : Heb. Dli'Ti,
-t' Aram. 2V/n,
- —

lag J*, impf. JiA.s:o, /^w/^/i or observe, keep, guard, pre-

serve, retain in the memory. — Syr. ^^ incite, ex-

ho7't, encoui'age.

^^j.-*. , impf. ;3:sx.j and (^.sxj , <^^ neccssai-y, p?'oper, right,

just. — Heb. pn (see Gesenius' Thesaurus), Aeth.

All; appoint, ordain.

^^^^ ;^'/^<7/ /* right and proper, truth, justice, equity

^3•^ truly, verily. — Heb. pn a la?v , Aeth. ftil!

law, religion.

x^ impf. r-gv^"j, ^6' warm, hot. Cognate Ila., impf. I^ju
warm, impf. Isxj -^^? warm. — See

Syr. gl. >&-,. , Aeth.

gl. ^(P\\

v:i>y:k « //*/«; pi. ^Lax::^, cyl*^t-

ioL^, impf. Jc«^j, guard, prese?'ve. iV. ioLa.! surround:
construed with ^._j

where, when.

"^, impf. ,yso, and jIa^, impf- ^c^s^o, //^<:'. — See

Chald. gl. N^n.

»vv-^ a"<^l sLl=^ f^^f^- — Aeth. rh^®T."


IaL., impr. vx^xj, know; "y^, \m\il. j-L^xj he versed or

experienced in ; yS^, inipf. va-^^j, experience. IV. Z^i^i

inform of, report, relate.

_lis», inipf. _ w^vo ,
go out. Part. adj. ^j^L. going out,

ivhat is outside ; adv. ace. j^;L^ outside.

, impf. oLw-zxj , /"^^Y/;- , cut off a part , diminish ; be

eclipsed (the moon); sink and disappear. VII. >_ilwb^vjt

^d? eclipsed, suhiiierged.

_^_s , impf. Ji-^^j , ^^ ligJit, slight, few, nimble. II. ^_q.ó.
lighten, alleviate ; takes the ace. of the burden and ^j-t

with the person relieved, aJ^ s ^^| ^,i,. .

(j^is. , impf. (j.aJLij , ^^ preserved or delivered, come safe-

lg to, attain to ; be pure, good, excellent. II. (joJLL

deliver ; make pure. — Heb. ]^Sn /?«// out or ^y^ (Ar.

iJL^ take off clothes , Syr. ^Ixi. strip or plunde?')

11. deliver. .

^jJL., impf. ^^aJLiso, smooth or. polish, frame or fashion,

create : ^3-L=>. , (^JUs. , /^<? smooth. — Heb. pbn.

wcb. good: followed by \x, better than: pi. ^L^i., >U:b>.l.

— Aeth. C::
— 125 —

Lc5, impf. ^Jo, r<7//;, invite; call on or jp^-rt-y to; bless

ijili), curse {Ji3 J.l).

blood; pi. sLo^. — See Chald. gl. Dl.

^ .


" ^
<^^ /^^';-, appj'oach. — • Syr. w.j?-i] ap-
proach, iindei^take, agree tvith, obey.
^t> ^w/e, partie, a loftg pe?'iod, an age;
pi. \^'^',

or vS'^cXJI^]^ for ever, uhi^h. The origin of the word
is to be sought in the circling course of the seasons;

comp. "I'll, |if^ and VXs, from "in and '^ = '15 re-

volve ; also Syr. I'<n? a mill.

84>«t> a 9vorm; coll. t^.o.

'^|4>, impf. (^JtXj, (^^ //? ^/^<^^j submit to or <?^<?y, worship;

repay or requite, judge or condemn. — See Chald.
gl. pi.

iJoJuo « c%; pi. ^Joc, jj.jtjoo.

^ ^ ^ ^ " ^
Ij, f ^0 (^S b); du. nom. m. ^13, f. ^b; pi. &^l^f

and ^.f (first syll. short); this. \:> is often annexed to

the interrog. ^^^^o, U, as: dLJli Ij ^^.xi who (was it

that) beat thee? ^^LSji \b Lo what hast thou said?
shorter forms of expression for viio^ ^^JJI 16 jj^,
— 126 —
vcJLiJ ,^cX'l 13 Lo; JUL^Ji t<j> Lo what is tluj trade or

profession ? — - See Aeth. gl. "H ! I

dtj, f. Jli, dLo;
du. nom. iii. ^tj>,
f. JbG; --
pi. «dj^JJ,

dUlJ, dU>, f. JUb; du. nom. m. dLSlL>, f. dlilf; pi. JU^I^I

(scarcely used) ; ^/</*;, tttat. — Jtj is comp. of 13 and

the pron. suff. d; <iJiJ3 of the same words with I he

addif. of the demonstr. letter J (see (^jJI). In old

writings the pron. suff. is regularly declined according

lo the number and sex of (lie persons adressed, e. g.

vl-^T Uj03, (Uij" Jtiir ^'3, xxi ^cilD ^ jjf ,^ ji
M/5 is he Ijecausc of whom you (women) ?'ep7'oach-

ed me.

^.3, impf. ^jo' ^"'Z''' sacrifice, — See Chald. gl. n21.

aL;SVwo3 *?// animal killed in sacrifice, a victim; pi.

^^3, impf. v^lJO' remember, ?nention, relate. — See Chald.
gl. -^rn.

i)LJ3. See vIUI3.

^sb'o, impf. ,,^Jo, go, go a wag, depart.

.3, f. ci>!3, //^^ owner or possessor of a thing, one
who is endowed with a quahty. Being almost ordy

found in the construct stale, its decL is as follows:
.' ' >

sing. m. nom. ^ó, gen. ^,^, ace. 13; f. nom. ol3;

du. m. nom. 1^3, f. Ut^3: pi. m. nom. ..3 and J.
— J '27 —
(firsl syll. sliorl), f. yLt^6- — K is really (lie same
word as Aram, i-n, i, ». Heb. mT, ii, f. ni<i.

^•13, impf. ^-^Jo' ^f^^^c-


^L Mr //(-r/^/; pi. j^^^x 5
LK'^^) • — ^*^^ Chald. gl. ^'n.

ok. ojjx. impf. oljj; o»>, impf. o.vj, '^^ compassionate

or merciful Connected with „g^"^ /^r ^ó//", Heb. P)m.

See Syr. gl. ^°^».

o^jN, 05*>, compassionate, mefci/td.

^\y impf. ,^o (for ^O), *^^, M/z/A-. — See Aetli.

gl. a?::
o^ rt' possessor, oivner, master ; wJI Mr Lord: pi. <JIjj!.
— See Chald. gl. 2DT.

iUjvl, f. «j>l, /^?/r; pi. jjyijJ /^^'(y. — See Chald.

gl. y2iN.

«jL fourth. — See Aeth. gl. C-flO::

G^, impf. *J>J, grow, grow up, increase. II. ^f rr<7;%

^/w^ ///>;, educate. — See Chald. gl. N21.

s»j» /^<?;? thousand. — See Chald. ol. n^l.
5 4,

a crime, punishment, anger. Another form
ys.» filth; is y^^.,
pi. ^LAl. — See Chald. gl. m.
'»^. , impf. i=^l^,, return.

j4»> ''/ wtf/? (as distinct from a woman) ;
pi. JLs^n .

1.2a.r, impf. (V^jj, ^<? compassionate , have pity or mercy
upon. V.
id. — See Chald. gl. cni.
aL^->.v mercy.
— ri8 —
4> .
, impf. »>yj, s€?id or give back, q'c store; avert; reject

or refuse; answer , confute.

i^^, impf. jc^jj? A^^ or graze; tend a flock, guard or

^<^/Ar r^/;r <y^ govei'n. — • See Cliald. gl. f^yi.

^r, impf. ^vJ, lift np, raise; remove, abolish. VIII. i^J
raise; be raised, ?'ise or ^^ A^^^.

jLo. ^/^/^<?^. — Connected with ijcuoy be hot; Chald. ^ct,

Syr. ^ilaicj . |l^c? . hot ashes.

Ij , impf. _^lvJ, Z^/^-'^' (tlie wind); impf. -,-*^, ^*j, .cw<"//

(anything). — See Syr. gl. w^?.

.. m. f. the breath, spirit or 5»;//; pi. -i^liJ; ^-jpt

^^^Juo!^lf r/?<? holg Spirit, but Muhammadans understand
by it the angel Gabriel and sometimes Christ.

^, f. the wind (nn, Uo»); scent, smell (rr"], ll-');

pl. ^b;, ^b^l, ^t,y.


wiTv , impf. v^ jj , .s'-'^'^// or rise , be agitated or rage (esp.

the sea).

l^\, impf. *^, be pure, good, innocent. — See Ch. gl. t<DT.

^\, f. xIA, z^^/^'c', ^06></, innocent.

JLv. impf JLIo, Jd^wo, cU-ó, imper. JLlJ, Jd^*/!^, Ju«,
o S "^ >'*. * '* - 'j'*.
<7.s7i-, /^<?</ ; ^^^'' «-^b*. or ^^^^'1 ,j-. aJLL he asked

him alxnil llir thing. — See Chald. 2:1. ^N^•.

— 129 —
;3-»-^5 impt. ;^_a.Au^. ^^aavo, preeed, aricipate, outrun,

J^UL^ m. f. rt' i^oad or /?(?//?, /d^^n'y, method, conduct ; pi. jJLvL.

— Heb. h^l^, Aram. N^IJ', lL-a-». , '^irnS'*^-

J-su*/, impf. J^ia^A»o, r«^ off, peel,

Ji^Lu seaslwre, beach, coast; in part.
'a pi.
jLi.LlJI the coast of Syria and Palestine. — Comp.

xiLs., Heb. F]"!!!; Aram, icp, ij^,

Jl^, impf. cfco, and J^i.^;, impf. J^i^o, ^<:' /om', /6>Wy,

w<:'^/^ humble. — Heb. ^D'li''; Aram. ^Dti', VL*,, used
chiefly in some of the derived conj.

Jo LI. /9«', w<^^/?. JlL*! lowe?', the loivestpart ; pi. JjLvt •

jLycLyu a vessel, ship; pi. (j.^*... — See Chald. gl. WDD.
jjC«, impf. jjXwuo, be quut or tranquil, subside or ^^
^/we^i^ (the sea), dwell. — Heb. jrii' or ]r*;^', Syr. ^ijk..

11, , impf. IaIo, poison; hence LJ. poison , Syr. jiais ///^y//-

^^>2^, poison.

\1^ the hot mind or simoom (more corr. samum).

"^^ impf. Lllo, /^^fl'r, ^^«?^. — See Syr. gl. '^-^^'i^-

L^, impf. yj^,-, be high.

ll[ a name; pi. tUll. In the phrase sX'l ,v^ the

init. I is always dropped, whilst* a whim of the calli-

grapliers has ordered that the upward stroke of the ^
should be lengthened. — See Chald. gl. Ud
eLII m. f the sky. heaven, a roof or ceilint/. — See

Chald. gl. N-'Cli'.
— 130 —
til,, inipf. i*Io, he had or wicked; injui'e, hu?'t, distress.

°1j^, g«-l , evd, wickedness, an evil or calamity,

gll J4»; tt had man , it^LiiT ^y^ the wickedness of

their actions. — Aeth. XIJ^2i: Heb. xiii'.

jLl, impf. L^. w -^ ; he lord or master of, rule over.

juLl a lord QY master , chief, prince; pi. 84>Ll, cylt^Ll.

V'lilgarly contracted into sid (sldJ, i^^y lord, sir, a title

like ^^ — hence ///<? (?/</ — still farther abbrev, si\

and the fem.
G, ^^
iJiXlw into oa-*« •^Z'^/'- — Heb. C">"K' /«&^
^6>^y, /</(9/^/ Aram. ^"vW an evil spiiit, demon (Z. d.

D. M. G. vol. IX. p. 481), ??U

TLl. inipf. vA-wo, y<? , /^•rt'/>l'', set oat on a journey. —
Heb. ^.
8wA.»**jo a journey, space, distance.

cX^ , impf. tXcio , ^//^^Z or tie firjnly, strenythen, rush upon
Si ^ 'S-
it ^ f- ^
or attack. IV. Juif as „verbum admiralionis", Juif Lo

i.:ió.j.=i. Lc /^^/^' very much yrieved thou art! — Aelli.

S! drive out, e.vpel\ Heb. TW destroy.
G *
jJu strenyth, violefice; distress-, ?nisfortune.
G -
Jojui strony, violent.

Cwco, impf.
vr^' ^'^''*''''^»-'- — -^eth. z,n::


- i
' ^
/><" <^^/*'/ or wicked. — Heb. TiD /^^'

refractory, "T^p an enemy.

— 131 —
li evil, wickedness, a crime, misfortume , pi. !, Li;

adj. /{-rt-^, wicked = ~]^^i, pi. ^f^, ^|_It -—
Heh. -p.

^^, inipf. o^., ^^ /^/y^; oj-co, impf. oLij ^d' /^^^/c'.

^wwi Molfle, illustiious, excellent; pi. Jf^l^f. — Heb.

vlouo ^/>vV/<?, separate. — Heb. F]VD, whence f]ij;p « «:'/6//,

rtr ^rrt';^^^/^ (Af. ^^JLi « r/^y?, ^,?/f/<!?, LjLo « branch),
and D'Dyp, D^Dj;ir, thoughts, opinions.
Go' G J '

^_;ji>cb « />'/^<? or people ; pi. ^-jyt^i
-- ' . > - " --

^3^*0, impf. j^jj^, feel pity or co7npassio7i ; more common
in IV. ;^A^!,
^" "
jCi, impf.
> ' " ^
sXcio, reward, give thanks, be grateful — Heb.

IDis', also '\2'\v\^.

5 " '

jCi a reward, thanks, gratitude.

jjLLco f. the sun; pi. j^.^-^. — See Chald. gl. tJ'Diy.

tLi. (for ^xxo), impf. iLió, wish, ivill.

g-^ « //^//^^ 0"es); pi. A*Ji>\. — Heb. iw. Comp.
yon and lias^.

vj.^^, impf. ^A^s?j, ^i*^ companion to, accompany.

v„*.3kLo rtt cot?panon, owner or possessor ; pi. ,„^^x.o,

LjLsx-oI, ^^L^uo, and ibLsv^o. Also used in con-

nect. with J^» (as j;"i with t:"t<) to denote the one
- — the other.

— 13'2 —
JoLo , iiui)f. JotASj , ^^ up , ascend. IV. Jos-ol id. —
Heb. -tj;^'.

"ASo , impf. 'yiJoji , be small; li^ , inipf. vi-^ , he small,

R'orthless, mean, despised. — See Chald. gl. ij;].

^Ai-o *w<z//, young ; pi. nU^.
iLo. II. JLc pray. — See Chald. gl. N^!i.

s^w^, s^Lo, a prayer ; pi. cyl^-Lo.

*lo, impf. .^IaoJ, make, do. — Syr. "^^^j ^^ diligent,

artful, cunning; Aeth. ii^O! be firm , strong, brave;

Sam. V^"t<7l = .v-^^ '^ /y/^/.

^\Jo , impf. cy_^, cyLoj, ^;/w'/ « sound, cry out.

vl>ló, « sound, a cry, the voice; pi. cLllol

1LÓ, impf. [-^- abstain from (esp. food). — See Chald.

gl. Clii.

*lo <? fast.

'sCa, impf. vA^' become, begin to do anything; ^o (sLl).

G^, impf. i^wój, strike, sting (an insect). Comp. y*)^,

cl^fl, and rij;-}^'.

cl^, Pv^? impH c'j-oj, ^^ humble or submissive. V. cC^'
humble onesself.


^ lb , impf. Ikj , throw, cast away.

^jis, m. f. a I'oad, way, way of life, conduct ; pi. ^jis,
. .

— 133 —
*»1d, impf. ivikj, fasU', cat. — See Chald. g-1. dv:d.

j.Lxi5 /><?^/ pi. aU^bl.
--'' . J'"- >'*^
cXis, impf. ^«JJaj, ^JUoj, rw«^ forth, appear, rise, as-

cend. — Cliald. yhj2 draw out or off, Syr. 'Ol^z]

examine, investigate = lXh3 or iJLbl

*-LL2x) , JLiox) , ^/^^ /?/<5rr^ of ascent or ;7.c//^j/ ; pi.

- ' ' . >"- ^ " ^ j'"^
(3JLb, impf. (^Xioj, loosen; i^Jlis, impf. ^^jLkj, ^^ (^/Z-

vorced; ,^ , impf. (^-Lkj , ^^ loose , cheerfid, di-

vorced. VII. i^jJLkj f ^<7 sent atvay, go, depart, be cheer-

ful. — Syr. "'^f be consumed or destroyed, ^^i
divorce, destroy ; Chald. p^ip throw a?vay , Sam. YV^

Jlj. II.
^ 05 ^
JJli shade, overshadow. — See Chald. gl. hh^.
g G ^
jLb shade, shadow; pi. J^Uo.
^ - -
J^Uó anything that gives shade.
GS ^
LUjix) «/^ instrument for giving shade, an umbrella;

also « hut or /<?;^/'; pi. JLbJo.

iJU, impf. (JJbj, injure, oppress. — Aeth. IIIA^: Aram.

d2'^, -^c^, ^^.
jJLb oppression, wrong, injustice.

— 134 —

N-*^ , impL lli^ ,
pass over. — See Chald. gl idj; .

^IIIa Hebrew.
vi^ , inipf. jjju , stumble.

*La£ adversity^ calamity; cljap. II. 7 (I am not liow-

ever certain that this is the correct reading).

o^, impf. oJu, know.

i$^>cLc., f. j.»ix., /^/?. See ,o^'l. ^^^ Chald, gl. "iDy.

LLi£, impf. ^ju, ^^/A-<? ?>? //^(? /^/7/?r/, receive. IV. U^ t y/^;,^.

(Jaji, impf. (Ja*j, ^^ /(«r^^, important. — Heb. c^y ^-'^

strong, numerous.

jvA^ large, great, important; pi. ^Liiii, ilja^

JioL!, f. thr , larger, largest, very large.

J^ and JJiJ, perhaps; construed with the ace, as JóiJ

v«^j^' cu^'f perhaps death is near ; IXxi , dUlxJ, etc.;

^JS^ liowever is freq. used for ,«aJL«J.

ll^, impf. (Jlju, k}W7v.

^Lc., impf. ^Jju, and ^^, impf. ^^Jjij, ^<? //^^^/^ e.valted,

noble. VI. ^pLx^ <^^ /^?^/^, exalted; come. — Heb. n'/J^,

Aram. vhy_^ (not used in I.); cognate words are ^
impf. ^JLiu, ^/^^o/ ?//; luxuriantly, exceed due li?nits, be
dear ; Aeth. OA (D '.
break the law, be faithless or pe?--

fidious, betray.
. ,

— 135 —
^^Xl over, above, upon, on, in addition to, notwith-

standing, against, elc. — See Cliald. gl. 'py.

s ^ ^
J^. labom-, )vo/-k, do.

J.^£. labour, work, deed or act; a district or go-

vernment; pi. JUr^l

^j^ away from, from; without; after. With suff. J^
vJllc, etc.

Uc, impf. yju, and ^^1, inipf.
^^^^ distress or rr/z/ó^*?

anxiety ; pass. ^1^ = VIII. ,clx2[ ^^ solicitous or

concerned about, bestoiv pains or labour upon. — Heb.
n^j; (for i3y), Aram, "i^y, ^jl.

3li, impf. c>yju>, return, repeat or do again (comp. 2115^,

^<n, ^;, yi1(P'^\ become (is.'J). — Heb. n^iy ó^*-/;-

round, "iiyn ^'//'//v// solemnly, testify; Syr. ,^il C*^^)
accustom; Aeth. ^^I _^(> round or about, wliich see.

^Lft. IV. ^Lct <?*m/, /^^^.

Rj^xjo, itiyw, //6'^>, aid.

^^jll. f. M^ <'y^. (I fountain; pi.
^j^-^, (j^^- — ^^^ '^y-

C/.JÓI., impf. 4^^' '^'''" ^^^^9^'y- — Heb. DiJj; afflict, dis-

tress; i\e(h. OCIfi: ^<'^ hard, difficult. — The origin

of these diff. signif. is to be sought in the idea of

tying firmly (^^, -^^); hence arise tlie signif. of

1) binding up wounds, curing or healing (-=5^); 2) of

collecting {Cj-^ , il^ a body of meii) ; 3) of ha7'd-
— 136 —
ncss, whence originate the various signif. of a) diffi-

culty (OBfi:). h) calamity {^_^ul. of a year of famine

caused by drougiit. ^. k ^ r *o and ^^^.sojy^a^) , cj ste?'/f-

ness or severity (óC^"fl.'), d) anyer (J./«ox, 2Vv!), ^>^ ^7^-

pression, affiiction (2^;, J- -^
^ , sl^Aa): 4) of violent

exertion, zeal, perseverance {C^.j^Lk, C^^^.^\\ ^.ojlj,
xw Jifr patriotic or religious zeal) , and in a more ge-

neral sense of /'*//, labour , norlc (2*iy, Z^j;, 2?iV')'

Comp. the various signif. of llie rad. Juó , ""ti' and

^^, pin.

^jJLc. the holt or /^n'r of a door: pi. ^-^^1.

Ic., im[tf. lij, rry^vv, a/'/lict oy yrieve. VIII. I^tt^ he giieved

or distressed. — Ileb. cc:; (see Gesenius' Thesaurus):

Cliald. D>c>* ^y/^/Zv .^////i^/ (prop, cover the eyes, Ar.

"^-^ ^<" May/) an 1 CCJ/PN be blind.

"(jS. impf. rvlij- take possession of, carry off as booty.
s\ ^ ^
1^ f. sliccj) and yoats ((lie most important possessions

of a n(jmade people): pi. Jj^S.

XL, impf. v*Aj, -y/V^/i' i^/9>'^v/', /y^ lo?v or sunken, subside, set

(the sun).

xIl M^//" /^•///r// lies lo?v or ^/<'Y7-', M^ bottom, a val-

/^y .•
in particular >.jlM eJ-Ghor, the valley of the


o a conj., differing from : in that it implies, not a mere
ju.vtaposition of two Ihiiigs or events, hut an otmard
— 137 —
p7'ogrcssion or an inieiiml connection, as of cause and

effect and the like. Hence it may be very variously

translated into English, according- as the context de-
mands. Sometimes by then (in which case it may
also be aKogether passed over), as: Ijjo v^Uli" ."J

^j.JviLCf ^>o cióLi if thou hast said this, (then) thou

art an unbeliever; ^j^loU atJUl ^^I:s\.j pcij ^^j^,

?/ ^6' /<?;^ God, {then) follow me. Sometimes simply
by and, as: ^-jwXo gLo ^at. JI^ ^^Li y v- f^ «" /^<? -'^Wi'

thirsty and (in consequence) ;^'^«/' /If? « spring to drink.

Sometimes by in order that, so that, that (in which
case a following verb is put in the subj., as after J),

as: ILlsaJI Jit^oU ^.jx b J Jl-I pa?'don me, my
Lord, that I may enter (and so, and in consequence,

I shall enter) Paradise. Hence it corresponds in many
points with the socalled 71mm conversivum of the Hebrew.
^jsxi the dawn, the morning.

I,li, impf. «- virf ' cleave or divide; remove ones sorrow,

console. II. _ Ji id. V. ^aj he free of grief,

amuse or entertain one'sself — Syr. ^„ ^ and ^^^zj.
ji, impf. '^"yki, he glad, happy, rejoice.

^ li ./^>y, happiness.

li, impf. lij, //("^, rz^;? rt'^z'^y.

,jiili, impf. ^Jii,, cut or z^^"/*://, fix or determine, ordain,

proclaim by edict. — Cogn. ^"-J, yi^-, ^i^ , ^'^^^

other words containing the syll. ic (see Gesenius

Thesaurus, art. "ns).
— 138 —
^•ws, iniiif. ^'vAJ, be afraid.

^"yi fear.

J-ói, impf. Juflij, divide. — Syr. '^^.

Jufli «^/ division, difference or distinction, chapter or

section, season of the year; pi. ^yjj^.

^ in, on, concei^ning, in com])arison with.

Jui , impf. JlSj , r^/7^^ towards, approach ; receive or ac-

f <?/?/. IV. JJj| approach, in a friendiy manner, ?'eceive

kindly, in a hostile manner, attack; unde?'take anything.

— See Chald. gl. h2p.

JJj prop, that fvhich is opposite; adv. ace. jJUs //^

/«> possession; iiXJ3 ^^ on his part, from him. —
Aram. ^2^. or ^2p, '^a.ko, 2^C.
Jj' adv. derived from the rad. S^ cut through, conveying
the idea of being done and finished, already. Hence
cXS, or slill more emphat. , tXii, is pref. to a verb in

the perf. to indicate the entire completion of the act at

a past time, as: iJ^ LSlfo jJ^ we have (already)
narrated his reign; 3^' 50^55 s'^L^ he went to

his house, but found he had (already) gone out. U
also conveys the idea of sufficiency, as Isn". ó {^^^) ^^
a dirham (coin) is enough for me; and is hence used
with the impf. in the sense of pretty often, sometimes,

pei'haps, as Jjuoj Ó Ct^dSiS ^^ the liar some-
times speaks the truth.
139 —
»tX9, impl. ^JJb, \ósA^,, be jmwerful, able.
s —
.t>U part. adj. powerful, able.

y^tXiJ. II. u^tXi* /?W7/^, consecrate; hence yltU^T cill^ft

or y^cXiuJ f cyoo or ^j^^^^j I v:i^yo Jei'usalem. — See
Chaid. gl. K'ip.

yilcXi purity, sanctity ; hence yljJiJI Jerusalem, '

(j^tXiLlt or y*/tXJ! _5j //^(? holy spirit (according (0

the Muhammadans, the angel Gabriel).

*tXs, impf. |»tXij, ^<? before, precede; IjS', impf. IcXL',

approach, arrive; IdS, impf. IjJb, <?»<? old w ancient.
— See Syr. gi. >o,^.

j%tjo prop. //^^ front; adv. ace. 'j.J.jJ /;? />-^;?/ 6>/, (^<:'-

/?>r^; aIJo ^ />w;^ before, away fro7n.

o jo, iuipf. o 4^5 thro7v; th^ow up, vomit — See Aetli. gl. 1 J? A"
Is , impf. j^ I^ , , ^<? cold; be quiet, stay, remain. X. ^.£x*«|^

^6' ^«/<?^, remain, dwell. — Aeth. *P<>4Z,.' ^? cold, Syr.

jj^^ Chald. l"ij^nN; Heb. ij:? r^/f/.

^IS', impf. yóJb, c"?/^, ^<?/?>'', gnaw. Cognate form yjoS-,

Aeth. ^Z,9: shear; HeJi. '^1[^; Chald. ^^np, chiefly

used in such phrases as ('ii"lp) ''ni^"i|'5 ^'^'^.^ '^1
-oior-jja to slander or calumniate a jjo'son , Ar,

pis, impf. P^, ^<"i7/, knock. VIIL ^i^l^ '"'^-^^ ^^^^-y-

Heb. yip^ /^«/% r^/^r/ (see ^'J).
Vji'^ nomen unitatis Ri-lS', a gourd. — See Syr. gl. Il^c.

ifcto « /<>/.
— 140 —
._^Jlj' the innej'most part, interior : hence pith, keiniel, mar-

row, the heart; pi, (^JLi*.— Heb. 27P.

OLi, impf. ^^,, say, speak. — See Syr. gl. Vo.

lU", impf. f^yb, */<7/^</ ?/y>, ?vó^^, stand. — See Chald. gl. D^p.

Go- . 1 ^ •'"T
people, a people , a nation; pi. (•Ml-


1^, impf. j-Jo, /^<^ larffe, stout ; Is, impf JXf. be old. —
Aeth. ^-flZ, : be honoured, illustrious, Heb. "^spp,
Svr. ;Iis.

j.A-J^ /^//y^, ^/^/, ^i'YY// or famous; pi. »L3^ ^'5-y •

Heb. "i^^D.

jji$^ impf jJl5o, ^e ;;^w<7//, numerous.

yfjif much, many, numerous.
, - (it

lw>5"^/ 6w/^, throne; pi.
— See Chakl. gl. NDir.

sJ^ impf. s^IXj, be averse to, dislike, abhor, take amiss.

V. yT id. — Aelh. '/F-CU: (Ar. 5^) force, com-
pulsion:^ Syr. oi^z] yrieve, be sick, Chald. j^-'Z, ^"]3r^!,

Syr. 1^ or ^^^ , which see.

Iwwi^, impf. wwiS, break, put to rout. VII. y^^S^l be bro-

ken, routed, ivrecked.
2 '

Jj^ Mf? whole, all. -— See Chald. gl. /Z.

jv-LT. 11. iJi^ speak, speak to, address.
— 141 —
J^kS' Speech, address; jJJI J%S' the leord of God.

Ul^' ?iwd; pi. Iji^ cLUJi^.

^jl^, impf, -oyQ, (^t';, become, happen. — SeeAeth. gl. ^i!

^JuS' how ?

J emphat. part., certainhj. Of constant occurrence after J^t,

as: ;*iiJ «JLM jjt^ ym/y 6'6></ is i^eady to forgive, and
in the apodosis of conditional statements, after Ll and

Sp, as: (Xs\^' V; '5-?^ ^ ^^^ ^y^^ P '^ ^^^^^

had known (it), they ivould not have crucified the

Lord of glory ; also in such phrases as: ^yjó hy my
life, viJLof W4J.I <^_^ ^/<tf ///? of thy father.

J, and with pron. sufF. J, ^, for, according to, etc. Sign

of the dat., and of the ace. (principally with particip.

and inf., as viJLJ v^^^xslxj /f//w^ ^/^^^ 7vith wonder,

v:yLJó!^l| slX-^ ^.j-lUl //^^ expounders of these ver-

5^jr ; or when the ace. precedes the verh , as pjS (jj

-..^^otf ^^Y-^ '/ y<^ interpret visions). — See Chald.

gloss, h.

J in order that, that; construed with the subj. , as lU^
Ifllj (^lilj Jonah arose that he might flee (to flee).

Prop, it is identical with the prep. J, and is often

conjoined with ^^j'
(as ^j.^m-^JI J^I ^j^' c;-^^ '^r^';
«/«</ / /^Y/ó- ordered to be the first of the Muslims),
— 142 —
always wlien followed by the neg. !sl (as dUj Jli USI
o o ^c

*-L*ilj oi-^ULwwo !^K^ /«^ said this o?ihj in order (hat

learning might ?iot be disparaged — '^l for "^^^
!9 no, not. When = t'N, it is followed by the Jussive. —
See Chald. gl, n^.

!!tó, for Sjj^, ?'« order that — not. See J.

^^ and jj!^ because, since. See ^jl, J^l, and J-

y!«.J, impf. (jlJJbj j^^^^ ^^ clothes. — See Chald. gl. tt'D^

JoJ. See Jk£.

^ji^^l or jjXJ <^?//. Before nouns and pron. suff. it takes

the form "jO, and is construed with llie ace. (but

1S3 as v;ell as ^^^1)0).

ij /;<?/; followed by the Jussive, as yx^\ v^:? c^^ I*"'

did not tike poetinj.

O when, after,

Q (also IJ and in poet. Ij) ^''^ account of what? why?
See LÓ.

yllj ///^r<? is not, 7vas not. Comp. of Si and the obsol.

^1 = ]i;\ — See Cliald. gl. nw*.

JoJ night; nomen unitatis '»}!} a night, \\. JLIi. — See

Chald. gl. b^h.


LÓ what? that which, what, whatever. In interrog. Vo is

often annexed, as oJLi" lj> U, o-ol 13 UJ (see |j>).
— 143 —
The same word is used as conj. /;? as fa?- as (Lc

aaIojuv! in as fa?- as I ca? , as ??iuch as I caa) , as

lo?ig as (LI&. v^ajoo U as long as I 7-cmain alive),

and ho?v (in one of the verbal forms of expressing

wonder, e. g. d^xl w^l Uó /^^^y^^ st?-a?ige is your
co?uluct! oój^ Lo tXwl Lo ho?v violent is your grief!).

From it too has sprung
LÓ ?iot. See Gesenius' Hebr. Gr. 16 th ed., p. 239. note
of the Engl, transl.

cUuo 7vares, 7?ie?-chandise, utensils, fu?-?uture ; pi, SjuuoI.

Joo, w»ijJ^ Mard-atoc'^ the propliet Jonah is called by the

^^ u^y->-
''c- '--. ''o-
JcLo, Jocvc, impf. JoLfj, 5/'/^^/ ^r^^^; Jcuo, impf Joi^j, <^^

//Ay?;, resemble; ?nake like, assimilate, compare. —
Aeth. <Pt\S.\ or <^£iA: he like, seem; Heb. ^a'c: (J-?

like, Chald. II. t^rcN, part, pe'il '5\"C ^J*.^'^. The
noim 'rii'C occurs in all the dialects: Ar. Jcto, Aeth.

<?=>i^A: Aram. N^nc, }3z^^ "^ZA^.

J^ /r/^ór/ /^ //A'^ or equal, pi. Juuo! ; adv. ace. Jji^o

//A-(?, rt-^. — Heb. h'^y^, Phoen. t'ti'D (inscr. Eryc. 1. 3).

Lo, impf. "l^j, pass by, on, or r/;^r/_y.

gjlc r/ 5/;/y/' //w^; pi. ^\l^, ^^^- ^^^- ^r* ^'^'"'"•

^JLo ^/ ga?-??ient of coarse cloth; pi. ^-wwuo.

"kx or Lo ;w//^ ^//<);?^ — See
?^'///^ Chald. gl. c>.

f^^i ^/ 6r^///<>/', pi. ^^SiJc. — See Syr. gl. j-Ji^.
. .

— 144 —
dLLó, impf. viJUUj, he master of, possess. — See Cliald.

yiJLLo «/^ owncj' or possessor, king ; pi. d JL*
jP (in Egypt. ^^ or ,j-vf) i'^'/^<?.'^ — See Chald. gl. p.
^%xi from, of, out of; after the comparative, than. — See

Chald. gl. p.
yyUo, impf. ci>«-4j, <//<:*, <^^ </^'<?r/. — See Chald. gl. D'C.

vijj^ dcatli.

IX^ , impf. ^y^.i move to and fro, 1)e agitated.
^ 9 c- ^ ,
G -of
yA a wave, pi. ^?^l.

JLÓ, impf. Jov.»j, ^<?/^<^ or incline. VI. JoUj /J^^^/z^/ /> and

fro, be agitated or tossed about.

(jlLS. See ^LUJ.
Uj, impf. LUj, <^^ raised or elevated. 11. Uj <^7W^ ;?<";«'.?,

announce; choose as a prophet. V. 1.^3 appear as
a prophet. — See Chald. gl, N2J
S - - - o^
lo' (for ^j^aS^) « p?'ophet, pi. i^CuJl.

HIo (for ij^wó) //c^' ^-y^r^:" of prophet, p?'opheci/ , a


viLuJ, impf. o-yj, sprout, grow.

I Jo, impf. .lXaj, r<7// or summon; come together, assemble.

III. ^5t>lS <:vy out, proclai?n, call or summon.

Tjó, impf. ^jdJ, ;X1}, ?w^'. — See Chald. gl. Ti:.
GS- O'j
.Jo « tJWi'; pi. ^^jó.
— 145 —
^^ , impf. ^^j , tear or pull off, snatch away. — Cognate
words in Heb. are yoj and riDJ;

J^, impf. J^, come do?vn, descend, alight, take up ones
abode. — Heb. ^n flo?v.

Jaj, impf. will}, JhjS, see, look at, observe, consider. —
See Syr. gl. j^j.

ijtJó f. the soul, life ; a person, person or self; pi. tl^',
yju-ttj|. — See Chald. gl. k'b:.

«ij , impf. *1<j , be of use or advantage.

fts\S part. adj. useful; «ii| w(?r<? useful, better.

1^, impf. Lgij' A*^'^'-
— ^^^ Chald. gl. iro.

j-^, wgi, « ?'iver, a canal; pi. ^LgJl.

^^4^, impf j-4^' §^"' ^^•'^^^ '" ^'^^ ^^''^^ ^^'
P^"^^- t5^'
reach. VIII. ^^4^' ^^^/i'^^ /<?, reach; come to an end,
be finished.

llj, impf. (•LIT, 5/(?^/?. •
— Aeth. 1<P\ Heb. DJ, Syr. >qj.

In Ar. lU is used in speaking of soimd sleep, Th^j
of lighter slumbers; in Heb. the use of CJ and j'^^

is reversed.

^P-ó' i^l^^^.'

^^, impf. w»4j> ^^'^'^- IV-
v^' w<7^^ ^A?;^.

k^ tti
, impf ioA^, Ja-A-^j /^^f^'^ </<?/«'/?;, ^<? r/(9;^>;^, descend.

Ijk^, impf. I<X^, ^<? 6M, ^tó/^^. — Aeth. U^Ai:
' .

— 146 —
- ^ - I II - I


— Comp.


of L^
= nTi, |n ,
and 13-

Cli, impf. v^^, //^t'.

G^ ^

JjCx^ anything large or bulky , espec. « /<7;'_^<? building,

palace, temple. — See Chald. gl. '^r^n.

dUjc, impf. dULgS, and dll^, impf. dUL§j, <//^, perish. —
See Chald. gl. I'^n.

(JLIp> //^;t, //^^t-^, Comp, of LIjd /#^;'<? and J. Other forms

are iLHJj , and LlffL^ , H^ (comp. I j and its

ye, f.
^, /^f?, ^^", /^y du. U^; pi. m. I^ (in poet, ^jd),

J^. When preceded by : or 3, the vowel of

the first syll. is gen. dropped, Isa:, ^^J^ •
— See

Chald. gl. ^nn. — ij yc (iS^, fii>yeL^) as interj.,

JUd, impf J^, terrify.

Jyo /^<7/% terror, anything terrible ; pi. Jlyel.

tl^ , impf. iL^ , ijc-gj , -^"^ prepa?'ed, ready. II. Ll^ó prepare,

7nake ready.

_,L^, impf. ^.gj, <^<? agitated, excited, rage\ excite, rouse.

~ SeeAeth. gl. 17^::

ol^, impf. tXl>j (^^//-y r///i;tf. VIII, oli]^ ^(? ó7(9;d'/y rt'/c?//^.

Formed by transposition from o\ (o^f) ^^//</, /<?«</ or
burden, oppress , Heb. "i\s ^/ burden.

— 147 —
sjy; weight; slowness in motion, delay or hesitation:

stedfastness or gravity, patience, endu7'anc€ (comp.

nU«, TJ^^). Formed like «ijo ease, affluence, from

c t> j ; X>-<U indigestion , from j^.^ ; sUo a prop, staff,

cushion, from LXjf (l^i); x-i-gj' suspicion, from l^i

farther ^^Uo confidence, from Jk5:, ^^13 inheritance,

from j»: ; ^j /^ar 6»/ God, from J:. Comp.
such secondary formations as 1^ = 'LhS\^ ^if =
j^J, jJo (Aram, ^rn, vJz) = Jl^J, jJi and its

derivatives from jj^ , Ljj = £Jbj , Igi == lp[,
l:vj = ^~^[ from la.!, and j^^xi = J^^s^l. from

tX^t. Freytag has in his Lexicon ^3*S* under ó\ and

soy under t>; — hoth, I believe, mistakes.

j^;, impf. JcssJ find.

tjLl the face, the fi'ont , suiface ; nmy or manner ; pi.

IXi^r, tXsi^j, impf. lXj^, ^^ (J'/c*;^^, single, the only one of
the soj't, unique. — See Chald. gl. "in.
Jl&.!« 6>«^, *6>/^;, alone. — Aeth. Tm.'?'"

Jk^r impf. J-CL3, y^//^, come or tf//<z/// /<?, reach. — Hence
in Syr. IL^, Ar. Jlo^, a Joint.

^:, impf. _j, <^<? entire , keep faith or (>/^6''6' /jw*^, pay
a debt. II. ^|; keep engagements , perform promises,
or pay debts , to the uttermost (prop, make complete,

from ^5 entire, abundant^. — Syr. w.,^©! be able,

also ^<? consumed, cease, perish; Aeth. ACD'Z.P' '/^'-

— 148 —
liver up. As to these diff. signif., comp. the rad. d'tiS',

|V-Lw, and en, ~*j", in the several dialects.

liLT, 1C^ Jaffa, or Joppa.

(jIaj, inipf. u^-I^' ^^ c^-'v^nf «//?, ?vithe?'ed. II. ^^^l^IJ ^;v/ ?//>,

»/tfA? wither. — See Chald. gl. Mj'z^.
s ^—
(j**^ « dry place, dry land.

jj f. the hand; du. ^fjo; ph cXjI, 4>bl. — See Ch. gl. "i^

LwwJ M^ left side, left hand = ^£yA>*jJ\.

\^ f. the right side, right hand = ^I^jJI, an oath, pi.

^L^jI. — See Chald. gl. yD''.

llj a day (i. e. the civil day of 24 hours; the natural

r/tf^ is .LJj, as opp. to night JoJ); pi. ^Gl. — See'

Chald. gl. D1"».

J.ijlj, ijl^Jj Jonah; ^t\\. called by the Arabs (j«j*j


Leipzic: PiinteJ by Fr. Nie«.


BS Bible. O.T. Jonah. Polv
1601 lf*57
W7 The book of Jonah in
1^57 Semitic versions

1; '


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