Classify common substances as acidic basic or neutral:  Acids: Sour taste Litmus changes from blue to red React

with active metals to produce hydrogen gas and a salt React with carbonates to release carbon dioxide gas Neutralisation reactions with bases:  Dissociates in water to produce hydronium (hydrogen) ions  Donates protons to the base  Can accept an electron pair from a base  Bases: Bitter taste Slippery or Greasy Litmus changes from red to blue Neutralisation reactions with acids:  Dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ions  Accepts protons from the acid  Can donate an electron pair to an acid  Neutral: Neither acidic nor basic Same concentration of hydrogen ions as hydroxide ions Acidic Substances Lemon Juice Vinegar Carbonated Soft drinks Citrus juices Basic Substances Caustic soda solution Milk of Magnesia Ammonia cleanser Washing soda Neutral Substances Distilled water Sugar Pure alcohol Sodium Chloride

phenolphthalein.1 4.0 7.0 ← Red Identify and describe some everyday uses of indicators including the testing of soil acidity/basicity:  Chemical Analysis: Chemists routinely use indicators in analytical work Used in titrations to signal point when the acid neutralises the base Visible signal as most of these solutions are colourless  Soil Testing: Acidity is usually difficult to measure with indicator due to the darkness Soil is moistened with water and universal indicator added White barium sulfate powder places on surface of soil White powder absorbs soil water so that colour can be seen against white background  Monitoring Pool Acidity: Acidity levels need to be carefully controlled to reduce skin and eye irritation Regularly tested with indicator with a colour range similar to that of universal indicator .Identify that indicators such as litmus.6 ← Blue Litmus Red → 5.3 10.0 8.4 ← Yellow Phenolphthalein Colourless → 8.0 ← Blue Methyl Orange Red → 3. methyl orange and bromothymol blue can be used to determine the acidic or basic nature of a material over a range identified by a change in indicator colour: Colour Changes and Ranges of Important Indicators Indicator Very Acidic Neutral Very Basic pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Bromothymol Blue Yellow → 6.

releasing CO2 (g)  Decreasing temperature favours exothermic reaction dissolving CO2 (g) Changing Concentrations:  Adding acid (increasing H+) shifts equilibrium to left  Adding base (reacting with & reducing H+) shifts equilibrium to right Changing Pressures & Volumes: . using up the heat – decreasing the temperature favours the exothermic reaction. then the system alters in a way that counteracts the change  Carbon Dioxide Solubility: Dissolves in water. releasing more heat Define Le-Chatelier’s Principle & describe the solubility of Carbon Dioxide in water under various conditions as equilibrium in terms of Le-Chatelier’s Principle:  Le-Chatelier’s Principle: If a change is made to an equilibrium system.Identify Factors which can affect the equilibrium in a reversible reaction:  Equilibrium: For reversible reactions:  As reaction proceeds rate of forward reaction decreases as reactants consumed  Rate of reaction in which reactants reformed increases as products increase  Eventually an equilibrium state will be reached  At this point the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse Dynamic Equilibrium – Chemical state in which reaction proceeds in both directions at equal rates in a closed system  Factors effecting Equilibrium: Concentration – increasing the concentration of a substance favours the direction that will use up more of that substance Pressure/Volume – increasing the pressure or decreasing the volume favours the direction that will decrease the pressure on the system Temperature – increasing the temperature favours the endothermic reaction. reacts with water:  CO2 (g) ↔ CO2 (aq)  H2O (l) + CO2 (g) ↔ H2CO3 (aq)  H2CO3 (aq) ↔ H+(aq) + HCO3 -(aq) Equilibrium shift to the left increases release of CO2 (g) Equilibrium shift to the right dissolves more CO2 (aq) Changing Temperatures:  Increasing temperature favours endothermic reaction.

  Increasing Pressure. shift towards right Decreasing Pressure. decreasing volume. hot springs and geysers  Industrial Sources: Combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and in motor vehicles:  During combustion of fuel sulfur compounds oxidise releasing SO2  Example: Combustion of Black Coal  Equation: 4FeS2 (s) + 11O2 (g) → 2Fe2O3 (s) + 8SO2 (g) Smelting of sulfide ores:  Sulfide minerals produce sulfur dioxide when smelted  Example: Smelting Chalcopyrite  Equation: 2CuFeS2 (s) + 5O2 (g) + 2SiO2 → 2Cu (l) + 2FeSiO3 (l) + 4SO2 (g) Identify natural and industrial sources of oxides of nitrogen & describe. examples of chemical reactions which release oxides of nitrogen:  Natural Sources: Lightning:  Provides high temperatures for reaction between nitrogen and oxygen  Equation: N2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2NO (g) Neutral nitrogen monoxide reacts in air:  Produces acidic nitrogen dioxide  Equation: 2NO(g) + O2 (g) → 2NO2 (g) Bushfires burning protein rich in oxygen and nitrogen  Industrial Sources: Combustion reactions in furnaces and internal combustion engines:  High temperatures produced by spark plug react nitrogen and oxygen. examples of chemical reactions which release sulfur dioxide:  Natural Sources: Decomposition and combustion of organic matter in bushfires Emissions from erupting volcanoes. shift towards left Identify natural and industrial sources of sulfur dioxide & describe. using equations. using equations. increasing volume. releasing nitrous oxides from exhaust  Home heaters and gas stoves Assess evidence indicating increase in atmospheric concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen:  Atmospheric Acidic Oxides in USA and Europe: Emissions of acidic oxides went largely unchecked in 19th and 20th centuries .

basicity increases down the group . well below World Health Organisation goals  The Evidence: Only over recent years due to need for technology SO2 and NO2 form ions. mostly water-soluble. basicity increases down the group Group 2 oxides: basic. FeO and CuO Soluble metallic oxides react with water forming alkaline solutions Red litmus turns blue in these solutions  Non-Metallic Oxides: Generally acidic Exceptions: CO. CaO. SO2 and NO2 Blue Litmus turns blue when moist and exposed to these gases  Amphoteric Oxides: Neutralised by either Acids or Bases Examples are shown below  Trends in the Periodic Table: Group 1 oxides: strongly basic. NO and N2O which are neutral Examples: CO2.Significant NOx (NO & NO2) pollution developed due to motor usage and electricity generation increase Emission controls improved. MgO. population increase resulted in no change  Sydney’s Air: Pollution not as extreme. low sulfur content in our coal Sulfur dioxide levels monitored. circulating in biosphere & hydrosphere As a result it is difficult to measure atmospheric concentration of these oxides over previous centuries Identify oxides of non-metals which act as acids and describe the conditions under which they act as acids Analyse the position of these non-metals in the Periodic Table and outline the relationship between position of elements in the Periodic Table and Acidity/Basicity of oxides:  Metallic Oxides: Generally basic Examples: Na2O.

dolomite and marble readily attacked  Marble statues and buildings also attacked  Gypsum surface formed when Calcium and Sulfate ions crystallise Increased attack on metals and alloys:  Structural metals such as steel in buildings and bridges attacked Destruction of Forests:  Plant leaves and roots damaged by acid rain  Leaves removed and death of trees Acidification of lakes and waterways:  Washed into lakes and streams  High acidity prevents fish and aquatic invertebrates from reproducing  Continued acidification leads to death of aquatic organisms .Most transition metal oxides are basic In groups 3 to 6: trend down the groups from acidic to amphoteric to basic Group 7 oxides: strongly acidic. acidity decreases down the group Explain the Formation and Effects of Acid Rain:  Formation: Distilled water normally has a pH of 5. causes them to weather and crumble  Carbonate rocks such as limestone.5-6 due to CO2 being absorbed When acidic oxides dissolve in water in the atmosphere the pH of the water can drop well below 5 These water droplets can fall to the Earth as Acid Rain Acid Rain can contain a mixture of different acids:  Sulfurous acid formed from dissolving SO2 – SO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO3(aq)  Sulfuric Acid formed from oxidising H2SO3 – 2H2SO3(aq) + O2 → 2H2SO4(aq)  Nitric & Nitrous Acids formed from NO2 – 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) → HNO2 + HNO3  Effects: Increased weathering and Erosion:  Rocks attacked by acid rain.

3 kPa (1.00 atm) and 273 oK (0 oC) Molar Volume – 22.47 L  Concentration: Formula: Moles = Concentration Volume Dilution Formula: C1V1 = C2V2 .41 L At 101.Change in Soil pH: Difficult for plants to absorb nutrients Death of micro-organisms Release of normally insoluble aluminium and mercury  Reducing Emissions: Use of low sulfur coals Use of scrubbers.3 kPa (1. changes with temperature and pressure At 101. containing basic solution to remove acidic oxides from industries Ca(OH)2 + SO2 → CaSO3 + H2O Catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust systems Alternative energy technology    Calculate Volumes of Gases given masses of some substances in reactions.00 atm) and 298 oK (25 oC) Molar Volume – 24. 2 moles of NaOH react to produce 1 mole of Na2SO4 and 2 moles of H2O  Moles of Solids: Formula: Moles = Mass _ Molar Mass Use mole ratio to determine how many moles of other substance  Moles of Gases: Formula: Moles = Volume _ Molar Volume Molar Volume is the same for all gases. in reactions involving gases at 0oC or 25oC and 100kPa:  From Equation: H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O Mole Ratio: 1 : 2 : 1 : 2 For every 1 mole of H2SO4. and calculate masses of substances given gaseous volumes.

Define acids as proton donors and describe the ionisation of Acids in water  Acids as Proton Donors: Acids are proton Donors Acid molecule in contact with water ionises. concentrated and dilute Describe the Difference between a strong and a weak acid in terms of an equilibrium between intact molecule and ions:  Concentrated Solution: Large amount of solute in given amount of solution 10 mol L-1 solution would be considered concentrated  Dilute Solution: Small amount of solute in given amount of solution 0. donating a proton to water molecule Hydrogen atom consists of one proton and one electron Hydrogen ion formed when hydrogen atom loses an electron. ionises. leaving a proton Thus a proton and a hydrogen ion are the same thing  Ionisation in Water: Acid molecule placed in water.1 mol L-1 solution would be considered dilute . weak.+ H3O+ Describe Acids and their solutions with the appropriate use of the terms strong. releasing a proton forming a negative ion Proton can attach to a water molecule forming a hydrated hydrogen ion or hydronium ion (H3O+) HX + H2O → X.

3-tricarboxylic acid  Found in all citrus fruits  Formed during cellular respiration in body cells Ascorbic Acid: C6H8O6  Commonly known as vitamin C  Prevents onset of scurvy .+ H+  Identify Acids including Acetic. almost completely ionises in solution HCl → H+ + Cl Citric acid (2-hydroxypropane-1. around 1% ionisation HOC(CH2COOH)2COOH ↔ HOC(CH2COOH)2COO. Hydrochloric and Sulfuric & Identify examples of naturally occurring Acids and their chemical composition:  Natural Acids: Hydrochloric Acid: HCl  Stomachs produce large amounts of hydrochloric acid to assist digestion  High acidity activates enzymes catalysing the breakdown of proteins  HCl vapours also emitted from some volcanoes Acetic Acid: CH3COOH  Vinegar is a 4% solution of acetic acid  Forms when wine naturally ferments due to microbial oxidation Citric Acid: C6H8O7  2-hydroxypropane-1.Strong Acid: Acid that completely ionises in water Example: Hydrochloric Acid HCl(g) + H2O(l) → H3O+ + ClNo equilibrium arrow used because the reaction does not happen in the reverse All the molecules ionise and the ions do not reform the molecules  Weak Acid: Acid that is incompletely ionised in water Example: Hydrofluoric Acid HF(g) + H2O(l) ↔ H3O+ + FEquilibrium arrow used because reaction does occur in reverse Small proportion of the molecules ionise and the ions can reform the molecules Compare the relative strengths of equal concentrations of citric.+ H+  Acetic acid (ethanoic acid): Weak acids.3-tricarboxylic acid): Weak acid.2.2. acetic and hydrochloric acids in terms of degree of ionisation of the molecules:  Hydrochloric Acid: Strong acid. around 1% ionisation CH3COOH ↔ CH3COO. Citric.

phosphoric acid) React with sodium bicarbonate to release carbon dioxide Used in many packaged biscuit and cake mixes  Acetic Acid: Helps to preserve foods such as pickles and chutneys  Sulfur Dioxide: Prevent dried fruits and white wine from attack by moulds and other microbes  Ascorbic Acid: Antioxidant added to food to prevent spoilage by oxidation Alters pH so that enzymatic reactions do not occur or are slowed down  Phosphoric Acid: Added to many soft drinks to increase sharp taste of drink  Describe the use of the pH scale in comparing acids and bases:  The pH scale is used to compare the concentration of hydrogen ions in solutions of acids and bases pH [H+] [OH-] [H+] × [OH-] 0 -14 0 10 = 1 10 10-14 1 10-1 10-13 10-14 -2 -12 2 10 10 10-14 3 10-3 10-11 10-14 -4 -10 4 10 10 10-14 5 10-5 10-9 10-14 6 10-6 10-8 10-14 -7 -7 7 10 10 10-14 8 10-8 10-6 10-14 -9 -5 9 10 10 10-14 . citric acid. prevents microbe growth in canned foods  Leavening Agents: (fumaric acid.Present n fresh fruits and vegetables Sulfuric:  Cooking copper and iron sulfate minerals  SO2 emissions from volcanoes Nitric:  Distilling nitrate salts with sulfuric acid  NO & consequent NO2 from lightning strikes in the air Explain the use of acids as food additives:  Citric and Tartaric Acid: Added top jams to give sharp taste Prevents growth of microbes Citric acid also a useful antioxidant.

[H+] > 10-7 mol L-1 and pH < 7  In a basic solution. element responsible for acidic properties  Humphry Davy – Hydrogen as Acidifying Principle Hydrochloric acid contained no oxygen All known acids contained hydrogen.10 10-10 10-4 10-14 -11 -3 11 10 10 10-14 12 10-12 10-2 10-14 -13 -1 13 10 10 10-14 14 10-14 100 = 1 10-14  In an acidic solution. could be replaced by reaction with a metal Metal Oxides were bases The way a substance was structured determined acidity not what it contained  Svante Arrhenius Definitions based on concepts about particles too small to be directly observed Acids produce hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water Acid or Base solutions are good conductors . [H+] < 10-7 mol L-1 and pH > 7 Identify pH as –log10[H+] and explain that a change in pH of 1 means a ten-fold change in [H+]:  From the data above. change in pH of 1 means ten-fold change in [H+]  Multiplied or divided by 10  The pH Formula: pH = -log10 [H+] Outline the Historical Development of ideas about acids:  Antoine Lavoisier – Oxygen as Acidifying Principle Non-metal oxides formed acidic solutions Acids must contain Oxygen.

+ H3O+  Hydrochloric acid and the chloride ion are a conjugate acid/base pair . neutralization reaction. it forms its conjugate base: HCl + H2O → Cl.+ H3O+  Strength: Strong acids have very weak conjugate bases Strong bases have very weak conjugate acids Identify Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs:  Whenever an acid and a base react they form their conjugates: HCl + H2O → Cl. proton transferred from acid to base  Describes how an acid behaves  Importance of water as an ionizing solvent  Non-Aqueous Solutions: Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen chloride gas dissolving in organic solvent Remains as discrete molecules Ammonia bubbled through.ion Outline the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases:  Independently outlined by Danish chemist Johannes Bronsted and British chemist Thomas Lowry  An acid is a proton (hydrogen) donor  A base is a proton acceptor  Acid-Base reaction. it forms its conjugate acid: HCl + H2O → Cl.Behavior of acids is due to H+ ion Behavior of bases is due to OH.+ H3O+ When a base accepts a proton. Ammonium Chloride salt forms Exchange of protons between Hydrogen Chloride and Ammonia Can also occur if the two are mixed in dry air HCl(g) + NH3 (g) → NH4Cl(s) Describe the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base and a base and its conjugate acid:  Relationship between them: When an acid donates a proton.

basic or neutral nature:  Neutral Salts: Salt solutions formed from strong acid.+ H2O → CH3COOH + OH- Identify Amphiprotic substances and construct equations to describe their behaviour in acidic and basic solutions: . basic or neutral solutions and explain their acidic. hydroxide ions removed: OH.+ HCO3.+ H2O → CH3COOH + OH-     Acidic Salts: Salt solutions formed from a strong acid and a weak base Solutions of NH4+: NH4+ + H2O → NH3 + H3O+ Basic Salts: Salt solutions formed from a weak acid and a strong base KCH3COO (Potassium Acetate): CH3COO. weak base NaCl – Ions do not undergo hydrolysis NH4CH3COO (Ammonium Acetate):  NH4+ + H2O → NH3 + H3O+  CH3COO.→ H2O + CO32Net effect is that pH of solution containing buffer changes only slightly Hydrogen carbonate ions important in maintaining human blood at around pH 7. strong base or weak acid.HCO3-/CO32: Acid added to buffer. Water and the hydronium ion are a conjugate acid/base pair Qualitatively describe the effect of buffers with reference to a specific example in a natural system:  Overview: Buffers control the level of acidity or basicity in a solution If an acid or base is added to the buffer.4 Identify a range of salts which form acidic. little or no change in pH Usually a solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base  Blood . hydrogen ions removed: H+ + HCO3.→ H2CO3 Base added to buffer.

→ CO32.→ H2O From above neutralisation is a proton transfer reaction Proton from acid transfers to hydroxide ion of base  Exothermic Reactions: All neutralisations are exothermic Heat of neutralisation always about 57 kJ per mole of water formed Asses the use of neutralisation reactions as a safety measure or to mnimise damage in accidents or chemical spills:  Amphiprotic Ions for Neutralisation: Substance containing an amphiprotic ion.→ H2CO3  Identify neutralisation as a proton transfer reaction which is exothermic:  Proton Transfer: Acid + Base → Salt + Water Net Ionic: H+ + OH.+ OH. such as the hydrogen carbonate ion in Sodium Bicarbonate.→ H2O + CO2  If the spill contains a base – HCO3. protons  Definition: Substance acting as either acid or base.→ H+ + CO32Base – H+ + HCO3. Neutralisation is practiced in chemical spills where the acid or alkali is strong Substances used to neutralise the chemicals are either weak acids (such as dilute vinegar) or weak bases (Such as Sodium Bicarbonate) Describe the correct technique for conducting titrations and preparation of standard solutions:  Standard Solution: Solution of accurately known concentration (in mol L-1) Primary Standard – Solution made by dissolving accurately measured mass of solute in a solvent . quite suitable for neutralising chemical spills:  If the chemical spill contains an acid – H+ + HCO3.+ H2O. donating or accepting Water – Amphiprotic Molecule Acid – H2O → H+ + OHBase – H2O + H+ → H3O+ Hydrogen Carbonate – Amphiprotic Ion Acid – HCO3.

Use the pipette to measure a volume of one solution 3. Dissolving in water 3. A water soluble solid 2.1 mL of each other 7. Add a few drops of a suitable indicator: Weak Acid/Strong Base – pH > 7 – Phenolphthalein Strong Acid/Strong Base – pH around 7 – Bromothymol Blue Strong Acid/Weak Base – pH < 7 – Methyl Orange 5. Stable in air – does not lose or gain water or react with oxygen or carbon dioxide Primary Standard Solution Prepared By: 1. Accurately known formula 4. High purity 3. Rough titration – add the second solution slowly from a burette into the conical flask . Repeat carefully until you have three readings within 0. Adding water to the flask to prepare a fixed volume of solution  Titration Procedure: 1. until the indicator changes colour 6. swirling constantly.Secondary Standard – Solution whose concentration is determined by titration against a primary standard A chemical suitable for preparation as a standard solution must be: 1. Ensure all equipment is cleaned and rinsed with the correct liquid: Pipette and Burette rinsed with liquid they will contain Flask rinsed with distilled water 2. Transferring all of the dissolved solid to a volumetric flask 4. Accurately weighing a calculated amount of solid 2. Transfer this to the conical flask 4. Perform Calculations  Definitions: Titration – procedure used to experimentally find concentration of solution Titration is a volumetric analysis (using volumes) technique Equivalence Point – Point when reaction is complete Indicator used to show when reaction is completed End Point – Point when indicator changes colour Pipette – Titration equipment which measures a fixed volume of solution to provide fixed number of moles of one reactant Flask – Titration equipment in which reaction takes place Burette – Titration equipment which allows measure of exact volume of reactant needed to reach equivalence point Titre – Volume of solution delivered from burette Titrant – Solution of known concentration and composition Aliquot – Fixed volume of solution delivered by Pipette Describe the differences between the alkanol and alkanoic acid functional groups in carbon compounds: .

involved in two hydrogen bonds Even higher boiling point than that of a similar sized alkanol Two hydrogen bonds occur between pair of Alkanoic acid molecules Identify the IUPAC nomenclature for describing the esters produced by reactions of straight-chained alkanoic acids and straight-chained alkanols:  The example on the left is Ethyl Ethanoate  R is the straight chain of the alkanol  R’ is the straight chain of the alkanoic acid  When naming Esters: Alkanol becomes ‘Alkyl’ part Alkanoic Acid becomes . points Alkanols: Hydroxy functional group (OH) Provides characteristic properties such as high melting points and boiling Polar Molecules. more water soluble Explain the difference in melting point and boiling point caused by straight-chained alkanoic acid and straight-chained primary alkanol structures:  Alkanols: High melting and boiling points due to hydrogen bonding Between the O in one molecule and the H of an -OH in a nearby molecule   Alkanoic Acids: Ability of -COOH group. more water soluble Alkanoic Acids: Carboxylic Acid functional group (COOH) Can lose a hydrogen ion and behave as a weak acid Polar Molecules.

volatile components. volatile components pass into condenser  Condenser water or air-cooled. producing ester and water R-OH + HOOC-R! R-OOC-R! + H2O alkanol acid ester water  Reversible reaction. containing -OH functional group. shifts equilibrium position to right by absorbing water: alcohol + acid ester + water  Increases yield of ester. containing -COOH functional group. such as reactant alcohol and product ester. catalyses reaction  Concentrated sulfuric acid added in large amounts.Identify esterification as the reaction between an acid and an alkanol and describe. comparable quantities of alkanol. equilibrium  The C=O and C-O bonds make esters polar substances  Lack of hydrogen bonding means. acid. examples of esterification:  Definition: Chemical reaction. but using large amounts of sulfuric acid is wasteful. significant effect on equilibrium  Concentrated sulfuric acid is a dehydrating agent  Significant amount of sulfuric acid present. reacts with alkanol. alkanol chemically bonded to organic acid with elimination of water  Acid. uneconomic and complicates the separation of ester from the reaction mixture Explain the need for refluxing during esterification:  Definition – Products and remaining reactants returned to chemical reaction  Esterification requires heat for reaction to reach equilibrium within an hour. ester and water. as the volatile components are flammable . water molecule condensed out  Small amount of concentrated acid added. esters have lower boiling points than acids or alkanols of same molecular weight Describe the purpose of using acid in esterification for catalysis  Esterification catalysed by addition of small amount of acid  Esterification is a condensation reaction. using equations. could escape  Problem overcome by refluxing reaction mixture  Condenser placed on top of reaction vessel. rather than after many days  Boiling chips added to promote even boiling  Reaction mixture heated. volatile components condense back to liquid fall back into reaction mixture  Refluxing improves safety of the operation.

Outline some examples of the occurrence and uses of esters and identify and describe the uses of esters as flavours and perfumes:  Occurrence: Occur naturally in the form of flavouring agents and scents Odours and flavours of fruits caused by presence of esters Solid animal fats and plant oils are also esters  Examples of their uses: Fragrances and flavours:  Octyl Ethanoate – Orange Flavour  Ethyl Butanoate – Pineapple Flavour  Pentyl Ethanoate – Banana Flavour  Pentyl Butanoate – Apricot Flavouring  Methyl Butanoate – Apple Flavouring  Benzyl Ethanoate – Jasmine Fragrance  Isobutyl Methanoate – Raspberry Fragrance Solvents and medications:  Ethyl Ethanoate – Solvent and Thinner  Butyl Ethanoate – Nail Lacquer  Acetyl Salicylic Acid – Aspirin .

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