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SA0911 C @ Printed in Taiwan u.s. Pat. 4,410,956 HDCOO380E1 W30
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CASIO !x6300G
GRAPHICS
De 5 Rad Norm + COMP
Defm ~ CON SD2 + LR2 EY 6 I:XY
[8JLOCK Gato Lbl REPLAY INS
I SHIFT J (ALPHA J I Prog I GJLill (MODel
" Value
Zoom Org Factor Plot Line XV Cis
(GraPh I (Range I (Trace) 0 m (GTI
, ? Int Free 10x ex
DIENGI00~G
lxnorJ k NotlxorJm DecLd.J~ HexLhJn Bin LbJ P DctloJf
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die ,; . Aba v
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Neg G LSelJ H ~ andlCL.JK or lOTJ L
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LAJ M LBJ N LrJ 0
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GRAPHIC SCIENTIFIC
!x6300G
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:The content~ of this manual are subject to change without notice.
N~ part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without the express written consent of the manufacturer.
In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or an other person for a~~ damages, expenses, lost profits, lost savings or a/ other damages arising out of use of or inability to use this calculator o~
manual. .
In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or an o:~er person for a.n~ damages, expenses, lost profits, lost savings or an~ o e~ damages arising out of loss of data and/or formulas caused by use of this calculator or manual.
D~e to limitations imposed by printing processes, the displays shown in td~IS manual are only approximations and may differ somewhat from actual isplays.
2
Introduction
Thank you for your purchase of the CASIO fx6300G.
This unit is a totally new type of advanced programmable calculator. Besides versatile scientific functions, graph functions also make it possible to produce a wide variety of useful graphs.
Manual calculations can be easily performed following written formulas (true algebraic logic). A replay function is provided that allows confirmation or correction when key operation errors occur. Programs can also be input by following true algebraic logic, so repeat and/or complex calculations are simplified.
All of this power built into a compact configuration that folds up to slip right into your pocket.
To use the fx6300G to its full potential, be sure to carefully read this manual and keep it handy for future reference.
Important  Reset your calculator before using it for the first time! See page 10 for details on the reset procedure.
Important  Always back up data! This product features electronic memory that is capable of storing large volumes of data. You must also remember that your data is safely stored as long as power is being supplied to the memory. Data stored in memory will be irreparably damaged or lost entirely if you let battery power become too low, if you make a mistake while replacing batteries, or if power is cut off. Data can also be damaged by strong impact or electrostatic charge, or by environmental extremes. Once data is damaged or lost, it cannot be recovered, so we strongly recommend that you back up all important data.
3
,
Contents
About the Power Supply .
Replacing batteries • •••••••••••••• '" 8
Auto Power Off function '" 8
Reset operation 10
Handling Pre~~~t'i'~~'~"""""""""""""""""""" 10
....................................... 11
1. General Guide
11 Key Markings .
......................... 14
12 How to Read the Display .
Display indicators 16
About the display I~~~~t··:::::::::::::································· 16
Exponential display 17
Speical display formats 18
13 Key Layout 19
14 Key Operati~~·~ 20
Special operation ke;~ ". :.· :~ 21
Numeric/Decimal point/Exponent ·;······t·k··········································· 21
Calculation keys npu eys 24
~~=e:~:~~~;.: ... : •.•. :.... •• :.. :.:.: .. :.: .: : •• : .•.• : .•.. :: ••••... ~:
15 Before Beginning"~~;~~';~~~~~~""""""""""""""""""""""'" 29
Calculation priority sequence .. 30
Number of stacks 30
Calculation modes 31
Number of input/oui~~i·d;~;t~··~·~d··~~i~~i~t·i~~·d·i··it····················· 32
Overflow and errors g s 33
Number of input charact~~~""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""'" 34
Graphic and text displays 35
~:~O::~~~=;·;i E
4
2. Manual Calculations
21 Basic Calculations 44
Arithmetic operations 44
Parenthesis calculations 45
Memory calculations 46
Specifying the number of decimal places, the number of significant
digits and the exponent display .. '" 47
22 Special Functions : 49
Answer (Ans) function 49
Continuous calculation function 50
Replay function 51
Error position display function 52
Multistatement function 53
23 Functional Calculations 54
Angular measurement units 54
Trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions 55
Logarithmic and exponential functions 56
Hyperbolic functions and inverse hyperbolic functions ; 57
Coordinate transformation 58
Other functions 59
Fractions 60
24 Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal Calculations 62
Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal conversions 64
Negative expressions 64
Basic arithmetic operations using binary; octal, decimal and
hexadecimal values 65
Logical operations 66
25 Statistical Calculations 67
Standard deviation 67
Regression calculation 69
Linear regression 70
Logarithmic regression 71
Exponential regression 72
Power regression 73
5
3. Graphs
31 Builtin Function Graphs
Overdrawing builtin function gr~~h~' •... : ... ~: ... ~: ... ~: ... ~: ... ~: ... ~: ... ~: ... ~ : ... ~: ... ~: ... ~. ~~
32 User Generated Graphs
Range paramet •••.••••.••••••••.•••••.•••••••.••••••••.• 78
ers 78
User generated function ra h····· .
FUlJction ra hover g p s 82
Zoom fun~ti:n draw 83
f:~~~~~~~" •• •• •••• • ••••• ••• •• • ••• ••··•••·•··••••·••·•• ..•.•••••••••••.•..•.•••..••••..••••••• ~~
Graph scroll fu tl 93
nc Ion 95
33 S~me Graphing Examples 96
34 Smg.leV.ariable. Statistical Graphs 97
Drawing singlevariable statistical graphs
........................................ 97
35 Pair~dV~riable.Statisti.cal Graphs 100
Drawing pairedvariable statistical graphs 100
4. Program Calculations
41 ~~:~,!: a Program? 104
:~~~~:~~~~~~~:~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~g:
Program executi . . 106
Ion 107
42 Program Checking and Editing
~~:~~~tion, Addition, Deletion) 109
programmi.~.~;.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109
Program editin ., , 109
Program execu~io~··:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~ ~ ~
43 Progr~m Debugging (Correcting Errors) 113
~~~~g!~~;a~~:n . ~~. ~~~.~.~. ~~~.~~~~. ~~ .. ~~~.~.~~~~.~ .. :::::::::::::::::"""'" ~ ~;
Checkpoints for each type of error .
................................................ 114
44 Counting the Number of Steps 116
45 Program Areas and Calculation Modes 117
Program area and calculation mode specification in the
WRT mode .
Cautions concerning the ·~~,~~i~ti~~ .. ;~;~~i~~································· 117
6 118
46 Erasing Programs 119
Erasing a single program 119
Erasing all programs 119
47 Convenient Program Commands 120
Jump commands , 120
Unconditional jump 120
Conditional jumps 122
Count jumps 124
Summary 126
Subroutines , 127
48 ArrayType Memories 130
Using arraytype memories 130
Cautions when using arraytype memories 131
Application of the arraytype memories 132
49 Displaying AlphaNumeric Characters and Symbols 135
Alphanumeric characters and symbols 135
410 Using the Graph Function in Programs 137
Program Library
Prime factor analysis 140
Definite integrals using Simpson's rule 142
~ Y transformation 144
Minimum loss matching 146
Cantilever under concentrated load 148
Normal distribution 150
Graph variation by parameters 152
Hysteresis loop 156
Regression curve 160
Parade diagram 168
Appendix
Function Reference 172
Error Message Table 179
Input Ranges of Functions 181
Specifications 184
Index 187
7
About the Power Supply
• Replacing batteries
Precautions:
Incorrectly using batteries can cause them to burst or leak, possibly damaging the interior of the unit. Note the following precautions:
Se sure that the positive c±> and negative 8 poles of each battery are facing in the proper direction.
Never mix batteries of different types. =Never mix old batteries and new ones.
Nevsr leave dead batteries in the battery compartment. =Never try to recharge the batteries
supplied with the unit.
Do not expose batteries to direct heat, let them become shorted, or try to take them apart.
Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If swallowed, consult with a physician immediately.
Power is supplied to this unit by two lithium batteries (CR2032). If the power of the batteries should diminish, the display will weaken and become difficult to read. A weak display even after contrast adjustment (see page 29) may indicate power is too low, so the batteries should be replaced. When making replacements, be sure to replace all two batteries.
If batteries are used for longer than 5 years, there is the danger of leakage.
Be sure to replace batteries at least once every 5 years even if the unit is not used during that period.
 The life of the original batteries supplied with the calculator is calculated from the date of installation at the factory, not from the date of purchase.
 Stored programs or data are erased when batteries are replaced. Therefore, it is recommended that programs and data required for later use be recorded on a coding sheet before replacing batteries.
8
• To replace the batteries (Important)
_Always make sure that the power of the calculator is switched off before replac
ing batteries. .
Note that replacing batteries and performing the reset operation erases all data
stored in the calculator. Se sure to make written copies of data before perform
ing these operations.
After replacing batteries, be sure to switch the calculator on and then perform
the reset operation.
(DAfter making sure that unit power is switched off, remove the 2 screws that hold the back cover of the calculator in place. Remove the back cover.
@Remove the screws that secure the battery holders in place, and remove the battery holders.
@Remove the old batteries. If you face the battery compartment down and tap the top of the calculator, the batteries should fall out. @Wipethesurfacesoftwo new batteries with a s~ft,
dry cloth, and load them into the calculator with their positive c±> sides facing up.
® Replace the battery holders, and secure them with their screws.
® Replace the back cover of the calculator and secure it in place with its 2 screws.
0Switch power on.
Battery holder
9
ALL RESET button
f
~
a
o
H ~ I
.... 'P',
Screws
o
•
.Auto Power Off function
The power of the unit is automatically switched off a .
the last key operation (except during program calculatipp7~mateIY. 6 minutes after can be restored by pressing the iii key. (Numeric v:7~' .nce th,s occur~, power grams or calculation modes are unaffected wh es .In th~ memones, pro
en power IS sWItched off.)
.Reset operation
• Strong external electrostatic char e
malfunction. Should this hap en g s can cause this calculator to reset the calculator. pen, perform the fOllowing procedure to
[Warning! I
The fOllowing procedure clears all data from
cannot be unconei To avoid the If' the memory of the calculator and written backup copies. oss 0 Important data, be sure to always keep
1. Switch the power of the calculator on
2. Press the RESET button on the back of th .
A message appears on the display to c e ~~Iculator WIth a thin, pOinted object. calculator and clear memory cont t on irm whether you want to reset the en s.
jReset? ]
3. Press @) to clear the calculator and clear th .
tion without clearing the calculato e dispiay. To abort the reset opera
r, press any key other than @)
Following the reset procedure de ib .
follows: sen ed above, the calculator is initialized as
1. RUN mode
2. COMP mode
3. DEG mode
4. NORM1 mode
5. De~imal mode (for BASEN calculations)
6. Van able memories cleared
7. Defm 0 (400 program steps)
8. Answer memory clear
9. Program clear
10. Input buffer clear
11. Replay memory clear
If the Auto Power Off function activates whil th "R "
press. to restore power and then starte ~ f eset? message is displayed,
• again rom step 1
Never press the RESET button while internal .
DOing so can cause irreparable damage t °thperatlons are being performed. o e memory of your calculator
10 .
Handling Precautions
_Your calculator is made up of precislon components. Never try to take it apart. _Avoid dropping your calculator and subjecting it to other strong impacts.
Do not store the calculator or leave it in areas exposed to high temperatures or humidity, or large amounts of dust. When exposed to low temperatures, the calculator may require more time to display results and may even fail to operate. Correct operation will resume once the calculator is brought back to normal temperature.
The display will go blank and keys will not operate during calculations. When you are operating the keyboard, be sure to watch the display to make sure that all your key operations are being performed correctly.
_Replace batteries once every 5 years regardless of how much the calculator is used during that period. Never leave dead batteries in the battery compartment. They can leak and damage the unit.
Avoid using volatile liquids such as thinner or benzine to clean the unit. Wipe it with a soft, dry cloth, or with a cloth that has been dipped in a solution of water and a neutral detergent and wrung out.
In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or any other person for any damages, expenses, lost profits, lost savings or any other damages arising out of loss of data and/or formulas arising out of malfunction, repairs, or battery replacement. The user should prepare physical records of data to protect against such data loss.
Never dispose of batteries, the liquid crystal panel, or other components by burning them.
Be sure that the power is off when replacing batteries.
If the calculator is exposed to a strong electrostatic charge, its memory contents
may be damaged or the keys may stop working. In such a case, perform the Reset operation to clear the memory and restore normal key operation. Note that strong vibration or impact during program execution can cause execution to stop or can damage the calculator's memory contents.
Betore assuming malfunction of the unit, be sure to carefully reread this manual and ensure that the problem is not due to insufficient battery power, programming or operational errors.
11
1
•
=
•
• • •
= =
• • • • • •
11 Key Markings
12 How to Read the Display 13 Key Layout
14 Key Operations
15 Before Beginning Calculations ...
I
L__G_e_"_e_ra_I_G_u_id_e ]
Before using this unit for the first time, be sure to perform the Reset operation described on page 10.
Important)
The keys of a scientific calculator perform more than one function. The following explains all of the operations of each key, and so you should read this section carefully before using your calculator for the first time.
• Key Markings
The keys of this unit perform a number of different functions. The key illustrated below, for example, is used to perform 4 different functions: x1, xl, A, fA.
x!
~
fA A
Note the following, concerning the key illustrated above.
Mode Function
Direct Input x1
[@] xl
~ A
BASEN, HEX fA 14
an erform a number of different functions. The keyThe keyS of this calculator c P lckl determine the key sequence you have board is colorcoded to ~elp ~ouf~~~Wi:9 table shows how to interpret the various
form for each nmcnon. e
to per d
rkings on the key boar . key rna
Keyboard Marking Meaning
Yellow Press [@] and then key.
Red Press ~ and then key.
Green Press key in BASEN mode.
In blue brackets Press key in SO or LR mode. number of key sequences Indicated on the In addition to the ab?ve, there hare a[ALPHA ~ 1[1 EX2]). These key sequences nel beneath the display (sue as
~:n be used in the SO or LR mode only.
15
I
• Display indicators
The following indicators appear on the display to show you the current status of the calculator at a glance.
tID (M) @ Sci Fix hyp I!lrn m WRT pel X=
Y="Im!m'"
I]] : @ill key pressed.
00: [Ij:
~ key pressed. ~ key pressed.
Sci: Number of significant digits specified.
Fix: Number of decimal places specified.
hyp: ~ key pressed.
m : Degrees specified at the unit of angular measurement.
m: Radians specified at the unit of angular measurement.
m : Grads specified at the unit of angular measurement.
WRT: Program write mode (~(IJ) specified.
PCl: Program clear mode (~OO) specified.
X =, y = : Indicates current x and ycoordinate location of Trace function pointer.
1DIm:
Indicates display consists of more than 12 characters ....... indicates extra characters run off left side of display, ...... indicates characters run off right side.
Indicates displayed value is intermediate result.
16
.About the display layout . .
. consists of a dot area for graphing, as well as an area for indicators
The display You can monitor the status of the calculator and programs by
and characters .
viewin~ the display.
~
Graph Display
Coordinates
I!l
x= 12 fExponent
2.345678IMantissa
I I
Shows Trace function coordinates
Graph
Calculation Display
III
99 I Exponent _ , . 03' 9' 4894IMantissa
Mode Status Display @xample ] Program WRT mode
Mode Status
LR2
III W~T
345 I Remaining number of program steps
2 __ 56789+Program area status
P 0
17
• Exponential display
During normal calculation, this unit is capable of displaying up to 10 digits. Values that exceed this limit, however, are automatically displayed in exponential format. You can choose between 2 different types of exponential display formats. NORM 1 mode: 102(0.01» Ixl,lxl ~10'0
NORM 2 mode: 109(0.000000001) > I x I, I x I ~ 10'0
Selection of these modes can be carried out by pressing ~[[]I@, when no specification has been made for the number of decimal places or significant digits. The present status is not displayed, so it is necessary to perform the following procedure to specify either display format:
11l1200[;;;)TI • 5~031 (NORM 1 mode)
L 1~========Ill====~1 (NORM 2 mode)
. 0.005 .
(All of the examples in this manual show calculation results using the NORM 1 mode.)
How to interpret exponential format
1 1 t "00"'"'
...___ +~. +2,_
Mantissa
.. 1.2 X 10" .. 120,000,000,000
1.2" indicates that the result is equivalent to 1.2x10". This means that you should move the decimal point in 1.2 eleven places to the right, since the exponent is positive. This results in the value 120,000,000,000.
18
L Ill_. IL)r.:...to_3_.t Exponent
Mantissa
"1.2x103 .. 0.0012
203 indicates that the result is equivalent to 1.2 x 103. This means that you 1 hould move the decimal point in 1.2 three places to the left, since the exponent ~s negative. This results in the value 0.0012.
.Special display formats .'
Special display formats are used for the representation of fraction, hexadecimal, and sexagesimal values .
• Fraction value display
12 Display of 456 23
• Hexadecimal value display BASEN
Display of ABCDEF12 (  1412567278)
H IAIBC[)E IF 1 2
.Sexagesimal value display
12'34'56.78"
Degrees~ M~es Seconds
Display of 12°34'56.78"
19
Program key Alphabet key
CASIO /x6300G GRAPHICS
;=+1+ Display window
Function command keys
Numeric keys Other command keys
Mode key Graph key
Power ON/OFF All clear key
Arithmetic operation keys
Execute key
~ Answer key
~ Exponent key
20
.Special operation keys @jill Shift key
Press when using the function commands and functions marked in yellow on the key panel. An (I] will blink on the display to indicate that ~ has been pressed. pressing ~ again will cause the (I] to disappear from the display and the unit to return to the status it was in before ~ was originally pressed.
[§@ Mode key
Use the ~ key in combination with 8, ITJ through [[], 0, a, f3, and a to specify the calculation mode and the unit of angular measurement.
~ITJ For manual calculations and program execution (RUN mode).
~rn WRT displayed. For writing or checking programs.
~(]] pel displayed. For clearing programs.
~~ (;] displayed. If [@ is pressed, unit of angular measurement is specified as degrees.
~® ... CJ displayed. If [@ is pressed, unit of angular measurement is specified as radians.
~I]] ... ~ displayed. If [@ is pressed, unit of angular measurement is specified as grads.
~0 ... Fix displayed. Entering a value from 0 to 9 followed by [@ will specify the number of decimal places according to the value entered. Ex. ~03[@ + Three decimal places
§!II]] ... Sci displayed. Entering a value from 0 to 9 followed by [@ will specify the number of significant digits from 1 to 10.
Ex. ~1]]5@1 + 5 significant digits
~I]]O[@ + 10 significant digits
~[[] ... Pressing [@ will cancel the specified number of decimal places or the specified number of significant digits.
"If you have not specified the number of decimal places or the number of significant digits, you can press ~[[][@ and then change the range of the exponential display. (NORM 11NORM 2) (see page 18.)
"With the exception of the BASEN mode, modes 0  [[] can be used in combination with the manual calculation modes.
"The mode last selected is retained in memory when the unit's power is switched off.
~8 ... Defm displayed. Entering a value followed by [@will specify the number of memories available.
Ex. ~81 O[@ + Number of memories available increased by 10.
21
If @J is pressed without entering a value, the current number of memories available and remaining steps will be displayed (see page 40.)
I Example I @@c:J@J
IM26
8320
@@D ... Specifies CaMP mode for arithmetic calculation or function calculation (program execution possible).
@@I:I ... For binary, octal or hexadecimal calculations/conversions (BASE
N mode).
~£t For standard deviation calculations (S01 mode).
@@U For regression calculations (LR1 mode).
~~£t ... For production of a bar graph or normal distribution curve according to single variable statistical data (S02 mode).
~~U ... For production of a regression line according to paired variable statistical data (LR2 mode).
The xY and f./ functions are not available in the LR1 mode. To use these functions, first perform the statistical operations and then press ~D to enter the CaMP mode.
~@@0 Pressed after a numeric value representing degrees (0) is input.
~@@rn Pressed after a numeric value representing radians (r) is input.
~~[[] Pressed after a numeric value representing grads (g) is input.
mLOCK
IALPHAI Alphabet key
Press to input alphabetic characters or special characters. Pressing ~ displays [A) and allows the input of only one character. After that, the unit returns to the status it was in before the ~ key was originally pressed. Pressing ~ followed by ~ will lock the unit in this mode and allow consecutive input of alphabetic characters until ~ is pressed again.
lEI ~ EJ (2)
[K) @!) (EJ @] IJD CD 00 00 @) @] [ID (£] @] [EJ CD GO 00 ITI (M) ffiJ [QJ D D [EJ @) 00 [ID ITJ (ill m (W 00 [Y) mITlrn~D
22
Goto
[§iJ Program/Goto key
pre~~ ~, enter a value from 0 to 9 and then press @J to execute a program. Ex. 1!§l1 @J > Execution of Program 1 begins
Pressing ~ followed by ~ will cause Goto to appear on the display. This is a jump command used in programs.
REPLAY
@1~
Value Cursor/Replay keys
Line xev
[Ql[QJ
The IB key moves the cursor (blinking "_") to the left, ~ moves the cursor to the right. In the Plot function, the [Q] key moves the pointer up, and [Q} moves the pointer down. Holding any of the keys down will· cause the cursor to continuously move in the respective direction.
Once a formula or numeric value is input and @J is pressed, the IB key and ~ key become "replay" keys. In this case, pressing ~ displays the formula or numeric value from the beginning, while pressing IB displays it from the end. This allowS the formula to be executed again by changing the values.
Pressing ~ followed by ~ displays the insert cursor (~~). Entering a value while the insert cursor is displayed inserts the value in the position immediately preceding the insert cursor location.
Pressing ~ followed by !ill enters the "Lbl" (Label) command.
Pressing ~ followed by ITiJ makes it possible to produce line graphs or regression lines.
After you draw a graph, press ~~ to display a 7digit (including the negative sign) value that shows the xcoordinate for the current location of the pointer on the graph. You can switch between display of the xcoordinate and the ycoordinate by pressing ~B. Pressing ~~ changes the coordinate display to 11 digits (including the negative sign) for even more precision.
Mel
[QllJ Delete key
Press to delete the character at the current position of the cursor. When the character is deleted, everything to the right of the cursor position will shift one space to the left.
Pressing ~~~ will clear the memory contents. OFF
EON All clear/Power ON/Power OFF key
Press to clear all input characters or formulas. You can also use this key to clear the Error message from the display (page 113).
Press to switch the power of the calculator on (even if power was switched off by the Auto Power Off function).
Pressing ~m1 switches the power of the calculator off. Note that mode setting and memory contents are protected even when power is turned off.
'23
~ Execute key
_Press to obtain the result of a calculation or to draw a graph. Pressed after data Input for a programmed calculation or to advance to the next execution after a calculation result is obtained.
()
~ Answer/Minus key
SPACE
Pressing ~ followed by @]will recall the last calculation result. It can be recalled . by ~@] even after it has been cleared using the rD key or by switching the power i of the unit off. When used during program execution, the last result calculated
is recalled.
Press following I!!TII key to entering a numeric value to make that value negative '
Ex.  123 + 1!!TII1BI123 .'
Press following ~ key to input a space.
.Numeric/Decimal point/Exponent input keys
Rnd ~ Aan# TC
CQJ008@)
z LrJ 0 [ 1
When enterin~ nume.ric ~alues, enter the number in order. Press the 8 key to enter the decimal point In the desired position.
To input 1.23 x 106, press 1823@J1!!TII1BI6.
I!!TII key combinations for the various modes are as follows:
COMP mode (~D) ~ §] ~ ~ ~ ~ mg) ~ [S) ~ ~ [ID
BASEN mode (~a) ~ §] ~
~ ~ ~
mg) ~ [S) o 0
Pol(, Rec(, Rnd, Ran # and 7r cannot be used in this mode.
SO mode (~f3) ~ §] ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ @B ~ ~ [ID
Standard deviation functions can be used.
LR mode (~O) 00 00 CD ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ @B ~ ~ [ID
Paired variable statistic functions can be used.
24
• Calculation keys
I( Aec( Zoom x f Zoom x VI
iJ a £I a Arithmetic operation keys
x y L~J S Lj>J T
For addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, enter the calculation as it
reads. I!!TII key combinations fQr the various modes are as follows:
COMP mode
~, 1!!n"XBI ... Following I!!TII, this key causes the graph currently shown on the
display to be enlarged or reduced in accordance with the factor setting.
COMP mode or SO mode [§J~ ... Coordinate transformation
LR mode
[g)[Z) Estimated value calculation of x and y
[§J~ Coordinate transformation
.Graph keys
Used to produce a variety of graphs (see page 76 for details). These keys cannot be used in the BASEN mode.
Zoom Org
~ Graph/Original zoom key ..
• Press before entering a formula to be used for a graph ("Graph Y =" appears
on the display).
.Press to return an enlarged or reduced graph to its original size.
.When pressed following the ~ key, the results of each section of the programmed calculations or consecutive calculations are sequentially displayed with each press
of@].
Factor
~ Range/Factor key
Used to confirm or set the range and size of graphs.
• Press following I!!TII to magnify or reduce the upper and lower ranges of graphs. .Press following ~ in order to assign the same value to more than one memory.
Ex. To store the value 456 to memories A through F. 456El[@)~mElm@]
Plot
~ Trace/Plot key ?
Used to trace over an existing graph and display the x or y coordinate value . • Press following I!!TII to plot a point on the graph screen.
• .To indicate data input within a programmed calculation or repeat calculation,
press ~ and then [1).
25
Cis
lEI Graphtext/Clear screen key
·Switches between the graph display and text display (see page 36). • ~@!)@J clears the graph display ("done" is displayed),
• Function keys
Press for functional calculation. Various uses are available in combination with the ~ key, and/or depending on the mode being used.
CD Multistatement key
LxnorJ k
=Press to separate formulas or commands in programmed calculations or con. secutive calculations.
The result of such combinations is known as a rnuliistaternent (see page 53). =Press following ~ in the BASE·N mode to enter the logical operation for nega. tion of logical sums (xnor).
~ Engineering/Negation key
Nott.xcrrrn
Press to convert a calculation result to an exponential display whose exponent is a multiple of three.
kilo mega giga milli micro nanc pica
(103= k, 106= M , 109= G, 103= m, 106= fl ,109= n ,1012= p)
·When obtaining logical negation for a value in the BASE·N mode, press prior to entering the value.
=Press following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode to obtain the exclusive logical sum.
Int
[B Square root/Integer key
DecLdJ,u
=Press prior to entering a numeric value to obtain the square root of that value. ·When pressed following the ~ key, the integer portion of a value can be obtained. • Press followed by @J in the BASEN mode to specify the decimal calculation mode. ·When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode, the subsequently
entered value is specified as a decimal value.
26
~ Square/Fraction key
tleX LhJn
.press after a numeric value is entered to obtain the square of that value.
.press following ~ key prior to inputting number in order to obtain fraction part of that number.
.Press followed by @J in the BASE·N mode to specify the hexadecimal calcula
tion mode.
.When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode, the subsequently
entered value is specified as a hexadecimal value.
@ Common logarithm/ Antilogarithm key
BinLbJP
.Press prior to entering a value to obtain the common logarithm of that value.
.When pressed following the ~ key, the subsequently entered value becomes
an exponent of 10.
.Press followed by@J in the BASEN mode to specify the binary calculation mode. .When pressed following the ~ key in the BASE·N mode, the subsequently entered value is specified as a binary value.
&'
lliiI Natural logarithm / Exponential key
octloJf
.Press prior to entering a value to obtain the natural logarithm of that value.
.When pressed following the ~ key, the subsequently entered value becomes
an exponent of e .
• Press followed by @J in the BASE·N mode to specify the octal calculation mode. .When pressed following the ~ key in the BASEN mode, the subsequently
entered value is specified as an octal value. .
~ .
~ Reciprocal/Factorial key
fA A
.Press after entering a value to obtain the reciprocal of that value.
.When pressed following the ~ key, the factorial of a previously entered value
can be obtained.
.Press in the BASE·N mode to enter A (1010) of a hexadecimal value.
B Degree/minute/second key (decimalsexagesimal key)
IB B
• Press to enter sexagesimal value (degree/minute/second or hour/minute/second).
Ex. 78°45'12"~78E145E112E1
.When pressed following the ~ key, a decimal based value can be displayed in degrees/minutes/seconds (hours/minutes/seconds) .
• Press in the BASE·N mode to enter B (1110) of a hexadecimal value.
27
~ Hyperbolic key
II: C
• Pressing ~, and then ~, §], or ~ prior to entering a value produces the respective hyperbolic function (sinh, cosh, tanh) for the value.
·Pressing~, then ~ and then~, §] or ~ prior to entering a value produces the respective inverse hyperbolic function (sinh :", coshl, tahn') for the value. =Press in the BASEN mode to enter C (1210) of a hexadecimal value.
sin' cos1 tan"
~ ~ ~ Trigonometric function/Inverse trigonometric
[) D IE E IF F function keys
• Press one of these keys prior to entering a value to obtain the respective trigonometric function for the value.
• Press ~ and then one of these keys prior to entering a value to obtain the respective inverse trigonometric function for the value.
·Press in the BASEN mode to enter 0, E, F (1310,1410, 1510) of a hexadecimal value.
d/,
~ Fraction/Negative key
Neg G
·Use this key for input of simple fractions and mixed fractions.
Ex. To input 23/45: 23~45 To input 23/4: 2~3~4
·For improper fractions, press this key following ~ (indicated by ~@ in this manual).
Press in the BASEN mode prior to entering a value to obtain the negative of that value. The negative number is the two's complement of the value entered.
E8 Assignment key
LSclJH
·Press prior to entering a memory to assign the result of a calculation to that memory.
Ex. To assign the result of 12 + 45 to memory A: 12045E1@!!!J!Kl@] ·Press this key following ~ to clear all data from the statistical memories.
, .
CD dJ Parenthesis keys
I J
·Press the open parenthesis key and the closed parenthesis key at the position required in a formula.
·When pressed following the ~ key, a comma or semicolon can be inserted to separate the arguments in coordinate transformation or consecutive calculations.
28
,bs
@ Power/Absolute value key
andlCLJK
.Enter x (any number), press this key and then enter y (any number) to compute x to the power of y. In the SO or LR mode, this function is only available after pressing the ~ key.
.Press following the ~ key to obtain the absolute value of a subsequently entered numeric value.
.Press in the BASEN mode to obtain a logical product ("and"). .Press in the SO or LR mode to delete input data.
:r
~ Root/Cube root key
orLOTJL
.Enter x, press this key and then enter y to calculate the xth root of y. In the SO or LR mode, this function is only available after pressing the ~ key.
.Press following the ~ key to obtain the cube root of a subsequently entered numeric value.
.Press in the BASEN mode to obtain a logical sum ("or"). .Used as Q data input key in the SO or LR mode.
• Contrast adjustment
Pressing the!B or §) key following the I§@ key adjusts the contrast of the display. Pressing!B makes the screen lighter, while §) makes it darker. Holding either key down will cause the display to successively become respectively lighter or darker.
Pressing any other key besides I§@, !B, or §) (as well as [Q], (Q) cancels contrast adjustment.
'If the display becomes dim and difficult to read, even if you increase contrast, it probably means that battery power is getting low. In such a case, replace batteries as soon as possible. After replacing batteries, perform the RESET operation described on page 10.
• Contrast adjustment is impossible during range display using the ~ key or during factor display.using the ~ key (see page 78, 84).
29
.. Before Beginning Calculations ....
• Calculation priority sequence
This calculator employs true algebraic logic to calculate the parts of a formula in the following order:
G)Coordinate transformation Pol (x, y), Rec (r, 0) @Type A functions
With these functions, the value is entered and then the function key is pressed.
x2, x :", x!, 0, '. 9,0' "
@ Power/root xY, v@Fractions able
@Abbreviated multiplication format in front of 7r, memory or parenthesis 27r, 4R, etc.
® Type B functions
With these functions, the function key is_pressed and then the value is entered. v, V, log, In, ex, 10X, sin, cos, tan, sin" ", cos1, tan", sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh 1, cosh 1., tanh 1, (), Abs, Int, Frac, parenthesis, (following in BASEN calculations only) d, h, b, 0, Neg, Not
(2)Abbreviated multiplication format in front of Type B functions
2V3, A log2, etc. ®X,7
®+, 
@land
] BASEN calculations only. @or, xor, xnor
@ Relational operators <, >, =, ~, s , ?:
• When functions with the same priority are used in series, execution is performed from right to left.
eXln..J12O > eX[ln(..J12O)]
Otherwise, execution is from left to right. 'Compound functions are executed from right to left.
• Anything contained within parentheses receives highest priority.
30
~ 2+3x(log sin27r2 +6.8)=22.07101691 (in the "Rad" mode)
LillJ ~ LQL_j
®
®
.Number of stacks
This calculator uses a memory known as a "stack" for temporary storage of low priority numeric values and commands (functions, etc.). The numeric value stack has 10 levels, while the command stack has 24. If a formula exceeds the stack space available, a stack error (Stk ERROR) message appears on the display.
@xample I 2 x ( ( 3 + 4 x (5 + 4) 7 3) 7 5) + 8 =
~lll~llll~l~
Numeric stack value
Command stack
CD 2
® 3
@ 4
® 5
® 4 [jJ x
~ (
~ (
[4] +
~ x
[QJ (
[1] + 'Calculations are performed in sequence, with the highest priority operation first.
Once a calculation is executed, it is cleared from the stack.
31
.Calculation modes This unit features modes for manual calculations, storing programs, and modes for general as well as statistical calculations. The proper mode to suit calculation. al requirements should be employed.
• Operation modes
There are a total of three operation modes.
1. RUN mode
Graph production as well as manual calculations and program executions.
2. WRT mode
Program storage and editing. (See Section 4.)
3. PCl mode
Deletion of stored programs. (See Section 4.)
• Calculation modes
There are a total of six calculation modes which are employed according to the type of calculation.
1. COMP mode
General calculations, including functional calculations.
2. BASEN mode
Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal conversion and calculations, as well as logical operations. (See page 62.) Function calculations and graph drawing cannot be performed.
3. SD1 mode
Standard deviation calculation (singlevariable statistics). (See page 67.)
4. SD2 mode
For production of bar graph or normal distribution curve according to single· variable statistical data. (See page 97.)
5. lR1 mode
Regression calculation (pairedvariable statistics). (See page 69.)
6. lR2 mode
For production of regression line graph according to pairedvariable statistical data. (See page 100.)
With so many modes available, calculations should always be performed after confirming which mode is active.
*IMPORTANT: When the power of the unit is switched off (including Auto Power Off), the current system mode is cancelled, and the unit will be set to the RUN mode when switched on again. However, the calculation mode, number of decimal place setting (~!Ll n), numbe~ of significant digits (§@([]n), and angle unit (Deg, Rad, Gra) will be retained in memory.
*To return to standard operation (initialized state) press ~D (COMP mode)  §@GJ (RUN mode)  §@[[] (Norm mode).
32
.Number of input/output digits and calculation digits .The allowable inputloutput range (number of digits) of this unit is 10 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent. Calculations, however, are internally performed with a range of 12 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent.
~ 3x10577=
OO@)[[JGlm@J OO@)[[JGlmarnrnoo[[Jm@J
42857. 14286
0. 1428571
'Calculation results greater than 1010 (10 billion) or less than 102 (0.01) are automatically displayed in exponential form.
@xample j 123456789 x 9638 = mrnrnrn[[JoomOO[[] £I[[]OOrnOO@J
1 2+ Exponent
1. 1 89876532+Mantissa
Once a calculation is completed, the mantissa is rounded off to 10 digits and displayed. And the displayed mantissa can be used for the next calculation.
jExamplej3x10577=
42857.14286
OO@)[[JGlm@J amrnoo[[Jm@J
0. 14286
'Values are stored in memory with 12 digits for the mantissa and 2 digits for the exponent.
33
• Overflow and errors • If the calculation range of the unit is exceeded, or incorrect inputs are made,_ error message will appear on the display window and subsequent operation Will be impossible. This is the error check function. The following operations will reS~lt in errors:
(1) The answer, whether intermediate or final, or any value in memory excee~ the value of ± 9.999999999 x 1099.
(2) An attempt is made to perform functional calculations that exceed the input range. (See page 181.)
(3) Improper operation during statistical calculations.
(Ex. Attempting to obtain x or xo« without data input.)
(4) The capacity of the numeric value stack or the command stack is exceeded. (Ex. Entering 23 successive CD's followed by 2D3£f4@)
(5) Even though memory has not been expanded, a memory name such as Z [21 is used. (See page 41 for details on memory.)
(6) Input errors are made.
(Ex. S£f£f3@)
(7) When improper arguments are used in commands or functions that require arguments. (Le. Input of an argument outside of the range of 0  9 for Sci or Fix.)
The following error messages will be displayed for the operations noted above: (1)(3) Ma ERROR
(4) Stk ERROR
(5) Mem ERROR
(6) Syn ERROR
(7) Arg ERROR
Besides these, there are an "Ne ERROR" (nesting error) and a "Go ERROR". These errors mainly occur when using programs. See page 113 or the Error Message Table on page 179.
34
• Number of input characters
This unit features a 127step area for calculation execu.tion.
o e function comprises one step. Each press of numeric or D, 1:1, £f and a n comprise one step Though such operations as I!IDITI~ require two key
keys '. .
erations, they actually comprise only one function and, therefore, only one step.
~~ese steps can be confirmed using the cursor. With each press of the ~ or ~
key the cursor is moved one step. .
I put characters are limited to 127steps. Usually the cursor IS represented by : blinking "_", but once the 121 st step is reached the curs~r changes to a.b~inking ".". If the"." appears during a calculation, the calculation should be divided at some point and performed in two parts.
* When numeric values or calculation commands are input, they appear on the display window from the left. Calculational results, however, are displayed from the right.
35
• Graphic and text displays
This unit has a graph display for production of graphs, as well as a text display for production of formulas and commands. These two types of display contents are stored independently of each other.
Switching between graph and text displays is performed using the §] key. Each press of §] switches from the current type of display to the other.
I Example I
(Text display)
(Graphic display)
I~ ]
(Text display)
(Graphic display)
I~
Operations to clear the display depend upon the type of display being shown:
Graphs: ~~@] Text: aa
Pressing the aa key causes a cleared text display to appear if pressed during a graph display.
36
p
• corrections
.To make corrections in a formula that is being input, use the [B and ~ keys to move to the position of the error and press the correct keys.
~ To change an input of 122 to 123:
123_
~ To change an input of cos60 to sin60:
§I(K][QJ §]~§] §]
COS 60
COS 60
sin 60 • If, after making corrections, input of the formula is complete, the answer can be obtained by pressing @]. If, however, more is to be added to the formula, advance the cursor using the ~ key to the end of the formula for input.
olf an unnecessary character has been included in a formula, use the [B and ~ keys to move to the position of the error and press the @ill key. Each press of I@ will delete one command (one step).
@xample I To correct an input of 369 x x 2 to 369 x 2:
~,
\369XX2
w(K][[)EJEJ[]] ~~[QITl
369X2
37
elf a character has been omitted from a formula. use the ~ and §) keys to move to the position where the character should have been input. and press @ill fol· lowed by the Illi§) key. Press @illllli§) and insertions can be subsequently performed as desired.
I Example I To correct an input of 2.362 to sin2.362:
008rn[]J~ IBIBIBIBIB @[ffi[j@
@
2.362_
g.362
sin :2:.362
·When @illllli§) are pressed, the letter at the insertion position is surrounded by "~J " and blinks. The insert function is activated iJntii you press ~, §). or rD. or until you perform @illllli§) again.
• Memory
This unit contains 26 standard memories. Memory names are composed of the 26 letters of the alphabet. Numeric values with 12 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent can be stored.
I Example I To store 123.45 in memory A:
[I]OOrn8GJ[[)8~OO I@
\1 23. 45~A_ 1 . 123. 45_]
Values are assigned to a memory using the El key followed by the memory name. I Example I To store the sum of memory A + 78.9 in memory B:
~OODILI[[]8008~OO I@
I Example I To add 74.12 to memory B:
~OODILIGJ8[I]OO8~OO I@
38
IA+78. 9~8_
212)2.35_J
18+74. 12~8_
. 276.47_J
39
.To check the contents of a memory. press the name of the memory to be checked followed by @].
123.45
.To clear the contents of a memory (make them 0). proceed as follows: §ample I To clear the contents of memory A only:
@J8~OOI@ 12).
@ample I To clear the contents of all the memories:
12) .
.To store the same numeric value to multiple memories. press ~ followed by 8. @xample I To store a value of 10 in memories A through J:
[I]@J8@[ffi~OOE1QJ [@
1 12).
• Memory expansion
Though there are 26 standard memories, they can be expanded by changing program storage steps to memory. Memory expansion is performed by converting 8 steps to one memory.
'See page 116 for information on the number of program steps.
I Number of memories 1 261 271 28 1 361 1 74 ... J 76
I Number of steps J 400 1 392 l 384 1 320 I J 16 '" _I 0
Memory is expanded in units of one. A maximum of 50 memories can be added for a maximum total of 76 (26 + 50). Expansion is performed by pressing §y, fOllowed by 0, a value representing the size of the expansion, and then @].
I Example I To expand the number of memories by 30 to bring the total to 56:
loefm SeL
1M56 L::r==J
8160 I I
currerit number of remaining steps
Number of memories
The number of memories and number of remaining steps are displayed. The number of remaining steps indicates the current unused area, and will differ according to the size of the program stored. To check the current number of memories, press ~, followed by 0 and then @].
1M56
8160 1
To initialize the number of memories (to return the number to 26), enter a zero for the value in the memory expansion sequence outlined above.
IM26
8400 I
'Though a maximum of 50 memories can be added, if a program has already been stored and the number of remaining steps is less than the desired expansion, an error will be generated. The size of the memory expansion must be equal to or less than the number of steps remaining.
'The expansion procedure (~0 expansion value) can also be stored as a program.
40
• Using expanded memories
Expanded memories are used in the same manner as standard memories and are referred to as Z[1), Z[2), etc. The letter Z followed by a value in brackets indicating the sequential position of the memory is used as the memory name. (Brackets are formed by ~0 for" [" and ~@] for")".) After the number of memories has been expanded by 5, memories Z[1) through Z[5) are available. The use of these memories is similar to that of a standard computer array, with a subscript being appended to the name. For more information concerning an array, see page 131.
4)
21 Basic Calculations 22 Special Functions
23 Functional Calculations
24 Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal Calculations 25 Statistical Calculations
~M_a_n_u_a_I_C_a_IC_U_I_a_ti_o_n_s J
f:II Basic Calculations
• Arithmetic operations
Arithmetic operations are performed by pressing the keys in the same sequence as in the formula.
For negative values, press 1!illJ[B before entering the value.
Example Operation Display
23 + 4.5  53 =  25.5 2304.5a53~ 25.5
56 x (12)+ ( 2.5)=268.8 56EJI!ffiill[8) 12 UI!ffiill[8)
2.5~ 268.8
12369 x 7532 x 74103= 1236913753213 12
6.903680613 x 1012 74103~ 6.903680613
(6903680613000) * Results greater than 1010 (10 billion) or less thanl02 (0.01) are displayed in exponential form.
(4.5 X 1075) x(  2.3x 10 79) = 1.035x103 (0.001035)
CD203[I)EJ1 ~2~
4.5~75EJI!ffiill[8)2.3~ 1!ffiill[8)79~
03
1.035
(NORM 1)
(2 + 3) x 102 = 500
*The correct result cannot be derived by entering m2D3[I)1l!!)2.
Be sure to enter EI 1 between the [I) and Il!!) in the above example.
(1 X 105) + 7 = 14285.71429
0.7142857
14285.71429
(1 X105)+714285 =0.7142857
1 ~5117a14285~
* Internal calculations are calculated with 12 digits for a mantissa, and the result is displayed rounded off to 10 digits. Internally, however, the mantissa of the result is 12 digits.
44

500.
.For mixed arithmetic operations, multiplication and division are given priority over addition and subtraction.
Example
Operation
Display
305EJ6~
33.
7><B4X5=36
1 +23x4+5+6=6.6
7EJ8a4EJ5~
36.
6.6
102a3EJ4U506~

Example
.Parenthesis calculations
Operation
Display
2+3>«4+5)=29 203EJCD405~
*Closed parentheses occurring immediately before operati~n of the @) key may be omitted, no matter how many are required.
(72)x(8+5)=65 I CD7a2[I)CD805~
* A multiplication sign EI occurring immediately before an open parenthesis can be omitted.
10[2+7x(3+6)J= 55 110a~207CD306~
*Henceforth, abbreviated style will not be used in this manual.
100(2+3) x4=80
~=(2X3+4)+5=2 5
5><6+6x8 0.8125 15x4+12x3
(1.2x 1019)_ [(2.5x 1020) x_1_J =4.5x 1018
100
6
4x5 =0.3
1 OOaCD203[I)EJ4~
80.
29
65
55
CD2EJ304[I)U5~
2
CD5EJ606EJ8[I)U CD15EJ4012EJ3[I)~
,0.8125
1.2~19aCD2.5~ 20EJ3U100[I)~
18 4.5
0.3
6UCD4EJ5[I)~
*The above is the same as ~U4U5@).
45
• Memory calculations
=The contents of memories are not erased when power is off. They are cleared by pressing I!l1!l followed by ~ and then @I.
Example Operation Display
9.874ElI!WJ!J0@1 
9.874
9.874x7=69.118 ~0EJ7@1 69.118
9.874 x 12= 118.488 ~[!)EJ12~ 118.488
9.874 x 26 = 256.724 I!WJ!J[!)EJ26~ 256.724
9.874 x 29 = 286.346 1!WJ!J0EJ29~ 286.346 'The El key is used to input numeric values in memory. (ClearIng a memory before input is not required, because the previous value in the memory will be automatically replaced with the new value.)
23+9=32 536=47 ) 45x2=90 9973=33
Total 22
2309El~[[)@1 32.
53a6~ 47.
~[[)O~El~[[)~ 79.
45EJ2~ 98.
~[[)a~El~[[)~ 11.
99a3~ 33.
~[[)O~El~[[)~ 22.
2.303.4El~@)~ 5.7
12EJ~@)a5~ 63.4
4.5El~[[J~ 4.5
30EJ[I)~@)O~[[Jm
a151W[[J~ 238.5 12 x (2.3+ 3.4)  5 = 63.4
30 x (2.3+3.4+4.5)15
x 4.5=238.5
'Multiplication signs (x) immeTdiatelY before memory names can be omitted.
46
.specifying the number of decimal places, the number of significant digits and the exponent display
.To specify the number of decimal places, press ~ followed by 00, a value indicating the number of places (09) and. then @I.
.To specify the number of significant digits, press ~ followed by [[), a value indicating the number of significant digits (09 to set from 1 to 10 digits) and
then @I.
.Pressing the I@ key or I!l1!l followed by ~ will cause the exponent display for
the number being displayed to change in multiples of 3.
.The specified number of decimal places or number of significant digits will not be cancelled until another value or ~[ID is specified using the sequence: ~, 00, @I. (Specified values are not cancelled even if power is switched off or another mode (besides ~[ID) is specified.)
.Even if the number of decimal places and number of significant digits are specified, internal calculations are performed in 12 digits for a mantissa, and the displayed value is stored in 10 digits. To convert these values to the specified number of decimal places and significant digits, press I!l1!l followed by ~ and
then @I.
'You cannot specify the display format (Fix, Sci) while the calculator is in the BASEN
mode. Such speCifications can only be made if you first exit the BASEN mode.
100a6~
16.66666667
.. Fix
EJ 8.57142857 x _
Example
Operation
100 i 6 = 16.66666666 ...
(Four decimal places specified.) ~OO4~
I
(Specification cancelled.) ~([J~
I
(Five significant digits specified.) ~[[)5~
I
(Specification cancelled.) ~([J~
I
'Values are displayed rounded off to the place specified.
I
200+ 7 x 14 = 400 (Three decimal places specified.) ~OO3~
I
{Continues calculation with 10 digits display.) 200a7~
Display
Fix
16.6667
16.66666667
Sci 01 1.6667
16.66666667
16.667
Fix
28.571
Fix
14~ 480.080
47
Example
Display
Operation
If the same calculation is performed with the specified number of digits:
200D7~
(Value stored internally cut off at specified decimal place.)
1lE!m~~
123m x 456 = 56088m
= 56.088km
78g x 0.96 = 74.88g
=0.07488kg
(Specification cancelled.) ~[[)~
123£J456~
78£JO.96~
£J
14~
Fix
28.571
Fix
28.571
Fix 28.571 x
Fix
399.994 .
399.994
56088. 03 56.088
74.88 03 0.07488
48
.Answer function
The Answer function stores the result of the most recent calculation. Once a numeric value or numeric expression is entered and @) is pressed, the result is stored by this function.
To recall the stored value, press the ~ key. When ~ is pressed, "Ans" appears on the display along with the Answer function value. The value can be used in subsequent calculations.
'Since the HAns" function works just like any other memory, it will be referred to as "Ans memory" throughout this manual.
[¥xample I 123 + 456 = 579 789579=210
579.
I 789Ans_
210.
Numeric values with 12 digits for a mantissa and 2 digits for an exponent can be stored in the Ans memory. The Ans memory is not cleared even if the power of the unit is turned off. Each time @) is pressed, the value in the Ans memory is replaced with the value produced by the new calculation. When execution of a calculation results in an error, however, the Ans memory retains its current value.
When a value is stored to another memory using the@) key, that value is not stored in the Ans memory.
I Example I Perform calculation 78 + 56 = 134, then store the value 123 to memory A:
184.
~~ ... Checking the content of Ans memory
184.
128.
184.
49
The Ans memory can be used in the same manner as the other memories, thus making it possible to use it in calculation formulas. In multiplication operations, the £f immediately before ~ can be omitted.
I Example I 15 x 3=45
78 x 45  23 = 3487
.If I
46. ]
3487. ]
• Continuous calculation function
Even if calculations are concluded with the @l key, the result obtained can be used for further calculations. Such calculations are performed with 10digit mantissa of the displayed value.
I Example I To calculate + 3.14 after 3 x 4 = 12:
12. ]
(Continuing) arnc:JITJI:!J
1 1 2. 73. 1 4_ ]
3. 821666061 1
I Example I To calculate 1 i 3 x 3 = :
r.!IITJarnEJrn~ ITJarn~
10.3333333333 10.9999999999
(Continuing) EJrn~
This function can be used with memory and Type A functions (X2, x1, xl, 0' ", 0,',9, see page 30), +, , x", and v.
50
1.
§ample I To store the result of 12 x 45 in memory C:
640.
(Continuing) El~@]
1640. ~C_
~
@_Xample I To square the result of 78 i 6 = 13:
640.
13 .
(Continuing) ~
169.
.Replay function
This function stores the latest formula executed. After execution is complete, pressing either the @) or IE key will display the formula.
Pressing @) will display the formula from the beginning, with the cursor located under the first character. Pressing IE will display the formula from the end, with the cursor located at the space following the last character. After this, use @) and IB to move the cursor, to check the formula. You can edit numeric values or commands for subsequent execution.
[Example I .
66088.
1123X466
• The formula appears after clearing the display.
66088.
1123X466_
51
* As with the number of input steps (see page 35), the replay function can accept input of up to 127 steps.
* The replay function is not cleared even when rD is pressed or when power is turned off, so contents can be recalled even after rD is pressed.
I Example I
1 1 23x456_ ]
1 56088. ]
1 ]
1 1 23X456_ ]
* Replay function is cleared when mode or operation is switched.
• Error position display function
When an ERROR message appears, press IB or @) to display the calculation with the cursor located at the step that caused the error. You can also clear an error by pressing rD and then reenter the values and formulas from the beginning.
I Example I 14 7 0 x 2.3 mistakenly input instead of 14 7 10 x 2.3:
ri.ta!IJ[!]GI(]]£I1]]8(]]~ §) (or (B)
Ma ERROR
Cursor indicates where error is generated
1 1 47l:0:x2. 3
3.22
52
r
I
.Multistatement function
.The multistatement function available in program calculations can also be used
in manual calculations.
.With the multistatement function, multiple statements are linked together with . a colon (CD) separating them .
• pressing the @J key after a multistatement is entered causes the entire chain of statements to be executed from left to right.
.Using ".0IIII " (~[I)) in place of a colon displays the calculation result up to the point that ".0IIII" is encountered.
~ 6.9x123=848.7
123 7 3.2 = 38.4375
!IJ1]](]]E1~illlJJ [[)8(]]£I~ill~1]] ~illGl(]]81]]
16. 9xA",A73. 2_
~7
Appears on display when" A" is used.
38.4375 1
«tne final result of a multistatement is always displayed, regardless of whether a ".0IIII " symbol is input at the end of the last statement in the chain. *Consecutive calculations contained in multistatements cannot be performed. 123x 456: x 5
l__ Invalid
53
f:IJ Functional Calculations
.Angular measurement units
·The unit of angular measurement (degrees, radians, grads) is set by pressing ~ followed by a value from 4 through p and then @I.
• The numeric value from 4 through 6 specifies degrees, radians and grads respec. tively.
Once a unit 'of angular measurement is set, it remains in effect until a new unit is set. Settings are not cleared when power is off.
·You cannot specify the unit of angular measurement (degrees, radians, grads) while the calculator is in the BASEN mode. Such specifications can only be made if you first exit the BASEN mode.
Example Operation Display
Conversion of 4.25 rad to ~@](@
degrees 4.25~~[[](@ 243.5070629
Conversion of 1.23 grad to ~[[](@
radians 1.23~~1]](@ 0.0193207948 Conversion of 7.89 degrees to ~I]](@
grads 7.89~~@](@
Result displayed in degrees 47.3°+82.5 rad = 4774.20181 °
12.4° + 8.3 rad  1.8 gra
= 486.33497°
Result displayed in radians 24°6'31" + 85.34 rad =85.76077464 rad
Result displayed in grads 36.9° + 41.2 rad
= 2663.873462 gra
~@](@ 47.3D82.5~~[[](@
12.4D8.3~~[[]a1.8
I,· ~~I]](@
§@[[](@
2486831 8~§@@] D85.34(@
§@I]](@ 36.9~~@]D41.2 1lE!ffi§@[[](@
8.766666667
4774.20181
486.33497
85.76077464
2663.873462
54

.Trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions
.Se sure to set the unit of angular measurement before performing trigonometric function and inverse trigonometric function calculations.
.The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASE·N mode.

sin 63°52'41" =0.897859012
Example Operation Display
cos (i rad ] = 0.5
~@](@ > "I!l" ~63852841 8(@
~[[](@ > "ID" §I[I)~(IDGl3 [IJ(@
tan(  35gra) =  0.612800788 §@I]](@ > "m"
~1lE!ffi1Bl35(@
2.sin 45° x cos 65°
= 0.5976724775
1 cot300 = tan300
= 1 .732050808
sec ( i rad ] cos (7r~3Tad) =2
1
cosec300 = sin300 = 2
(Oetermines x for sin x ~ 0.5)
_ {2
COS 12=0.7853981634 rad
= ..L rad
4
tan10.741 =36.53844577° = 36°32' 18.4"
§@@](@ > "I!l" 2EJ~45EJ§l65(@
L ca~ be omitted.
1G1~30(@
§@[[](@ > "rn"
1 GI§I[I)~(IDGl3[IJ(@
~@](@ > "I!l" 1G1~30(@
~(!@O.5(@ t
Can be entered as .5.
~[[](@ > "ID" ~~[I)02G12[IJ(@ GlIlE!ffi(ID(@
~I±l(@ > "I!l" ~~O.741(@ ~I§
55
0.897859012
0.5
 0.612800788
0.5976724775
1 .732050808
2.
2.
30.
0.7853981634 0.25
36.53844577 36°32'18.4"
*If the total number of digits fOrldegrees/minutes/seconds exceeds 11 digits, the highorder values (degrees and minutes) are given display priority, and any lowerorder values are not displayed. However, the entire value is stored within the unit as a decimal value.
• Hyperbolic functions and inverse hyperbolic functions .The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASEN mode.
3306232.001
(78 23)12
= 1.305111829 X 1021
2+3XV64 4= 10
rn781:123ITJ~!!illm1B12 @§
21
1.305111829
10.
203£J31f:j641:14@§
2.5 x (sin10.8 cos10.9) =68°13'13.53"
2.5£Jrn!!illm~O.81:1 !!illm~O.9ITJ@§!!illm1§
* xY and x.r given calculation priority over x and +".
68°13'13.53"
2 X 3.4(5 + 6.7) = 3306232.001
2£J3.4~rn506. 7ITJ@§
• Logarithmic and exponential functions
The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASEN mode.
Example Operation Display  Example Operation Display
[§)1.23@§ 0.0899051114 
log 1.23 (log101.23) sinh 3.6 = 18.28545536 ~~3.6@§ 18.28545536
= 8.99051114 x 102 cosh 1.23= 1.856761057 ~1§l1.23@§ 1.856761057
In90 (loge 90) = 4.49980967 lliJ90@§ 4.49980967
log456 + In456 [§)4560lliJ456@§ 0.4342944819 tanh 2.5=0.9866142981 ~1§]2.5@§ 0.9866142981
= 0.4342944819 cosh 1.5  sinh 1.5
(Iog/ln ratio ~ constanl M) = 0.2231301602 ~1§l1.51:1~~1.5@§ 0.2231301602
4X=64 =e1.5 (Continuing) lliJ~@§ 1.5
x·log 4 = log 64 (Proof of coshx ± sinhx ~ e ± x)
x= log 64 =3 sinh 130 = 4.094622224 ~!!illm~3O@§ 4.094622224
[§)640[§)4@§ 3.
log 4 eosn " (~~) = 0.7953654612
~!!illm~rn200 15ITJ@) 0.7953654612
101.23= 16.98243652 !!illm1l2:l1.23@) 16.98243652
(To obtain the antilogarithm of common logarithm 1.23) Determine the value of x when tanh 4x ~ 0.88
e45=90.0171313 I !!illm~4.5@) 90.0171313 tanh1O.88
(To obtain the antilogarithm of natural logarithm 4.5) X= 4 ~!!illmI!illO.8804@) 0.3439419141
104• e  4 + 1.2 .102.3 !!illm1l2:l4£J!!illm~!!illm1B40 = 0.3439419141
= 422.5878667 1.2£J@1l2:l2.3@) 422.5878667 sinh12 x costr+t.s ~@~2£J~@~
5.62.3 = 52.58143837 5.6~2.3@) 52.58143837 = 1.389388923 1.5@) 1.389388923
1 sinh1 (~)+tanhl G) ~!!illm~rn203ITJO
\/123 (=1237)
= 1 .988647795 71f:j123@) 1.988647795 = 1 .723757406 ~!!illml!illrn405ITJ@) 1.723757406 56
57
• Coordinate transformation
• Your calculator lets you convert between rectangular coordinates and polar coor,
dinates.
.Rectangular coordinates
y
P(x,y) !
I J
Pol r (J
Rec x y Example
.Polar coordinates y
Pol

e
P(r,O)
Rec
r
/
Operation
Display
Ifx=14andy=20.7,whatare ~m~ ..... "I!J"
rand (J0? 1lillill§ill141lillill020.7ITl~
(Continuing) ~QJ~
If x=7.5 and y= 10, what are rand (J rad?
If r= 25 and () = 56°, what are x and y?
2
If r=4.5 and (J="37rrad, what
are x and y?
24.98979792 (r) 55.92839019
1lillillr;;J 55°55'42.2" {OJ
~rn~ ..... "Iil"
Ilillill§ill 7.5 1lillill0
1lillill[8)10ITl~ 12.5 (r)
(Continuing) ~QJ~  0.927295218 {OJ
~m~ ..... "I!J" 1lillill~251lillill056ITl~ (Continuing) ~QJ~
13.97982259 (x) 20.72593931 (y)
~rn~ ..... "Iil" 1lillill~4.51lillill01Il2D3 £J1lillill rID ITlITl~
(Continuing) ~QJ~
 2.25 (x) 3.897114317 (y)
58
.Other functions (r, x2, x1, xl, 3r, Ran #, Abs, Int, Frac) .The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASE·N mode .
Example
3.65028154
Y2 + Y5 = 3.65028154
o x X x
.Calculation results are stored in variable memory I and variable memory J.
Contents of variable memory I are displayed first. To display contents of memory
J, press ~QJ~.
• With polar coordinates, (J can be calculated within a range of  180° < (J ~ 180°.
The calculation range is the same for radians and grads.
.The operations noted below cannot be performed in the BASE·N mode.
_J__ = 12 1 1
"3 4
8!( = 1 x 2 x 3 x ..... x 8) =40320
Random number generation (pseudorandom number from 0.000 to 0.999)
Operation
2~D3~D4~D 5~~
1lillill~1Il36£J42£J49 ITl~
Ilillill~~ (Ex.)
01Il13 ~a5~ITlD0 1Il3 ~D4 ~ITl~
I1 sin2400 = O. 7660444431 ~m~ ..... "I!J"
= cos40° 0[[)1 alIl~40ITl
~ITl~
(Proof of cose~J1'::sin2e) (Continuing) Ilillill~~~
What is the absolute value of the common logarithm of l? 4'
IIOg% 1 =0.1249387366
21lillill~~D41lillill~~D 61lillill~~D81lillill~~~
59
Display
54.
12.
40320.
42 .
0.792
17.
0.7660444431 40.
0.5430803571
0.1249387366
What is the integer part of 7800 ?
96 .
What is the fraction part of 7800 ?
96 .
What is the aliquot part of 251254913972141 ?
IlE!ill~ITl7800096CD@)
251254913902141@) IlE!ill~ITl25125491390 2141 CD@)
1173540.
0.99953
• Fractions
=Fractions are input and displayed in the following order: integer, numerator, denominator.
Example
Display
2 1 13 5+3"4=3 20
=3.65
Operation
(Conversion to decimal) ~
• Fractions can be converted to decimals, and then converted back to fractions.
456 11
378=813 (Reduced)
3~456~78@)
(Continuing) 1lE!ill~
• Fractions and improper fractions which can be reduced become reduced fractions when a calculation command key is pressed. Press ~~ to convert to improper fraction.
1 1
2578 + 4572
= 6.066202547 x 104
1 ~257801 ~4572@)
'When the total number of characters, including integer, numerator, denominator and delimiter mark exceeds 10, the input fraction is automatically displayed in decimal format.
04 6_066202547 (NORM 1 mode)
60
81.
0.25
.1..)(0.5=0.25
2 'Calculations containing both fractions and decimals are calcu
lated in decimal format.
• Fractional calculations can be performed by using parentheses in the numerator or denominator.
1~2£185@)
0.25
1 ~3£11lE!ill1Bl4~51:1 5~6@)
1..11.J10_
1~2£11~301~4£1 1~5@)
1 ~ITl1 ~301 ~4CD@)
61

Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal
Calculations
• Binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal calculations, conversions and logical operations are performed in the BASEN mode (press ~a).
.The number system (2, 8, 10, 16) is set by respectively pressing~, @HI, I@or rnrn followed by Iilll. A corresponding symbol  "b", "0", "d" or "H" appears on the display.
• Number systems are specified for specific values by pressing @E!ffi, then the number system designator (b, 0, d, or h), immediately followed by the value. .General function calculations cannot be performed in the BASEN mode. .Only integers can be handled in the BASEN mode. If a calculation produces a result that includes a decimal value, the decimal portion is cut off .
• Octal, decimal and hexadecimal calculations can be handled up to 32 bits, while binary can be handled up to 12 bits.
Number system
Number of digits displayed
Binary
Up to 12 digits
Octal
Up to 11 digits
Decimal
Up to 10 digits
Hexadecimal
Up to 8 digits
.The total range of numbers handled in this mode is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. If values not valid for the particular number system are used, attach the corresponding designator (b, 0, d or h), or an error message will appear.
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7, 8,9,A, B, C, D, E, F
Number system
Valid values
Binary
0, 1
Octal
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Decimal
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Hexadecimal
62
63
.Negative numbers in binary, octal and hexadecimal are expressed as two's complements.
.To distinguish the A, B, C, D, E and F used in the hexadecimal system from standard letters, they appear as shown in the chart below .
Key Display
~(= ~) fA
(j[) (= El) 18
(Il (= ~) C
00l (= @) II)
00(= §]) E
00(= [§J) IF .Calculation range (in BASEN mode)
Binary Positive : 011111111111 ~x~O
Negative: 111111111111~x~100000000000
Octal
Positive : 17777777777~x~0
Negative : 37777777777 ~ x ~ 20000000000
2147483647~x~ 2147483648 Positive : 7FFFFFFF~x~0
Negative : FFFFFFFF~x~80000000
Decimal Hexadecimal
.You cannot specify the unit of angular measurement (degrees, radians, grads) or the display format (Fix, Sci) while the calculator is in the BASEN mode. Such specifications can only be made if you first exit the BASEN mode.
Operation
.Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal conversions
Display
Example
~[]iJ3B7~
What are the decimal values for 2A16 and 2748?
~a ~ "8ASEN" ~~~ "d"
~@]274~
What are the hexadecimal values for 12310 and 10102?
~@]123~ ~[[J1010~
What are the octal values for 1516 and 11002?
~[[J1100~
What are the binary values for ~~ ~ "b" 3610 and 3B716?
~@]36~
• Negative expressions
H 00000078 H 0000000A
o
00000000025
o
00000000014
b 000000100100
b 001110110111
Example
Operation
Display
~a ~ "BASEN"
How is 1100102 expressed as ~~~ "b" b
a negative? 8110010~ 111111001110
How is 728 expressed as a ~~~ "0" 0
negative? 872~ 37777777706
How is 3A16 expressed as a ~~~ "H" H
negative? 83A~ FFFFFFC6 64
d 42 d 188
IBasic arithmetic operations using binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal values

Example
Display
101112+ 110102= 1100012
64716 DF16=A6816
1238 x ABC 16= 37AF416 =22808410
1F2D 16 10010 = 788110 = 1EC916
7654871210 = 334.333333310 =5168
Operation
~a ..... "BASEN" ~~~ "b"
10111011010~
B47aDF~ ~@]123EJABC~
~[]iJ1F2Da100~
1lE!ffi@]7654a12~
'Calculation results are displayed with the decimal portion cut off .
123410+ 1 EF 167248 =23528 = 125810
~@]12340~[]iJ 1EFa24~ ~~
'For mixed basic arithmetic operations, multiplication and division are given priority over addition and subtraction.
65
b 000000110001
H 00000A68 H 00037AF4
d 228084 d 7881
H 00001EC9
d 334
o
00000000516
o
00000002352 d
1258
• Logical operations
Logical operations are performed through logical products (and), logical sums (or), negation (Not), exclusive logic sums (xor), and negation of exclusive logical sums (xnor).
Example
Display
Operation
11102 AND 368=11102
238 OR 618 = 638
12016 OR 110h=12D16
10102 AND (A16 OR 716) = 10102
~II + "BASEN"
~~+ "H"
19~1A~
~~+ "b" 1110~@@]36~
~[@ + "0"
23§61~
ffi!!J~ + "H"
120§@llil11 01 ~
~~+ "b"
1 01 O~[I)@lliJA§ @lliJ7ITl~
IH!!J~+ "H"
2A16 XNOR 5DI6=FFFFFF8816 ~~ + "H" 2A@~5D~
Negation of 12348
Negation of 2FFFED 16
@£i)~ + "0"
§j]1234~
H 00000818
b 000000001118
o
00000008063
H 00000120
., Statistical Calculations
.Standard deviation
.Standard deviation calculations are performed in the SD1 mode (~£t). "SD1" appears on the display.
.Before beginning calculations, the statistical memories are cleared by pressing [@j] followed by ~ and then @J.
.Individual data are input using [Q!J.
.Multiple data of the same value can be input either by repeatedly pressing [Q!J or by entering the data, pressing ~, followed by [D, that represents the number of times the data is repeated, and then [Q!J.
.Standard Deviation

n
I: (X_X)2
i=1 I
n
H FFFFFF88
o
37777776543
H FFD88812
~~+"H" §j]2FFFED~
66
n
~1(XiX)2
n1
b ·Mean
000000001818 n
I: Xi I:x
i~1
H X
00000886 n n l Using all data from a finite popu J lation to determine the standard deviation for the population
l Using sample data from a popu J lation to determine the standard deviation for the population
'The values for n, !:x, and !:X2 are stored in memories W, V, and U respectively, and can be obtained by pressing ~ followed by the memory name and then @J (i.e. ~(W@J).
Example
Display
Data 55, 54, 51, 55, 53, 53, 54,52
~£J @~~
(Clears memory)
55@TI54@TI51@TI55@TI 53@TI@TI54@TI52@TI
'You can press the function keys to obtain results in any
sequence. I
(Standard deviation an) @~~ (~tandard deviation an~1) @~~
1.316956719 1 .407885953
Operation
52.
67
(Mean x) IlH!illOO~ (Number of data n) ~(W~ (Sum total Ex) ~1Yl~ (Sum of squares Ex2) ~@)~
(Continuing) 1lH!ill§3~~ 55a1lH!illOO~ 54a1lH!illOO~ 51a1lH!illOO~
53.375 8. 427. 22805. 1 .982142857 1.625 0.625  2.375
To calculate the deviation of the unbiased variance, the difference between each datum, and mean of the above data
To calculate x and Un1 for the 1lH!ill~~
following data 1101lH!ill[I)10@!] 1111.
Class no. Value Frequency 1301lH!ill[I)31@!] 138.
1 110 10 1501lH!ill[I)24@!] 158.
2 130 31 170@!]@!] 178.
3 150 24 190@!]@!]@!] 198.
4 170 2 ~(W~ 711.
5 190 3 IlH!illOO~ 137.7142857
1lH!ill§3~ 18.42898069 'Erroneous data clearing/correction I (correct data operation: 511QI) G) If 501QI) is entered, enter correct data after pressing @bl.
@If 491QI) was input a number of entries previously, enter correct data after pressing 49@bl.
'Erroneous data clearing/correction II (correct data operation: 130~OJ31 @J) G) If 120~OJ is entered, enter correct data after pressing rD.
@If 120~OJ31 is entered, enter correct data after pressing rD.
@If 120~OJ301QI) is entered, enter correct data after pressing @bl.
@If 120~OJ301QI) was entered previously, enter correct data after pressing 120~OJ30@bl.
68
• Regression calculation
.Regression calculations are performed in the LR1 mode (~G). "LR1" appears on the display.
.Before beginning calculations, the tabulation memories are cleared by pressing I@I followed by ~ and then ~.
.Individual data are entered as x data ~C!J y data IQI).
.Multiple data of the same value can be entered by repeatedly pressing IQI). This operation can also be performed by entering x data ~C!J y data ~OJ followed by a value representing the number of times the data is repeated, and then IQI). .If only x data is repeated (x data having the same value), enter ~C!J y data
@l or @C!J y data ~OJ followed by a value representing the number of times the data is repeated, and then IQI).
.If only y data is repeated (y data having the same value), enter x data IQI) or x data @OJ followed by a value representing the total number of times the data is repeated, and then IQI).
• Regression
The following are the formulas the unit uses to calculate constant term A and regression coefficient B for the regression formula y = A + Bx.
Constant term of regression formula
I:y B·I:x
Regression coefficient of regression formula
B
n 'I:xy  I:x.I:y n ·I:x2  (I:x)2
A
n
.Estimated value X, and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas:
y=A+ Bx x= yA
B
(To obtain the estimated value y, ~[2J is used, and to obtain estimated value X, @OO is used.)
The correlation coefficient r for input data can be calculated using the following formula:
r= n·I:xy I:x.I:y
J[n.I:x2(I:xfJ [n.I:y2_(I:y)2J
'The values for n, I:x, I:x2, I:xy, I:y, and I:y2 are stored in memories W, V, U, R, Q and P respectively, and can be obtained by pressing ~ followed by the memory name and then ~ (i.e. ~(W~).
69
• Linear regression
Example Operation Display
Relationship between temper ~U
ature and the length of a
steel bar I@]~~
(Clears memory)
Temperature Length 101@][D10031Q!] 18.
10°C 1003mm 151@][D10051Q!] 15.
15°C 1005mm 201@][D10101Q!]
20°C 1010mm 28.
25°C 1011mm 251@][D1011 IQ!] 25.
30°C 1014mm 301@][D10141Q!] 38.
(Constant term A) 1@]0~ 997.4
(Regression coefficient 8)
The data in the above table I@][])~ 8.56
can be used to obtain the
terms of the regression for (Correlation coefficient r) 1@]0~ 0.9826073689
mula and the correlation coeffi (Length at 18°C) 181@][2J~ 1007.48
cient. Based on the regression (Temperature at 1000mm)
formula, the estimated length
of the steel bar at 18°C and 10001@]~~ 4.642857143
the temperature when the bar (Critical coefficient) 1@]0~~ 0.9655172414
is 1000 mm long can be calcu (Covariance)
lated. The critical coefficient
(r2) and covariance m@@(]]I:I@@~ElI@]
c::xynox.y) OOElI@](1]rnUm@@~
n1 1:11rn~ 35.
can also be calculated. * Erroneous data clearing/correction (correct data operation: 1 0@E!ITJ[!J 1 003~) CD If 11 @E!ITJ[!J1003 is entered, enter correct data after pressing mil.
@If 11 @E!ITJ[!J1003@Ij is entered, enter correct data after pressing @.
@ If 11 @E!ITJ[!J 1 003@Ij was entered previously, enter correct data after pressing 11 @E!ITJ[!J1003@.
70
,Logarithmic regression
.The regression form~la is y = A + Bolnx. Enter the x data as the logarithm (In) of x, and the y data Inputs the same as that for linear regression.
.Estimated values X, and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas:
y=A+Bolnx x=expf;A)
.The same operation as with linear regression can be used to obtain the regression coefficient and for making corrections. To obtain the estimated value y, (§)xl@H2)@] is used, and to obtain estimated value X, y@E!ITJOO@]@E!ITJ~~~ is used.
Furthermore, Ex, Ex2 and Exy are obtained by Elnx, E(lnx)2, and Elnxoy
respectively.
 Example Operation
Display
xi yi ~U
29 1.6 I@]~~
50 23.5 (Clears memory)
74 38.0 lliJ291@][D1.61Q!] 3.36729583
103 46.4 lliJ501@][D23.51Q!] 3.912023005
118 48.9 lliJ741@][D38.01Q!] 4.304065093
The data in the above table lliJ 1 031@][D46.41Q!] 4.634728988
can be used to obtain the lliJ 1181@][D48.91Q!] 4.770684624
terms of the regression for (Constant term A)
mula and the correlation coeffi 1@]0~ 111.1283976
cient. Based on the regression
formula, estimated value ji can (Regression coefficient 8)
be obtained for xi = 80, and I@][])~ 34.02014749
estimated value x can be (Correlation coefficient r)
obtained for yi = 73. 1@]0~ 0.9940139464
(y when xi~80) lliJ801@][2J~ 37.94879482
(x when yi~73)
731@]~~1@]~~~ 224.1541314 71
• Exponential regression
.The regression formula is y = A·eB•x (lny = InA + Bx). Enter the y dat~ as the logarithm of y(ln), and the x data the same as that for linear regression. ·Estimated values X, and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas:
InylnA
y=A.eBx x B
·Correction is performed the same as in linear regression. Constant term A is obtained by @ill]~@ill]0~, estimated value y is obtained by x@ill](2)~[@Jtel ~~, and estimated value x is obtained by lliJy@ill]OO~. Ey, Ey2 and Exy are obtained by Elny, E(lny)2 and Ex·lny respectively.
Example Operation Display
xi yi ~GI
6.9 21.4 !l.Billl~1iliJ
12.9 15.7 (Clears memory)
19.8 12.1 6.9!l.BilllCD!liJ21.4@TI 6.9
26.7 8.5 12.9!l.BilllCD!liJ15.7@TI 12.9
35.1 5.2 19.8!l.BilllCD!liJ12.1 @TI 19.8
26.7!l.BilllCD!liJ8.5@TI 26.7
The data in the above table 35.1 !l.BilllCD!liJ5.2@TI 35.1
can be used to obtain the
terms of the regression for (Constant term A)
mula and the correlation coeffi !l.Billl~!l.Billl01iliJ 30.49758742
cient. Based on the regression (Regression coefficient B)
formula, estimated value y can
be obtained for xi = 16, and !l.Billl[[]1iliJ  0.049203708
estimated value x can be (Correlation coefficient r)
obtained for yi = 20. !l.Billl01iliJ  0.997247351
(y when xi~ 16)
16!l.Billl(2)1iliJ!l.Billl~~1iliJ 13.87915739
(x when yi~20) !liJ20!l.Billl~1iliJ 8.574868046 72
r
• Power regression
.The regression formula is y = A·xB (Iny = InA + Blnx). Enter both data x and y as logarithms (In).
.Estimated values x, and y based on the regression formula can be calculated using the following formulas:
A (InYlnA)
y=A·xB x=exp B
.Correction is performed the same as in linear regression. Constant term A is obtained by @ill]~@ill]0~, estimated value y is obtained by lliJx@ill](2)~@E!l ~[§~, and estimated value x is obtained by lliJy@ill]OO~@E!l~~~. Ex, Ex2, Ey, Ey2 and Exy are obtained by Elnx, E(lnxj2, Elny, E(lny)2 and Elnx.lny respectively.
 Display
Example Operation
xi yi ~GI
28 2410 !l.Billl~1iliJ
30 3033 (Clears memory)
33 3895 !liJ 28 !l.BilllCD!liJ 241 O@TI 3.33220451
35 4491 !liJ30 !l.BilllCD!liJ3033@TI 3.401197382
38 5717 !liJ33 !l.BilllCD!liJ3895@TI 3.496507561
!liJ 35 !l.BilllCD!liJ4491 @TI 3.555348061
The data in the above table !liJ38 !l.BilllCD!liJ5717@TI 3.63758616
can be used to obtain the
terms of the regression for (Constant term A)
mula and the correlation !l.Billl~!l.Billl01iliJ 0.2388010829
coefficient. Based on the
regression formula, estimated (Regression coefficient B)
value y can be obtained for !l.Billl[[]1iliJ 2.771866148
xi = 40, and estimated value x (Correlation coefficient r) !l.Billl0~ 0.9989062562
can be obtained for yi = 1000.
U when xi ~ 40)
!liJ40~(2)1iliJ!l.Billl~~1iliJ 6587.674743
(x when yi ~ 1000)
!liJ1 000!l.Billl ~1iliJ
!l.Billl~~1iliJ 20.26225659 73
• •• •
Graphs
31 Builtin Function Graphs 32 User Generated Graphs 33 Some Graphing Examples
34 SingleVariable Statistical Graphs 35 PairedVariable Statistical Graphs
The innovative graphing function of this calculator employs a dot display that gives you detailed representation of mathematical functions and statistics. In addition to using the builtin functions, you can also graph any function by simply inputting its formula. Graphing commands can be used alone (direct input) or within programs.
For the sake of simplicity, the examples in this section show direct input graphing commands. For full details on using graphing commands within programs, see page 137.
~G_ra~p_h_s J
m Builtin Function Graphs
The COMP mode of the RUN mode should be used when graphing functions. Some graphs can be produced in the SD and LR modes, but certain graphs cannot be produced in these modes. The BASEN mode cannot be used for graphs. This unit contains a total of 20 builtin graphs making it possible to produce the graphs of basic functions.
sln ·cos tan ·sin1 ·cos1 tan'
sinh ·cosh tanh stnn' cosh=' ·tanh1
." ·x2 ·Iog ·In ·10x ·eX
·x1 .3" Any time a builtin graph is executed, the ranges (see page 78) are automatically set to their optimum values, and any graph previously on the display is cleared.
1 Example 1 1 Sine curve
~D ~(ili)~
I~
1 Example 21 Y = ! graph ~~~
1+
76
1
77
.Overdrawing builtin function graphs
TwO or more different builtin function graphs can be drawn together on the same display. Since the range for the first graph is automatically set, all s~bsequent graphS on the same display are produced ac~ordlng to t~e range of t~e first graph. The first graph is produced by using the previously mentioned operation (~ [func
tion key] @]).
subsequent graphs are produced using the variable X i.n the operation ~ ~func
tion key] ~OO@]. By inputting @@OO after the funCtio.n key, the. r~nge ~s unchanged and the next graph is produced without clearing the existmq display (see page 83).
~ample 1 Overdraw the graph for y = cos x on the graph for y = sin x. First, draw the graph for y = sin x.
Next, draw the graph for y = cosx without changing the existing range.
IA~
qV
I~
(Note)
Builtin function graphs cannot be used in multistatements (see page 53) and cannot
be written into programs.
• User Generated Graphs
Builtin function graphs can also be used in combination with each other. Graph. ing a formula such as y = 2X2 + 3x  5 makes it possible to visually represent the solution.
Unlike builtin functions, the ranges of user generated graphs are not set auto. matically, so graphs produced outside of the display range do not appear on the display.
• Range parameters
After pressing the I5!J key, you can look up and specify the range parameters for the x and y coordinates. Range parameters consist of maximum and mini. mum values for each axis, as well as their scales (distance between hash marks). Before drawing a graph, you should first specify range parameters to set the size of the graph.
• Range parameter types
Range parameters consist of the following:
Xmin  minimum value of the xaxis Xmax  maximum value of the xaxis Xscl  scale of the xaxis
Ymin  minimum value of the yaxis Ymax  maximum value of the yaxis
Yscl  scale of the yaxis
......... Ymax
Ymin
·Specifying range parameters
Whenever you press the ~ key (except in the BASEN mode), the range parameter setting screen appears on the display. Enter the value you want to specify for the displayed parameter and then press @I.
I Example I Change the range parameters on the left to those on the right.
Xmin: 0 .... 5 Ymin: 10 5
Xmax: 5.... 5 Ymax: 10 15
Xscl: 4.... 2 Yscl: 4.... 4
IXmin?
78

0.
79
specifies  5 for Xmin.
1~.E!TI)[Bl m
xmax does not change, so simply press @I .
~
specifies 2 for Xscl.
OO@]
specifies  5 for Ymin.
@!ill(BJ[[]~
Specifies 15 for Ymax.
[I)[[]~
Yscl does not change, so simply press ~.
~
I~~}~? I
IXmax? 5. I
IXSCI? 4. I
= 10. I
Iymax? 10. I
IYSCI? 4. I
I, I
"". ·Checking range parameters
Press the ~ key and the range parameter setting screen appears on the dis. play. Press [ill] to scroll through the range parameter settings without changing them.
r J
Ixmax? J
IXSCI? J
Iymin? 6J
IYmax? 16]
IYSCI? 4.J Press ~ to return to the display that was shown before entering the range display.
You can input range parameters as expressions (such as 2'1r) and these exprsssions are automatically converted to the values.
80
'The input range for graph ranges is  9.999999999£ + 97 through 9. 999999999E+ 97.
'If you enter a value that is outside the allowable range or if you try to perform some other illegal operation, an error message appears on the display. When this happens, press !B or §) to display the place in the calculation that caused the error (Replay function) and make the necessary corrections.
'Inputting 0 for Xscl or Yscl does not set any scale.
'Inputting a maximum value that is less than the minimum value will reverse the respective axis.
@Cample I Xmin: 5 1+
Xmax:  5 (5) (  5)
'If the maximum and minimum values of an axis are equal, an error (Ma ERROR) will be generated when an attempt is made to produce a graph.
'When a range setting is used that does not allow display of the axes, the scale for the yaxis is indicated on either the left or right edge of the display, while that for the xaxis is indicated on either the top or bottom edge. (In both cases, the location of the scale is the edge which is closest to the origin (0, 0)).
'When range values are changed (reset), the graph display is cleared and the newly set axes only are displayed.
'Range settings may cause irregular scale spacing.
'If the range is set too wide, the graph produced may not fit on the display. 'Points of deflection sometimes exceed the capabilities of the display with graphs that change drastically as they approach the point of deflection.
'An Ma ERROR is generated when ranges are extremely narrow.
81
• Range reset
Range values are reset to their initial values by pressing ~~ during range display.
The initial values are as follows.
Xmin : 3.8 Xmax: 3.8 Xscl
Ymin Ymax:
Yscl
2.2 2.2
< Reference>
Range settings are performed within programs using the following format:
~ Xmin value, Xmax value, Xscl value, Ymin value, Ymax value, Yscl value Up to six data items are programmed after the ~ command. When less than six items are programmed, range setting is performed in the order from the beginning of the above format.
.User generated function graphs
After performing range settings, user generated graphs can be drawn simply by entering the function (formula) after pressing ~.
Here, let's try drawing a graph for y = 2X2 + 3x 4.
Set the ranges to the values shown below.
Xmin : 5 Ymin : 10
Xmax: 5 Ymax: 10
Xscl : 2 Yscl: 4
Input the functional formula after pressing the ~ key.
~(]]~IXl~O []]~lXlarn~
The result produces a visual representation of the formula.
82
• Function graph overdraw
TWO or more function graphs can be overdrawn, which makes it easy to determine intersection points and solutions that satisfy all the equations.
~ Here, let's find the intersection points of the previously used ~ y=2X2+3x4 and y=2x+3.
First, clear the graph screen in preparation for the first graph.
I\Y'
OO@!)~ ~(]]~IXl~O []]~IXlI:I@]~
Next, overdraw the graph for y = 2x + 3.
In this way it can be easily seen that there are two intersections for the two function graphs. The approximate coordinates for these two intersections can be found using the Zoom function and the Trace function described in the following section.
'Be sure to input variable X (~[!]) into the formula when using builtin graphs
for overdraw.
If variable X is not included in the second formula, the second graph is produced after clearing the first graph.
83
.Zoom function
iXf8Ct?
This function lets you enlarge or reduce the x and ycoordinates. If you use the Trace or Plot function to locate the pointer at a specific point on the graph, the enlargement/reduction is performed using the pointer location as the center point.
Enlarging a graph
I Example I To enlarge the graph for y = sinx by a factor of 1.5 on the xaxis and 2.0 on the yaxis. Use the following range parameters for the original graph.
Xmin : 360 Xmax: 360
Xscl : 180
Ymin : 1.6 Ymax: 1.6 Yscl :
After specifying the range parameters, graph y = sin x.
Press ~~ for the factor specification screen.
84
''i~_v _J
2]
J
iYf8Ct?
0. i
done i
to chan e the factor value while a graph is displayed, the dis
'Whenever you try g tomatically To return to the graph screen after
hanges to the text screen au .
play c. g the factor value, press !HI or @]. 1
chongm I~
@I(Or~)~
=[!Donxfl to enlarge the graph accord
press ~ if d
the factors you spec I te . ing to
OOlzoomxfl
\\1\
/1 \
, take another look at the range parameters.
Let s
Xmin :  240 Ymin :  ~.:
Xmax: 240 Ymax : .
X cl· 180 Yscl :
s . SHIfT IZxfl a ain the graph is enlarged once more by the factors you
If you press ~ g, h t its original size press ~Iz..olql.
specified. To return the grap 0 I ,
.Reducing a graph .
for  sinx by a factor of 1.5 on the xaxrs 'Example] To reduce the gra~h useYt~e following range parameters for the
~ and 2.0 on the jaxrs,
original graph.
Xmin 360 Xmax: 360
Xscl: 180
After specifying the range parameters, graph y=;.s_in_x_._,.. ,
~@!)I@ I~
~[!§~OOI@ v
Ymin : 1.6 Ymax: 1.6 Yscl :
Press I!illffi!l!!l for the factor specification screen.
\Xf8Ct?
2.
85
k ,_.f_~,,_7'"''::~_? J
I.__Y_f_8C_t_? 0]
1 L_ ~,,_~,,,:~_c_t ?_. _J
• Whenever you try to change the factor value while a graph is displayed, the display changes to the text screen automatically. To return to the graph screen after changing the factor value, press IHJ or @l.
~(or @j))
Press @ill)llDoox141 to reduce the graph according to the factors you specified.
@[illllOOllxYrI
Let's take another look at the range parameters.
Xmin : 540 Xmax: 540
Xscl: 180
Ymin : 3.2 Ymax: 3.2 Yscl :
1+
If you press @ill)1z.x141 again, the graph is reduced once more by the factors you specified. To return the graph to its original size, press 1!lill1z.1Q1.
=To specify the zoom factors within a program
Use the following format to specify the zoom factors in a program.
Factor (Xfactor), (Yfactor)
86
]
87
.Trace function
This function lets you move a pointer around a graph and display the x and y
ordinates of the current pointer location. You enlarge or reduce the x and y~~ordinates. You can display the coordinates using either seven digits or eleven digits (including negative sign) .
• Using the trace function
~ To use the Trace function in combination with the Zoom func~ tion to analyze the graph for y=x23. Use the following range
parameters for the original graph.
Xmin 4 Ymin : 8
Xmax : 4 Ymax : 8
Xscl : 2 Yscl : 4
After specifying the range parameters, graph y = x2  3.
@[ill@!J~ l§B~oo~arn~
Activate the Trace function.
Use ~ and IB to move the pointer along the graph. Each press moves the cursor one point. Holding down either key moves the pointer at high speed.
1
§)  (Hold down.)
Move the pointer to the point where the graph intersects the xaxis. Note that this point will be represented by a yaxis value of 0, so first press @ill)1B) to change the coordinate display to show the ycoordinate.
1,\1/,xo 1
3,36842
1 \f/'X 1
~,89473
Now use the Zoom function to enlarge the graph. First specify a factor of2 on the x and yaxes.
IXfact?
2.J
done]
* Whenever you try to change the factor value while a graph is displayed, the display changes to the text screen automatically. To return to the graph screen after changing the factor value, press [HJ or @].
@) (or 1Hl)
Now enlarge the graph according to the factors.
88
Activate the Trace function and move the pointer again.
~@illj~ ~
Enlarge the graph again to check the location of the pointer.
@illjIZoomxfl
Activate the Trace function and move the pointer again.
~@illj~
~  (Hold down)
View the xcoordinate value.
Press l!E!ITI~ to display the xcoordinate.
@illj~
Press ~ again to exit the Trace function.
89
I~t
~~O.16343
I~
1~YO.016621
1~~~.736B41
~~,~x=
1.736842105
I~
As you can see above, the Trace and Zoom functions can be used to locate the pointer at an approximate point, and then 1!illIJ~ produces a readout of the coor, dinates.
To return the graph to its original size, press I!illIJIZaoIiIklI.
=I,\+=f 1=. =J
(Important) .
The pointer does not move at fixed intervals. It follows the dots on the display. Because of this, the values provided for coordinates are approximate.
'The Trace function can only be used immediately after a graph is drawn. This function cannot be used if other calculations or operations (except ~~ and (H) have been employed after a graph has been drawn .
• The xy coordinate values consist of a 11digit (max.) mantissa or a 7digit (max.) mantissa plus a 2digit exponent. Negative values are one digit shorter because one digit is used for the negative sign.
'The Trace function cannot be written into a program. 'The Trace function can be used during a "1m" display.
• When the format: "I§!!) formula ~ (§B formula ~" is executed and a graph is drawn by pressing ~ directly after executing the Trace function during halt status, the previous coordinate value remains on the display. After the Trace. function is executed and the text display is brought up using the (H) key, pressmg @l causes the next graph to appear and the coordinate value to clear.
Examine the above using l§!!)~m~~[1)~2~mD5.
90
.Plot function
The Plot function is used to mark a point on the screen of a graph display. The point can be moved left, right, up and down using the cursor keys, and the coordinates for the graph displayed can be read. Two points can also be connected by a straight line (see Line function, page 93).
Press 1!illIJ®!iJ and specify the x and ycoordinates after the "Plot" message.
~ample I Plot a point at x = 2 and y = 2 on the axes created by the following
range values:
Xmin : 5 Ymin : 10
Xmax: 5
Xscl
Ymax:
Yscl
10
2
I· _. ·II ~o;~ 1 ?5263 1
xcoordinate value displayed
The blinking pointer is positioned at the specified coordinates.
'Due to limitations caused by the resolution of the display, the actual position of the pointer can only be approximate.
The pointer can be moved left, right, up and down using the cursor keys. The current position of the pointer is always shown at the bottom of the display.
I' '"~'~~421052
I .. ", ·!'· ... ·r·B1B1Bl
I· _' + . .:. ~~ 363636 1
To find the ycoordinate value:
~181
91
When the pointer is at the location you want, press @] to plot a point. At this time, the pointer returns to the original point you speci
fied (2, 2 in this example).
@)
Now, inputting a new coordinate value causes
the new pointer to blink without clearing the present pointer.
Iillffi~rnlillffi[!] 1]]8[[]@)
If xy coordinates are not specified for the Plot function, the pointer appears at the center of the screen.
Set the following range values:
Xmin : 2 Ymin2
Xmax: 5 Ymax: 10
Xscl Yscl 2
To find the ycoordinate value:
IillffirBJ
I_I ,~, _J X= 1. sJ I,,k~ y. 4.]
* Attempting to plot a poin: outside of the preset range is disregarded.
* The x and ycoordinates of the pointer used in the Plot function are respectively stored in the X memory and Y memory.
* A blinking pointer becomes a fixed point (not blinking) when a new pointer is created.
92
.Line function
The Line function makes it possible to connect two points (including the blinking pointer) created with the Plot function with a straight line. With this function, user generated lines can be added to graphs to make them easier to read.
~ample I Draw perpendiculars from point (2,0) on the xaxis to its inter
section with the graph for y = 3x. Then draw a line from the point of intersection to the yaxis.
The range values for the graph are as follows:
Xmin : 2 Ymin : 2
Xmax: 5 Xscl :
Ymax: 10 Yscl : 2
Clear the graph display and draw the graph for y = 3x.
Iillffi@!l@) ~[]]@@OO@)
Next, use the Plot function to locate a point at (2,0).
Now plot a point at (2,0) again and use the cursor key (IQ)) to move the pointer up to the point on the graph (y=3x).
Iillffi ~rnlillffi[!]OO@) [Q)[Q)
(Move the pointer up to the point on the graph for y = 3x.)
Draw a line using the Line function.
1illffiW!!)@)
93
I'_'~J
1·,V~~~OS2B31 I
Next, a perpendicular will be drawn from the same point on the graph to the yaxis. First, plot the point on the graph and use the cursor key (IE) to move the pointer to the yaxis. This can be accomplished using Plot X, Y since t~e xy COordinates of the point on the graph are stored in the X and Y memories.
~~@!IDOO~0 ~[Y)@]
1 ~j{_._. ~~ 05263] 1· }(_. ~~026315 ] I·J{~, ]
(B(B
(Move the pointer to the yaxis.)
* The Line functon can only be used to draw lines between the blinking pointe: and a fixed point created using the Plot function.
94
.Graph scroll function
Immediately after you have drawn a graph, you can scroll it on the display. Use the cursor keys to scroll the graph left, right, up and down.
.To scroll the graph on the display
@xample [ To draw the graph for y=O.25(x+2) (2x+ 1)(2x 5), y=2x3, and then scroll it.
Xmin : 5 Xmax: 5 Xscl :
Ymin : 8
Ymax: 8
Yscl : 2
@!I@l@] ~@]GJOO[[]ITJ@!IDOOGlOOIII mOO@!IDOOGllIllIIITJOO@!IDOO I:ImlIlCJ
~m~OOaH::[)@]
1 .. .Jl
I~~ ;,(' r" ..
Press @illillIZoomIqI to return the graph to its original position after scroll operations.
95
The following examples are presented to show you some ways that the graphing functions can be used effectively.
1 Example 11 To graph the function y=x39x2+27x+50 Use the following range parameters.
Xmin : 5 Xmax: 10 Xscl 2
Ymin : 30 Ymax: 150 Yscl : 20
~@!)~ ~~oo~ma [[)~oo~O oom~ooooo[QJ~
1 Example 21 To graph the function y=x4 + 4x3 36x2 160x+ 300 and dertermine its minimum and maximum
Use the following range parameters.
Xmin : 10
Xmax: 10
Xscl 2
Ymin : 600
Ymax: 600
Yscl : 200
~@!)~ ~~OO~[!)O [!)~OO~ma moo~oo~aOJoo[QJ ~ooom[QJ[QJ~
96
]
EI' SingleVariable Statistical Graphs
_Singlevariable statistical graphs are drawn in the SD2 mode (I!illTII~EJ). "SD2" appears on the display.
Bar graphs and normal distribution curves can be produced as singlevariable statistical graphs.
_Function graphs are also possible in the SD2 mode, so graphs of theoretical values and graphs of actual values can be overdrawn.
• Abs and Vcannot be used in the SD2 mode.
The maximum number of data items is identical to the number of memories.
You can expand .memories .up to a maximum of 19. If you specify a number greater than 19, the Unit automatically sets the number of memories as 19.
_Graphs are drawn with the xcoordinate as the data range and the ycoordinate as the number of items (frequency) of each data.
The @J key is used for data input.
The @Q key is used for data correction.
• Drawing singlevariable statistical graphs .Procedure
G)Specify the SD2 mode (I!illTII~EJ). @Set the range values (~).
@Expand the memory in accordance with the number of bars (~8n@J). @Clear the statistical memories (1!illTII~@l).
®Input data (Data @J).
®Draw the graph.
Bar graph 8@J
Norrnal distribution curve ~I!illTII[1ill!I1 @J
'Data input method in step 5 is the same as that for standard deviation calculations (see page 67).
1 Example I Use the following data to draw a ranked graph.
Rank No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Rank 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency 1 3 2 2 3 5 6 8 15 9 2 97
Perform graph preparation in accordance with the following procedure:
G)Specify the SD2 mode (@ill)~Et).
@Set the range values. .
The highest value to be plotted on the xaxis is 100, but for. graphing p~rposes the maximum value (Xmax) is set at 110. (The general rule IS that the mlnimurn value should be equal to or greater than the minimum range value and the max. imum value should be less than the maximum range value, so here we set the
xaxis ranges to 0 through 110). .
Ymax value is set to 20 tor the yaxis because the maximum frequency is 15.
Xmin: . 0 Ymin: 0
Xmax: 110 Ymax: 20
Xscl : 10 Yscl : 2
@Sincethe number of bars is 11(09,1019,2029 .... 100109), eXpand memories by 11.
@Clear the statistical memory.
Iiillffi~~
® Input the data.
o 1Q!l1 0 1Q!l1Q!l1Q!l20 1Q!l1Q!l30 1Q!l1Q!l40 IQ!lIQ!lIQ!l 501iillffiOJ51Q!l601iillffiOJ61Q!l70~OJ81Q!l
80 IiillffiOJ 151Q!l9 0 IiillffiOJ91Q!l1 00 IQ!lIQ!l
@First, draw a bar graph.
[Lnlh,
Next, draw a normal distribution curve. Since the yaxis value is relatively small when compared with the bar graph, the same range values cannot be used. Change the range values to those shown below.
Xmin: .• 0 Ymin : 0
Xmax: 110 Ymax: 0.05
Xscl 10 Yscl 0.01
~~[lli!][IJ1illI
t
Inputting the number 1 causes a normal distribution curve to be drawn.
[~
98
.Be sure to expand the memory in accordance with the number of bars. A Mem ERROR is generated if memory expansion is not performed .
• If the number of expanded memories is changed during data input, the number of data divisions also changes, thus making it impossible to produce a proper graph.
.When a value that exceeds the preset ranges is input, it is input to the statistical
memory, but not into the graph memory.
.When more data than the preset yaxis range is input, the bar graph is drawn to the upper limit of the display, and the points outside the range cannot be connected.
.The formula used for normal distribution curves is:
1 _ (x_m)2
___ e 2(12
s= j2; a
• Keyboard designation of a is xo n. m is x.
.The following must be true in the case of range settings: Xmin < Xmax . • After a bar graph is executed, "done" is displayed in the text display.
99
m PairedVariable Statistical Graphs
.Pairedvariable graphs are drawn in the LR2 mode (~~a). "LR2" appears on the display.
.Pairedvariable graphs can be drawn as regression lines.
.Standard function graphs can also be 'drawn in the LR2 mode, so theoretical graphs, data distribution and regression line graphs can be overdrawn. Atter data input in the LR2 mode, points are displayed immediately, and data is input to the statistical memory.
• When a value that exceeds the preset range is input, it is input to the statistical
memory, but the point is not displayed.
• Data is input using the@) key in the following format: x data ~[!] Y data ~QJ
frequency @).
• The @Q key is used to edit data after input is complete, but points that are produced on the display are not cleared. (Point appears even when data is corrected by the @Q key) .
• Points on the display cannot be retrieved if the display is cleared (~~@)).
• Drawing pairedvariable statistical graphs ·Procedure
CDSpecify the LR2 mode (~§@a). @Set the range values (~).
@Clear the statistical memory (~~IillI).
@Input data (x data ~[!] y data ~OJ frequency @)). ® Draw the graph (~~illMl11ill1) .
• Data input method in step 4 is the same as that for Regression calculation
(page 69).
I Example I Perform linear regression on the following data and draw a regression line graph.
Xi v,
9 2
5 1
3 2
1 3
4 5
7 8 100
CDSpecify the LR2 mode (~§@a).
@Set the range values to those shown in the table.
Xmin : 10
Xmax:
Xscl :
10 2
Ymin : 5 Ymax: 15 Yscl : 5
• According to the general rule of the xaxis range values the values ~
10~x< 10. ,or x are:
®Clear the statistical memories .
@!ill~~
@)Input the data .
@!ill800@!illCD@!ill8(]][Q!] @!ill800@!illCD@!ill81I1[Q!] @!ill800@!illCD(]][Q!] III@!illCDOO[Q!] @J@!illCDOO[Q!] 0@!illCDOO[Q!]
® Draw the graph.
I~,:,·f, ;,~,
'When data is input that is outside of the preset range values a point does not
appear. '
*An Ma. ER~OR is generated when there is no data input and the following key operetton IS performed: ~~illMl11ill1.
*Th~ following must be true in the case of range settings: xmm « Xmax.
101
•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
•• •• •• ••
41 What is a Program?
42 Program Checking and Editing (Correction, Addition, Deletion) 43 Program Debugging (Correcting Errors)
44 Counting the Number of Steps
45 Program Areas and Calculation Modes 46 Erasing Programs
47 Convenient Program Commands 48 ArrayType Memories
49 Displaying AlphaNumeric Characters and Symbols 410 Using the Graph Function in Programs
!
I
~p_ro~g~r_a_m __ C_a_IC_U_la_t_io_n_s ~
H
Ell What is a Program?
This unit has a builtin program feature that facilitates repeat calculations. The program feature is used for the consecutive execution of formulas in the same way as the "multistatement" feature is used in manual calculations. Programs will be discussed here with the aid of illustrative examples.
I Example I
Find the surface area and volume of a regular octahedron when the length of one side is given.
r,, __
)cm3
) )
Length of one side (A)
Surface area (S)
Volume (V)
)cm2 )
)
10cm 7
15
* Fill in the parentheses.
(DFormulas
For a surface area S, volume V and one side A, S and V for a regular octahedron are defined as:
S=2Y3N
o Programming
Creating a program based on calculation formulas is known as "programming". Here a program will be created based upon the formulas given above. The basis of a program is manual calculation, so first of all, consider the operational method used for manual calculation.
Surface area (S): 2£103£1 Numeric value A~@l Volume (V): 02U3£f Numeric value A~3@l
In the above example, numeric value A is used twice, so it should make sense to store it in memory A before the calculations.
Numeric value A El~[KJ@l
2£f03£f~[KJ~@l S
02U3£f~[KJ~3@l V
104
105
With this .unit, the operations performed for manual calculations can be used as they are In a .program. Once program execution starts, it will continue in order without ~topplng. Therefore, commands are required to request the input of data and to display results. The command to request data input is "?", while that to display results is ""'''.
A r wi~hin a program wi~1 cau~e executio~ to stop temporarily and a "1" to appear on the display as the Unit waits for data input. This command cannot be used independently, and is used together with El as "~(1)El memory name". To store a numeric value in memory A, for example:
?>A
When "?" is displayed, calculation commands and numeric values can be input within 127 steps.
The" ... " command causes program execution to stop temporarily and the latest formula re~ult or alphan~meric characters and symbols (see page 135) to be displayed. This command IS used to mark positions in formulas where results are to b~ displa~ed. Since programs are ended and their final results displayed automatically, this command can be omitted at the end of program. However if the BASEN mode is specified for base conversion during a program, do not omit final
",.4".
Here these two commands will be used in the previously presented procedure: ~(1)El~[A)OJ2EJ03EJ~[A)~~~
L_j
L___ Input to memory A LDisplay S
02U3EJ~[A)~3
L ... omitted
Now the program is complete.
@Program storage
The storage of programs is performed in the WRT mode which is specified by
pressing ~rn.
Number of remaining stepS
When ~rn are pressed, the system mode changes to the WRT mode. Then the number of remaining steps (see page 116) is indicated. The number of remain: ing steps is decreased when programs are input or when memories are expand· ed. If no programs have been input and the number of memories equals 26 (the number of memories at initialization), the number of usable steps should equal 400. The larger figures located below indicate the program areas (see page 117). If the letter "P" is followed by the numbers 0 through 9, it indicates that there are no programs stored in areas PO through P9. The blinking zero here indicates the current program area is PO.
Areas into which programs have already been stored are indicated by "i:" instead
of numbers.
WRT 226 p ($n _34_6789
Here the previously mentioned program will be stored to program area PO (indi· cated by the blinking zero):
I@(Start storage)
WRT
Number of steps used for program area PO.
WRT 011
?~A:2xr3xA2_
WRT 012
~A:2xr3xA2~_
106
WRT 020 2 ~r2:3xAxY 3
After these operations are complete, the program is stored.
'After the program is stored, press ~ITJ to return to the RUN mode.
@program execution
Programs are executed in the RUN mode (~ITJ). The program area to be executed is specified using the ~ key.
To execute PO: ~O@] To execute P3: ~3@] To execute P8: ~8@]
Here the sample program that has been stored will be executed. The surface (S) and volume (V) for the regular octahedron in the sample problem are calculated as:
Length of one side (A) Surface area (S) Volume (V)
10cm (346.4101615)cm2 (471.4045208)cm3
7 (169.7409791 ) (161.6917506)
15 (779.4228634) (1590.990258) I··~·
","
[D[QJI@ (Value of A)
lDl5ilndicates answer 346. 41 en 6 1 5 displayed by A .
' =__j (S when A = 10)
471.41214521218
(V when A= 10)
illl@ (Value of A)
1 69. 741219"91 I (S when A = 7) 161. 691751216 (V when A=7) 107
IIJ(]]~ (Value of A)
I:miI 779.4228634
(S when A= 15)
'Program calculations are performed automatically with each press of@l when it is pressed after data is input or after the result is read.
'Directly after a program in PO is executed by pressing ~O@l as in this example, the Prog 0 command is stored by the replay function. Therefore, subsequent executions of the same program can be performed by simply pressing @l.
Operation ~O@l 10@l @l @l 7@l @l
L.,_'_5_9_0_. _9_9_0_2_5_8____J (V when A = 15)
(PO program execution) (Input 10 for A)
(Display V when A = 10) (Reexecute)
(Input 7 for A)
(Display V when A = 7)
108
Program Checking and Editing (Correction, Addition, Deletion)
Recalling a stored program can be performed in order to verify its contents. After specifying the desired program area using ~ or ~ in the WRT mode (~[]]), the program contents will be displayed by pressing the@l key. Once the program is displayed, the @) (or ~) key is used to advance the program one step at a time for verification.
When the program has been improperly stored, editing can also be performed by adding to it or erasing portions. Here a new program will be created by checking and editing the previous sample program (the surface area and volume of a regular octahedron).
@Camplel
Find the surface area and volume of a regular tetrahedron when the length of one side is given.
Length of Surface area (S) Volume (V)
one side (A)
10 cm ( )cm2 ( )cm3
7.5 ( ) ( )
20 ( ) ( ) CD Formulas
For a surface area S, volume V and one side A, S and V for a regular tetrahedron are defined as:
S=J3A2
@Programming
As with the previous example, the length of one side is stored in memory A and the program then constructed.
Numeric value A El@!liKJ@l
03£J@!JiKJ~@l S
02a12£J@!JiKJ~3@l V
When the above is formed into a program, it appears as follows: _ ~(f]El~iKJOJ03£J~iKJ~~~ 02a12£J~iKJ~3
109
@Program editing
First, a comparison of the two programs would be helpful.
Octahedron: ~(2)El~mOJ_gg_03£J~m~~W 020~£J~mI£l3
Tetrahedron: ~(2)El~mOJ03£J~m~~W
020 12£J~mI£l3
The octahedron program can be changed to a tetrahedron program by deleting the parts marked with wavy lines, and changing those that are marked with straight lines.
In actual practice, this would be performed as follows:
p
WRT 380
128456789
~, Cursor located at beginning. Press I!!i!ill!!!l to bring cursor to end.
WRT 000
~?~~A: 2xr8xA2~
~~~~ ~OOID
~, Locate cursor at position to be deleted, and delete two characters.
WRT 004
?~A:~n8XA2 ~r2
~x9 times ~!i~J[IJrn
~~, Insert two characters.
WRT 015
r8xA2 ~ r2";12:8:
Delete unnecessary 3.
WRT 015
r8xA2 ~ r2";12fx~
I I Editing complete .
Return to the RUN
... " mode.
~.'~'''~'~
110
@Program execution
Now this program will be executed.
Length of one side (A) Surface area (S) Volume (V)
10 cm (173.2050808)cm2 (117.8511302)cm3
7.5 (97.42785793) (49.71844555)
20 (692.820323) (942.8090416) [§@ITJ I··~· I
","
~[QJ~ ? I
ITJ[QJ~ 178.2050808
~ 117. 8511802
~[QJ~ ?
[L)[:J[[]~ 97.42785798
~ 49.71844555
~[QJ~ I?
rn[QJ~ 692.820828
~ 942.8090416 111
<Summary}
Operation Keys used
Program • WRT mode specification ~rn
check • Program area specification (Omitted if PO) ~§)
• Start verification @)
• Verification of contents ~§)
Correction • Move the cursor to the position to be ~§)
corrected.
• Press correct keys.
Deletion • Move the cursor to the position to be ~§)
deleted.
• Delete @]
Insertion • Move the cursor to the position to be ~§)
inserted into.
• Specify the insert mode. I@IIffiID
• Press desired keys. 112
After a program has been created and input, it will sometimes generate error messages when it is executed, or it will produce unexpected results. This indicates that there is an error somewhere within the program that needs to be corrected. Such programming errors are referred to as "bugs", while correcting them is called "debugging" .
• Debugging when an error message is generated An error message is displayed as follows:
rl Type of error
I P1eJ Syn ERROR I
Program area where error was generated
The error message informs the operator of the program area (PO to P9) in which the error was generated. It also states the type of error, which gives an idea of the proper countermeasure to be taken .
• Error messages
There are a total of seven error messages.
(DSyn ERROR (Syntax error)
Indicates a mistake in the formula or a misuse of program commands.
@Ma ERROR (Mathematical error)
Indicates the calculation result of a numeric expression exceeds 101°°, an illogical operation (e.g. division by zero), or the input of an argument that exceeds the input range of the function.
@Go ERROR (Jump error)
Indicates a missing Lbl for the Goto command (see page 120), or that the program area (see page 117) for the Prog command (see page 127) does not contain a program.
@Ne ERROR (Nesting error)
Indicates a subroutine nesting overflow by the Prog command (see page 127).
@Stk ERROR (Stack error)
Indicates the calculation performed exceeds the capacity of the stack for numeric values or for commands (see page 31).
113
® Mem ERROR (Memory error)
Indicates the attempt to use a memory name such as Z [5) without haVing expanded memories.
(2)Arg ERROR (Argument error)
Indicates the argument of a command or specification in a program exceeds the input range (e.g. Sci 10, Goto 11).
Further operation will become impossible when an error message is displayed. Press t!iJ, lB, or §) to cancel the error.
Pressing t!iJ cancels the error and new key input becomes possible. With this operation, the RUN mode is maintained.
Pressing lB or §) cancels the error and changes the system mode to the WRT mode. The cursor is positioned at the location where the error was generated to allow modification of the program to eliminate the error.
.Checkpoints for each type of error The following are checkpoints for each type of error:
CDSyn ERROR
Verify again that there are no errors in the program.
@Ma ERROR
For calculations that require use of the memories, check to see that the numeric values in the memories do not exceed the range of the arguments. This type of error often occurs with division by 0 or the calculation of negative square roots.
@Go ERROR
Check to see that there is a corresponding Lbl n when Goto n is used. Also check to see that the program in P n has been correctly input when Prog n is used.
@Ne ERROR
Check to ensure that the Prog command is not used in the branched program area to return execution to the original program area.
@Stk ERROR
Check to see that the formula is not too long thus causing a stack overflow. If this is the case, the formula should be divided into two or more parts.
114
@Mem ERROR
Check to see that memories were properly expanded using "~8n@l" (Defm). When using arraytype memories (see page 130), check to see that the subscripts are correct.
(flArg ERROR
Check whether values specified by ~0 (Sci) or §@(!) (Fix) are within the range of 0  9. Also check whether values specified by Goto, Lbl, or Prog commands are within 09. Also ensure that memory expansion using §@8 (Defm) is performed within the remaining number of steps and that the value used for expansion is not negative.
115
III Counting the Number of Steps
The program capacity of this unit consists of a total of 400 steps.
The number of steps indicates the amount of storage space available for programs, and it will decrease as programs are input. The number of remaining steps will also be decreased when steps are converted to memories. (See page 40.) There are two methods to determine the current number of remaining steps:
(DWhen ~8~ are pressed in the RUN mode, the number of remaining steps
will be displayed together with the number of memories.
I Example I
IM26
8381
@Specify the WRT mode (~rn), and the number of remaining steps will appear.
At this time the status of the program areas can also be determined.
WRT
3Bl+Number of remaining
P .:;..;,)23456789 steps
Basically, one function requires a single step, but there are some commands where one function requires two steps.
One function/one step: sin, cos, tan, log, (,), :, A, B, 1, 2, 3, etc. ·One function/two steps: Lbl 1, Goto 2, Prog 8, etc.
Each step can be verified by the movement of the cursor:
I Example I
WRT 000
'1.~A:r3xA2~r2
Present cursor position
At this time, each press of a cursor key «(B or EB) will cause the cursor to move to the next sequential step. For example:
WRT 006
?~A:r xA2~r2
6th step
116
This unit contains a total of 10 program areas (PO through P9) for the storage of programs. These program areas are all utilized in the same manner, and 10 independent programs can be input. One main program (main routine) and a number of secondary programs (subroutines) can also be stored. The total number of steps available for storage in program areas PO through P9 is 400 maximum. Specification of a program area is performed as follows:
RUN mode: Press any key from 0 through 9 after pressing the ~ key.
Then press~.
@xamplel
PO ~[QJ~ P8 I!@OO~
* In this mode, program execution begins when ~ is pressed.
WRT mode: Use (B or EB to move the cursor under the program area to be speci
fied and press ~.
Only the numbers of the program areas that do not yet contain programs will be displayed. "i:" symbols indicate program areas which already contain programs.
[Example I
WRT 292
P .:;..;;) 23 __ 67_9
I I
T
Programs already stored in these program areas.
• Program area and calculation mode specification in the
WRT mode
Besides normal function calculations, to perform binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal calculations and conversions, standard deviation calculations, and regression calculations in a program, a calculation mode must be specified. Program mode specification and program area specification are performed at the same time. First the WRT mode is specified (~rn), and then a calculation mode is specified. Next, the program area is specified, and; when ~ is pressed, the calculation mode is memorized in the program area.
Henceforth, stored programs will be accompanied with the calculation mode.
117
I Example I Memorizing the BASEN mode in P2
~OO
WRT 400
P ~¢n23456789
Assuming that nothing is stored.
WRT 400
P I2llg~3456789
Specify P2.
BASEN
WRT 400
P I2llg'3456789
Specify the BASE.N mode.
As shown above, the calculation mode will be memorized into a program area.
• Cautions concerning the calculation modes
All key operations available in each calculation mode can be stored as programs, but, depending on the calculation mode, certain commands of functions cannot be used.
BASEN mode
Functlon calculations cannot be performed.
Units of angular measurement cannot be specified.
·AII program commands can be used.
·Be sure to include a " ... " at the final result output to return to the previous cal. culation mode when a program execution is terminated. Failure to do so may result in a decimal display or an error.
SD1, SD2 mode
.Among the functions, Abs and v cannot be used.
.Among the program commands, Dsz, > and < cannot be used.
LR1, LR2 mode
·Among the functions, Abs and v cannot be used.
·Among the program commands, ~, =, ~, Isz, z , ::5, Dsz, > and < cannot be used.
118
.Erasing a single program
To erase a program in a single program area, specify the PCl mode and press the rD key after specifying the program area.
§ample I Erase the program,..._in_p_3_O_n_IY_, ,
PCL PO, P3 and P9 already
302 contain programs.
P .:.;.;;:12_45678_
peL Align cursor with P3.
302
P _12.:.;.;;.:.45678_
peL Number 3 appears after
345 deletion.
P _ 1 E~~45678_
1·:.;.;;.: Return to RUN mode.
• Erasing all programs
To erase all programs stored in program areas 0 through 9, specify the PCl mode and press ~ and then ~.
I Example I Erase the programs stored in PO, P4, P8 and P9,
r,
~OO
peL 273 P _:.;.;;.:123_567 __
peL 400
P ~¢n 23456789
I· ....
tl1"
119
Ill! Convenient Program Commands
The programs for this unit are made based upon manual calculations. Special progam commands, however, are available to allow the selection of the formula and repetitive execution of the same formula. ' Here, some of these commands will be used to produce more convenient programs.
.Jump commands
Jump commands are used to change the flow of program execution.
Programs are executed in the order that they are input (from the lowest step number first) until the end of the program is reached. This system is not very convenient when there are repeat calculations to be performed or when it is desirable to transfer execution to another formula. It is in these cases, however, that the jump commands are very effective. There are three types of jump commands: a simple unconditional jump to a branch destination, conditional jumps that decide the branch destination by whether a certain condition is true or not, and count jumps that increase or decrease a specific memory by one and then decide the branch des, tination after checking whether the value stored equals zero or not.
• Unconditional jump
The unconditional jump is composed of "Goto" and "Lbl". When program execution reaches the statement "Goto n" (where n is a number from 0 through 9), execution then jumps to "Lbl n" (n is the same value as Goto n). The unconditional jump is often used in simple programs to return execution to the beginning for repetitive calculations, or to repeat calculations from a point within a program. Unconditional jumps are also used in combination with conditional and count jumps.
I Example I The previously presented program to find the surface area and
volume of a regular tetrahedron will be rewritten using "Goto 1" and "Lbl 1" to allow repeat calculations.
The previous program contained:
?,+,A,:,V,3, x,A,x2, ..... , Y, 2, +, 1, 2, x, A, xY, 3
19 steps
'Hereinafter, commas (,) will be used to separate steps for the sake of clarity.
Add "Goto 1" to the end of the program, and add "Lbl 1" to the beginning of the program as the branch destination.
If this is simply left the way it is, however, the volume will not be displayed and execution will move immediately to the input of one side at the beginning. To prevent this situation, insert a display command (.~) in front of the "Goto 1".
120
The complete program with the unconditional jump added should look like this:
Lbl, 1, :,?, +, A:, Y, 3, x, A, X2, ~,
Y, 2, +, 1, 2, x, A, xY, 3, ~ , Goto, 1 25 steps
NoW let's try executing this program.
• For details on inputting programs and editing programs, see sections 41 and 42.
• Henceforth, the displays will only show calculation result output.
?
173.2050808
117. 851 1302
?
97.42785793
49.71844555
? ~[QJ~ m[QJ~ @]
@] mc:J[]]~ @]
@]
Since the program is in an endless loop, it will continue execution. To terminate execution, press ~[D.
Stored in PO. The length of the side = 10
The length of the side=7.5
I·····
,,,,;,,,,;,,,,;,,
Besides the beginning of the program, branch destinations can be designated at any point within the program.
[Example I Calculate y = ax + b when the value for x changes each time, while a and b can also change depending upon the calculation.
Program
?, +, A,:,?, +, B,:, Lbl, 1,:,?, +, X,:,
A, x, X, +, B ~, Goto, 1
23 steps
When this program is executed, the values for a and b are stored in memories A and B respectively. After that, only the value for x can be changed.
In this wayan unconditional jump is made in accordance with "Goto"and "Lbl", and the flow of program execution is changed. When there is no "Lbl n" to correspond to a "Goto n", an error (Go ERROR) is generated.
121
.Conditional jumps
The conditional jumps compa~e a numeric value in memory with a constant Or a numeric value in another memory. If the condition is true, the statement follow_ ing the "~" is executed, and if the condition is not true, execution skips the state_ ment and continues following the next":" or "~".
Conditional jumps take on the following form:
Left side ~;~~~~~al Right side ~ Statement { ~ }  Statement "Anyone can be used.
One memory name (alphabetic character from A through Z), constant numeric values or calculation formulas (A x 2, DE, etc.) are used for "left side" and "right side".
The relational operator is a comparison symbol. There are 6 types of relational operators: =, ~, 2:, ::5, >, <.
Left side = right side (left side equals right side)
Left side ~ right side (left side does not equal right side)
Left side 2: right side (left side is greater than or equal to right side) Left side ::5 right side (left side is less than or equal to right side) Left side> right side (left side is greater than right side)
Left side < right side (left side is less than right side)
The "~" is displayed when 1illITI§J are pressed. If the condition is true, execution advances to the statement following = , If the condition is not true, the statement following ~ is skipped and execution jumps to the statement following the next
":" or ".III1IIIII".
.If true
Relational { }
Left side operator Right side ~ Statement ~ Statement
'If not true t
A statement is a calculation formula (sin A x 5, etc.) or a program command (Goto, Prog, etc.), and everything up to the next" : " or "~ " is regarded as one statement.
I Example I If an input numeric value is greater than or equal to zero, calcu
late the square root of that value. If the input value is less than zero, reinput another value.
Program
Lbl, 1, :,?, ++, A, :, A, 2:, 0, ~,Y, A, ~,Goto, 1
16 steps
In this program, the input numeric value is stored in memory A, and then it is tested to determine whether it is greater than, equal to or less than zero. If the contents of memory A are greater than or equal to 0 (not less than zero), the statement
122
alculation formula) located between "~" and "~" will be executed, and then ~oto 1 returns execution to Lb11. If the contents of memory A are less than zero, execution will skip the following statement to the next "~" and return to Lbl 1 by Goto 1.
~ Calculate the sum of input numeric values. If a 0 is input, the total should be displayed.
program
0, r+, B, :,
Lbl, 1,:,?, >, A, :, A, =, 0, ~,Goto, 2, :, A, +, B, >, B, :, Goto, 1, :,
Lbl, 2,:, B
31 steps
In this program, a 0 is first stored in memory B to clear it for calculation of the sum. Next, the value input by "?>A" is stored in memory A by "A=O~" and it is determined whether or not the value stored in memory A equals zero. If A = 0, Goto 2 causes execution to jump to Lbl 2. If memory A does not equal 0, Goto 2 will be skipped and the command A + B> B which follows" : " is executed, and
then Goto 1 returns execution to Lbl 1. .
Execution from Lbl 2 will display the sum that has been stored In memory B. Actually, the display command "~" is inserted following B, but here it can be omitted.
The following illustration shows the flow of the program: (A~O)
Lbl 1 : ?>A
(A=O)
11
A=O~Goto 2: A+B>B: Goto 1 '
~
(A=O)
123
.Count jumps
The count jumps cause the value in a specified memory to be increased Or decreased by 1. If the value does equal 0, the following statement is skipped, and the statement following the next":" or " .. " is executed. The "Isz" command is used to increase the value in memory by 1 and decide the subsequent execu_ tion, while the "Dsz" command is used to decrease the value by 1 and decide.
Isz
Memory contents ~ 0 Memory name: Statement
I
Statement
r
{ ~ }
Memory contents = 0
Memory contents ~ 0 Dsz Memory name: Statement
I
{ ~ }
Statement
t
Memory contents = 0
I Example I Increase memory A by one Isz A
Decrease memory 8 by one Dsz 8
I Example I Determine the average of 10 input numeric values. Program
1,0, +, A, :,0, ........ , C, :,
Lbl, 1,:, ?, >, 8, :, 8, +, C, >, C, :, Dsz, A, :, Goto, 1, :, C, 7, 1, 0
32 steps
In this program, first 10 is stored in memory A, and 0 is stored in memory C. Memory A is used as the "counter" and countdown is performed the specified number of times by the Dsz command. Memory C is used to store the sum of the inputs, and so first must be cleared by inputting a O. The numeric value input in response to "?" is stored in memory 8, and then the sum of the input values is stored in memory C by "8 + C>C".
The statement Dsz A then decreases the value stored in memory A by 1. If the result does not equal 0, the following statement, Goto 1 is executed. If the result equals 0, the following Goto 1 is skipped and "C 710" is executed.
124
Determine the altitude at onesecond intervals of a ball thrown into the air at an initial velocity of Vm/sec and an angle of So.
The formula is expressed as: h=vsinet1gt2, with g=9.8, with the effects of air resistance being disregarded.
program
Deg,:, 0, +, T,:,?, +, V,:,?, +, S,:, Lbl, 1, :, Isz, T, :, V, x, sin, S, x, T, , 9, ., 8, x, T, x2, 7, 2, .. , Goto, 1
38 steps
In this program the unit of angular measurement is set and memory T is first initialized (cleared). Then the initial velocity and angle are input into memories V and S respectively.
Lbl1 is used at the beginning of the repeat calculations. The numeric value stored in memory T is counted up (increased by 1) by Isz T. In this case, the Isz command is used only for the purpose of increasing the value stored in memory T, and the subsequent jump does not depend upon any comparison or decision. The Isz command can also be used in the same manner as seen with the Dsz command for jumps that require decisions, but, as can be seen here, it can also be used to simply increase values. If, in place of the Isz command, another method such as "T + 1> T" is used, five steps are required instead of the two for the (Isz T) method shown here. Such commands are convenient ways of conserving memory space. Each time memory T is increased, calculation is performed accordinq to the formula, and the altitude is displayed. It should be noted that this program is endless, so when the required value is obtained, ~OJ are pressed to terminate the program.
125
(Summary)
Command
Operation
Unconditional jump
Formula
Lbl n Performs unconditional jump to Goto n (n = natural number Lbl n corresponding to Goto n. from ° through 9)
Conditional jumps
Left Relational Right
side =>
side
operator
Left and right sides are compared. If the conditional expression is true, the statement after => is executed.
If not true, execution jumps to the statement following the next : or ..III.
Statements include numeric expressions, Goto commands, etc.
Count jumps
Statement { ~ }statement (Relational operators: =, ~, >, c, z , s)
Isz Memory name: Numeric value stored in
memory is increased (Isz) or Statement { ~ }statement decreased (Dsz) by one. If result equals 0, a jump is performed
Dsz Memory name: to the statement following the
next: or ..III. Statements include Statement { ~ }statement numeric expressions, Goto commands, etc.
126
(Memory name consists of single character from A through Z, Al ], etc.)
.Subroutines
A program contained in a single program area is called a "main routine". Often used program segments stored in other program areas are called "subroutines" .
Subroutines can be used in a variety of ways to help make calculations easier. They can be used to store formulas for repeat calculations as one block to be jumped to each time, or to store often used formulas or operations for call up as required.
Main routine PO
Subroutine
The subroutine command is "Prog" followed by a number from ° through 9 which indicates the program area.
[Example I Prog 0 Jump to program area 0
Prog 2 Jump to program area 2
After the jump is performed using the Prog command, execution continues from the beginning of the program stored in the specified program area. After execution reaches the end of the subroutine, the program returns to the statement following the Prog n command in the original program area. Jumps can be performed from one subroutine to another, and this procedure is known as "nesting". Nesting can be performed to a maximum of 1 0 levels, and attempts to exceed this limit will cause an error (Ne ERROR) to be generated. Attempting to use Prog to jump to a program area in which there is no program stored will also result in an error (Go ERROR).
* A Goto n contained in a subroutine will jump to the corresponding Lbl n contained in that program area.
I Example I Simultaneously execute the two previously presented programs to calculate the surface areas and volumes of a regular octahedron and tetrahedron.
Express the result in three decimal places.
This example employs two previously explained programs, and the first step is to input the specified number of decimal places (~1Ll3).
127
Now let's review the two original programs. Regular octahedron
PO Fix, 3,:,?, >, A, :,2, x, Y, 3, x, A, x2, A,
Y, 2, +, 3, x, A, xY, 3
23 steps
Regular tetrahedron
P1 Fix, 3,:,?, >, A, :, Y 3, x, A, X2, A,
Y, 2, +, 1, 2, x, A, xY, 3
22 steps Total: 45 steps
If the two programs are compared, it is evident that the underlined portions are identical. If these portions are incorporated into a common subroutine, the programs are simplified and the number of steps required is decreased. Furthermore, the portions indicated by the wavy line are not identical as they stand, but if P1 is modified to: y, 2, +, 3, x, A, xY, 3, +, 4, the two portions become identical.
Now the portions underlined by the straight line will be stored as an independent routine in P9 and those underlined with the wavy line will be stored in P8.
P9 Fix, 3, :,?, >, A,:, y, 3, x, A, X2 P8 F, 2, +, 3, x, A, xY, 3
12 steps 8 steps
After the common segments have been removed, the remainder of the regular octahedron formula is stored in PO, and that of the regular tetrahedron is stored in P1. Of course, the "Prog 9" and "Prog 8" must be added to jump to subroutines P9 and P8.
9 steps 9 steps Total: 38 steps
With this configuration, execution jumps to program P9 at the beginning of programs PO and P1, three decimal places are specified, the value for one side is entered, and the surface area of the tetrahedron is calculated. The expression "2 x " of the original octahedron formula was omitted in P9, so when execution returns to PO, "Ans x 2" is used to obtain the surface of the octahedron. In the case of P1 , the result of P9 needs no further modification and so is immediately displayed upon return to P1.
PO Prog, 9, :, Ans, x, 2, A, Prog, 8 P1 Prog, 9, A, Prog, 8, :, Ans, +, 4
128
calculation of the volumes is also peformed in a similar manner. After a jump is made to P8 for calculation, execution returns to the main routines. In PO, the program ends after the volume of the octahedron is displayed. In P1, however, the result calculated in P8 is divided by four to obtain the volume of the tetrahedron. By using subroutines in this manner, steps can be shortened and programs become neat and easy to read.
The following illustration shows the flow of the program just presented.
PO P9 P1
Prog 9: Fix 3: ?>A : Prog 9A
Y3xAx2
Ansx2A Prog 8 : Ans+4
P8
Prog 8 Y 2+3xA
xY3 By isolating the common portions of the two original programs and storing them in separate program areas, steps are shortened and programs take on a clear configuration.
129
ED ArrayType Memories
• Using arraytype memories
up to this point all of the memories used have been referred to by single alPha. betic characters such as A, B, X, or Y.
With the arraytype memory introduced here, a memory name (one alphabetic character from A through Z) is appended with a subscript such as [1] or [2]. "Brackets are input by ~rn and gm.
Standard memory A
B
C
D
E
Arraytype memory A[O] C[2] A[1] C[1] A[2] C[O]
A[3] C[1]
A[4] C[2]
Proper utilization of subscripts shortens programs and makes them easier to use. Negative values used as subscripts are counted in relation to memory zero as shown above.
I Example I Input the numbers 1 through 10 into memories A through J. Using standard memories
1,~, A,:, 2, +, B,:, 3, ., C,:, 4, +,0,:,
5, ., E,:, 6, ++, F,:, 7, +, G,:, 8, +, H,:, 9, .... , I, :,1,0, .... , J
40 steps
Using arraytype memories
0, .... , Z, :, Lbl, 1,:, Z, +,1, .... , A, [, Z,], :, Isz, Z, :, Z, <,1, 0, ~, Goto, 1
26 steps
In the case of using standard memories, inputting values into memories one by one is both inefficient and time consuming. What happens, if we want to see a value stored in a specific memory?
Using standard memories
Lbl, 1,:,?,"", Z,:,
Z, =,1,~,A, ..oiI,Z, =,2,~,B,..oiI, Z, =,3,~,C, ..oiI,Z, =,4,~,D,..oiI, Z, =,5,~,E, ..oiI,Z, =,6,~,F,..oiI, Z, =, 7, ~, G, ..oil, Z, =, 8, ~, H, s ,
Z, =,9,~, I, ..oiI,Z, =,1, 0, ~,J,..oiI,
Goto, 1
70 steps
130

Using arraytype memories
Lbl, 1, :,?, .... , Z, :, A, [, Z, ,1,], ..oil, Goto, 1
16 steps
The difference is readily apparent. When using the standard memories, the input value is compared one by one with the value assigned to each memory (e.g. A = 1 , 6",2, .. ).
With the arraytype memories, the input value is immediately stored in the proper memory determined by "[Z 1]". Formulas (Z 1, A + 10, etc.) can even be used for the subscript.
ICautions when using arraytype memories
When using arraytype memories, a subscript is appended to an alphabetic character that represents a standard memory from A through Z.
Therefore, care must be taken to prevent overlap of memories.
The relation is as follows:
[111/110 11///0
I I I I I L ........ ·L I I I I ~ .........
A[ 0 ] A[ 1 ] AI 2 ] A[ 3 ] A[ 4 ] A[ 5 ] A[ 6 ] B[ 1] B[ 0 ] B[ 1 ] B[ 2 ] B[ 3 ] B[ 4 ] B[ 5 ] C[ 2] C[ 1 ] C[ 0 ] C[ 1 ] C[ 2 ] C[ 3 ] C[ 4 ]
A[23] A124] A[25] A[26] A[27] B[22] B[23] B[24] 8125] 8[26] C[21] C[22] C[23] C[24] C[25]
G[6] GI5] G[ 4] G[ 3] G[ 2] G[ 1] G[ 0]
G[17] G[18] G[19] G[20] G[21]
X[ 0 ] X[ 1 ] X[ 2 ] X[ 3 ] X[ 4 ] Y[ 1] Y[ 0 ] Y[ 1 ] Y[ 2] Y[ 3] Z[ 2] ZI 1 ] Z[ 0 ] Z[ 1 ] Z[ 2 ]
131
The following shows a case in which arraytype memori~s overlap with standard format memories. This situation should always be avoided.
I Example I Store the numeric values from 1 through 5 in memories All)
through A[S] respectively.
5, ..... , C, :, Lbl, 1, :, C, ..... , A, [, C, ], :, Dsz, C, :, Goto, 1, :,
A, [, 1, ], , A, [, 2, ], .... , A, [, 3, ], .... ,
A, [, 4, ], , A, [, 5, ]
44 steps
In this program, the values 1 through 5 are stored in the arraytype memories A [1] through A [5], and memory C is used as a counter memory. When this pro. gram is executed, the following results are obtained:
~[QJ~ ~
~
~
~
5.
1.
0.
3.
4.
As can be seen, the second displayed value (which should be 2) in A[2] is incor· rect. This problem has occurred because memory A[2] is the same as memory c.
A
B A[l]
C A[2]
D A[3]
E A[4)
F A[5]
The content of memory C (A[2)) is decreased from 5 to 0 in steps of 1. Therefore, the content of memory A[2] is displayed as O.
• Application of the arraytype memories
It is sometimes required to treat two different types of data as a single group. In this case, memories for data processing and those for data storage should be kept separate.
I Example I Store data x and y in memories. When an x value is input, the corresponding y value is displayed. There will be a total of 15 pieces of data.
132
133
Example program 1
Memory A is used as the data control memory, and memory B is used for ternorary storage of the x data. The x data are stored in memories C[l) (memory ~) through C[15] (memory R), and the y data are stored in memories C[16] (memory S) through C[30) (memory Z(7».
1, ..... , A, :, Defm, 7, :,
t.bl, 1,:,?, ..... , C, [, A,],:,
?, +, C, [, A, +,1,5,]':,
lsz, A, :, A, =, 1, 6, =*, Goto, 2, :, Goto, 1, :,
Lbl, 2, :, 1,5, ..... , A, :,?, ..... , B, :,
B, =,0, =*, Goto, 5,:,
Lbl, 3, :, B, =, C, [, A,], =*, Goto, 4, :,
Dsz, A, :, Goto, 3, :, Goto, 2, :,
Lbl, 4, :, C, [, A, +, 1, 5, ], .... , Goto, 2, :,
Lbl,5 98 steps
In this program, memories are used as follows:
x data
C[1) C[2) C[3] C[4] C[5] C[6] C[7] C[8]
D E F G H I J K
C[9] C[10] C[11] C[12] C[13) C[14) C[15]
L M N 0 P Q R
y data
C[16) C[17] C[18] C[19] C[20] C[21] C[22) C[23]
S T U V W X Y Z
C[24] C[25] C[26] C[27] C[28) C[29] C[30)
Z(l) Z(2) Z(3) Z(4) Z(5) Z(6) Z(7) Example program 2
The same memories are used as in Example 1, but two types of memory names are used and the x and y data kept separate.
1, ..... , A, :, Defm, 7, :,
Lbl, 1, :, ?, ..... , C, [, A, ), :, ?,~, R, [, A,],:,
Isz, A, :, A, =,1,6, =*, Goto, 2, :, Goto, 1, :, Lbl, 2,:,1,5, ..... , A,:,?, ..... , B,:,
B, =,0, =*, Goto, 5,:,
Lbl, 3, :, B, =, C, [, A,], =*, Goto, 4, :, Dsz, A, :, Goto, 3, :, Goto, 2, :,
Lbl, 4, :, R, [, A, ], .... , Goto, 2, :, Lbl,5
92 steps
Memories are used as follows:
x data
C(1) C(2) C(3) C(4) C(5) C(6) C(7) C(8)
0 E F G H I J K
G(9) C(10) C(11) G(12) C(13) C(14) C(15)
L M N 0 P Q R
y data R(8)
R(1) R(2) R(3) R(4) R(5) R(6) R(7)
S T U V W X Y Z
R(9) R(10) R(11) R(12) R(13) R(14) R(15)
Z(1) Z(2) Z(3) Z(4) Z(5) Z(6) Z(7) In this way, the memory names can be changed. However, since memory names are restricted to the letters from A through Z, the expanded memories (~8) can only be used as arraytype memories.
'The memory expansion command (Defm) can be used in a program.
I Example I Expand the number of memories by 14 to make a total of 40 available.
Defm, 1,4, :, .
134
Displaying AlphaNumeric Characters and bois
Alphabetic characters, numbers, calculation command symbols, etc. can be displayed as messages. They are enclosed in quotation marks ~[!).
.Alphanumeric characters and symbols
• Characters and symbols displayed when pressed following ~: [, ), k, m, 1.1, n, p, f, space,
A, B, G, 0, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
0, P,Q, R, S, T, U, V, W,X, Y,Z
• Other numbers, symbols, calculation commands, program commands
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,
(,), Y , E, +, , x, 7, '"
sin, cos, tan, log, In, ...
==, ~, z , s , >, <, ,.
s; 18, C, ID, IE, IF, d, h, b, 0 Neg, Not, and, or, xor
X, y, XO"n, XO"n1, ...
o (@lill~0), r (~~[[), 9 (~~[[)
• All of the above noted characters can be used in the same manner as the alphabetic characters.
In the preceding example requiring an input of two types of data (x, y), the prompt "?" does not give any information concerning the type of input expected. A message can be inserted before the "?" to verify the type of data required for input.
Lbl, 1, :,?, ., X, :,?, ., Y, :, ...
The message "X =" and "Y =" will be inserted into this program.
Lbl, 1, :, ", X, =, ",?, +, X, :,
", Y, =, "?, e , Y,:, ...
135
If messages are included as shown here, the display is as follows: (Assuming that the program is sorted in P1)
~,...
 ~1Il@] 1Il[[]@]
~IX=?_J .y=? J
Messages are also convenient when displaying result in program calculations. I Example I
Lbl,0,:, ", N, =, ",?, +, B, , C,:, 0, )0, A,:, Lbl, 1, :, G, +,2, >, C, :, Frac, C, ~,0, ~,Goto, 3, :, lsz, A, :, C, =, 1, ~,Goto, 2, :, Goto, 1,:, Lbl, 2, :, ", X, =, ", .<III, A, .<III, Goto, 0, :,
Lbl, 3, :, ", N, 0, '', .<III, Goto, 0 70 steps
This program calculates the x power of 2. A prompt of "N =?" appears for data input. The result is displayed by pressing @] while "X =" is displayed: When an input data is not the x power of 2, the display "NO" appears and execution returns to the beginning for reinput.
* Always follow a message with a .<III whenever a formula follows the message.
Assuming that the program is stored in P2:
~rn@] m[[][[)OO@] @] @] OOlIlrnm@] @]
[[]lIlrn~ ~
The display is capable of showing up to 12 alpha characters at one time. For mes sages that are longer than 12 characters, use [I](Disp) to divide the message
N=?
X=
12.
N=?
NO
N=?
X=
9.
136
Using the Graph Function in Programs
Using the graph function within programs makes it possible to graphically represent long, complex equations and to overwrite graphs repeatedly. All graph commands (except the trace function) can be included in programs. Range values can also be written into the program.
Generally, manual graph operations can be used in programs without modification.
[Example 1 1 Graphically determine the number of solutions (real roots) that
satisfy both of the following two equations. y=~4_X3_24x2+4x+80
Y= 10x30
The range values are as follows.
Xmin : 10 Ymin : 120
Xmax: 10 Ymax: 150
Xscl: 2 Yscl: 50
First, program the range setting. Note that values are separated from each other by commas'" ".
Range, (),1,0, ',.1,0,',2,', (),1,2,0",1,5,0",5,0
Next, program the equation for the first graph.
Graph, X, xY, 4, , X, xY, 3, , 2, 4, X, X2, +, 4, X, +, 8, 0
Finally program the equation for the second graph.
Graph, 1,0, X, ,3,0
Total 49 steps
When inputting this program, press [IJ after input of the ranges and the first equation.
The following should appear on the display when the program is executed:
A ".<III" can be input after the first equation to suspend execution after the first graph is produced. To continue execution to the next graph, press @].
The procedure outlined above can be used to produce a wide variety of graphs. The library of this manual includes a number of examples of graph programming.
137
Prime factor analysis
Definite integrals using Simpson's rule A .... Y transformation
Minimum loss matching
Cantilever under concentrated load Normal distribution
Graph variation by parameters Hysteresis loop
Regression curve
Parade diagram
< Prior to use>
• Always check the number of remaining steps before attempting to store programs.
• The library is divided into two parts: a calculation section and a graph section. The calculation section shows only answers, while the graph section shows whole displays.
• Press the ~ key whenever "Graph" appears within a program ("Graph Y =" indicated) .
• If it is necessary to specify a calculation mode (e.g. BASEN, S01) in a program, be sure to specify it after pressing ~OO (WRT mode).
Then start programming by pressing @J.
CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Prime factor analysis I No. 1
Description
Prime factors of arbitrary positive integersare produced.
For l<m<1010
prime numbers are produced from the lowest value first. "END" is displayed at
the end of the program.
( Overview)
m is divided by 2 and by all successive odd numbers (d~3, 5, 7, 9, t l , 13, ..... ) to
check for divisibility.
Where d is a prime factor, mi= mi_,ld is assumed, and division is repeated until
.fin; + 1 ;&d.
Example (1 >
119=7x17
(2)
1234567890 = 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 3607 x 3803
(3)
987654321 =3x3x 17x 17 x 379721
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
.Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~[j]).
Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display
1 [§]O~ M? 11 ~ 3883.
2 119~ 7. 12 ~ END
3 ~ 17. 13 ~ M?
4 ~ END 14 987654321 ~ 3.
5 ~ M? 15 ~ 3.
6 1234567890 ~ 2. 16 ~ 17.
7 ~ 3. 17 ~ 17.
~ 18 ~ (After 15)
8 3. seconds 379721.
9 ~ 5. 19 ~ END
10 ~ (After 80) 3607. 20
seconds 140
r No. 1
Line ~rn Program Notes Number
of steps
Mel 2
2 Lbl 0 M i " ? A 'Goto 2 15
3 Lbl 2 .. A 2 A A => 30
4 Goto 9 33
5 Lbl 2 Frac A 2 0 => iGoto 48
6 3 B 52
7 Lbl 3 v A :+ C 62
8 Lbl 4 B '" C => Goto 8 iFrac A B 77
9 0 => Goto] 6 84
10 Lbl 5 B + 2 B Goto! 4 96
11 Lbl 6 A B x B A 0 i~ Goto 7 111
12 Goto 5 115
13 Lbl 7 B .. A B A Goto] 3 129
14 Lbl 8 A .. i 134
15 Lbl 9 E N D .. Goto] 0 145
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
A m, H 0 V
'" B d I P W
C
l!l C rm.+1 J Q X
c
0
o D K R Y
e
0 E L S Z
E
'"
:E F M T
G N u
141 CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Definite integrals using Simpson's rule I No. 
2
Description =
r h
l~ px)dx~a[Yo+4(Yl+Y'+'" +Y2m,)+2(Y2+Y4+ ... +Y2m2)+Y2m)
h~ ba
2m
The righthand portion of the above equation can be transformed as follows.
h m
I ~ a1Yo+ ;~, (4Y2il + 2y,.) Y2m)
Let f(X)~T
+1
Example (1) a=O, b=1, 2m=10
1= rTdx~O.7853981537
o +1
(2) a=2, b=5, 2m=20
1= ~5Tdx~o.2662526769
2 +1
Preparation and operation
.Store.the program written on the next page.
.Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (E!!!JIIJ).
Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display
1 (§)O~ A? 11
2 O~ B? 12
3 1~ 2M? 13
4 10~ 8 _ 7853981535 14
5 Iilll A? 15
6 2~ B? 16
7 5~ 2M? 17
8 20~ 8.2662526768 18
9 19
10 20 142
r No. 2
.. ~@ Program Notes Number
Line of steps
I P0 i
1
~ Lbl i 1 Mel 5
3 " A ? A " B ? B 20
~ 2 M ? M 27
~ A G Prog p B A 42
6 M D M 2 0 54
7 Lbl i 2 G + D G iPregi + : p 69
8 x 4 . ~ 74
19 G + D G iProg + p x 2 89
10 I 0 0 97
11 0 .. i 0 i~ Getei 2 104
12 B G Prog! p l_" 117
13 D x 3 .<II 123
14 Gete! 125
15
16 P1 !
17 G x G i+ P 11
18
19 Total 136 steps
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
A a H 0 m (Number of repetitions) V
i!l B b I P W
c:
Q) Q X
C C J
0
0 D hlL..!!. K R Y
e 2m
0 E L S Z
E
Q)
::; F M 2m T
G x N u
143 CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for ~ .... Y transformation 1 No. 3 .
Description .....,
'y' 'y.'
R,
R, R3
 R.

c
c
1) A__'Y 2) Y__'A
R, R,·R2 R,  R,R, + R,R.+ R.R,
R,+R2+R, R,
R, R2·R, R, R,R, + R,R. + R.R,
R,+R2+R, R.
R. R,.R, R, R,R, + R,R. + R.R,
R, +R2+R, R,
Example (1 > (2)
R,~12 (0) R, ~ 100 (0)
R,~47 (0) Rs=150 (0)
R,~82 (0) R.~220 (0)
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
.Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~rn).
Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display
1 ~O@] D.Y: 1, Y'D: 2? 11 @] D.Y: 1, Y.D:2?
2 1@] R1 ~? 12 2@] R4=?
3 12@] R2~? 13 100@] R5=?
4 47@] R3=? 14 150@] R6=?
5 82@] R4= 15 220@] R1=
6 @] 4. 16 @] 466.6666667
7 @] R5= 17 @] R2=
8 @] 27.33333333 18 @] 318.1818182
9 @] R6= 19 @] R3=
10 @] 6.978723484 20 @] 788. 144
I No. 3
. Notes Number
Line §@m Program of steps
" D y y __. D 2 15
1 Lbl
~ ? __. N : 20
"3 2 j~ iGata 2 N '< ~ iGatai 34
N
 R  " ? __. A 43
4
R 2 ? __. B 52
5
R 3  " ? ' __. C 61
6
B + C D 69
7 A +
R 4  ~ A x B D ~ 81
8
R 5 ~ B x C D ~ 93
9
" R 6  ~ A x C D ~ 105
10
108
11 Goto]
Lbll 2 111
12
" R 4 ? __. E 120
13
" R 5 " ? __. F 129
14
" R 6 ? __. G 138
15
E F F x G + G x E __. H 152
16 x +
" R ~ H F ~ 162
17
" R 2  " ~ H G ~ 172
18
19 " R 3 ~ H E ~ 182
20 Golai 184
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
A R, H R.R, + R,R. + R.Ro 0 V
!J) B R, P W
C x
Q) C R, J Q
C
0 R y
0 D R,+R2+R, K
e S Z
0 E R. L
E
Q) F R, M T
:;
G R. N For judgement U
145 CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Minimum loss matching to. 
4
Description =
Calculate R, and R, which match Zo and Z, with loss minimized. (Zo>Z,)
R,
zo:=Ez,
R'~ZoJIZ' z,
R2~R
ZO
0
Minimum loss Lmtn ~ 20 log ( J¥ + J ~:  I) IdB]
Example
Calculate the values of Rl, R2 and Lmin for Zo = 500n and Zl = 200n.
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page .
• Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~(jJ).
Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display
1 ~O@] Z0=? 11
2 SOO@] Z1 =? 12
3 200@] R1 = 13
4 @] 387.2983346 14
5 @] R2= 15
6 @] 258.1988897 16
7 @] LMIN= 17
8 @] 8.961393328 18
9 19
10 20 146
I No. 4
,. ~@ Program Number
Line Notes of steps
1 z 0 ? Y 9
2 z ? Z 18
3 v 1 Z y A 29
4 y x A . ~ R Z A S y Z 44
5 B i 2 0 x log V B + vi ( B 59
6 ' ~ T 65
7 R .... R .... 73
8 R 2 .... S ... 81
g L M N .... T 90
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
A Jl~ H 0 V
"' B k P W
E z,
CD C J Q X
E
0
" D K R R, Y Zo
e
0 E L S R2 Z Z,
E
CD
::; F M T Lmin
G N U
147 CASID PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Cantilever under concentrated load to 5 ,
Description __,
E : Young's modulus Ikg/mm2]
~' I : Geometrical moment of inertia [rnm]
a : Distance of concentrated load from
support [mm]
P : Load Ikg]
x : Distance of point of interest from the
support [rnm]
Deflection y [rnrn], Angle of deflection s 1°], Bending moment M Ikg. mm]
CD f>x>a 0x~a
Po' Po' P J Pa 2
y~ 6EI  2EI x y ~ 6EI x  2EI x
[ Po'] s~tan'[ :E'; (x2a)]
s=tan'  2EI
M ~ 0 (shearing load Ws ~ 0) M~P (xa) (shearing load Ws~P)
Example E ~ 4000 kg/mm2}
I ~ 5 mm What are deflection, angle of deflection, bending moment and shear
a~30 mm ing load atx~25 mm and x~32 mm?
P~2 kg
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
.Ex~cute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (~ill).
Step Key operation Display Step Key operation Display
1 1Sl01§) E=? 11 @j 10.
2 40001§) I=? 12 1§) x=?
3 5@j A=? 13 32@j y=
4 30 I§) p=? 14 I§) 0.99
5 2 I§) x=? 15 I§) s=
6 25 I§) y= 16 1§)  2.57657183
7 I§)  0.677083333 17 I§) M=
8 I§) s= 18 @J 0.
9 1§)  2.505092867 19 Repeat from step 5.
10 @J M= 20 148
1 No. 5
Notes Number
,..."] em Program of steps
Line ? 15
'1D e9: E ? \+ E
" P 30
~ A ? ' .... A
34
fS ? P 45
r; Lbl! X ? X
52
rs x < A =* Gata 2
i x2 i 2 x E x 67
rs y ~ p x A
!x 78
t"J x A 3 ~
'1 j( )j A x2 \ 2 93
t8 S ~ !tan ( P x
!M ~ 0 ~ 107
rg x E x ~
110
'10 Gata! 113
11 Lbl! 2 129
X i x2 2 x E x
12 y ~ p x
139
X 3 A ~
13 x
2 E 154
" jtan 11 p x X x
14 S ~
167
X 2 x A ~
15 x x 180
~ P x X A ~
16 M :. 182
17 Goto.
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 V
A a H 0
I P P W
'" B
E a x x
21 C J
c: y
0 K R
" D
z L S Z
0 E E
E
(II F M T
:;
G N u
149 CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Normal distribution I No. 6 
Description =
Obtain normal distribution function 1> (x) (by Hastings' best approximation).
1> (x)~ 1~ 1>tdx ~
1 _E
1>t~ ,f2;;e 2
Putt~~l_
l+Px
¢ (x) =:: 1 r/:JI (cd+ C2t1 + c),J +C4/.4 +C5/5)
P~0.2316419 C3~ 1.78147937
C, ~ 0.31938153 C4 ~  1.821255978
C, ~  0.356563782 C, ~ 1.330274429
Example
Calculate the values of 1> (x) at x~1.18 and x~0.7.
Preparation and Operation
• Store the program written on the next page .
• Execute the program as shown below in the RUN mode (§[IJ).
Step Key operation Display Step Key .operation Display
1 (SJO@) x=? 11
2 1,18@) Px= 12
3 @) 0.880999696 13
4 @) X=? 14
5 0,7@) px= 15
6 @) o . 7580361368 16
7 17
8 18
9 19
10 20 6
....r Program of steps
Line §@!§OD~E m~2~_''=':::;~~:;:Trrrit=1~8CJ
~~~~x==~~"~~?~~~~x~~~;t~~;+~~iTll~~=1==2~3~
~~'~~~==iJ~+~~0+~~2~~3~~1~~6t~4~~~9~~X~ t=~~
2 1 1 y 1 ( 2 x 7t X e" 38
1)( )  T 48
3 "2 2 _ Q
14 (! ( ) 1 x 1 x 61
853 A
I 0 3 9 3 76
5f, 63782 B
16 ( )1 0 3 5 6 5 89
793 7  C
~ 1 7 8 4 _ D 104
2 559 7 8
18 ( )! 8 2 118
4 4 2 9  E
~ 1 3 3 0 2 7 133
I "A Q(AT+BT
10 " P X E T i, xY 148
,_ '3 + D T 1 xY 4 +
r 11 x' + C T i xY 150
Notes Number
12 5
13
~
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
A
Ul B
'E
II> C
'E
0
0 D
e
0 E
E
II> F
:;;
G 0 V
H
P W
I
Q <PI X x
J
R y
K
S Z
L
M T
N u
151 150
CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Graph variation by parameters I No
7
Description ~
Damped vibration [~
(i) e > n (Overdamping)
PI= E+..J£1_n2, P2;:;;; E~
X= Vo  XoPz eP1t _ Vo  xOPI eP2t
P1Pz PlPz
(ii) 0= n (Critical damping) ~
X= Ixo+ (vo+oxo)t ) eo,
(iii) 0 < n (Damping vibration)
x=eE'lxoCos..Jn2_£2 t+ ~'SinVn2E? tj ~ 1\ !\ _D, 1'. /'
n2_£2
V V V V ~ ~
Example
Draw a graph of the damping vibration that possesses the fOllowing parameters:
(1) 0 = 0.1 (2) 0 = 0.2 (3) 0 = 0.2
n = 1.5 n =0.2 n =0.18
Xo =2.5 xo=2 Xo= 2
vo == 1 vo=0.6 vo == 1.5
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
A xo H 0
V
.!!1 8 Vo I P PIE+~
c W
.'!l C ..ffI27
c J Q P2 0 ...rec;r
0 X I
o 0
i! K R y
0 x
E E 0 L S
(J) Z
:::;; F M T
G N n U 152
I No.
Program
2 5 5 iH 3 3
P S L 0 N  ? ~ E
" ? ~ N
0 " ? A
0  " ? 8
N =} iGoloi
N =} iGoloi 2
N i x2  E x2 ~ C
( i( )i E x A cos C x +
+ E A C ;x I i sin C X 7
Noles Number
of sleps
2
17
31
39
48
57
64
71
82
97
112
115
118
132
146
161
176
183
186
189
204
208
210
Total 210 steps 11 (i 8
r
Line @lOO
~Radi rz Rangei 0 rs " : E
14 N
rs X (5 V
'7 E i>
'8 E
'12
GOloi 0
Lbl i 1
( )i E + vi E x2 N x' ~
( )t E vi E x'  N x' ~
Graph i 8 A Q P Q
p X 8  A P P
X~l j e' Q X
Goto] 0
Lbl i 2 io
13
14
p
15
o
16
17
18
19
20
21 Graph i A i+
22 E i X
23 Lbl i 0
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35 8i+ E A
X
i(
153
Program for Graph variation by parameters I No 7
Step Key operation Display
1 [§JO@§
EPSILON=?
2 0.1 @§
N=?
3 1.5@§
X0=?
4 2.5@§
V0=?
5 1@§ ~
6 @§
EPSILON=?
7 0.2@§
N=?
8 0.2@§
X0=?
9 2@§
V0=?
10 0.6@§ p:= 154
Program for Graph variation by parameters I No 7
Step Key operation Display
11 @§
EPSILON=?
12 0.2@§
N=?
13 0.18@§
X0=?
14 @!ffi1B2@§
V0=?
15 1.5@§ F
16
17
18
19
20 155
CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Hysteresis loop I No 8
Description
When a ferromagnetic specimen is sustained
B (Magnetic flux 
density) 7 in a magnetic field, the specimen becomes
/ magnetized. The BH relationship can be
represented by a hysteresis curve.
~ !)H (Magnetic field)
lr f IT
~U J__ LJ
Soft magnetic substance Ferromagnetic substance
Example Hysteresis curve of soft magnetic material
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 • Number of data items: 17
H 0.4 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 2.0 1.0 0.5 0.3 Number of data items in the
B 0.5 0.86 1.2 1.32 1.4 1.31 1.22 1.13 1.1 main loop: 12
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ·Within 20 data items.
H 0 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
B 0.96 0.66 0 0.53 0.72 1.15 1.33 1.4
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
A Number of data items H 0 V
en B Number of data items I P W
E in the main loop
'" C J Q X
E
0
o D K R Y
e
0 E L S Z
E
'"
:2 F M T Z[I]Z[20] B
G F[I]F[20] H N U 156
8
Notes Number
of steps
15
27
31
A 46
47
50
65
67
75
84
98
109
122
128
137
145
160
163
169
178
183 1 No.
Program
7 4 7 () :
5 5 0 5
0 F iSPACE i D A T A ?
N iSPACE: L 0 0 P SPACE N ? Line
§.@[]]
Rangei () i 4
5 5
Defmi 2 0
N 0
Lbl i 9
.. M A
B
B > 2 0
C 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
=> iGoto! 9
10
:..? F
c
Lbl: 0
B
Plod F
c +
c ""
A
Lbl i
iUnei
D +
D ""
.. E N D
14
H
?
C
C
+ => iGoto i 0
11
12
Z C
Z C
Une ..
13
15
A
D
B +
16
D
D
() Z
17
18
19
D
20
A +
21
Memory 20x8=160
22
23
24
25
Total 343 steps
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
157
~ ,....
Program for Hysteresis loop I No 
8
Step Key operation Display
1 ~O~
NO.OF DATA?
2 17~
MAIN LOOP N?
3 12~
H=? .
4 O.4~
8=?
5 O.5~ + IDI!m
6 ~
H=?
7 1.0~ +
O.86~ IDI!m
8 (Input dat? in order)
9 ~
END
10 IBl +
158 program for I No.
 Key operation Display
Step 159
CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for No. g
Regression curve
Description
i Logarithmic regression curve
Regression formula: y ~ A + Blnx
B~ n·l:(y·lnx}l:lnx·l:y ':
n l: (Inx)'  (l: Inx)'
A~ l:yB·l:lnx II
n
ii Exponential regression curve
Regression formula: y=A'eBx \
B~ nl: (xlny) l:x·l:lny ~
n·l:x'(l:x)'
(l:lnYB.l:x)
A~e
n
iii Power regression curve
Regression formula: y~A·XB )
B~ n l:(lnx·lny)l:lnx·l: Iny
n·l: (Inx)'  (l: Inx)'
A~ l: Iny  B . l: Inx
n
• See page 162 for an example.
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
A A or InA H E(lnx)2 0 V Ex
'" B B I P Ey2 W n
C
Q) C Elnx J Q Ey X x data
C
0 R Exy Y y data
<> D Elny K
e S For selection of 1  3 Z
0 E XElny L
E
Q) F YElnx M T
:::!;
G E(lnx·.Iny) N U Ex2 160
I No. g
Line §@I]J Program Notes Number
of steps
1 P0 iliilll ~ ~ ~ LR 2
2 Sci i : Cis : 0 .... C  H : 10
3 " iRange 0 K ? " .. 17
4 " A C .... Prog 1 SPACE X ? " : 29
5 Lbl i 1 : 32
6 " X " ? ~ X 40
7 " Y : " ? ~ Y : 48
8 In X + C ~ C : In Y + D ~ D : X 63
9 In Y + E ~ E : Y In X + F ~ F : 78
10 In X x In Y + G ~ G : ( In X ) x2 93
11 + H ~ H 98
12 X : Y DT .. 103
13 Goto] 1 105
14
15 p1i~ D ~ COMP
16 " L ~ 1 SPACE E ~ 2 SPACE P ~ 3 ,. ? 15
17 ~ S 18
18 S : 1 => Prog 7 25
= :
19 S : = 2 => Prog 8 : 32
20 S = 3 => Prog 9 39
21 " : E N D " 44
:
22
23 P7iliilll ~ ~ ~ LR 2
24 ( iW F  C Q ) ( W H  C x2 ) x1 15
25 ~ B : ( Q  B C ) W x1 ~ A : 29
26 Graph i A + B In X .. 36
27 " A : " .. A .. 43
28 " B : " .. B .. 50
29
30
31
32 :
33
34
35 161
CASIO PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Regression curve I No 9
Example
Perform exponential regression of the following data:
[xi 1 2.2 1 5.6 9.5[13.8118.0123.2 29.9 1 37.8l
[ yi [35.6[28.1 [23.0 [17.91129[10.2[ 6.2 [ 4.0 [
Draw an exponential regression curve, and use the trace function to estimate the value for y
when x ~ 20. Also, obtain the values of A and B of the regression formula.
Range values:
X min : 10 Y min : 10
X max : 50 Y max : 55
X sci : 10 Y sci : 10
Preparation and operation
. • Store the program written on the next page.
A H 0 V
en B I P W
C
'" C J Q X
C
0
<.> D K R y
z
0 E L S Z
E
'" F
~ M T
G N U I No.
9
2
line
Number of steps
4 Graph i eX
3
~iB
D  B
A X eX B X
" ...I eX A
" ...I B ...I 5 A
162
6 "i B
Notes
15
29
37
45
52
7
15
10
11
12
13
8
P9 illEi!!J i~ i GI iLR 2
( :W G C D W H  C x'
B D B C w ix 1 A
Graph: eX A x X x' B ...I
A " ...I eX A ...I
B " ...I B ...I
I" 9
15
14
16
17
:x
Total 303 steps
29
37
45
52
18
it
19
20
21
22
24
23
25
26
28
27
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
163
"
Program for Regression curve to. g
Step Key operation Display
~O~ LR2
ImI!I
1 (Range setting check) Range OK?
Set range values LR2
rD~ Xmi n?
3.8
~1810~
2 50~
10~
~1810~
55~
10
~ LR2
3 ~O~
Range OK?
LR2
4 ~
X:?
LR2
5 2.2~
V:?
LR2
6 35.6~ ImI!I
2.2
LR2
7 ~
X:?
8 (Input dat~ in order)
LR2
9 4.0~ ImI!I
37.8
164 Program for Regression curve I No. g
Step Key operation Display
10 !Hl ~ ImI!I
.
11 rD
~1~ L~1 E~2 P~3?
12 2~ ~ ImI!I
(Select exponential regression).
~ ~x~
13 ImI!I
5.26315
14 §J ~x~ ImI!I
Move pointer to X = 20 20.
15 ~~ ~~~.~149
LR2
16 ~ ImI!I
A:
LR2
17 ~ ImI!I
40.68214076
LR2
18 ~ ImI!I
B:
LR2
19 ~ ImI!I
0.061624605 165
Program for Regression curve I No 9
Step Key operation Display
LR2
20 ~
END
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29 166
Program for
Key operation
Display
Step
167
""!II!! ,...
CAS I 0 PROGRAM SHEET
Program for Parade diagram 1 No. 10
Description
One example of a parade diagram application is problem solving in QC activities. The problem
is quantitatively analyzed based on actual data concerning its extent, and the main points
demanding attention are determined.
Horizontal axis: Problem classification
(Item 6 in this example)
Vertical axis: (Right) Occupation ratio
(Left) Problem extent in each classification
r': 100%
1
Problem Occupation
frequency ratio
I/rh
Classification
(problem areas)
Example
Create a parade diagram using Problem areas
the data on the right. Frequency
A 105
B 65
C 35
D 20
E 15
Others 10
Preparation and operation
.Store the program written on the next page.
A Input data H 0 V
Ul B I P W n
E
s C J Q X Count of data
c:
0
0 D K R Y
~
0 E L S Display count Z Sum of data
E
.,
::!: F M T Z[1]Z[6]
G N u
168 I No.
Line ~[]]
Program
P0!(@) ~ t3! ~ !SD2
2 Sci
Mcl Defm i 6
6 0 2 0 2
A T A ? A
A DT
X X :S 5 i=> !Goto
w w 0 3 Range 0
4 Lbl 1
5 D
10
Notes Number
of steps
7
21
24
34
39
52
64
66
71
75
78
87
94
107
109 6 X
7 X +
8 Range
9 Graph ~
10 Plot 0 0
11 1 S
13 Z S
Z
12 Lbl 2
+ Z
14 Plot S
15 S +
16 Graph W
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35 Z Line
S S:s 6! => !Goto 2
Memory 6x848
Total 157 steps
169
Program for Parade diagram I No
10
Step Key operation Display
SD2
1 ~O~
DATA?
SD2
2 105~
DATA?
SD2
3 65~
DATA?
4 (Input dat~ in order.)
5 10~ L
(Bar graph display) mmI
6 ~ ~
(Parade diagram display)
7
8
9
10 170
Function Reference Error Message Table
Input Ranges of Functions Specifications
~,..
Function Reference
• Manual Calculations
Mode COMP Mode Four arithmetic and function calculations.
specification (~(J)
BASE~N Mode Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal conver
(§@i:I) sions and calculations, logical operations.
SD1 Mode Standard deviation calculations (1variable
(~Et) statistical).
LR1 Mode Regression calculations (paired variable
(§@D) statistical).
SD2 Mode For production of single variable statistical
(l!ffiill~Et) graphs. (Bar graphs, normal distribution
curves)
LR2 Mode For production of paired variable statistical
(l!ffiill§@D) graphs. (Regression lines)
Functions Type A Function command input immediately after
functions numeric value.
[X2, x1, xl, 0, r, 9, 0''']
Type B Function command input immediately before
functions numeric value.
[Sin, cos, tan, sin1, cosl, tan1, sinh, J
cosh, tanh, sinhl, coshl, tanh1, log,
In, e, 1Ox, Y, V, Abs, Int, Frac, etc.
Paired Function command input between two numeric
variable values. Numeric value enclosed in parentheses
functions input immediately after function command.
[ A xY B (A to the Bth power), J
B V A (A to the 1/Bth power),
Pol (A, B), Rec (A, B)
* A and B are numeric values.
Immediately Displayed value changed with each press of
executed a key.
functions < <
[ENG, ENG, 0 ' "j
172 Binary, octal, Setting Decimal .............. ~@l
decimal, number Hexadecimal ...... ffi!!)@l
hexadecimal system Binary ................ ~@l
calculations Octal .................. @£!I@l
@li:l Number Number system for the numeric value entered
system immediately after can be specified regardless
specification of the currently set number system.
To specify:
Decimal .............. l!ffiill@]
Hexadecimal ...... l!ffiilllliJ
Binary ................ l!ffiill(k]
Octal .................. l!ffiill@)
Logical Input numeric values are converted to binary
operations and each bit is tested. Result is converted
back to number system used for input, and
then displayed.
Not ........... Reverse of each bit
and ........... Logical product of each bit
or .............. Logical sum of each bit
xor ............ Exclusive logical sum of each bit
xnor .......... Exclusive negative logical sum of
each bit
Standard Data clear l!ffiill~@l
deviation Data input Data [;frequencyjl@
calculations * Frequency can be omitted.
@lEt
Data deletion Data [;frequencyj @Q
* Frequency can be omitted.
Result display Number of data (n) ........ ~(]](n)@l
Sum (~x) ....................... ~(]](~x)@l
Sum of squares (~X2) .... ~!IJ(~x2)@l
Mean (x) ........................ l!ffiillOO@l
Population standard deviation (xo»)
................................... l!ffiill~@l
Sample standard deviation (XO"nl)
. .................................. l!ffiill~@l 173
Regression Data clear ~~~
calculations Data input
~a x data, y data [;frequency] @)
* Frequency can be omitted.
Data deletion x data, y data [;frequency] .@Q
* Frequency can be omitted.
Result display Number of data (n) ... ~(]](n)~
Sum of x (Ex) ........... ~rn(Ex)~
Sum of y(Ey) ........... ~[[)(Ey)~
Sum of squares of x (EX2)
.............................. ~OJ(EX2)~
Sum of squares of y (Ey2)
.............................. ~[!)(Ey2)~
Sum of products of x and y (Exy)
.............................. ~[§J(Exy)~
Mean of x (x) ............ ~OO~
Mean of y en ............ ~IZJ~
Population standard deviation of X (X<Jn)
.............................. ~~~
Population standard deviation of y (Y<Jn)
.............................. ~~~
Sample standard deviation of X (X<Jnl)
.............................. ~@E~
Sample standard deviation of y (Y<Jnl)
.............................. ~~~
Constant term of regression formula (A)
.............................. ~[!)~
Regression coefficient (8)
.............................. ~[[]~
Correlation coefficient (r)
.............................. ~!1J~
Estimated value of x (x)
.............................. ~~~
Estimated value of y Cy)
.............................. ~(2)~ 174
Special Ans The latest result obtained in manual or pro
functions gram calculations is stored in memory. It is
recalled by pressing ~.
* Mantissa of numeric value is 10 digits.
Replay After calculation results are obtained, the
formula can be recalled by pressing either
(B or~.
The replay function is not cleared even when
mil is pressed or when power is turned off.
If an error is generated, pressing either (B
or ~ will cancel the error and the point
where the error was generated will be indi
cated by a blinking cursor.
Multistatement Colons are used to join a series of state
ments or calculation formulas. If joined using
" ... ", the calculation result to that pointis
displayed.
Memory The number of memories can be expanded
from the standard 26 .
Memories can be expanded in units of one
up to 50 (for a total of 76) .
Eight steps are required for one memory.
~c:::J number of memories~. 175
Graph Range Graph range settings
function Xmin ......... Minimum value of x
Xmax ........ Maximum value of x
Xscl .......... Scale of Xaxis (space between
points)
Ymin ......... Minimum value of y
Ymax ........ Maximum value of y
Yscl .......... Scale of Yaxis (space between
points)
Trace Moves pointer on graph. Current coordinate
location is displayed.
Plot Marks pointer (blinking dot) at any coordinate
on the graph display.
Line Connects with a straight line two points
created with plot function.
Factor Defines factor for zoom in/zoom out.
Zoom Zoom x f .... Zooms in on the graph in accor,
dance with the zoom factors
Zoom x 't, ... Zooms out on the graph in accor
dance with the inverse of the zoom
factors
Zoom Org .. Returns zoomed graph to original
dimensions
Scroll Scrolls screen to view parts of graphs that
are off the display. 176
• Program Calculations
Program Input mode WRT Mode (~rn)
input Calculation Mode that conforms with program specified
mode by: ~O, ~a, ~EI, ~GI.
Program area Cursor is moved to the desired program area
specification name (PO through P9) using ~ and IB, and
~ is pressed.
Program Execution RUN Mode (~m)
execution mode
Program area Execution starts with ~ program area name
specification ~.
Program area name: PO through P9
Program Input mode WRT Mode (~rn)
editing Program area Cursor is moved to the desired program area
specification name (PO through P9) using ~ or IB, and ~
is pressed.
Editing Cursor is moved to position to be edited us
ing IB or~.
Press correct key for corrections.
·Press @ID for deletions.
• Press 1!lITl(i@ to specify insert mode for
insertion.
Program Clear mode PCl Mode (~I]J)
delete Deletes Cursor is moved to the desired program area
specific name (PO through P9) using ~ and IB, and
program iii is pressed.
Clears all Press ~~.
programs 177
Program commands
Unconditional jump
Program execution jumps to the Lbl n which corresponds to Goto n.
* n = 0 through 9
Conditional jumps
If conditional expression is true, the statement after "~" is executed. If not true, execution jumps to the statement following next":" or
H A".
True
CDcfCD:cb{ ~ }cp
Not true
CD: Formula
®: Relational operator aD: Statement
* The relational operator is:
=, ~, >, <, z , ::s;.
Count jumps
The value in a memory is increased or decreased. If the value does not equal 0, the next statement is executed. If it is 0, a jump is performed to the statement following the next" :" or " ~ ".
Increase
WhenGO",O
Subroutines
Mer'nory Isz
name I
WhenGO=O
Decrease WhenGO",O
Dsz Mne~:o~y : Cb{ ~ } cp
WhenGO=O ®: Statement
GO: Value in memory
Program execution jumps from main routine to subroutine indicated by Prog n (n = 0 through 9). After execution of the subroutine, execution returns to the point following Prog n in the original program area.
178
• Error Message Table
Message Meaning , Countermeasure
Syn ERROR CDCalculation formula CD Use lB or §] to display the point
contains an error. where the error was generated
@Formula in a program and correct it.
contains an error. @Use lB or §] to display the point
where the error was generated,
press r!iI and then correct the
program in the WRT MOde.
Ma ERROR CD Calculation result CD@@
exceeds calculation Check the input numeric value
range. and correct it.
@Calculation is per When using memories, check
formed outside the that the numeric values stored in
input range of a memories are correct.
function.
@lIlogical operation
(division by zero,
etc.)
Go ERROR CD No corresponding Lbl CDCorrectly input a Lbl n to cor
n for Goto n. respond to the Goto n, or delete
@No program stored in the Goto n ff not required.
program area P n @Store a program in program area
which corresponds to P n to correspond to Prog n, or
Prog n. delete the Prog n if not required.
Ne ERROR =Nestinq of subroutines Ensure that Prog n is not used to
by Prog n exceeds 10 return from subroutines to main
levels. routine. If used, delete any un
necessary Prog n.
=Trace the subroutine jump destina
tions and ensure that no jumps
are made back to the original
program area. Ensure that returns
are made correctly. 179
Stk ERROR .Execution of calcula .Simplify the formulas to keep
tions that exceed the stacks within 10 levels for the
capacity of the stack numeric values and 24 levels for
for numeric values or the calculations.
stack for calculations. .Divide the formula into two or
more parts.
Mem ERROR .Memory expansion ex .Press §@8 (Defm) to expand
ceeds level remaining memory to necessary level.
in program. Use memories within the current
Attsmpt to use a number of memories.
memory such as Z[5]
when no memory has
been expanded.
Arg ERROR Arqumsnt input incor .Reenter argument correctly.
rectly. Ex. Negative
value input for Defm,
value other than 1  9
input for n, etc. 180
Input Ranges of Functions
Function Input range Internal Accuracy
digits Notes
sinx (Deg) Ixl <9 x 1090 As a rule, However, for tan x:
cosx (Rad) Ixl <5x 1071rrad 12 accuracy is Ixl ~90(2n+1):Deg
tanx (Gra) Ixl < 1 x 1010grad digits ± 1 at the Ixl ~ 1r12(2n + 1): Rad
10th digit. Ixl ~100(2n+1):Gra
sin 1X Ixl ~1
cos+!x " "
tan1x Ixl < 1 x 10100
sinhx Note: For sinh and
coshx Ixl ~230.2585092 tanh, when x=D,
" " errors are cumula
tive and accuracy is
tanhx Ixl < 1 x 10100 affected at a certain
point.
sinh 1X Ixl <5x1099
cosh1x 1 ~x<5x1099
" "
tanh v'» Ixl <1
logx 1 x 1099~X< 1 X 10100 " "
Inx
10< 1x101OO<x<100
eX 1 x 101OO<x " "
~ 230.2585092
Vi O~x< 1 X 10100
" "
x2 Ixl <1 x10s0
11x Ixl < 1 x 10100, x~O
\Ix " "
Ixl <1 x10100
x! 0~x~69 I
(x is an integer) " " 181
Function Internal 
Input range digits Accuracy Notes
As a rule, 
Pol (x,y) ,JX2+y2<1 x10100 12 accuracy is
digits ± 1 at the
10th digit.
0~r<1 X 10100 
However, for tan 0 :
Rec (r,O) (Oeg) 101 < 9 x 1090 101 ~90(2n+ 1):Oeg
(Rad) 101 <5 x 1071rrad " " 101 ~ 1r/2(2n + 1): Rad
(Gra) 101 < 1 x 1010 grad 11]1 ~100(2n+1):Gra
l al , b, c<1x101OO 
0' "
O~b, c
Ixl < 2.777777777 x 1096 " "
<
0' " Hexadecimal display:
Ixl ~2777777.777
x>O:
 1 x 10100 <ylogx< 100
x=O: y>O
x<O: 1
xY y=n, 2n+1 " "
(n is an integer)
However; 1
1 x 101oo<log Ixl
<100 y
y>O: x~O 1
1 x 1 0100 < xIogy < 100
y=O: x>O 1
y<O: x=2n+ 1, n " "
Vy (n~O, n is an integer)
However; 1
1 x101OO<loglyl
<100 x 182
 Internal
Function Input range digits Accuracy
 Results
Total of integer, numerator and
denominator must be within 10 digits As a rule,
able (includes division marks). 12 accuracy is ± 1
Input digits
Result displayed as a fraction for in at the 10th digit.
teger when integer, numerator and
denominator are less than 1 x 1010.
Ixl<1x105O
SO lyl<1x105O
Inl<1x10100 " "
(LR) XUn, YUn, X, y, A, B, r: n~O
XUn  1, YUn  1 : n~O, 1 Function Input range
Values after variable within following range:
Oec: 2147483648 ~x~2147483647
Bin: 1 00000000000 ~ x
~ 111111111111 (negative)
BASEN 0~x~011111111111 (0, positive)
Oct: 20000000000 ~ x ~ 37777777777 (negative)
O~x~ 17777777777 (0, positive)
Hex: 80000000 ~x~ FFFFFFFF (negative)
0~x~7FFFFFFF (0, positive) 'Errors may be cumulative with internal continuous calculations such as xr, Vy, x!, Vx sometimes affecting accuracy.
183
Specifications
Model: fx6300G
I Graph functions I Builtin function graphs:
Types of graphs:
Graph functions:
I Calculations I Basic calculation functions:
Builtin scientific functions:
(20 types) sin, cos, tan, sin  \ cos 1, tan 1, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh1, cosh1, tanh1, log, In, 10x, ex, x2, Y, <: x'
User generated function graphs Rectangular coordinates
Singlevariable statistics: bar graphs, normal distribution curves
Pairedvariable statistics: regression lines
Range specification, Overdraw, Trace, Zoom (x f, x 'It, factor, original (resume)), Plot, Line, Scroll
Negative numbers, exponents, parenthetical addition/ subtraction / multiplication / division (with priority sequence judgement function  true algebraic logic).
Trigonometric/inverse trigonometric functions (units of angular measurement: degrees, radians, grads), hyperbolic/ inverse hyperbolic functions, logarithmic/exponential functions, reciprocals, factorials, square roots, cube roots, powers, roots, squares, decimalsexagesimal conversions, binaryoctalhexadecimal calculations, coordinate transformations, 7r, random numbers, absolute values, integers, fractions.
184
Statistics: Standard deviation  number of data, sum, sum of squares, mean, standard deviation (two types).
Linear regression  number of data, sum of x, sum of y, sum of squares of x, sum of squares of y, mean of x, mean of y, standard deviation of x (two types), standard deviation of y (two types), constant term, regression coefficient, correlation coefficient, estimated value of x, estimated value of y.
Special functions: Insert, delete, replay functions, substitution (=), multistatement (: and .;iI).
Memories:
Calculation range:
Rounding:
Exponential display:
I Program function I
Number of steps:
Jump functions:
Subroutines:
Number of stored programs:
Check functions:
26 standard (maximum 76), Ans memory ±1 x 1099 ±9.999999999 x 1099 and O. Internal operation uses 12digit mantissa.
Performed according to the specified number of significant digits or the number of specified decimal places.
Norm 1102>lxl, Ixl~10'0
Norm 2  109> lxi, Ixl ~ 10'0
400 maximum
Unconditional jump (Goto), 10 maximum Conditional jump (=, ~, >, c, ~, ~) Count jumps (Isz, Dsz)
9 levels
10 maximum (PO to P9)
Program checking, debugging, deletion, addition, insertion, etc.
185
I General I
Power supply:
Power consumption:
Battery life:
Auto power off:
Two lithium batteries (CR2032)
0.009 W
Approximately 350 hours on CR2032
Power is automatically switched off approximately 6 minutes after last operation.
Ambient
temperature range: 0°C40oC (32°F104°F)
Dimensions:
Weight:
9.9mmH x 73mmW x 141.5mmD (3/a"H x 27/a"W x 51/2"D)
84g (2.90z) including batteries
186
Index
Addition, 25
All clear (AC), 23 Alpha key, 16,22 Alpha lock, 22 And, 29,66
Angular measurement, 22, 54 Answer(Ans Function), 24, 49 Antilogarithm, 27, 56 Arithmetic calculations, 44, 65 Array memory, 41, 130, 132 Assignment key, 28, 105 Auto power off, 10
Bar graph, 97, 98
BASEN mode, 22, 32,118 BASEN mode calculations, 62 BASEN, arithmetic operations,
65
BASEN, conversions, 64 BASEN, logical operations, 66 BASEN, negative values, 64 Battery replacement, 8
Binary, 32, 62, 64, 65
Calculation mode, 21, 118 Calculation priority sequence, 30 Calculation steps, 35
CL key, 29, 68, 70
Clear graphic display, 26
Clear memory, 23, 39 Clear program, 21, 119
Clear statistical memories, 28,
67,69
Clear text display, 23
COMP mode, 22, 32 Computer math, 22, 62, 118 Conditional jumps, 122 Contrast, 29
Coordinate conversion, 58 Correction, 37
Cosine, 28, 55
Count jumps, 124
Cube root, 29, 59
Cursor, 23
m
Decimal, 32, 62, 64, 65
Decimal places, 16,21,47 Degrees, 16,21,22,54 Degreesminutesseconds(DMS),
27
Delete, 23, 37 Disp, 16,90
Display format, 18, 19,21 Division, 25
DT key, 29, 67, 69
Editing, 37 Engineering, 26
187
Index
Index
Error messages, 31,34, 52, 81, m i m
99,101,113,114,127,179 Hexadecimal, 19, 27, 28, 32, 6~ Main routine, 127 Pairedvariable statistics, 69
Error position display, 52 64,65 Mantissa, 18, 33 Pairedvariable statistical graphs,
Execute, 24 Hyperbolic functions, 16, 28, 57 Manual calculations, 44, 172 100
Exponent, 18, 24, 33 Hyperbolic functions, inverse, Memory calculations, 46 Parenthesis, 28, 45
Exponential display, 18,47 16,57 Memory clear, 23, 39 pel mode, 16,21,32,119
Exponential functions, 27, 56 D Memory expansion, 40 Pi, 24, 55, 80
Exponential regression, 72 Memory remaining, 22, 40, 98 Plot, point, 25, 91
I] Increasing memories, 40, 98 Memory status check, 22 Polar coordinates, 25, 58
Initialize, 10, 32, 40, 82 Memory steps, 35 Power regression, 73
Factor, 25, 84 Input ranges, 181 Minus(), 24 Power supply, 8
Factorial, 27, 59 Input digits, 33 Mode key, 16, 21 Powers, 29
Fix, 16,21,47 Insert, 38 Multiplication, 25, 30 Program area, 117
Fractions, 19, 28, 60 Integer key, 26, 60 Multistatements, 26, 53 Program commands, 120
Functions:Type A, 30 m m Program steps, 17, 106, 116
Functions:Type B, 30 Program, edit, 110
m Jump commands, 120 Neg, 28, 64 Program, erase, 21,119
13 Negation, 26, 66 Program, execute, 111
Gradients/Grads, 16, 21, 22, 54, Negative values, 24, 28, 64 Program, graph, 137
55 Key marking, 14 Nesting, 127 Program, input, 106
Graph, range, 25, 78 I] Norm 1 (Norm 2) mode, 18, 21 Program, memory, 106
GraphText key(GT), 26, 36 Normal distribution curve, 97, 98 Programming, 104
Graphic display, 36 Line,23,93 Not, 26, 66 Punctuation symbol ( " ,  ) , 39,
Graphing, 25, 76 Linear regression, 70 Numeric key, 24 135
Graphing built in scientific In, 27 m Ii)
functions, 76 logarithmic functions, 27, 56
Graphing examples, 96 logarithmic regression, 71 Octal, 32, 62, 64, 65 Radians/rads, 16, 21, 22, 54
Graphing manually entered logarithm, common, 27, 56 Off,23 Random number, 59
functions, 82 logarithm, natural, 27, 56 On, 23 Range, 25, 78, 80, 82
Graphing, program, 137 logical operations, 66 Or, 29, 66 Range parameter screen, 78, 80
Graphs, overdraw, 77, 83 lR mode, 22,25,32, 69,100, Output digits, 33 Reciprocal, 27, 59
118 Overflow, 34 Rectangular coordinates, 25, 58 188
189
Index
Regression, 69, 100 Replay function, 23, 51 Reset, 3,10
Root, 26, 59
RUN mode, 21,32
Sci, 16,21
Sci, 28, 67, 69 Scrolling graphs, 95
SO mode, 22, 25, 32, 67, 97,
118
Sexagesimal, 19,27,55 Shift key, 16,21
Significant digits, 16, 21 , 47 Sine, 28, 55, 76
Singlevariable statistics, 67 Singlevariable statistical graphs,
97
Specifications, 184 Square key, 27, 59 Square root key, 26, 59 Standard deviation, 67 Stacks, 31
Statistical calculations, 67 Statistical calculations,
paired variables, 69 Statistical calculations,
single variable, 67 Steps, 17, 35, 106 Subroutines, 127 Subtraction, 25
D
Tangent, 28, 55
Text display, 36
Text messages, 135
Time calculation, 19,27
Trace function, 25, 87 Trigonometric functions, 28, 55 Trigonometric functions,inverse,
28,55
True algebraic logic, 30
t!l
Unconditional jumps, 120
WRT (Write) mode, 16,21,32, 106,117
xnor, 26, 66 xor, 26, 66 XHY, 23,89
Zoom (xf, X1/f, Org) , 25, 84, 86, 90,95
Zoom, factor, 84, 86
190
MEMO
MEMO
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