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First of all, praise be to God the Almighty and the most Merciful that because of His blessings so that
a paper entitled “The Danger of Smoking” can we finish well..

The purpose in writing this paper is to fulfill the assignment that given by Mam Meity Sasube as
English lecture
in arranging this paper, the writer trully get lots challenges and obstructions but with help of many
indiviuals, those obstructions could passed. writer also realized there are still many mistakes in
process of writing this paper.

because of that, the writer says thank you to all individuals who helps in the process of writing this
paper. Hopefully God replies all helps and bless you all.the writer realized tha this paper still imperfect
in arrangment and the content. then the writer hope the criticism from the readers can help the writer
in perfecting the next paper.last but not the least Hopefully, this paper can helps the readers to gain
more knowledge about samantics major.

Manado, November 12th ,2019


Table list of content


Table list of content

Chapter I Introduction

Back ground



Chapter II Discussion
Chapter I



Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains the very addictive chemicals. In
Indonesia Smoking is an important public health problem. In fact, some of Indonesian kretek cigarettes
have quite high tar and nicotine content. Besides health effect, smoking habit also influence economic
status of the individuals as well as the family.

The increasing number of young adults exposed to cigarette usage in the world is alarming.
Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. There is no
minimum age limit on smoking or buying cigarettes in Indonesia. Indonesia
has made progress on tobacco control in recent years. However, people
continue to die and become sick needlessly, and the costs to society from
tobacco use continue to mount.

Problem formulation

1. Why people smoking?

2. what substances are contained in cigarettes?
3. what are the effects of smoking on health?
4. What are benefits of quitting smoking?

Aims of the paper

1. Knowing the reason why people smoking

2. Knowing the substances are contained in cigarettes
3. Knowing the effects of smoking
4. Knowing the benefits of quitting smoking

Chapter II


A. Reasons people smoke

Most smokers started when they were teens. People start smoking for different reasons. Some
teens say that they “just wanted to try it,” or they thought it was “cool” to smoke. Others start
think because their family members or friends smoke. Almost all adult users started before
they were 18 years old. Most never expected to become addicted.
The tobacco industry’s ads, price breaks, and other promotions for its products are a big
influence in our society. Tobacco use is also shown in video games, online, and on TV. And
movies showing smokers are another big influence. Studies show that young people who see
smoking in movies are more likely to start smoking.

B. Substances in cigarettes
There are approximately 250 ingredients in tobacco. Tobacco smoke is made up of more than
5000 chemicals, including at least 70 known to cause cancer. These cancer-causing chemicals
are referred to as carcinogens.
Some of the chemicals found in tobacco smoke include:
1. Nicotine
Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is
made by several types of plants, including the tobacco
plant. It is also produced synthetically. The addictive drug that
produces the effect people are looking for and one of the harshest chemicals in tobacco
2. Hydrogen Cyanide
Hydrogen cyanide is primarily used in the manufacture of products such as paper, textiles,
and plastics, as well as in pesticides
3. Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable gas with a strong odor. Most of us think of
formaldehyde as a liquid, but in reality, the substance that is used to preserve biological
specimens is called formalin, a mixture of formaldehyde gas, water, and methyl alcohol.
Formaldehyde is also an industrial chemical used to produce building materials (including
pressed wood products) and many household products and also also used in glues,
adhesives and disinfectant products.
Surprisingly, formaldehyde is also used to deactivate live viruses and toxins that are used in
making vaccines.
4. Arsenic
Arsenic may be found alone as a metal, or more commonly as a metal-like
Organic arsenic is less toxic than inorganic arsenic, and accounts for most of the arsenic
humans are exposed to, primarily through food and water.
Inorganic arsenic is a byproduct of smelting metals and was used in the past in chemicals
that pressure-treated wood for outdoor use.
5. Ammonia
Ammonia is a toxic, colorless gas with a very sharp odor. It occurs naturally in the
environment and is also a product of human activity. Ammonia compounds are commonly
used in cleaning products and fertilizers.
6. Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous, colorless and odorless gas that is produced when
incomplete burning of carbon-containing fuels occurs. It is present in indoor and outdoor air
in varying amounts from things like vehicle exhaust, gas stoves, wood-burning stoves,
furnaces and cigarette smoke, which can contain high levels of carbon monoxide.
7. Benzene
Benzene is a colourless liquid with a sweet odour. Benzene
evaporates quickly, dissolves poorly in water, and is quite
flammable. Benzene is present in the environment: in water, air
and the soil.

C. The effect of smoking

Every cigarette you smoke is harmful.
When you smoke, the poisons from the tar in your cigarettes enter your
blood. These poisons in your blood then:
a. Circulation
1. Make your blood thicker, and increase chances of clot formation
2. Increase your blood pressure and heart rate, making your heart
work harder than normal
3. Narrow your arteries, reducing the amount of oxygen rich blood
circulating to your organs
b. Heart
Smoking damages your heart and your blood circulation,
increasing the risk of conditions such as coronary heart
disease, heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease
(damaged blood vessels) and cerebrovascular disease
(damaged arteries that supply blood to your brain). This
damage increases your risk of atherosclerosis.
Carbon monoxide from the smoke and nicotine both put a
strain on the heart by making it work faster. They also
increase your risk of blood clots.
c. Stomach
Smokers have an increased chance of getting stomach cancer
or ulcers. Smoking can weaken the muscle that controls the
lower end of your gullet (oesophagus) and allow acid from the
stomach to travel in the wrong direction back up your gullet,
a process known as reflux.
d. Skin
Smoking and ageing skin
Tobacco smoking has unpleasant temporary cutaneous and
mucosal effects:

- Temporary yellowing of fingers and fingernails

- Discoloured teeth
- Black hairy tongue.
LongerLonger term, the gaunt skin of a 40-year-old heavy
smoker resembles that of non-smoking 70-year-old:
- Facial wrinkles and furrows
- Baggy eyelids and slack jawline
- Uneven skin colouring: greyish, yellow with prominent
blood vessels (telangiectasia)
- Dry, coarse skin.
e. Bones
Smoking can cause your bones to become weak and brittle.
Women need to be especially careful as they are more likely
to suffer from brittle bones (osteoporosis) than non-smokers.
f. Brain
In fact, smoking increases your risk of having a stroke by at
least 50%, which can cause brain damage and death. And, by
smoking, you double your risk of dying from a stroke.

One way that smoking can increase your risk of a stroke is by

increasing your chances of developing a brain aneurysm. An
aneurysm is the enlargement of an artery caused by
weakness in the arterial wall. Often there are no symptoms,
but a ruptured aneurysm can lead to fatal complications.
g. Lungs
Your lungs can be very badly affected by smoking. Coughs,
colds, wheezing and asthma are just the start. Smoking can
cause fatal diseases such as pneumonia, emphysema and lung
cancer. Smoking causes 84% of deaths from lung cancer and
83% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
h. Mouth and Throat
The most serious damage smoking causes in your mouth and
throat is an increased risk of cancer in your lips, tongue,
throat, voice box and gullet (oesophagus). More than 93% of
oropharyngeal cancers (cancer in part of the throat) are
caused by smoking.
i. Reproduction and fertility
Smoking can cause male impotence, as it damages the blood
vessels that supply blood to the penis. It can also damage
sperm, reduce sperm count and cause testicular cancer.
For women, smoking can reduce fertility. Smoking also
increases your risk of cervical cancer. People who smoke are
less able to get rid of the HPV infection from the body, which
can develop into cancer.
Smoking while you are pregnant can lead to miscarriage,
premature birth, stillbirth and illness, and it increases the risk
of cot death by at least 25%.
Secondhand smoke combines smoke from a burning cigarette and smoke
exhaled by a smoker. The smoke from burning tobacco contains more
harmful substances than inhaled smoke. This means people who are
around smokers might have a higher risk of smoking-related didisorders
The longer smoker is around secondhand smoke , the greater the level of
harmful substances in your body. As a result, you might have an increased
risk of developing smoking-related disorders, including:
- Lung cancer and lung disease, including COPD, emphysema,
asthma, and chronic bronchitis. Nonsmokers who live with a
smoker have a 20% to 30% increased risk for developing lung
- Heart disease
- Eye and nasal irritation; increased risk of sinus and respiratory
D. Benefits of quitting smoking
a. Brain
Broken Addiction Cycle
Quitting smoking can re-wire your brain and help
break the cycle of addiction. The large number of
nicotine receptors in your brain will return to normal
levels after about a month of being quit.
b. Head and Face
- Sharp Hearing
Quitting smoking will keep your hearing sharp.
- Better Vision
Stopping smoking will improve your vision and help
preserve your overall vision by stopping the damage
that smoking does to your eyes.
- Clean Mouth
Not smoking will keep your mouth healthy for years to come.
- Clear Skin
Quitting can help clear up blemishes and protect your skin
from premature aging and wrinkling.
c. Heart
Decreased Heart Risks
Smoking is the leading cause of heart attacks and
heart disease. But many of these heart risks can be
reversed simply by quitting smoking. Quitting can
lower your blood pressure and heart rate almost
immediately. Your risk of a heart attack declines
within 24 hours.
d. Thin Blood Vessel
Another effect of quitting smoking is that your blood
vessel will become thinner and less likely to form
dangerous blood clots. Your heart will also have less
work to do, because it will be able to move the blood
around your body more easily.
e. Lungs
Stop Lung Damage
Scarring of the lungs is not reversible. That is why it is
important to quit smoking before you do permanent
damage to your lungs.
f. Erectile Dysfunction
Sexual Healing
Quit smoking can lower your chances of erectile
dysfunction and improve your chances of having a
healthy sexual life.
g. Muscles and Bones
Strong Muscles
Quitting smoking will help increase the availability of
oxygen in blood, and muscles will become stronger
and healthier.
Stronger Bones
Quitting smoking can reduce risk of fractures.

How to Quit Smoking Plan (Step-By-Step)

Step 1: Make the Decision to Quit
Identify your reasons for quitting smoking. Quitting is challenging. You
can rise to the challenge, but it helps if you have your goals in mind.
Review your mental list as you approach your quit date.

If you have tried to quit smoking before and failed, don’t let that be an
Step 2: Understand Your High-Risk Times
Smoking is more than just a physical addiction to nicotine. It is also a
psychological addiction. Why do you smoke? Is it a break from your hectic
day? Is it a moment of peace when you can be alone with your thoughts?
Most people smoke for the same reasons alcoholics drink. It’s a chance to
escape, relax, or reward yourself.
Anticipate your high-risk situations and plan for them. This will help you
deal with them better. Here are some common triggers for smoking

Drinking coffee
Finishing a meal
Driving your car
Using the phone
Stressful situations
Drinking alcohol
Social events
These are some strategies for dealing with your triggers:

If you smoke with your morning coffee, plan to have your first coffee at
work where you probably can’t smoke.
If you smoke while driving, plan to take a different route. It will keep your
mind occupied, so that you won’t be on autopilot.
If you smoke after meals, plan to get up after a meal. Go for a walk, brush
your teeth, do something.
If you smoke when you’re on the phone, put one of those stress balls next
to your phone to keep your hands occupied.
Plan to keep yourself busy in the beginning. Too much unstructured time
is not a good thing when it comes to smoking cessation.
What should you do if you slip? A slip is also a high risk time. You don’t
need to slip. Many people have quit without a slip. But if you do, it’s good
to have a plan.
The most important thing you can do is avoid all or nothing thinking.
Don’t give up and let a slip turn into a major relapse.
Throw out the rest of the pack.
You’re not a failure if you slip.
The more times you try to quit, the greater your chance of success.
Learn from your experience. What you could have done differently.
Never forget your reasons for quitting in the first place.
Step 3: Stock Up on Supplies
Every smoker understands that smoking is also an oral addiction. When
you quit smoking your brain will still crave the oral sensation of a
cigarette. As part of your smoking cessation plan, stock up on oral
substitutes like gum, raw vegetables, carrot sticks, hard candy, coffee
stirrers, straws, etc.
Step 4: Pick a Quit Date
A quit date is a personal commitment. It is important because it prepares
your mind subconsciously. Pick a date within the next month. It doesn’t
have to be a special day.

Step 5: Let People Know

Quitting is easier with support. Choose people who you think will be helpful.
Tell them your plan and how they can help. Also tell them how they cannot

Friends can help distract you.

They can listen to you.

Sharing your struggles makes them lighter.

But explain that you want to keep your conversations light. Nothing serious that
will add to your tension.

Step 6: Remove All Smoking Reminders

Smoking like any addiction is triggered by people, places, and things. For
other addictions, the objects that are triggers are usually drug
paraphernalia. In this case the paraphernalia include cigarettes, matches,
lighters, and ashtrays. Get rid of all of them. Don't save anything “just in

Freshen your environment at home, work‚ and in your car. The smell of
cigarettes is definitely a trigger, especially in the beginning.

Chapter III Finall

A. Conclusion
Most people start smoking when they are in their teens. They might start because of peer
pressure from their friends, because their parents smoke, or simply because they are teenagers
and they want to push the boundaries and take risks.

Tobacco smoke contains numerous ingredients. These ingredients can be

quite potent. For example, 70 of the almost 5000 chemicals in tobacco
can cause cancer. The most dangerous compounds are tar, carbon
monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, metals, ammonia, and
radioactive compounds. One major ingredient is nicotine, the addictive
drug found in tobacco smoke.
Some effects of smoking on health i.e cancer, lung damage, heart disease,
fertility problems, vision problems, poor oral hygiene, unhealthy skin and
hair, etc.
B. Suggestion
After reading this scientific paper, hopefully the public can be aware of
the dangers of smoking to their health and immediately leave the habit of
smoking, so that their health is not disturbed and protected from
diseases that can threaten their lives.