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BODY LANGUAGE : Your Success Mantra
By : Dr. Shalini Verma
Submitted to
Constituent of Charotar University of Science and


Presented by
Vishalsinh Bharatsinh Gautam
M.B.A. SEMESTER – 1 ROLL. NO. – 09/MBA/06


I, Vishalsinh Bharatsinh Gautam, hereby declare that the
Mantra” is a result of my own work and my indebtedness
to other work publications, if any, have been duly

Place: Changa
DATE: 23/11/2009 VISHAL B.

The determination to be achievers in our respective lives definitely calls for ‘effective
speaking’ of body language. This book is help you to discover what has been researched
and to assess its practical implications and applications to make you aware of the
importance of the non verbal aspect of your conversation, the magnitude that your body
language plays in your inter personal communication. This book sets out to explain what is
known from various research findings about the skills and techniques of body language. It
examines how this knowledge is applied in a variety of context and also how it may be
applied to better effect. This is ‘self-improvement’ book designed attractively and illustrated
very beautifully.

I express my gratitude to Mr. Govind Dave for his motivation and encouragement to
undertake this relatively not so explored but highly moving area of communication which
affects all individuals’ life.


 Dr. Shalini Verma:
 M.A., Ph.D. (English)

 M.A. Human Rights, B.Ed.

 Ex-faculty, English and Communication, Birgunj Commerce Campus, Nepal.

 Visiting Faculty, English and Business Communication, North India Regional


 The Institute of Company secretaries of India, New Delhi.


1) Body Language in Inter Personal Communication:

 In this chapter author deals with the importance of the non-verbal aspect
of communication such as the different areas of body language like
gesture, posture, proxemics, kinesics nd paralinguistic etc. in the
interpersonal communication.

2) The first impression Lasts:

 This chapter teach us how to create everlasting first impression. Some

do’s and don’ts to be given serious thought to, while appearing for the job
interview or meeting someone for the first time.

3) Eye Contact:

 This chapter deals with the significance of eye contact in body language
and the types of direction of gaze. Eye contact arguably the most effective
means of non-verbal communication that we have.So you have to be
careful what you are conveying through your eyes.
4) Facial expression:

 In body language, the expressiveness of the face is second only to that of

the eyes. In this chapter we learn about different kinds of facial
expressions, including smiling, and their implications in your daily

5) Head Movements:

 This chapter explains about the different head movements such as ‘hea
nods’, ‘head cocks’, ’head bows’, ‘erected heads’ etc. and what they
actually convey. Head movements are important not only in talking but
also in listening, for if they are used properly they can help you to
communicate more easily and if they are misused they can affect
adversely your relationship with the person you are communicating with.

6) Gesture and Body Movements:

 This chapter focus on different gestures and body movements. Gestures

and Body Movements, however, permit a degree of expressiveness and
subtlety not possible with other aspects of non-verbal communication.

7) Posture and Stance;

 This chapter of the book throws light on posture and stance. As the title
suggests, this chapter deals with the role of posture and stance in body
language. This aspect of non-verbal communication was thought to be an
area more suited to treatment in manuals of business, but it is now being
taken more seriously as an aspect of behaviour, which can be fruit bearing
and useful in transmitting non verbal signals.

8) Proximity and Orientation:

 The role of proximity and orientation in body language is examined in this

chapter. Like posture, proximity and orientation can tell us a good deal
about an individual’s attitudes both to those with whom he/she is
communicating and to the nature, subject and setting of the

9) Haptics: The Touch Behaviour:

 This chapter deals with different kinds of touch. Here, the basic difference
between ‘Body Contact’ and ‘Touch’ is explained. It also throws light on
the different types of touch such as handshakes, hugs, pats etc. and their
significance in verbal communication.

10) Appearance and Physique:

 The implications of appearance and physique are discussed in this

chapter. As body language would be incomplete without the inclusion of
appearance and physique. It is explained here, how certain simple
changes to these can have significant effect upon your ability to interact
with others.

11) Body Language for sales & Marketing Executives:

 This chapter deals with the non-verbal aspects of communication and their
significance in interpersonal communication especially in negotiating,
convincing, selling products and services, giving presentation etc.

12) Importance of Timing & Synchronization in Verbal Communication:

 As per title this chapter deals with the non-verbal aspects of speech such
as deliberate or unconscious use of pauses, ‘ers’, ‘ums’, ‘ahs’, change in
tone, pitch, pace and accent etc. and their significance in your
interpersonal communication.

13) Body Language around the world:

 Impact of cultural differences in the use of body language is discussed in

this chapter. An attempt has been made here to highlight some of the
more unusual, unexpected and significant cultural differences in the use of
body language.

14) Body Language at Work:

 In this chapter author throws light on the adherence of specific body

language in specific occupations such as television interviewing, nursing,
teaching, marketing and other forms of contact with the public, and also
deals with their implications.

15) Body Language in Courtship:

 This chapter discusses about the role played by body language in

courtship. It is explained how you can use your non-verbal behaviour to
make yourself appear more attractive with better ‘self-projection’ and
‘impression management’.

16) Body Language in Rapport Building:

 This chapter considers overall role of body language in personal
development in the areas such as stage performing mass addressing,
counselling, negotiating, and other interpersonal communication.

17) Corporate Etiquette:

 Last chapter of this book is concluding chapter that explains some do’s
and don’ts while dealing with people in business meetings, social
gatherings, via electronic media etc.

1) Body Language in Interpersonal Communication:
 Body language is a language without spoken words and is therefore a non-verbal

 Non-verbal communication is everything excepts your words.

 Become more self aware of how you speak and the impact of your mode of dress
and even the way you sit and stand it all includes in body language.

 Sub-Consciousness:
 Usually body language occurs unconsciously.

 Body language is also interlinked with spoken words and whole pattern of
behaviour from a person.

 Use of Body Language:

 Body language is used especially to express feelings. For instance if we do not
like someone, it is often difficult to say that directly to the person. However, we
can make it clear either intentionally or unintentionally.

 Body language is a complex mixture of movement, postures, and tone of voice.

 Four Types of Body Language:

 Facial expressions including eye contact

 Gestures

 Postures

 Proxemics & Orientation

2) The First Impression Lasts:
 To begin is half the work. To make a good first impression is more than half the
job dealing successfully with people.

 If you want people to back you up, you have to get them behind you right from the

 We assess some aspects of other people in the first few minutes are their voice
quality, their nationality, general appearance and physique, their occupation,
where they live, and their educational and cultural background.

 Body Language Speaks Volumes:

 Up to 93% of communication is non-verbal. Including tone of voice, eye
movement, posture, hand gestures, facial expressions and more.

 The eyes communicate more than any other part of the human morphology.

 There are 50 or so different types of human smiles.

 Bodily cues are the most reliable of all nonverbal signals of deception.

 Vocal cues can predict deception.

 Space is important.

 Gestures communicate.

 Some Do’s and Dont’s During an Interview:

 Listen! Because a good listener is said to be a good communicator.

 Never ask questions too soon.

 Discuss salaries frankly. It is your privilege to get these facts when you start a

 Six Tips to Make Invaluable First Impression:

1) Make the other person like you and become interested in you immediately.

2) Start the other person off on the right back by doing or saying something that will
put the spotlight on him at once.

3) Overcome an envy or jealousy that you may momentarily feel towards another

4) Try to talk in terms of the other fellow’s interests or what he wants to listen to.

5) Seek out, especially when you know in advance that you are to meet or
associate with an important person. One way to do this is to ask a question that
you are certain the other person would enjoy answering.

6) Say something or do something that will help to make the other fellow feel at
least in one particular way.

3) Eye Contact:

 An old cliché says, “Look a person in the eye when you talk to him.” It simply
means that when you are communicating or negotiating with others, practice
“looking them in the pupil” and let the pupils tell you their real feelings.

 Most of the eye contact can be grouped into six categories.

1) Speaking information

2) Showing attention and interest

3) Inviting and controlling interaction

4) Domineering, threatening and influencing others

5) Providing feedback during speech

6) Revealing attitudes

 Eye Grammar:
 The pupils of your eyes may dilate or contract as per your attitude and mood.

 Such diversity in your response is directly associated with what we call ‘Gaze

1) Formal Gaze

2) Informal Gaze

3) Personal Gaze
4) Lateral Gaze

 Different Types of Eye Contacts:

• Too much eye contact

• Too little eye contact

• Withdrawing eye contact

4) Facial Expressions:

 We gain good information about people’s emotional state from the expressions on
their faces. Their attitude towards us can be clearly understood, according to
whether their expressions show pleasure or displeasure, interest or boredom, fear
or anger.

 The Range of Facial Expressions:

1) Facial expression showing happiness

2) Facial expression showing sadness

3) Facial expression showing displeasure

4) Facial expression showing anger

5) Facial expression showing fear

6) Facial expression showing interest

 Face and First impression :

 It is said that the most critical period in an encounter between two people is the
first five minutes. The impressions formed in this time will tend to persist and even
be reinforced by later behaviour, which will tend to be interpreted not objectively
but in the light of these first impressions.

 Talking with Your Face:

 Next to the eyes the face is the most powerful means by which we communicate

• A smile tells people we are pleased to see them.

• A frown warns them.

• A downcast look says that we are not feeling too happy.

• A raised eyebrow and a twist to the mouth shows that we are in a playful

• A head cock on one side shows that we are listening attentively.

 Face Facts:
 Different parts of the face are attended to when observers perceive different

• Fear is usually looked for in the eyes, as is sadness.

• Happiness is seen in the cheeks and the mouth as well as in the eyes.

• Surprise seen in the forehead, eyes and mouth movements.

• Anger is perceived from the appearance of the whole face and not just
from the brows and the colour of the face as many people suppose.

 Smile and Feel Better:

 Use it freely, use it often. Because smile is probably the most universally used
and the most positive facial expression.

• Smile can be used to mask other emotions.

• A smile may be a submissive response to ward off another’s attack.

• Smiling may be used to make a tense situation more comfortable.

5) Head Movements:
 The most obvious and perhaps most frequently used head movement is the nod.
It signifies agreement, affirmation or approval.

 Head movements are important not only in talking but also in listening for, if they
are not used properly they can quickly affect adversely in our relationship with
another person.

 Talking Heads:
 Indicate attitudes

 To replace speeches

 To support what is said

 They can even be used to contradict what is said

 Listening Heads:
 When we are listening to others we tend unconsciously to copy their head

 When listening in a reasonably intimate setting, to bring the head closer to

the person being listened to.

 When listening in a seated position, the head is often propped by the thumb
and the first two fingers of the hand. This is widely interpreted by speakers as
a sign of intellectual interest.

 Head Gestures:
 Head nod : It is positive gesture used in most cultures to signify, ‘yes’.

 Head shake: It is usually means ‘no’.

 Use Your Head Effectively:

 To express doubt or reluctance.

 To recognize someone.

 To express haughtiness or disdain.

 To express easygoing and casual approach

6) Gesture and Body Movements:

 Any part of body can be moved to make a special kind of gesture. This
aspect of body language is usually called kinesics.

 Gestures permit a degree of expressiveness and subtlety that is not possible

with other aspects of non-verbal communication.

 Some Common Gestures :

 Shoulder shrug

 Puffed chest

 Sucked stomach

 Crossed/Uncrossed legs

 Inviting buttocks

 Fingertip kissing

 Nose thumbing or cocking-a-snoot

 Finger crossing

 Eyelid pulling

 Nose tapping

 Thumb upping

 Hand to Face Gestures:

 The mouth guard

 Nose touching

 The eye rub

 Clenched teeth

 The ear rub

 The neck scratch

 Fingers in the mouth

 Chin stroking

 Cheek and chin gesture

7) Postures and Stance:
 There are three main kinds of posture:

• Standing

• Sitting

• Lying down

 Mind Reading through Posture:

 Positive attitudes towards others tend to be accompanied by leaning forward

 Negative or hostile attitudes are signalled by leaning backwards.

 Unsympathetic attitude can be shown by arms folded across the chest.

 Openness, accessibility and a general willingness to interact can be expressed

with arms held loosely down in the ‘palm visible’ position, by the sides of the body.

 High status can be signalled by upright posture

 Equality of status is often indicated by matching postures.

 Lower status can be shown by bowing the head, closed body positions and
holding the body to make it appear smaller than it actually is.

8) Proximity and Orientation:

 Proxemics is the study of man’s appreciation and use of space when

 Four zones in the use of space:

• From zero to one and a half feet – Intimate zone

• From one and a half to four feet – Personal zone

• From four to ten feet – social zone

• From ten feet outwards – Public zone

 Seating arrangements:
 Corner seating arrangement at social settings such as restaurants

 Zigzag seating arrangements in cafeteria to prevent too much initial closeness.

 Competitive seating arrangement

 Co-operative seating arrangement

 Orientation:
 Triangular orientation enables to establish rapport with the person being talked.

 Direct orientation enables to exert assort of nonverbal pressure.

 Orientation at right angles with one person facing directly while the other is half
turned away.

9) Haptics : The Touch Behaviour:

 Touch is probably the first of our senses to develop.

 Touching can have a powerful effect on how we react to a situation. Even if we are
touched accidentally or unintentionally, we can still be significantly affected by it.

 People are more likely to touch:

• When giving information or advice than when receiving it.

• When giving an order rather than responding to one

• When asking a favour rather than granting one

• When trying to persuade rather than being persuaded.

• When at party rather than work.

• When expressing excitement rather than listening to someone else’s


• When listening to someone else’s worries rather than expressing their own.

 Types of Touching:
 Functional/ Professional Touch.

 Social Touch.

 Genial Touch.

 Passionate Touch.

 Sexual Touch

 Shaking Hands:
 Dominance: This person is trying to dominate others.

 Submission: This person giving the control.

 Equality: The person is the same status.

 Handshake Styles:
 Aggressive Handshake.

 Politician Handshake.

 Dead fish Handshake.

 Knuckle Grinder Handshake.

 Stiff Arm Handshake.

 Fingertip Grab Handshake.

 Arm pulling handshake.

 Double-Handed Handshake.

 Self use of Hands:

 Palm rubbing

 Hair grooming

 Nape scratching

 Eye rubbing

 Chin holding.

10) Appearance and Physique:
 The size and shape of our body and the way we cover those bodies with clothing
of various kinds, exerts a considerable influence over how other people perceive
us and over how much attention they pay to us.

 Different style of clothing:

 Informally dressed

 Formally dressed

 Darker colour for the lower part and lighter one for the upper part of the body.

 You have to have style:

 Our choice of clothing tells others who we are, or at least it tells them how we
see ourselves. It identifies our uniqueness.

 Body shape and Size:

 Ectomorph: Thin and bony

 Mesomorph: Muscular

 Endomorph: Fat

 People’s Attitude Changes:

 Experimenting a little with kinds of clothing may change your entire

11) Body Language for Sales & Marketing Executives:

 Psychologists claim that the impact you make on others depends on what
you say (7%), how you say it (38%), and by what body language you say it

 Top Ten Body Language Adopted

Worldwide by Sales People:
 Eye contact is one of the most important aspects of dealing with others,
especially people we have just met.

 Posture is the next thing to master, get your posture right and you’ll
automatically start feeling better.

 Head position great one to play around with, with yourself and others. When
you want to feel confident and self assured keep your head level up.

 Arms give away the clues as to how open and receptive we are to everyone
we meet and interact with, so keep your arms out to the side of your body or
behind your back.

 Legs tend to move around a lot more than normal when we are nervous,
stressed or being deceptive. So best to keep them as still as possible
especially in interview or work meetings.

 Angle of the body in relation to others gives an indication of our attitudes and
feelings towards them.

 Hand gestures ; palms slightly up and outward is seen as open and friendly.
Palm down gestures are generally seen as dominant.

 Distance from others is crucial if you want to give off the right signal.

 Ears, play a vital role in communication with others, even though in general
terms most people can’t move them much, if at all.

 Mouth movements can give away all sorts of clues. We purse our lips and
sometimes twists them to the side when we are thinking.

12) Importance of Timing & Synchronisation in Verbal

 In any situation, the non-verbal aspects of speech include many elements, each to
be carefully understood. In deciding how to interpret these aspects, one have to take
into account the following:

• Volume of speech

• Tone of speech

• Pitch of speech

• Voice quality

• Rate of speaking

• Vocal accent

• Stress on words

• Punctuation

• Pitch

• Pauses

• Pronunciation

• Enunciation

 Supporting what is said:

 Body language is general can be used to support and give emphasis to what is said.

 Non-verbal aspects of speech can be used to support the emotion being expressed;

• Sadness

• Happiness

 Speech Errors :
 Most people find it extremely difficult even when reading from a prepared text, to
read without speech errors. Such increased error rate can be an indication of telling
lies or trying to deceive in some other way.

 Timing and synchronization:

 Time management

 Good times and bad times

 Silence and pauses

 Dovetailing in discussion

13) Body Language: Around the World.

 When body language comes to encountering with those who from other cultures it
becomes very difficult. Things can so very easily go unintentionally wrong that you
shall find it useful to consider some of the principle difficulties and some of the ways
in which they can be avoided.

 Cultural Differences:
 For example, American and British tend to be relatively restrained in their facial
expressions. Italians, however, tend to be much more volatile. The Japanese keep a
very straight face in public and use a faint smile in private.

 Business as Usual:
 Africans and Indians have general chat at the beginning of business meetings.

 Toasts are an important part of business dinners in China.

 In the USA, the punctuality and efficiency are important.

14) Body Language at Work:

 The kinds of occupations in which body language is most important are those in
which there is face-to-face communication with members of the public.

 Occupational Body Language:

 Television Interviewers

 Anchors and News readers

 Nursing

 Business People

 Teaching

 Stage Performers

 Other Occupations

 Exhibit Managerial Skills:

 Respect

 Tolerating ambiguity

 Relating to people

 Being non-judgemental

 Personalizing one’s observation

 Empathy

 Persistence

15) Body Language in Courtship:
 Men look for those characteristics in women, which differentiate them from men:

• Fuller lips

• Narrower eyebrows

• A softer complexion

• Absence of facial hair

• Large firm breasts

• A narrower waist relatively broad hips

• Long legs

 Women find attractive in men that they look for tallness, a muscular chest, broad
shoulders, and muscular biceps.

 Mark cook and Robert McHenry quote a study, which suggested the ideal face of
both sexes is;

• Oval in shape with a clear complexion

• Large eyes

• A straight nose

• A medium sized mouth

• Ears which do not protrude

• Long eyelashes

• Busy eyebrows for men and fine eyebrows for women.

 Male Courtship Gestures:

 Males normally display sprucing behaviour as female approaches. He may
also spruce himself by smoothing his hair.

 The most aggressive sexual display he can make towards the female is the
aggressive ‘thumbs-in-belt’ gesture that highlights his genital region.

 Female Courtship Gestures and Signals:
 The head toss

 Exposed Wrists

 Open legs

 Rolling Hips

 Sideways glance

 Mouth slightly open, Wet lips.

 Fondling a Cylindrical object

 Take Your Partner:

 Extended mutual gaze

 Positive facial expression

 Closer proximity

 Appealing appearance

 Speech intonation

16) Body Language In Rapport Building:

 Stars are the ones who always initiate to start to do bigger things that will
never be told by others to them. One thing common about stars is that they
are all very good at the initiation of what we called rapport building.

 Qualities of Stars:
 Speaking eyes

 Captivating facial expression

 Tossing head

 Elegant gestures

 Upright posture, Close proximity & orientation

 Diminishing bodily contact

 Great appearance

 Perfect timing and synchronization

 How to Be Attractive:
 Eye contact

 Facial expression

 Head movements

 Gestures

 Posture

 Proximity and orientation

 Bodily contact

 Appearance and physique

 Timing and synchronization

17) Corporate Etiquette:

 Etiquette is all about presenting yourself with the kind of polish that shows you can
be taken seriously. It is also about being comfortable around people.

 The Basics:
 To be courteous and thoughtful to the people around you, regardless of the

 Consider other people’s feelings.

 Address conflict as situation related rather than person related.

 Apologize when you step on someone’s toes.

 Avoid raising your voice using harsh or derogatory language towards anyone .

 It’s All About People:

 Talk with and visit people.

 Don’t differentiate by position or standing within the company.

 Make it point to arrive ten or fifteen minutes early for a meeting, introduce yourself
to the other participants.

 When you are visiting another site, linger over a cup of coffee and introduce
yourself to people nearby.

 It’s a good idea to remember what you can about people; and to be thoughtful.

 Body Language in Building Industrial relations:

 Increased eye contact will help people to like each other better.

 Friendly facial expression and smiles should help.

 Gestures need to be rather limited, though there is a role for less inhibition when
expressing emotions with everybody present can be expected to agree.

 Forward lean in posture, with some asymmetry to make the situation less formal,
will help, as will, for the same reason.

 Negotiation Styles:
 Sitting forward on a chair

 Steepling

 Drumming with the fingers

 Doodling

 Forward lean, head cock, smiling