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USES OF SULPHURIC ACID
Hafiz Akmal 2 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry
2H2SO4 (l) + Ca3(PO4)2 (s)
Ca(H2PO4)2 (l) + 2CaSO4 (s)
Figure 1:- Uses of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4
Hafiz Akmal 3 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry
2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)
K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O (l)
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)
MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID
The manufacture of sulphuric acid in industry is through the contact process. • The raw materials used to manufacture the acid are sulphur, air and water. • The acid is produced in 3 stages:•
Hafiz Akmal 4 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry
STAGE 1: THE PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE
a) This can be obtained through two methods:a) Heating liquid sulphur with hot air in a furnace. S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) b) Heating sulphides in air, for example: 4FeS2 (s) + 11O2 (g)2Fe2O3 (s) + 8SO2 (g)
[Fe2O3 is reduced to iron with coke] Zinc pyrites can also be heated in air as follows: 2ZnO (s) + 3O2 (g) 2SO2 (g) + 2ZnO (s) STAGE 2: FORMATION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDE a) Pure.550˚C and a .Hafiz Akmal 5 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry SO2 is a side-product in the extraction of the metal. dry sulphur dioxide is mixed with dry oxygen in excess and passed over vanadium(V) oxide. iron. V2O5 as catalyst at a temperature of 450˚C .
c) Excess air is used to ensure higher percentage of SO3 produced. . STAGE 3: FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACID a) The sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product called oleum.Hafiz Akmal 6 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry pressure of 1 atmosphere. The conditions ensure the maximum production of sulphur trioxide: 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) b)The reaction takes place in a heat converter.
oleum will not show any property of an acid. c) Water is then added to the oleum to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. This is carried out until the concentrated sulphuric acid has reached a concentration of 99. This mist is corrosive and pollutes the air. SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) H2S2O7 (l) b)The product. oleum will ‘not ionise’ without the presence of water. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq) e) However. This is because the reaction is too vigorous. 1 atm . CONTACT PROCESS: Water Concentrated H2SO4 O2 .5%. 450˚C. this reaction is not carried out in industry. H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2H2SO4 (l) d) The reaction in (a) and (b) is equivalent to dissolving sulphur trioxide in water. V2O5. f) It produces a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist.Hafiz Akmal 7 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry H2S2O7. This is because.
Flow chart of Contact Process The industrial process in the Manufactured of Sulphuric Acid .Hafiz Akmal 8 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Burnt in air Figure 2:.
platinum as catalyst at 900˚C. The reaction involved are as the following: a) 2NH3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (s) ammonium sulphate b) NH3 (g) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq) ammonium nitrate c) 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) (NH2)2CO (s) + H2O (l) urea Having a low is converted to nitric acid in the Ostwald Ammonia melting point.Hafiz Akmal 9 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry USES OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY: Examples are ammonium sulphate. by oxygen in the presence of conditioners. NO. ammonium nitrate and urea. water to substances like toluene. organic produced nitric acid. liquefied ammonia makes a process: good cooling agent in 1) ammonia refrigerators and airis first oxidised to nitrogen monoxide. Pt/900˚C 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 organic acids 4NO (aq) + 6H2O (l) It neutralizes the (g) a) nitrogen monoxide is further oxidised to Nitric acid is manufactured from 2) formed by microorganisms in latex. 2NO2 (g) and preserving the latex in liquid b) Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are dissolved in Nitric acid. being used to make thereby preventing coagulation explosive (g) 2NO (g) + O2 like trinitrotoluene (TNT). . in this case. is reacted with 3) form. The first two are prepare through neuralisation but urea is produced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide. ammonia before nitrogen dioxide.
ammonia chloride. concentrated hydrochloric acid.1 mol dm ammonia solution. Ph paper. distilled water. red litmus paper.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution. . 0.Hafiz Akmal 10 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA Aim:• To investigate the properties of ammonia Material:• 0. soda lime. calcium hydroxide.
1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution are poured into two separate test tubes. .Hafiz Akmal 11 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Apparatus:• Test tubes. The test tubes containing ammonia gas must be closed with stoppers. 2. U-tube. a) Alkalinity of ammonia: 1. The pH values of both solution are recorded. The mixture is heated 4. 5. A piece of pH paper is dipped into the solution in each test tube. Bunsen burner.0 cm of 1 mol ammonia solution and 5 cm of 0. Procedure:a) Preparation of ammonia gas: 1. delivery tube. Some ammonium chloride is mixed with some calcium hydroxide. The ammonia gas produced is collected in a few test tubes. 2. beaker. glass rod. 3. stoppers. The apparatus as shown in Figure 3 is set up 3.
3. The colour of the red litmus paper is recorded. physical state. After 20 seconds. 4. 2. The stopper of the two test tubes are removed. The stopper of a test tube containing ammonia gas is removed and the smell of the gas is identified. a piece of moist red litmus paper is put at the mouth of each test tube as shown in figure 5. a) Density of ammonia: 1. 3. All observation are recorded.Hafiz Akmal 12 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry a) Colour. The colour and physical state of ammonia are observed. A test tube containing ammonia gas is held upright and another test rube containing ammonia gas is held upside down. smell and solubility of ammonia: 1. 2. . A test tube containing ammonia gas is inverted into a beaker of water. 4.
Hafiz Akmal 13 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry a) Chemical property of ammonia: 1. Any change taking place is observed. 3. Observation :Section Observation • pH of ammonia solution is 10 • pH of sodium hydroxide solution is 14 • colourless gas • pungent smell Inference • ammonia is weak alkali • sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali • ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell b) c) . The glass rod is then put on top of a test tube of ammonia gas. One end of a glass rod is dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid. 2.
• Moist red litmus paper under the inverted test tube turns blue • • ammonia is very soluble in water d) • Ammonia gas has escaped from the upright test tube and thus is slightly less dense than air e) • Dense white fumes are formed • Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride .Hafiz Akmal 14 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry • water rushed up and fills up the whole test tube moist red litmus paper on top of the upright test tube does not change colour.
It react with hydrogen chloride gas to form dense white fumes of ammonium chloride HABER PROCESS .(aq) • Ammonia is slightly less dense than air • Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride NH3 (g) + HCl (g) = NH4Cl (s) Conclusion:• Ammonia is an alkaline. colourless gas with a pungent smell. It is very soluble in water and is less dense in than air.Hafiz Akmal 15 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Discussion:• Ammonia is a weak alkali and has a pH of 10 • Ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell • Ammonia is very soluble in water. ionize partially in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide NH3 (g) + H2O (l) = NH4+ (aq) + OH.
Hafiz Akmal 16 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry .
Hafiz Akmal 17 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry The manufacture of ammonia through the Haber Process PREPARATION OF AMMONIA FERTILISER .
retort stand and clamp. glass rod. The solution turns yellow. tripod stand. The initial burette reading is recorded. A clean burette is filled with 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid and clamped to a retort stand. 2. filter paper Apparatus:• 25. Material:• 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid. beaker.Hafiz Akmal 18 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Aim:• To prepare ammonium sulphate. . Bunsen burner. methyl orange. wire gauze. conical flask. evaporating dish.0 cm of 2 mol dm ammonia solution is transferred by a pipette to a clean conical flask.0 cm pipette.0 cm of ammonia solution:-3 1. 3. Procedure:a) Determining the volume of sulphuric acid that will neutralize 25. white tile. 25. 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution. burette. Three drops of methyl orange indicator are added to the alkali. filter funnel.
Let this volume V cm.Hafiz Akmal 19 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 4. 5. The volume of acid needed to completely neutralize the 25. The conical flask is swirled gently throughout the titration. The addition of sulphuric acid is stopped when the indicator changes from yellow to orange. The conical flask with its content is placed on a white tile below the burette as shown in figure 6 below. a) Preparation ammonium sulphate salt:- . The sulphuric acid is added slowly into the conical flask.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is calculated. 7. The final burette reading is recorded. 6.
5. No indicator is added. • The crystal obtained are white in colour Discussion:• The equation for the reaction is: . 2. 4. 3.Hafiz Akmal 20 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 25. The mixture in the conical flask is transferred to an evaporating dish and heated until a saturated solution is formed. V cm of 1 mol sulphuric acid is added from the burette to the ammonia solution. Observation:• A colourless solution is formed when sulphuric acid is added to ammonia solution. The crystal of ammonium sulphate formed are filtered. ashed and dried between sheets of filter paper. saturated salt solution is left to cool for crystallization to occur.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is pipetted into a clean conical flask. The hot. 1.
The weight of ammonium sulphate obtained from the activity is always less than the theorical value. Conclusion:• Ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers can be prepared by neutralizing ammonia solution with the respective acids. Other ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate can be prepared from the reaction between nitric acid and ammonium solution. .Hafiz Akmal 21 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry • • • • • • H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH4OH (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l) Methyl orange is an acid-base indicator used to determine the end point of the titration. The first titration is carried out to determine the exact volume of sulphuric acid required to completely neutralize the 25. The ammonium sulphate solution should not be heated until dryness because ammonium sulphate decomposes when it is overheated. This is because some of the salt is not fully crystallized out and still remains in the solution. The salt solution in the first titration is discarded because it is contaminated by methyl orange.0 cm of ammonia solution.
in neutralization to produce and Ca2+) to produce K+. The gas is less dense than air • Ammonia is weak alkali of • Aqueous solutions which reacts with dilute ammonia react with acidsmetal ions (except Na+.Hafiz Akmal 22 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE METAL PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA • • Ammonia turns the damp red litmus paper blue. precipitate of metal . salt.
Hafiz Akmal 23 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry NH 3 + H 2O NH 4+ OH - • An inverted filter funnel is used to prevent sucking back of water 2NH 3 + H 2SO4 (NH 4)2SO4 • Ammonia gas burns in oxygen to produce nitrogen monoxide gas 4NO + 6H2O 4NH3 + 5O2 ALLOY .
Hafiz Akmal 24 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Meaning and purpose of making alloy:• Alloying is a process of mixing two or more metals (or mixing metals with element such carbon) which cannot be separated using physical way Arrangement of atoms in alloys:- Pure metal A Pure metal B Alloys COMPARE THE HARDNESS OF A PURE METAL AND ITS ALLOYS .
. 1-kg weight.Hafiz Akmal 25 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Aim:• To compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy. Problem Statement:• Are alloys harder than pure metal ? Hypothesis:• Bronze is harder than cooper. bronze block. Operational definition:1)If the diameter of the dent is smaller. mass of the weight. cellophane tape Apparatus:3)Retort stand and clamp. thread. steel ball bearing. height of the weight. then the material is harder Materials:2)Cooper block. metre ruler. Variables:• Manipulated: Different types of materials (cooper & bronze) • Responding: diameter of the dent • Controlled: diameter of steel ball bearing.
4)The diameter of the dent made by the ball bearing on the cooper block is measured. 5)Steps 1-4 are repeated twice on the other parts of the cooper block in order to obtain an average value for the diameter of dents formed. 7)The reading are recorded in the table. 6)Steps 1-5 are repeated using a bronze block to replace the cooper block.Hafiz Akmal 26 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Procedure:1)A steel ball bearing is taped onto a cooper block using cellophane tape. Results:- METAL 1 DIAMETER OF THE DENT (mm) 2 3 average . 2)A 1-kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the cooper block as shown in the figure 8. 3)The weight is allowed to drop onto the ball bearing.
EXAMPLE OF ALLOYS Bronze Pewter Stainless steel steel .8 2.9 2.1 2. 3)Based on the result.Hafiz Akmal 27 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Cooper Bronze 2. 2)The average diameter of the dent made on the surface on the cooper block is bigger than the bronze block.2 2.2 2. 1) Conclusion:• The hypothesis is accepted.9 2.2 Discussion:The smaller the diameter of the dent. the harder and stronger is the material. bronze is harder than cooper.9 2.
STEEL. AND STAINLESS STEEL .Hafiz Akmal 28 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE RATE OF RUSTING OF IRON.
Hafiz Akmal 29 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Aim:• To compare the rate of rusting of iron. the higher is the rate of rusting. steel and stainless steel. Problem statement:• How does the rate of rusting of iron. concentration of solution used. and steel rust faster than stainless steel. Operational definition:• The more intense the blue colour formed. steel and stainless steel differ? Hypothesis:• Iron rust faster than steel. Materials:- . Variables:• Manipulated variable: Different types of nails • Responding variable: Intensity & amount of blue colour • Controlled variable: Size of nails. durations for rusting.
test tube rack. A few drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution are then added to the jelly solution. jelly solution. Apparatus:• Test tubes. Procedure:The nails are rubbed using sandpaper to remove the rust from the surface of the nails. 3) A 5% jelly solution is prepared by adding 5 g of jelly into 100 cm of boiling water.Hafiz Akmal 30 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry • Iron nail. 1) 5) The test tubes are placed in a test tube rack and left aside for three days. the steel nail in test tube B and the stainless steel nail in test tube C. steel nail. 4)The hot jelly solution is poured into the three test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed. water. The intensity of the blue colour is observed. 2)The iron nail placed in the test tube A. . potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution. stainless steel nail. sandpaper.
the higher is the rate of rusting. Observation:Test tube A B C Intensity of blue colour Very High Low Nil Inference Rusting occurs very fast Rusting occurs slowly No rusting occurs Discussion:When iron rust. 6)Based on the observation. 4)The higher the intensity of the blue colour. 5) Solidified jelly solution is used to trap and see the blue colouration clearly. Fe2+.(aq) 2)Potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution is added to the jelly solution as an indicator to detect iron(ll) ions. iron rust faster than steel. 3)When there is iron(ll) ion.Hafiz Akmal 31 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 6)All observation are recorded in the table. Fe (s) = Fe2+ (aq) + 2e. Stainless steel does not rust. This is because diffusions occurs the slowest in solids. potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution will form dark blue colouration. each iron atom loses two electrons to form an iron(ll) ion. 1) .
When corrosion occurs. Stainless steel does not rust. chromium and nickel. 9)Rusting of iron is an example of corrosion. . 8)The nail made from steel will rust slowly. Hypothesis is accepted. This is because this nail is an alloy of iron with carbon. The presence of carbon atoms will make the steel stronger than iron but does not prevent it from rusting. Conclusion:• Iron rust faster than steel.Hafiz Akmal 32 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 7)The nail made from stainless steel does not rust. the metal loses electrons to form metal iron.
spoons. strong. fork. cheap Vehicles. machine parts Hard. knifes. strong Aeroplane part. bridges. resist corrosion Uses Coins . buildings Light. watches.Hafiz Akmal 33 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITONS OF ALLOYS & THEIR USES Compositi on Cu 75% Ni 25% Al 95% Duralumi n Cu 4% Mg 1% Steel Fe 99% C 1% Fe 73% Stainless steel Cr 18% Ni 8% C 1% Hard. strong. electric cables racing bicycles Alloy Cupronic kel Properties Hard. rust resistant Kitchen appliance.
skeletal body of aeroplane Light. screw. ductile.souvenirs Tyre rim of racing car. pots & pans Musical instrument. soldering work Decorative items. strong Malleable. strong POLYMER . strong. rust resistant Decorative items.Hafiz Akmal 34 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry Cu 90% bronze Sn 10% Cu 70% Brass Zn 30% Pb 50% Sn 50% Sn 91% Pewter Sb 7% Cu 2% Magnaliu m Al 70% Mg 30% Hard. shining Harder and cheaper than Cu Low melting point. nails. artwork. bell. medals. and pots Solder Welding.
Hafiz Akmal 35 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry NATURAL POLYMER .
skin. after refining and cracking process.Eg: furs Eg: in muscle. . silk. and in starch and cellulose (2-methylbuta-1. hairs.3 diene) Eg: in latex Hafiz Akmal 36 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry SYNTHETIC POLYMER & IT USES • Synthetic polymers are polymers made in industry from chemical substances. wools. • Many of the raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum.
Hafiz Akmal 37 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry WHY USE SYNTETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE? .
Hafiz Akmal 38 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION RESULTING FROM THE DISPOSAL OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS .
SiO2 which found in sand.ri .Hafiz Akmal 39 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry GLASS Glass:• The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide.
AND USES OF GLASS COMPOSITI ON SiO2 – 70% Na2O – 15% CaO – 10% Others – 4% GLASS Soda lime glass PROPERTIES • • USES • • • • Glass container Glass panes Mirror Lamps and bulbs • • Low melting point Mouldable into shapes Cheap Breakable . COMPOSITION. PROPERTIES.Hafiz Akmal 40 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry TYPES.
Hafiz Akmal 41 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry • Can withstand high heat High density and refractive index Glittering surface Soft Low melting point (600˚C) Resistant to high heat &chemical reaction Does not break easily Allow infra-red rays but no ultra-violet rays High melting point (1700˚C) Expensive Allow ultraviolet to pass through Difficult to melt or mould into shape • • Plates and bowls Bottles Containers for drinks and food Decorative glass Crystal glassware Lens for spectacles Glass apparatus in lab Cooking utensils • SiO2 – 70% Lead glass (crystal) Na2O – 20% PbO – 10% • • • • • • • • • SiO2 – 80% Borosilicate glass (Pyrex) B2O3 – 13% Na2O – 4% Al2O3 – 2% • • • • • Fused silicate glass SiO2 – 99% B2O3 – 1% • • • • Scientific apparatus like lens on spectrometer Optical lens Lab apparatus • .
and heated in a kiln at a very high temperature • The main component of clay is aluminosilicate (aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. . ceramic cannot be recycled.Hafiz Akmal 42 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry CERAMICS Ceramics:• Ceramic is manufactured substances made from clay that is dried. • Kaolinite is a high quality white clay that contains hydrated aluminosilicate. Al2O3•2SiO2•2H2O. Unlike glass.
Hafiz Akmal 43 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE DIFFERENT CLASES OF CERAMIC GROUP Mineral COMPOSITION Quartz – SiO2 Calcite – CaCO3 Cement material Oxide of ceramic Mixture of CaSiO3 and ammonium silicate Aluminium oxide – Al2O3 Silicon dioxide – SiO2 Magnesium oxide – MgO Non-oxides of ceramic Silicon nitride – Si3N4 Silicon carbide – SiC Boron nitride – BN Boron carbide – B4C3 .
Hafiz Akmal 44 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS AND CERAMICS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES .
producing a complex mixture. leading to loss of electrical energy as heat. d)Plastic and glass can withstand heat to a certain level only .Hafiz Akmal 45 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE MATERIALS • A composite material is structural material formed by combining two or more materials with different physical properties. • They are used to make various substances in daily life because of the following reasons:a)Metals corrode and are ductile and malleable b)Glass and ceramic break easily c)Metal are good conductors but have high resistant.
Hafiz Akmal 46 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry .
Hafiz Akmal 47 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE MATERIAL COMPONEN T • concrete PROPERTIES OF COMPONENT • • hard but brittle low tensile strengh PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE • • • • • stronger higher tensile strength does not corrode easily cheaper can be moulded into shape can withstand very high applied force can support very heavy load • Conducts electricity without resistance when cooled by liquid nitrogen Reduce refraction of light Control the amount of light passed through it auto. Has the ability to change colour and become darker when exposed to ultraviolet light Low material cost • • • USES construction of road rocket launching pads high-rise buildings Reinforced concrete • steel • • • strong in tensile strength expensive can corrode • • • • Superconductor • Cooper( ll) oxide Yttrium oxide Barium oxide • Insulator of electricity • • • • • Magnetically levitated train Transformer Electric cable Computer parts Information display panels Light detector device Car windshields Optical lens • Glass • • Transpare nt Not sensitive to light Sensitive to light • • • • Photochromic glass Silver chloride or silver bromid e • • • • • Glass with • Transpare nt • • Transmit data using .
Hafiz Akmal 48 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry .
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