DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

II Year/IV Semester – BE (EEE) EE2259 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY – I Manual cum Observation (As per Anna University) 2008 Regulation Academic year 2009 - 2010

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SYLLABUS
EE2259 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY - I

List of Experiments 1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately and self excited DC shunt generators. 2. Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and cumulative connection. 3. Load characteristics of DC shunt and compound motor. 4. Load characteristics of DC series motor. 5. Swinburne’s test and speed control of DC shunt motor. 6. Hopkinson’s test on DC motor – generator set. 7. Load test on single-phase transformer and three phase transformer connections. 8. Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer. 9. Sumpner’s test on transformers. 10. Separation of no-load losses in single phase transformer.

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CONTENTS

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Name of the experiment
Load test on dc shunt motor Load test on dc series motor Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited dc generator Open circuit and load characteristics of self-excited shunt generator Speed control of dc shunt motor Load test on single phase transformer Open circuit and short circuit test on A single phase transformer Swinburne’s test Load test on dc compound motor Load test on dc compound generator Hopkinson’s test Three phase transformer connections Viva voce questions-DC machines Viva voce questions-transformers

Page No. 6 10 15 22 28 32 36 44 50 55 59 65 71 79

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INDEX

S. No .

Date

Name of the experiment

Mark s

Staff Initial

Remark s

LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Model Graph: Ex. No: 5 Date: .

Torque Vs armature current 2. 3. Tabulation: 6 Radius of the brake drum = . T=Torque in Nm.6A QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 As required FORMULAE TO BE USED: 1. 4. %Efficiency Vs Power output APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. 1. T=S*R*9.N O 1. 5. Speed Vs armature current 3. APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer Connecting wires TYPE mc mc Variable Analog RANGE (0-300) V (0-20) A 350Ω /1. Speed Vs Torque 4.81 Nm S= spring force in Kg. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter. 2.C shunt motor and to obtain the following performance characteristics.LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR AIM: To perform load test on the given D. S2 = spring balance reading 2. S=S1 – S2 in Kg. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S1.

Input voltage S. 7 . Pin =Vin * Iin in watts.N Vin volts Input curre nt Iin Amps Spring balance Reading S1 Kg S2 Kg S1 – S2 Kg Speed N Torque T Input power Pin Watts Outpu t power Pout Watts Efficien cy Rpm Nm % Model Calculation: 3.

The motor is started by using three point starters. 7. 3. Percentage Efficiency η = Pout/Pin *100 PRECAUTIONS: 1. the input voltage input current. T=Torque in Nm. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position. spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated. Pout = (2∏NT) /60 in watts. output power and Efficiency and Characteristics curves were drawn. Pin =Input power in watts. RESULT: The load test on the given D. 8.C shunt motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 8 . N= Speed in rpm. Vary the load up to the rated current. PROCEDURE: 1.Vin = Voltage input in volts. Pout = output power in watts. Pour some water on brake drum. For each load setting on brake drum. calculate input power. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 4. 6. From the recorded value. 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit. 5. 2. 4. By closing the MCB. 5. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor run at rated speed. Iin =Input current in Amps.

No: 9 Date: .Load test on DC series motor Ex.

T=Torque in Nm. 4 APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter Tachometer Connecting wires TYPE mc mc Analog RANGE (0-300) V (0-20) A QUANTITY 1 1 1 As required FORMULAE USED: 1.Speed Vs armature current 4. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter. Pin =Input power in watts. Iin =Input current in Amps.LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR AIM: To perform load test on the given D. Pin =Vin * Iin in watts.81 Nm S=spring force in Kg.C series motor and to obtain the following performance characteristics. Tabulation: drum = 10 Radius of the brake . 2. 1. Speed Vs Torque 2. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S1.NO 1. S2 = spring balance reading 2. T=S*R*9. 3. Torque Vs armature current 3.Efficiency Vs Power output APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. S=S1 – S2 in Kg. Vin = Voltage input in volts. 3.

Spring balance S. NO Input voltag e Vin volts Input current Iin S1 Kg Reading S2 Kg S1 – S2 Kg Speed N Torqu e T Input power Pin Output power Pout % Effficie ncy Amps Rpm Nm Watts Watts % MODEL CALCULATION: 11 .

Brake drum should be cooled throughout the experiment. 7. The motor is get started by using two point starter. 5. Pout = output power in watts. T=Torque in Nm. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. output power and efficiency and readings are noted down and tabulated. 6. 3. input current. After taking all the observation reduce the load up to 40% of the rated current and switch off the MCB. spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated. 4. calculate input power. From the recorded value. Pout = (2∏ NT) /60 in watts. the input voltage. N= Speed in rpm. 5. 2. 2. Pour some water to the brake drum and vary the load up to the rated current and for each load setting on brake drum. The motor should be started with some load. Check whether the initial load is set up in the brake drum. 12 . PROCEDURE: 1.4. Percentage Efficiency %η = Pout/Pin *100 PRECAUTIONS: 1. By closing the MCB 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.

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C series motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn. 14 .RESULT: The load test on the given D.

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volts. i) Open circuit characteristic ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.1A 530Ω /0. 4.NO 1.Ex. V = Terminal voltage in 16 . Rheostat Tachometer Variable rheostat load DPSTS SPSTS Connecting wires variable variable Analog RANGE (0-300) V (0-20) A (0-2) A (0-10)A 350Ω /1. Eg = Generated voltage in volts.No: Date: SEPERATELY OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCITED DC GENERATOR AIM: To conduct no load and load test on the given separately excited DC shunt generator to plot the following characteristic curves. Ammeter mc mc 3. 5. 5. APPARTUS Voltmeter TYPE mc mc 2. 7. 6.8A QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 As required FORMULAE TO BE USED: 1. Eg = V + Ia Ra in volts.

ohms. Ra= Armature resistance in TABULATION: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: S.NO.NO Load voltage Va Volts Load current IL Amps Field current IF Amps Ia=IL Amps Eg = V + I a R a Volts 17 .Ia =Armature current in Amps. Field current Amps Output voltage at no load volts LOAD TEST: S.

Pout = Output power in watts. Verify whether field rheostats of the generator are kept at maximum position and field rheostat of motor at minimum position. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: • • • • • The connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Where. IL= Line current in Amps. Armature current Ia = IL in Amps. Ish = Shunt field current in Amps. Input power = Vin * Iin in watts. Adjusting the excitation of field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor to run at rated speed. Give 230V DC supply to the connected circuit by closing MCB. 18 . The ammeter and voltmeter reading of the generator are noted when SPSTS switch is open. % of Efficiency η =Pout/ Pin * 100 Where. Pin = Input power in watts. Iin = Input current in Amps. Precautions: • • There should be no load at the time of starting. 4. Where. Vin = Input voltage in volts.2. 3.

To Find Ra: TO FIND Ra: Voltage S.NO (Va) Volts Current (Ia) Amps Ra=Va/Ia Ohms 19 .• Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated value and the corresponding field current. induced emf are noted.

Gradually vary the rectifier unit knob for the corresponding settings note down the voltmeter. From the tabulated value calculate the armature resistance for each settings. TO FIND Ra: • • • Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.LOAD TEST: • • Fix the armature voltage of the generator to the rated voltage by adjusting the field rheostat of the generator. ammeter readings. • After the reading are noted the load to its initial position and the switch of the motor. i) Open circuit characteristic the following characteristic 20 . Close the DPSTS at the load side of the generator by step by step note down the corresponding readings of terminal voltage. and shunt field current up to its rated current. load current. RESULT: Thus the no load and load test on the given separately excited DC shunt generator were conducted to plot curves.

ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-EXCITED SHUNT GENERATOR CIRCUIT DIAGARM 21 .

8A 5 KW QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 As required FORMULAE TO BE USED: 22 . 5.N O 1. 6. 5.Ex. Ammeter mc mc 3.1A 530Ω /0. 4.No: Date: OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR AIM: To conduct no load and load test on the given self excited DC shunt generator to plot the following characteristic curves i) Open circuit characteristic iii) External characteristics ii) Internal characteristics APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. 7. APPARATUS Voltmeter TYPE mc mc 2. Rheostat Tachometer Variable rheostatic load DPSTS SPSTS Connecting wires variable variable Analog variable RANGE (0-300) V (0-20) A (0-2) A (0-10)A 350Ω /1.

NO V Volts Load current IL Amps Field current Ish Amps Ia=IL+Ish Amps Eg=Va+IaRa Volts 23 . Eg = Generated voltage in volts. TABULATION: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Ra= Armature resistance in ohms. Field current Amps Output voltage at no load volts LOAD TEST: Load voltage S.NO. Eg = V + IaRa in volts. Ia =Armature current in Amps. S.1. V = Terminal voltage in volts.

PRECAUTIONS:  There should be no load at the time of starting. The ammeter and voltmeter reading of the generator are noted when SPSTS switch is open. 3. Vin = Input voltage in volts. Armature current Ia = IL + Ish in Amps. Verify whether field rheostats of the generator are kept at maximum position and field rheostat of motor at minimum position.  Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: • • • • • The connections are given as per the circuit diagram. % of Efficiency η =Pout/ Pin * 100 Where. Where. Iin = Input current in Amps. Pout = Output power in watts. Input power = Vin * Iin in watts. Adjusting the excitation of field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor to run at rated speed. 24 . Pin = Input power in watts. IL= Line current in Amps. Give 230V DC supply to the connected circuit by closing MCB. Ish = Shunt field current in Amps. Where.2. 4.

induced emf are noted. To Find Ra: TO FIND Ra: Voltage S.NO (Va) Volts Current (Ia) Amps Ra=Va/Ia Ohms 25 .• Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated value and the corresponding field current.

Gradually vary the loading rheostat knob for the corresponding settings note down the voltmeter. and shunt field current up to its rated current.LOAD TEST: • • Fix the armature voltage of the generator to the rated voltage by adjusting the field rheostat of the generator. i) Open circuit characteristic 26 . Close the DPSTS at the load side of the generator by step by step note down the corresponding readings of terminal voltage. From the tabulated value calculate the armature resistance for each setting. ammeter readings. TO FIND Ra: • • Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. • RESULT: Thus the no load and load test on the given self excited DC shunt generator were conducted to plot the following characteristic curves. load current. • After the reading are noted the load to its initial position and the switch off the motor.

ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR NAME PLATE DETAILS MODEL GRAPH: 27 .

3. start the motor. Using three-point starter. Field control method Date: APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.N O 1. 5. 28 . Armature control method 2. Switch on the 230V DC supply by closing the MCB. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 4.No: SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR AIM: To control the speed of the given DC shunt motor by. 2.Ex. 3. APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer Connecting wires TYPE mc mc mc variable Analog RANGE (0-300) V (0-2) A (0-5) A 350Ω /1. 1.1A 50Ω /5A QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 As required PROCEDURE: 1. 3. 2.

Vary the rheostat connected in armature circuit for each setting. NO If1 = Va (v) amps N (rpm) 29 If2 = Va (v) amps N (rpm) . Note the corresponding armature voltage. From the recorded voltage values draw the graph between speed and armature voltage. NO Va1 = If (A) volts N (rpm) Va2 = If (A) volts N (rpm) ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD: S. Keep the field current constant by adjusting the field rheostat connected in field Circuit. TABULATION: FIELD CONTROL METHOD: S. 3. 2. armature current and tabulate it.Armature control method (Below rated speed) 1.

2.Field control method: 1. For field control method. From the recorded value draw the graph between speed and field current. 30 . keep the armature voltage constant by adjusting the rheostat connected in armature circuit. Vary the rheostat connected in the field circuit and for each settings note the corresponding field current and speed and tabulate it. 3.

Armature control method 2. 1.RESULT: Thus the speed of the given DC shunt motor was achieved by. Field control method CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Load test on Single phase transformer 31 .

Model Graph: Ex. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: 32 .

Note the readings from all meters on no load. 3. TABULATION: 33 . 3. By closing MCB. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram. 230v single phase. 2. 2. 5. 4. Precautions:  Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point  There should be no load at the time of starting the experiment PROCEDURE: 1. APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Transformer Connecting wires RANGE (0-300) V (0-5) A 300V/5A 1KVA/230V TYPE MI MI UPF QUANTIT Y 2 2 2 1 As required FORMULAE TO BE USED: Percentage efficiency η = (Output power/Input power) *100 Percentage Regulation =(V02 –V2)/ V02 * 100 Where. V2 = Secondary voltage on load.N O 1. 50Hz ac supply is given to the transformer. V02 =Secondary voltage on no load.To conduct the load test on single-phase transformer and to draw the characteristics curves. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.

Primary S. up to the rated primary current and the corresponding readings are noted. Now load is applied to the transformer in step by step. 34 . NO Volts Voltage Primary current Amps Secondary Voltage Secondar y current Amps Input power Output power % Effici ency % % Regula tion % Volts Watts Watts MODEL CALCULATION: 4.

RESULT: Thus the load test on single-phase transformer was conducted and characteristics curves were drawn. From the recorded values calculate the percentage efficiency and percentage regulation and draw the required graph. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 35 .5.

(V0) volts No load current (I0) Amps No load power (W0) Watts Ex.Open circuit test on Single phase transformer TABULATION: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Open circuit primary Voltage S.NO.No: OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON 36 Date: .

240 V QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 As required 2. 2. 5.10A. ITEM Voltmeter TYPE MI RANGE (0-150)V (0-300)V (0-2)A (0-5)A 300v/5A 75v/5A 2. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. 4.A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: 1. Ammeter MI UPF LPF - 3.7kva.N O 1. cos Φ 0 = (W0 / I0 V0 ) W0 = Real power consumed V0 = Primary no load voltage in volts I0 =No load primary current Φ 0 =Phase angle at no load Short circuit test on Single phase transformer 37 . To calculate the equivalent circuit parameter by conducting open circuit and short circuit test on single-phase transformer. 0 watts. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of the given transformer from equivalent circuit parameter. W0 = I0 V0 cos Φ Where. Wattmeter Auto transformer Connecting wires FORMULAE TO BE USED: Open circuit test: 1.

TABULATION: SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: Short circuit voltage S.NO. Magnetizing current Im = I0 sinΦ 0 38 . Vsc Volts Short circuit current Isc Amps Short circuit power Wsc Watts 2.

Efficiency: 1. No load reactance 4. Output power =(x *kva* cosΦ ) 3. V20 = Open circuit voltage at secondary .Assumed power factor Wsc=Short circuit wattmeter reading (cu loss) W0=Open circuit wattmeter reading (Iron loss) Regulation: % Regulation = xIsc(R02 cosΦ + X02sinΦ )/V20 Where. R02=k*R01 .Assumed fraction of load Kva-Rating of the transformer cosΦ . R01=Wsc/Isc2 Ω X02=k2X01. Isc =Short circuit current in Amps. Vsc =Short-circuiting voltage in volts.Loss compensating current 3. Total loss = copper loss + iron loss X . X01=√Z012-R012 Z02=k2Z01 Where. Z01=Vsc/Isc Ω .= for leading load + = for lagging load . No load resistance Iw = I0cos Φ 0 X0 = V1/ Im R0 = V1/Iw Short circuit test: 1. 2. Efficiency = Output power/input power =Output power/(Output power + total losses) 2. 39 .

8PF Watts % Efficiency UPF % 0.N O.8PF % Watts PRECAUTIONS: 40 .8PF Watts Input power UPF Watt s 0. Cu loss Watt s Load x % Total loss = W0+x2Wsc Watts Output power UPF Watt s 0.TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY: Iron loss S.

By closing the DPSTS the rated voltage at normal frequency is impressed across the primary winding. PROCEDURE: Open circuit test: 1. 4. 2. HV winding must be open circuited and LV winding must be supplied with its rated voltage by using single-phase Transformer. voltmeter and wattmeter readings are noted and tabulated. The ammeter. To conduct the short circuit test. 41 .phase auto transformer. By closing MCB. Short circuit test: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. the supply is given to the transformer and the rated current is applied to the primary winding. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point. To conduct open circuit test. 2. 3. the HV winding must be shorted and the rated current must be allowed to flow in the primary winding using single.

TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE REGULATION: Powe r S.00 Laggin g Leadin g 50% of load x = 0. Facto r cosΦ 125% of load x =1.5 Laggin g Leadin g 25% of load x = 0. NO.25 Laggin g Leadin g 100% of load x = 1.25 Laggin g Leadin g 42 .

RESULT: Thus the equivalent circuit parameter was calculated by conducting open circuit and short circuit test on single-phase transformer. 43 . And also the efficiency and regulation of the given transformer from equivalent circuit parameter was predetermined.

SWINBURNE’S TEST CIRCUIT DIAGRAM MODEL GRAPH: 44 .

Rheostat Tachometer Connecting wires FORMULA TO BE USED: FOR MOTOR: Input Power. APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter TYPE MC MC MC Wire wound Digital RANGE (0-300) V (0-2) A (0-15) A 350Ώ/1.NO 1. 4. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. Wc Output Power.Ia Copper loss. 2. No: SWINBURNE’S TEST AIM: Date: To conduct Swinburne’s test on dc shunt motor and to predetermine efficiency while machine is running as a motor and generator. Po % Efficiency = VLIL (watts) = IL – IF (amps) = Ia2Ra (watts) = Wc + Wcu (watts) = ILVL .Ia2Ra (watts) = Pin – PL (watts) = output power (Po)/ Input power (Pi)*100 TABULATION TO FIND OUT CONSTANT LOSS (Wco) 45 .Ex. PL Constant losses. 5. Pi Armature current. Wcu Total losses.1A QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 As required 3.

Noload current S.NO of load (x) Watts FOR GENERATOR: 46 .Iao2 Watts TABULATION TO FIND OUT THE EFFICIENCY RUNNING AS MOTOR Armature Resistance (Ra) (Ir)= Constant loss Terminal Voltage Load curren t IL= x*Ir Amps = Rated current Field current (If)= (Wco) = (V) = Armatur e loss Wcu=Ia2Ra Amps Total loss Wt Watt s Armatur e current Ia =IL+If Amps Input power Wi=VI L Output power Wo=Wi -Wt Watts Efficienc y η= Wo/Wi % Fraction S.NO (Io) Amps Field Current (If) Amps Terminal Voltage (V) Volts No load Armature current (Iao) Volts Constant Loss Wco=VIo.

Input Power, PO Armature current,Ia Copper loss, Wcu Total losses, PL Constant losses, Wc Input Power, Pi % Efficiency

= VLIL (watts) = IL + IF (amps) = Ia2Ra (watts) = Wc + Wcu (watts) = ILVL - Ia2Ra (watts) = Po + PL (watts)

= output power (Po)/ Input power (Pi)*100

PROCEDURE:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. By using three-point starter the motor is started to run The motor is switched off using the DPST switch After that the armature resistance test is conducted as

at the rated speed.

per the circuit diagram and the voltage and current are noted for various resistive loads. 5. After the observation of reading the load is released gradually.

RUNNING AS GENERATOR
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Armature Resistance (Ra) Constant loss Terminal Voltage

=

Rated current (Ir)= Field current (If)=

(Wco) = (V) =

Fraction S.NO of load (x)

Load curren t IL= x*Ir Amps

Armatur e current Ia =IL+If Amps

Armatur e loss Wcu=Ia2Ra Amps

Total loss Wt Watt s

Output power Wo=VIL Watts

Input power Wi=Wo+ Wt Watts

Efficienc y η= Wo/Wi %

PRECAUTIONS: 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position. 2. The motor should be run in anti clockwise direction. 3. The motor should be at no load condition throughout the experiment.

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RESULT: Thus the efficiency on DC shunt motor was predetermined by conducting Swinburne’s test while machine is running as a motor and generator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Load test on DC compound motor

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MODEL GRAPH

Ex. No:

Date:

LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR AIM:
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N O 1.1A QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 Few FORMULAE TO BE USED: 1.To conduct the load test on the given DC Compound motor and to draw the following characteristics curves. T=Torque in Nm. 2. 3. APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer Connecting wires TYPE mc mc variable Analog RANGE (0-300) V (0-20) A 350Ω /1. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S1.Speed Vs armature current APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.N o Input voltage Input curre nt Spring balance Reading Speed N Torque Input power Outpu t Efficien cy 51 . S=S1 – S2 in Kg. T=S*R*9. 5. 1. S2 = spring balance reading 2. Tabulation: Radius of the brake drum = S. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter.Torque Vs armature current 2. 4.81 Nm S=spring force in Kg.

52 . Vin = Voltage input in volts.Vin Iin S1 T S2 Kg S1 – S2 Kg Rpm Nm Pin powe r Pout volts Amps Kg Watts Watts % M0del Calculation: 3. Pin =Input power in watts. Pin =Vin * Iin in watts. Iin =Input current in Amps.

By closing the MCB 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit. PRECAUTIONS: 1. calculate input power. 4. Vary the load up to the rated current. Repeat the same procedure for differential mode. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Pout = output power in watts. 6. N= Speed in rpm. spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated. Percentage Efficiency %η = (Pout/Pin) *100 PROCEDURE: 1. the input voltage. T=Torque in Nm. 3. 8. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor run at rated speed. 5. output power and efficiency and characteristics curves were drawn. From the recorded value. 2. 5.4. input current. 7. Pout = (2∏ NT) /60 in watts. The motor is started by using four point starters. For each load setting on brake drum. 9. 53 . Pour some water on break drum.

2. RESULT: The load test on the given D. the motor should be in no load condition.C compound motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn. 54 . At the time of starting.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Load test on DC compound generator MODEL GRAPH: 55 .

2. 3 . Name of the apparatus Ammeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer Variable Resistive Load Type mc mc Wire wound Wire wound Digital Range (0-20A) (0-300)V 300Ω . The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum position. 4.Ex. The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum position. The prime mover is started with the help of the three-point starter and it is made to run at rated speed when the generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch. PROCEDURE: 1. The circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram.1.2A 5kw Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRECAUTION: 1. The machine should be run at its rated speed throughout the experiment.1.NO 1. 2. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND GENERATOR AIM: To conduct the load test on a given DC compound generator and to draw the characteristics curves. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. the generator should be in no load condition. 2. At the time of starting. 6.4.7A 500Ω . 56 . 3. 5.

no Load voltage (volts) Load current (amps) Cumulative compound Load voltage (volts) Load current (amps) 57 .TABULATION: Differential compound S.

The ammeter and voltmeter readings are tabulated at no load condition. 58 . By varying the generator field rheostat gradually. 7. 6. 4. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed for different loads up to the rated current by closing the DPST switch. RESULT: Thus the load test on a DC compound generator was conducted and its characteristics curves were drawn. The prime mover is switched off using the DPST Switch after bringing all the rheostat to initial position.3. the load is brought in its initial position. the rated voltage (Eg) is obtained. After tabulating all the readings. GRAPH: The graph is drawn between load voltage Vs load current. 5.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Hopkinson’s Test NAME PLATE DETAILS 59 .

8A 770Ω/0.No : HOPKINSON’S TEST AIM: Date: To conduct Hopkinson’s test to find stray losses and hence to calculate the efficiency of the machines as a motor and generator. Total input power = VL . Total losses for motor and generator is 60 .6A TYPE MC MC MC variable variable Digital QTY 3 2 2 1 1 1 As required FORMULAE USED.Ex. VL . For stray loss 1. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. IL Where.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 APPARATUS Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer Connecting wires RANGE (0-10A) (0-1A) (0-300V) 270Ω/0.Line voltage in volts IL – Line current in Amps 2.

VL+Ia2m.Ifg Watts VL.Ra +Ifm.= Ia2g.Ra +Ifg.No IL Amps PL Pag Watts Watts Pam Watts VL.Ifm Watts Ws Watts 61 .VL +Stray loss TABULATION: S.No VL Volts IL Amps Iag Amps Ifg Amps Iam Amps Ifm Amps Calculation of stray loss: S.

Where. Input power = Output power + Total losses = Pin 5.Ra .VL) / 2 For efficiency as a motor 1. Total losses = (Iag + Ifm)2.VL-Ia2m.Ra 4.Generator armature Cu loss Ifg.Ra -Ifg.Ra -Ifm. VL – Generator field current loss Ia2m.Iag = Pout 2. Output power of generator = VL.Ifm +Wc For efficiency as a generator 1. Generator field current loss = Ifg. With SPST switch is open condition supply is given by closing DPST switch. IL . VL – Motor field current loss 3. % Efficiency = (Pout / Pin) * 100 PROCEDURE: 1. VL 3. 62 . Input power to motor = VL(IL+Ifm+Iag) Ifm – Motor field current Iag _ Generator armature current 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Stray loss of each machine = (VL .Ra + VL.Ra .Motor armature Cu loss Ifm.Ia2g. Generator armature Cu loss = Ia2g. Ia2g. 2.

Determination of Efficiency as a motor: S. The SPSTS is closed when voltmeter connected across reads zero.No Ia amps Ws watts Pog watts Pcu watts Pfg watts Ping watts %η % 63 . Motor is started using four point starter and speed is brought rated value by adjusting motor field rheostat.No Pinm watts Ws watts Pcu watts Pfm watts Pom watts %η % Determination of Efficiency as a Generator: S.3. The voltmeter reads double the rated value when polarity of motor and generator are inter changed. 4.

RESULT: Thus Hopkinson’s test on given DC machines were conducted and efficiency are predetermined and the characteristics were drawn for generator and motor.5. 64 . From the observed readings. 6. Now the field excitation of the generator is varied and all the meter readings are noted. the losses of each machine is calculated and tabulated.

65 .

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. Star connection: Line Current= Phase current Line voltage = Phase Voltage * √3 2.Ex. Apparatus Voltmeter Voltmeter Auto Transformer SPST Switch Type MI MI 3 phase Range (0-600)V (0-300)V 415/0-470 V Quantity 3 2 1 1 FORMULAE TO BE USED: 1.NO 1. 3 4. No: Date: THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS AIM: To study about the different three phase connections of three phase transformers. Delta Connection: Line Current= Phase current * √3 Line voltage = Phase Voltage 3. Transformation Ratio K= V2 / V1 66 . 2.

67 .

68 .

69 .

N o Primar y Secondar y Primary voltage Vph Volt s Vline Volt s Voltage ratio(V 1) Vph/ Vline Secondary voltage Vph Volt s Vline Volt s Voltage ratio(V 2) Vph/ Vline Transfor matiom ratio(K) = V2/V1 1 2 3 4 MODEL CALCULATION: 70 .TABULATION: Type of connection S.

The auto transformer is adjusted to apply the rated primary voltage of the transformer. 3. 2. PROCEDURE: 1. The circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. phase current. line voltage and line current are noted down for both the sides of transformer. The phase voltage. of three phase 71 . Three ideal single phase transformers should be used for this study purpose if a single unit of three phase transformer is not available.PRECAUTION: 1. 4. For Delta connections and star connected circuits their constraints are verified respectively. 2. High voltage and low voltage sides of the transformer should be properly used. RESULT: Thus the different three phase connections transformers were studied.

pole core and pole shoes pole coil or field coils armature windings or conductors armature coils commutator Brushes and bearing. it experiences a force whose direction is given by Fleming’s left hand rule and the magnitude is given by F= BIL Newton. Alternators 3. d. The different parts of dc generator are a. 72 . Transformers (a) Single phase (b) three phase 2. c. Induction motor (a) Single phase (b) three phase 2. Mention the different parts of a d.VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS DC MACHINES 1. Synchronous motor 4. Magnetic frame (or) yoke.c generator. 3. f. b. State the principle of operation of dc motor? An electric motor is a machine which converts electric energy into mechanical energy. Types of DC machines 1. The motor action is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. What are all the types of electrical machines? Electrical machines are classified as AC machines and DC machines. DC Motor Types of AC machines 1. g. DC Generator 2. e.

the power developed P = Ta × 2 π N watts ⇒ 1. Due to that an emf is induced in the armature and the direction is found to be opposite to that of the supply this is known as back emf.is the flux per pole in wb Z.Where. Eb = φZN (P/A) volts. Write the emf equation of DC generator explaining all terms? Generator emf. Eg = φ ZNP 60 A volts Where φ . At that time armature conductors also rotates and hence cuts the flux. .is the no of poles A. The electrical energy is converted into mechanical power in the armature P= EbIa watts Equation 1) and 2) we get T a = 0. the motor starts rotating. What is the number of parallel Paths in each case? Type of winding • lap winding • wave winding No of parallel paths A= P for lap winding A= 2 for wave winding 5. 73 ⇒ 2.is the speed of armature is rpm P.159 φZ Ia (P/A) N-m .is the total number of armature conductors N. If Ta is in N-m. What is back emf? If the voltage is applied and current is passing in the armature. 6. Obtain an expression for armature torque? Let Ta be the torque developed by the armature of a motor running at N rpm.is the number of parallel paths 7. Mention the two types of armature winding.4.

What are the use of inter poles in a DC machines? The uses of inter poles in a DC machines are i) The commutating or reversing emf generated in the interpoles neutralizes the reactance emf and there by making commutation sparkles ii) It neutralizes the cross-magnetizing effect of armature reaction. Hence brushes are not to be shifted from the original position. The brief period during which coil remains short circuited is known as commutation period Tc 10. What is armature reaction? What are its effects? Armature reaction is the effect of magnetic field set up by armature current on the distribution of flux under main poles of a generator The armature magnetic field has two effects i) it demagnetizes or weakens the main flux and ii) it cross magnetizes or distorts the main field flux. What is commutation? The process by which current in the short circuits is reversed while it crosses the MNA is called commutation. 9. Mention the methods of improved commutation? The methods of improving commutation are Resistance commutation EMF commutation Interpoles or compoles 12. What is meant by excitation of a dc machines and what are the methods of excitation? Excitation means giving supply to the field winding to establish flux in the poles and to help the generator to produce an emf in the armature conductors The field winding may be excited in the following two methods i) ii) separately excited self excited 74 .8. 11.

13. Give the types of compound generators? The three types of compound generator i) under compound ii) flat compound iii) Over compounded. On what operating factor does the speed of a DC motor depend? i) ii) iii) N= Speed 60 Eb A ΦZP volts. How are armature windings classified based on the placement of the coil inside the armature slots? • Single layer winding and 75 . 14. Variable voltage Method 17. Armature control Methods 3. 16. What are the characteristics of DC generator? The characteristics of DC generator are no load or saturation characteristics( Ea/ If) internal characteristics(E/If) external characteristics( V/If) 15. What are the different methods of speed control in a dc motor? 1. E N∞ b Φ Where Eb is back emf and ф is flux per pole. How do you reverse the direction of a dc motor? Either the direction of the main field or the direction of current through the armature conductors is to be reversed to reverse the direction of a dc motor 18. Field Control Methods 2.

series motors and compound motors.3 = 244.• Double layer winding 19. Why is commutator employed in d.m.375V 22. Find the armature current and the back e. IL =20A Ra=0. A 250V.3Ω. dc shunt motor takes a line current of 20A.c machines? • Conduct electricity between armature and fixed brushes 76 . Draw the Speed versus armature current curves for the dc shunt and series motors? 20. R sh =200Ω I L =Ia +Ish Ish = = V R sh 250 = 1.25 A 200 Ia = I L − Ish = 20 − 1. Sketch the speed –torque characteristics of dc shunt. Resistance of shunt field winding is 200Ω and resistance of the armature is 0.75 X 0.f? V=250V.75 A V = Eb + I a R a Eb = V − Ia R a = 250 − 18. 21.25 = 18.3 Ω.

24. Enumerate the factors on which the speed of a dc motor depends. chemical fumes etc . Motors on the other hand .• Converts altenating emf into unidirectional emf and vice versa 23. dampness. the motor frames are made either partly closed or totally closed or flame proof etc.c motor differ from d. 26.c generator in Generators are normally placed in closed room . Distinguish between shunt and series field coil constructions. 25. accessible only to skilled operators. What is the function of a no-voltage release coil provided in a dc motor starter? As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current through the NVR coil produce enough magnetic force of attraction and retain the starter handle in the ON position against spring force. Flux in the air gap Resistance of the armature circuit Voltage applied to the armature • • • 27. Thus a no-voltage or under voltage protections given to the motor. How can one differentiate between long shunt compound generator and short shunt compound generator? 77 . have to be installed right in the place of use which may have dust. When the supply voltage fails or becomes lower than a prescribed value the electromagnet may not have enough force and the handle will come back to OFF position due to spring force automatically. Therefore on ventilation point of view they may be constructed with large opening in the frame. How does construction? a d. To protect the motors against these elements . Series field coils are wound with wires of larger cross section and have less number of turns.inflammable gases. Shunt field coils are wound with wires of small cross section and have more number of turns. N = (V-IaRa)/ • The speed of dc motor depends on three factors.

What is the basic difference between dc generator and dc motor Generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Separately excited 2. Self excited Self excited generator are further classified as 1. 29. What are the conditions to be fulfilled for a dc shunt generator to build up emf? • • The generator should have residual flux The field winding should be connected in such a manner that the flux set up by the field winding should be in the same direction as that of residual flux The field circuit resistance should be less than critical field resistance Load circuit resistance should be above its critical load resistance • • . Dynamically induced emf 2. Emf due to this residual flux is available when field current is zero.30. What are the types of induced emf’s? 1. Statically induced emf 32 Name the different types of dc generators? 1.e. But there is no constructional difference between the two. dc shunt generator 78 . Why is the emf not zero when the field current is reduced to zero in a dc generator ? Even after the field current/magnetizing force is reduced to zero the machine is left out with some flux as residue.In a short shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is shorter i. Motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. across the armature terminals. In a long shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is connected across the load terminals. 28. 31.

2. Speed becomes dangerously high. dc series generator 3. But when a load current falls and hence Ia falls to a small value. 79 . It will draw a very large current because armature resistance is very small (Ia=V/Ra). Why a dc series motor should always be started with load? When load is heavy. only no load input power. It is convenient and econ because power required to test a large machine is small ie. Hence speed is low. For a series generator. What are the merits and demerits of swimburnes test to predetermine the efficiency of a dc machine? Merits: 1. which is not true case as they change from no load to full load. Demerits: 1. the resistance of external circuit should be less than the critical resistance. (N ά 1/ Ф). This excessive current will damage the commentator and brushes. Ia is large and Ф is high. In this motor. 2. 35. 36. 3. Due to armature reaction at full load there will be distribution in flux which increase the iron loss. Some residual magnetism in the field system in proper direction 2. The main function of starter is to limit the starting current drawn by the motor. What are the necessary conditions for the generator to be self excited? 1. Why a starter is necessary for a dc motor? We know Ia=V-Eb/Ra when the motor is at rest. the iron losses are assumed to be constant. If now full supply voltage is applied across the stationary armature. Hence a series motor should never be without some mechanical load on it. The residual flux and flux produced by the shunt field winding must aid each other. dc compound generator 33. 34. To reduce this high starting current starter is necessary. there is no back emf (Eb=0) developed in the armature.. The efficiency can be predetermine at any load because constant losses are known.2.

This core is square or rectangle in shape. 2.TRANSFORMERS 1. iii) Leakage flux is zero i. without any change in the frequency. 3. What are the advantages of a transformer? i) Less I2R loss in the transmission line ii) Less voltage drop in the line iii) Efficiency of the transmission line is increased iv) Volume of the conductor required is less. What are the important parts of a transformer? Transformer consists of two winding and laminated magnetic core.e 100% flux produced by primary links with the secondary iv) Permeability of core is so high that negligible current is required to establish the flues is it. What is meant by a transformer? The transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which electrical power is transformed from one alternating current circuit to another with desired change in voltage and current. What are the properties of ideal transformer? i) It has no loss ii) Its windings have zero resistance. It consists of limb and yoke 80 . It works on the principle of mutual induction. 4.

Why the transformer is called as the constant flux machine? For any load condition from no load to full load the flux in the core is practically constant. The two windings are i)primary winding ii)secondary winding 5. because the load component current always neutralizes the changes in the load. Such a flux is called leakage flux. Write the expression for equivalent resistance and reactance of transformer referred to primary. The entire flux produced by the primary of the transformer does not link with the secondary winding. Define voltage regulation of a transformer. Hence core loss is also constant for all loads and the transformer is called constant flux machine. 7. % voltage regulation= Where E 2 − V2 ×100 E2 E2 = secondary terminal voltage on no load V2= secondary terminal voltage on given load 81 . E2 = E1 N1 N2 =K 6. Define leakage flux. Define voltage transformation ratio? The ratio of secondary induced emf to primary induced emf is called as voltage transformation ratio denoted as K. A part of the primary flux as well as secondary flux complete the path through air and links with the respective flux only.This core was laminated to reduce the eddy current losses. The decrease in secondary terminal voltage expressed as a fraction of the no load secondary terminal voltage is called voltage regulation of a transformer. Equivalent resistance Ro1 = R1 + R21 = R1 + R2/K2 Equivalent reactance Xo1 = X1 + X11 = X1 + X2/K2 9. Give the expression for the same. 8..

82 . It is also called power component of no load current. 13. 16. it undergoes a cycle of magnetization and demagnetization. The magnetizing component of no load current is the one. which is required to produce the flux. What is meant by core or iron losses? Core or iron losses are caused as the core gets subjected to an alternating flux. The copper loss is found from the short circuit test. What are the methods to reduce the iron losses in a transformer? The iron losses are minimized by using high grade core material like silicon steel having very low hysteresis loop and by manufacturing the core in the form of laminations. which supplied total losses under no load condition. What is meant by copper loss? The copper losses are the power wasted in the form of I 2R due to the ohmic resistances of the primary and secondary windings. What is meant by active or working or iron loss component and magnetizing component? An active component is the one. It is also called wattless component. What is meant by eddy current loss? The induced emf in the core set up. What are the losses occurring in a transformer? i) Core or iron losses or constant losses ii) Copper losses or variable losses 11. Due to hysteresis effect there is loss of energy in this process which is called hysteresis loss. What is meant by hysteresis losses? Due to alternating flux set up in the magnetic core of the transformer. 15.eddy currents in the core and hence the power loss due to the flow of this eddy current is known as eddy current loss 14. 12.10.

All day efficiency = output .17. What are the advantages of transformer test? 1. Why the transformer rating in KVA? 83 . without actually loading the transformer. 21. The parameter can be obtained without actually loading the transformer. what is meant by equivalent circuit and exciting circuit? Equivalent circuit: The term equivalent circuit of a transformer means the combination of fixed and variable resistance and reactance.kw h (for 24 hrs) 18.in . What is the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer also Define all day efficiency? The condition to achieve maximum efficiency is Copper loss = iron loss i. Exciting circuit: The equivalent circuit of a transformer on no load consisting of R0&X0 in parallel. e Pcu = Pi All day efficiency is the ratio energy (in kwh) delivered in a 24 hours period to the energy (in kwh) input for the same length of time. which exactly simulates performance and working of the transformer. This parallel combination is called as exciting circuit. η= output input power in kw power in kw 22. Why the OC and SC tests are to be performed in transformer? The equivalent circuit parameters of a transformer can be determined by conducting the open circuit test (OC) and short circuit (SC) test.in . 19.kw h input . 20. The parameters thus determined are effective in determining the regulation and efficiency of a transformer at any load and power factor condition. The test can be performed and results obtained without much power loss. Define efficiency of a transformer? The efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of the output power(kw) to the input power(kw). 2.

it is independent of power factor. 23.e.The copper loss of a transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage. total transformer loss depends on volt-ampere (VA) and not on phase angle between voltage and current i. Hence. What are the two main components of primary current (Io)? i) Active or core loss component or wattful component (Ic) ii) Reactive or magnetizing component or wattless component (Im) 84 . So that the rating of transformer is in KVA.

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