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>.

ITORIAL

~ am feeUng great pleasure in p rese nti ng thi s boak of Basic EJectrica I to you. Because use of electricity il increased very much in eve r~ field, Hence motto of th is book ts to provide, nformation of V8rKxts parts coneeml ng electricity, expJ aining of electlic wiri ng along with description af etectric components used. Every to pic is expl ai ned here in detai I.

Dlfferent experi mental circu its of wi ring are explained in th is book along with e lectrlc mate rial

. :~' a~)Iftd va rious tools used for electric win ng, It ,s t; first boo k regs rei rng elect r~city tn the senes of e iectrtc .... ~, toncem\ng, booKs. 6)' reg,u~a{ and sena\ 'H\~ 'atu.d'l of these books ~0\.1 w.~\ be ab~ to do utV.cir'lg of various electric equ ipm e nts in system atic procedure. Book presented in th is series provides a soUd

base not only for new students but also to those pe opla who a re a I re ad ~ in electric concerning business, it.is our belief,

. .

Although we have made full efforts to make this book useful for you by giving large number of

figures with detailed des crl pbOT1, How much success we have achieved in out motto I we wiU be able to know th is only by you r letters we wi U be a Iwavs waiting for that.

It wHi prove on extra ordinary boo k because of its easiest pr.esentation ~t j s au r beUef - Every type of care has been taken in makfng this but even then errors are possible, We hope from our learned

..

readers that they wUl write us as before and they Will draw our towards errors ~eft in ft

Thanks,

~OITOR

GT PfJBLIQITION

3

INDEX

.-1.

Electric, Types of ElectriC, Ma~ active portion of Electricity, Electric Circuit, Types of Electric Clrcuit Ohm's Law, What is power, What is Horse Power. Multiphase System, Electric Generator, Fuse, Types of Fuse, Earthing. Types of Substances, Method of m~king Earth

2. Hou •• Wiring

Electnc Equipment, Doing of Different Types of Electric Connection, House Wiring, Switch WIfing, Types of Wiring, Casing-Capping Wiring, Batten Strip Wlring, Underground Wiring, Types of Conduit wiring, Types of Conduit Pipes, Other ibnes used in the Conduit pipe wiring. Practical Diagram of wirin g, Wi ring at the gu dder, Cutting Of Conduit Pipe. Cutting th reads ~n the cond uit ~pe

Wire .nd Cable

20-14

.......

Domestic Wires, Types of wires in the basis of design, Types of Wires and its used, Core of wires, Sizes of wire, Selection Of wires, SefVlce Cable, Differfmttypes cfCable, Connecting the wires

Electrlcla.. Hand Tools

3. Diffennt Type. of Meters

Voltmeter, Amere Meter. Resistance Meter, Multimeter, Method of using the mUltimater, Circuit Diagram of Mu!timeter SanW'a p~, Fault Finding of Sanwa P-3, Method of Changing the Movlng

..... .... 7.

Coil

4. H •• lstane.

Different types of resistive Substances, Dependance of Resistance, Types of Resistance, General Rules for obtaining the value of resistance. Types of Carbon and wire wound resistance, D~fferent types ot Controls. Combination of Resistance

a. Capac Itor

Capacitance, Dependance of Capacitor, Types of Capacitor, Combination of Capacitor e. Coli

Inductance. Dependance of Inductance, Effect of DC in the Col1. Effect of AC in the Co~l, Impedance, Combination ofCoi's, Electric Magnet Field

7. Magnetism. Electric M.gn8'l

Magnetic Field. Left Hand Rule. Ganefa~ Rules for obtaining the pole of a coil, Mutual induction, Eddy Current, Magn etlc Fie Id, Mag net effect in the €urren t

8. AC EltlCtrl c M oto'*

Prlnclpal, Different parts of AC Motor, Classification of AC Motor

Symbol aNd in the cl re.it of Electric Wiring

......

gg....103

104-110

, 11-112

BASIC ELECTRICAL &

• '" ~ ... 1. • _I .: ·3 -~""T ... ' ,. y-1T"""'!-[ r 1

.l1li L - ..1. -=~ ... •. ._._ _.:L. _

4

I

TYPES OF ELECTRICITY CURRENT

CHAPTER - 1 BASICS ELECTRICALS

I n this branch of scien ce we wi II study m ai nly elect ricity a nd electric eq ui pm ents.

ELECTRICITY

E lectri city j s a such ene rgy, whj ch can n at be see n. We ca n see its effects In Hg ht, heat, circu lation, m OYement, energy, magnetic power and in the shape of many otherphysicat effects.

According to scien ce e~ctricity is nothing el se but only a flow of electron s _ Its flow ca n not be seen, but it can be observed. When these electrons make movement from one end to other end in a conductor wire, then it is said electric cu rre nt j s trowing j n a cond uctor wi re.

Inn ormal condition a~ectrc?nS do not flow in any cond u eta r wIre_When electric force has been given at eonducto r wi re tappi ngs the n e ~ctrons flow fro m one end to oth e rend. This can be understand by the following examples:

A tube fi lied with glass balls is shown in the fig u re.

In normal condition all the balls rem ains is stationa ry condition. But when oute r force is app lied 0 n these ba lis,

~

F~I-·--·:~~

BALL~

Ihen moveme nt beg in sin all ba H B one by one and last ball com es out of tube and becomes free.

I n this way wne n electric force is appl i ed at the tappi ng s of cond uctor wi re the n electrons of co nd uctor wire becomes free and begins movement

E lectricit y has two type s;-

1. DC (Direct Current)

2. AC (Alternating Current)

t. DC (DIRECT CURRENT'

This is a such types of current which direction and value remains always same. We can received it from ceU

• or battery. One end of th ls cu rrent is pos i t ive and se cond is neg ative.

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL OF DC

. .

---. -- • _" ....... __ .-. -- +

2. AC (ALTERNAnNG CURREN'll

This is a such types of current which direction and val ue always changes according to time _ The value of this current is h ig hest in 0 ne co nd it] on and in second is becom es zero. AHe r that thi s cycle goes on j n reverae lI:lInectlc)n_. Due to coming in both directions, size of the movement of this current is appears like wave shape. Hence saki that AC com es in the sh a pe of waves. 50 cycles AC waves comes in one second. in th is way it can be said thfli freqUency of the AC has SOcls. Because this speed much more then the capacity of looking picture by our

5

BASIC ELECTRICAL & •. :. [ -II ~ - -r _. _ \ 'J I • 11 : t- .•

eyes (16 pictures per second). Hence we cannot see rll effect. one tapping of AC • caned Ph.aae 8nct Mca..cti

j

tappjng is called N eutra I.

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL OF AC

~

AC is considered better in rega rds with use of AC and DC both the cu rrents. He nee ill the electric!

ments works on AC su pply, There are many reasons of its superiority, topmost among there is its availability costs very cheap in comparison to DC supply, Second main reason is, that we can make it low or htgh by former accon:ltng to our requirements. As a safety point of view AC is better because DC shock is more t'tgr~ .. ·'u the n AC shock.

BENEFITS OF AC

As you know AC s uppfy is more used in com parison of DC su pply, It has foUowi ng reasons:-

1. Generatlon of AC is more easier then DC generation. Besides that AC costs cheaper then DC.

2, AC can be made step up or step down by transformer, where as DC cannot be decreased orjncreased tra nsformer.

3 _ S hock of AC is fe 5S d a ngerc.~ then oc shock, If a ny part of body ls touched to AC line then very jerk it observed where as man remains caught while touching DC line,

BENEFrT$ OF DC

Although AC may have various be nefits even then we can not avoid DC because DC also has many benefitI and uses, Some equipments are such which can be operated on DC only, Most of electronic equ;pmentsworks on DC supply only. Besides that electronic circuits are also included in electrical equ1pments, hence DC 8Uppty ~ most essential for these circuits,

MAIN ACTIVE PORTIONS OF ELECTRICITY

There are m a i n l y th ree active portions in both type of e'ectric curre nts:- 1- Electric Pressu re

2, Electri c F ~ow

3, Electri c Res isla nee

1. ELECTRIC PRESSURE

Essential force required forgiving movement 10 electrons in any conductorwire, is called electric preS8uM.

Unit

Unit of measuring electric pressure is vott (V), Its Ioiver and higher units and reIatklrls among these ie gNen beIoN:.

1000 Micro VO~t(uV) = 1 Milil Volt (mV)

1000 Mini Volt (mV) 1000 Vo.t (V)

1000 Kino Volt (KV)

=

1 Volt (V)

1 Kill 0 Volt (KV) 1 Mega Volt (MVl

=

Voltmeter has to be used for mea !iii uri ng electric press ure and it shou Id be connected in para lIel ~th load, a~ shown in the-figure given below:- .

·n "'.~ .'I{'" ~ ( ~ C~!ir.I f .ro..J\_-=: p -,

11'. -o!: _ •• _ ~ •• i.._..... :..: ~ ., ~ ~ I!.... ._~._

I·~ r ,. ~ -; i 1 : ... ~ .'. J.. ~ - .. j . ..- L ... - •

• .._ . ....J.... ......_ .. .: ', ~ .lLi_ _ _

6

220V Ale p

VOLT METER

1 Ampere (A) = 1000 MUU Ampere

1 MIIII Ampere (rnA) ~ 1000 MicroAmpere (uA)

Ampere Mete r s hould be used fa r m easu ring current and is should be co nnected in series with the load.

ELECTRIC RESISTANCE

Any wire may be made ohome best ccnd uctor, defin ltely produces some h in drance in the path of current. hind ran ce is called ElectriC Resistance.

N

When electric pressure is applied on tappi ng s of an y then electrons beg in movem ent in it. This movement of in cond uctor wire j s called electric flow.

Unjt of measuring current is am pe re. lower u nits from are Milli Ampere and Micro Ampere. Relation among

nefits bon !ply is

Unit of measuring electric resistance is Ohms. Graphical symbol of ohm is (n), It is also indicated by mE~. units of ohm (Q} are serially kiUo ohm (KO) and mega ohm (MO), Relation among these is 8S under.-

1000 Ohm (0) = 1 Killo Ohm (KO)

1000 KUlo Ohm (KO) == 1 Mega Ohm (Mn)

ssure. Ohm meter should be used for measu rfng elect ric resists nee and it should be connected at load ta pptngs. It be ke pt in m~nd that supply mig ht have not been given to load tappj ngs white checking resistance,

The meter by wh ich e1e<;:tric pressure (V) Ejectri c current {A) a nd elect ric reststa nce (R) all the three" can be

tN/..

" ,"

red is caHed Mu It'meter. For measuri ng these three in multi meter, sepa rate ra ngas hav.e been g~ven I by

these accordi ng to ru les/ instru ctions e lectric current, electri c pressu re a nd elect ric resistance can be

7

BASIC ELECTRICAL & .-:-r ~"1 II" "T : _ T/ 1" r ~ , I : r 1

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

Path adopted by eject ric cu rre nt is wh ich electri c is con s umsd ca lied electric ci rcult. 0 ne standa r d crcu it I n cl udes electric source I load r fuse. OnOff switch a nd esse nt i af wi res fo r con nectin 9 ea en other.

All essential compo nents of sta nda rd d rcuit are shown in the fig u re.

TYPES OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

. Ejectri c ci rcu i ts a re of sj x ty pes:-

r .: - .~

·O:,.Close Circuit

2. Open CircLirt

3. Short Circuit

4. Series C ircu it

5. Parallel Circuit

6. Leakage C ircu it

, .. CLOSE CIRCUIT

Whel ~ in any circuit jf On-Off switch is in On Position and Load is doin 9 its own wo rk, then thls eire U it is ca fled close crcu ft. Va lu e of flow

~

of cu rrent in th is ci rcuit de pends upon cu rre nt ca pa city of 10 ad.

2.. OPEN ClRCUIT

When fn any circuit On-Off switch is in Off position or any wire connected in the circuit has broken then such circuit is called open circu it. No cu rre nt ffows in ope n circuit an d load also not fu net ion s.

3. SHORT CIRCUIT

When both terminal of supply source connected in the circuit are shorted with each other without load then this is called short circuit. I n short ci rcuit, current gets easy and small way for flowing, due to that hjghest current flows in the circuit but load does not functions. tn short circuit. current flows continuously till that when circuit burns and becomes open. Some tlme due to short~n9 of load, circuit also gets shorted. Short circuit must be checked very carefully.

4. SERIES CIRCUIT

ClOSE.D
·4
"'II
a
b
It
L IT
:
j" m
, p:
.!
\ re
8. CO' hoi thi~

01 1

Whe n two or more t hen two ei eel ri c eq u rpments are co nnected in the se ries then it is cal~ed series circuit. ~ should be kept in mi nd thai tota I voltag e load ca pacity of a II ins tru menta shou Id be eq ual to suppiy voltage I ottIi.

wise instrument win W'JrK more or less then its capacity.

Generally lines of small bulbs used for decoration are made by connecting ,n series. Here total number(

MIiIi=tIl§<.'\~

B

01:, PUBl.lCAnm ~

._._ ~ 0"" bulb voltage capacity. For example if we want to make series of 6 vo&t bulbs We have to coonect.24016 = 40 bulbs, because tn serles circuit voltage capacity of bulbs is 1IMiIw..,of burt. ..,11 b., eqnnected less then 40, then each bulb wiU get supply more then 6 volts,

.-.-. oUhe bulbs can be fused. Due to fuse of ALL BUBLB'S ARE 1eV 15W

series becomes off mens not works be:Qircult breaks. Besides that, because in series cur~_ T'__'" ramams s~milar at every point. Hence aU the bulbs ti!'I·I"I11IYa Bim"ar current capacity. If anyone bulb of h 19her :.M.~t capacity among tnese bulbs is connected in se-

, the" value of flow of current in circuit wilt be higher SERIES CIRCUIT

"lBCording to this bulb, Other bulb witl not be able to stand this and anyone of the bulbs will become fuse and . ~ wW break series.

Hen ce tt ca n be said j n sh crt t hat total voltag e capacity of a II bulbs con nected in sedes d rcuit should be equal to su pply voltage an ~ I cu rrent capacity of eve ry buj b she uld be sa me,

" .. ' PARALlEL CIRCUrr

'.'" -' When 0 na ta pping of two or more bul b is joi nted together with one supply wire and other ta ppl ngs are joi ntad : .. >:\oItether with second supply Wire then this circuit is called parallel circuit, In parallel circuit vottage rema~ns similar .. _ every point. Hence it ~s ess e nt i a1 to kee p j n min d that

~

voltage ca pacity of a II bulbs sh 0 uld be sim il ar with the volt-

age given to circuit Besides that current capacity of these bulbs ca n be differe nt. But thi s .sh 0 uld a tso be kept in mind

ON/OFF

Switch more then given cu rren t, Hence wJ1 en deco ration h ad to be

made at any occasion. supply g~ven is nottaken from one place but it is taken from different places or directly from pole. Butbs connected ~n parajjel ~f anyone among these has gone fused then it has no effect on other bulbs means

that tota' current consumption of aJl bulbs should not be

PARALLEL CrRCUIT

remaining all other bulbs give light

Electric wiring whiCh is done in homes that is aU done in parallel and it is a paraBel wiring. a~ LEAKAGE CIRCUIT

Wlrlng which is done in homes is done by such wires which are coated with rubber or plastic coverjng. This covering called insulation. Many times, this covering becomes defective and internal wires begins touching to house walls, If waU has moisture then current begins flowing in waUs. This current is called leakage current anc;l this type of circuit is called leakage circuit,

OHM·S LAW

1. When electric pressure is increased in any circuit by keeping resistance value constant according to that its current va lu e increases,

9

2 _. When resistance value is increased by ke;ep\ng e~ pressure constant In any circuit then value current flow deCreases in that ci reutt,

Three formulas are made on the ba sis of these rules

t

1. V= IxR

2.1- V R

3 . .'R= y_

1

Here unit of electric pressure is (V) volt unit, e~ctric current (I) ampere unit and resistance (R) ohm (0) unit.

Am Dng th ese three if value of any two is kn oWn the n value of thi rd tan be cslcuiated.

WHAT IS POWER

Maximum working capacity of any equ~pment is called its power. Its unit;s watt. ln short. it is written (W).

Power (W) • Vott (Vl x Current (I)

If 100W is written on any electric bulb then it means this is 100 watt power bulb or th's. bulb is of 100 watt power. Besides that 200V has also been written on bulb. 1t means when 220V sup~y Is given to this bulb then its power is 1 OOW. If it wW get su pply less then 220V then its power will al so be red uced. White getting power more then 220V its power will also be increased but at th~5 time ~t can be fused. Because its fits ment will not be able to

be ar more then 220V suppl~ and it will burn.

~

We can use formula powc r in these three fa Uowing methods:-

ti) W· V x I

(U) V -= W

I

(Ui) 1= W V

Now if we want to calculate current f~aw; ng in 1 OOW,· 220V capacity bulb then we wUl use formula (Iii)

I By!

V

=jQQ 220

=12 22

== 0.45 ampere or

450 milh Ampere (Approximately)

I n this way it can be said that 450 m ilti am pere per seco nd current win flow in 1 OOwatt, 220V butb.

We can change formuta of power according to Ohms law. Because

Power • Volt x Current

W=VXt

According to ohm's law:

V-I xR

n ~ ;. f (". ~ .~ ~.~ ~ GT 11 I c A l. i~. ... ~ L ~ _... : ~ .... ~_~ • ..i_·~_m-·~· t .~ . .;: -. -.

10

_ ~ _ (iv)

e .:' -, ~ .

: .. ~ .. ~ (v)

, , .

................................... (vl)

.1U.v8 written I K R in place of V. I n the same way we can write VIR in place of I

R .lPlW {vill)

or V • '..JW x R· ··· .. ttx)

. ~ 111 formu las a re used to r getti ng d iffere nt electricat values of any equ ipment. _018-' ~ How much current will be required for 600W 200V toster

IlMIftIi· Here Power, wan (W) and Volt (V) of toster are given and cu rrent 0) tS to be calculated. For this we have such formula in whrch value (1) have been g~ven in the shape ofW and V means

I a: WN (By Equation No.(iii)}

~

fto

..

. ~·2. 72 Ampere

... IDI8··":. What will be the res isla n CD of one 600 watt 220V taster?

_.,n"n~ Here power (watt) (W) and Voltage (V) aftoster are given and we hsve to calculate the resistance. For we have to use such formula, in which value of R should have been given in the shape of V and W means

R = Vl,W {By Equation No.(iv)}

::: 2201/600

:= 48400/600 == 484/6

== 8.66n

Example·3: One resistance of 500 vatue is connected with 100V supply. 2 ampere current ill flowing in c i reu i t! ca I c ulate p ower of the eire uit.

~

ution: Here son resistance ts connected with 100 volt supply. Hence according to ohm's law flow· of 2 ampere

is possible. For calculating power (W} here we have to take power 0N) as V and t we can liso take as i and and can slow take as V and R. R or these three calcul atfons of different formulas wUl be used. But resun of these ree wiU be obtained sam B_

By taking· power Was V and I

W == V xl

::: 100)( 2 ;;;; 200W

(ii) By taking power Was land R·

W = F kR :: 2~)( 50 ;:. 4 x 50 = 200W

(iii) By taking power Was V and R

W C V2 J R

== 100~ ( 50 :::; 10000150 == 200W

In this way calculation of power (W) can be made by any two figures among volt M. current (I) and

resistance (R),

Bigger u nits of powe r are kilowatt (KW) and Meg a watt {MW), Relation a mong these are given below:-

1000 Watt (W) E 1 KUo Watt (KW)

1000 Kilo Watt (KW)

= 1 Mega Watt (MW)

WHAT IS HORSE POweR

Ho rse power mean s Briti sh un It of rneasu ring powe r, which i 5 equal to 746,4 watt energy.

Bigger u nits of hQrsEl power are kUo horse power (KHP) and Mega Horse Power (MHP), Relation am ong these are gwen below:

1000 Horse Powor tHP) = 1·KUo Horae Power (KHP) 1000 Kilo ~ Horse Power == 1 Mega Horse Power (MHP)

Btu OF ELECTRICITY IS BASED ON WHICH PRINCIPLE

The electri city wI1 ich we use in homes. for measu n ng its con sum ption one Meter has been connected by electri city boa rd, Employ of electr~city board takes readi ng of meter eve ry me nt hand bi II of meter com es on that base _

For measuring consumptJon ofelectricity the meter which is fitted In homes is called watt hour Meter,

Two units are used fnr measuring electricity consumption :- 1. W.tt Hour or Wh

Multiplication of Power (W) and time {T) is caUed watt H,our. Watt Hour (Wh) = Pnwer {W} x Time (!n hours)

2. Kilo Watt Hour or Kwh

This ts a b!gger unit from watt hour (Wh} for measuring consumption of electricity, 1000 Watt hour (Wh} = 1 Kilo Watt Hour {Kwh)

Kilo watt ho ur is also called unit. BiUs com ing fro m electricity boa rd a re based on th is un it.

Dr, ~;IC ELECTRICAL & • :·llt ~ i.I l·::-~", j ;_'I r:T-"_'1

12

) and

tn thi 8 way bill is Ctl arged on the base of per unit consum ption. Per unit charges has been fixed by electricity board. Presently Rs. 2.75 per unit is charged for domestic con sum pti on and Rs. 3.25 per u nit for commerc;ial UIS. Example ~ Electric consumption of one houae Is a. under:

1. 0 r.e bulb 100 watt - per day 4 hours

2. One fan (6 OW) - Per da~'-8 hours

3. Electric Press (75 OW} • Per day 1 hour

One the ba se of a bove e~ ectric use consum ption for a ne month {30 ~ ays) can be calculated : 100 K 4 + 60 x 6 + 750 x 1

or 400 + 480 + 750::= 1630 watt hour

\ Farm u la for ca tcutanon of electric COR8umption for one month:

Per d,y total consumption 01 e1!~c x days of Montha tOOO

rw,-

'" th is way .1§30 x3.Q = Unit 1000

or

163 x 3 10 489 10

46.9 unit

= Unit

or

::=: Unit

or

~mong

Now per un it G xpenses at the rate of Rs. 2.75 48.9 x 2.75

=: Rs_ 134.47

MULTIPHASE SYSTEM

AC supply wMich has used generally has two wires. Among these, one is J:)hasewire and anotherf!i neutrak This system is called single phase system .. But the system in which more then one phase is used is called m u Iii phase system. Gene ra Ily three phase a re used in th is system. Am 0 ng these vo Itage a nd frequency of each phase remains similar. When any building or workshop has heavy electric consumption then more then one phase has to be given at tha t place. I n do uble phase system two or three wires a re com as from electric pole. Whe n only wires are come from pete in double phase system then these bath wire:s are phase no neutral wire in ft. But in double phase system three wires are come from pole then two wires are phase wire and third one Is I wire. L ike th at in m III ti ph ase system three or fa ur wi res are come fro m pole. Th ree phase system is more th en doubl e pha se s ys tem. So there j s more u sed of three ph ase syste m.

GENERATOR

Ge nerato r is a such mach~ ne by wtl ich electricity j 5 generated. One coil moves faltly between two 8tilt nets. it is caned armature coil. Single phase generator has only one coil. Such generators inwhkh more then armatu re cod IS m ade are ca lied m u1ti phase generators. AC power generated by these is multi phase and r:

13

BASIC El.ECTR!CAL 8.

I :. [ "1 ~ 1: ~ ···a \ . ~ I ~ 1 i ~ ito..' 1

Singie, dou~ and three phase generators and AC ,upply being produced by them is shown in the figure in

graphical symbols,
rB.J ta:D rn F~G, +
-e- 0
B FIG. w
ffi]~rn + .~
-(ID.- 0 J:
n,
B C FIG. +
[[1A~rn -<.9J... a

,,, SINGLE PHASE GENERATOR In this generator one armature coil moves between two tappings of magnet. Due to this reason anemating current of certain freq uenoy is produced in it. as shown in figu re (A).

2 .. DOUBLE PHASE SYSTEM

I n this type of generator two coils jointly move between two tappings of mag net. These both coils are fixed perpe ndicula r 9Ql' a ng Ie to each other as shown in the fig u re (B). Besides that n urn ber of turns between both also remain same, By these cous two alternating current of same frequency pro-

d uced j n generator. These both coils be~ng pe rpendicu la r to each other. AC wave generatad by them bliCOmns 90° (degree) fOfWard to each other,

Three wires are used fot use of two phase supply, as shown in the figure. Wire taken from joi nt of these two coils is ca lied neutral. Ntm If 220V su pply )s oetween phase and neuH"al then SUp~'i between two phase wm be 200:.:2 ;;. 4OOV. If both phase have kept separate the n total four wtres have to be used. This supply ,s caned non inter linked supply,

3 .. THREE PHASE . GENERATOR

....._ __ ... PW\SC Dou ble Phase A.C.

I n this type of ge ne rator three coils move in a magnebc field. These th ree coifs are kept at BOo angte to other, These three coils generate three secarate AC

Pf-fASE2 made by using three coils on only one iron core, as shown ........_--~~--- PHASES

in flQure_

Presently whole elecmcal energy ls produced by th ree phase AC, Three phase supply produced in this

waves_ As shown ~n the figure_ AC generated by each coil has similar value (amplitude) and frequency, But these have 12fY1 degree difference, Prevklusly tbree phase sup-

. . .

ply was taken by connecting three separate srng Ie phase generators. But at prase nt three phase gene rators are

Th,...Ph ...... C.

is 11 KV (ki~ovolt), This au pply is increased up to 22CKVA with the help of th ree phase kansfonner and sent This supply is reduced at eiectric sub stations and converted ~nto 1100V, 440V and 230V. Total four wires are· in three phase supply_ Among these three wires are for phase and one for neutral and one earth, Generally

E ~~; 3ft; E I £CTIR! ~CAL. a.

t ,. -, > __ ' ' .., ... e ..•. ~ ]

.. / - ~

,. _.. _ , L. _ ., ~ i ~ _ "_ .

14

g

phase supply 1& given for domesbc supply n:I three fJhase supply ill given forlKtoriea.-dMRlhopl .. MelD'Jfor lI08iving supply i8 shown in the figu reo Nong \Mth neutral providing of proper earth connection is WIllY ...... for .-ely IX*1t otvieW, Hence becaII_of gi¥i1g:ttwee phase suppyto factoriesancl 'MJfbhapaear1llng t.I been nwJe.

PHASE 1

amperes to 15 ampere fW"I, tare used in homes, These fu 5e. 'llWire&. are made by Un. lead Zinc, antinony and aluminium. One or two wirM ren)OY8d from field ble wj re can be used for connecting Nee. Ifth ide Wire will be used in pjaee fuse wire then jmportwd of fute wiI be finilhed. In such drcuit due to increase of road of short circuiting thare .. a pos sj biht Y of burning of complete wi rin g. ~ce wire of props r am pere shou Jet be used for co nneeting fu se. This

fU'!l' hM to be connected in fuse base and it is made of dlina clay.

TYPES OF FUSES 1. REWlRABLE FUSE

Thts ;s a common type of fuso. which is used in home'. tts wire can be repjaced easily. Whether there may be supply ~ iowef base. Because fuse career in which wire is COMeded can be removedt 'WIWa as wires is of supply are removed connected in base _ There cutouts are -:nade of china day, whfch are avalable in the market

from 15A to 300A. ' '~i:ER

TI«EE PHASE. GENERAtOR

HOUSES· SIt-KiLE FHASE 5UPfllY

FUSE

at ils

Fuse is used fOf safety of circuit Th,s is a th'n wire of metal, whi-ch allows to flow j n tt a panicula r value of current. But If current value increases then it becomes hot and then melt and breaks the circuit. Fuse value is decided on the base of consumption of current in the circuit. Generally 3

... I'll

F\lSf:

f1J se CARRIER ASOESTO S eLEME.NT.

COfn.,c T TIAIE

2 .. NRC FUSE (HIGH RUPTURING CAPACITY FUSE,

Theee type of fuses are abje to control higher current ca pacity. I n case of short circuit in the cIrcuit these be bear high current for long time_ If phase and neutral are shorted together and agalrl separated means fault removed then this fu sa wfU not burn. But if ph ase a nd neutral are shorted directly pe rrn ana ntly and fau ft goes contin uous Iy then fuse will bu rn.

00 0000

Us outer cover is made of gtass or some che mica'. 8ecau sa It is pa eked from all the sides, it has no effect oute r cli mate a nd it re mai ns protected fro m outer eli m ate I ai r, d urt and mojetu re.

These type of fuses are made from 2 a mpere to 600 am pere 3. CARTRIDGE FUSE

This type of fuse is fully enclosed form aU the sides- Round, tube or bulb type insulating container

.

been fixed at Us er.d, which is sealed at both sides. Its cover is catled cartridge. which encloses inside element and powder. One thin paper has been fixed surrounding its inner sides, which ls called bfow device. When fuseblows aut then this paper also gets damaged, it lndlcates that fuse is blown. Fuse because of over load or short circuit, powder kept in fuse cartridge reduces fuse temperature and

. .

spa rk. T hi s is costlier th en oth e r fu s e s .

SHYER lNDICATOO

H r Y:;NT POWOER

INNER CAP C E;:RAMIC 13{){)'f

PHASE TESTER

:11::1-
~~
~~
cro
.....
z
~
~
LI.I
w
s
IL
.!Z
w
~
~ I.IJ
LLJ ~
I:( 0
~
::;,
0 Su ppfy which is g ivan to houses th raug h pole, that has mi nimu m two wi res. Am ang these one is phase and second is neutral wi re. Identification. of both wires is. not important on Iy for safety point of view but

important for proper wiring.

~"F+."=

~==:: ===::]

16

Bf~SIC ELECTRICAL & I : r 4t. _!. -~ f.._. 1 __ ~·Tr:"l""l rr £ :1

I nstrument which is used for identification of fuse and neutra I wires is called phase tester. It has one neon bUlb ('ndicator). one resistance, and one spring one end of phase tester is like a screw driver, This end has to be connect8d at phase testing point and othe r is a round cape type end _ Ea rth is prov,ded at thi s end by tou ching it finger. 'n this cond ition if rubber shoes a re worn then p ha Be tester will blow oni y by touchl ng other hand with , Means it is essential to provide earth to upper ro und end of the tester. The wire by te uching on ft neon IInClailtor becomes ·ON n that is phase wire a nd other is nevtra I wire. Phase tester ls usefu f instrument for a electric

After klentifying the phase by phase tester, test,ng la mp is used for identification of neutral, minimum 60 watt

is essential for connecting in this test lamp. Its one has end of the wire has to touched at wire already traced by phase tester and second wire has to be touched with other Wires, wire by touching with test lamp glows fu lIy, then it means that the wire on Which test lam p touched ts a neutral wire. Many ti me bulb gives di m or less light r where as pha Be wire is ~r~ The it means neutral is comirlg through some other equrpment which phase wire has br'o4I:en. After that test some other wires for neut ral up to that time till bu I b does nat 9 fows

tilt then neutral wi re can not be cons klered as co rrect.

Beskles that other equipments can also be tested with testing lamp. For an example of fluorescent tube Ught can be cheeked with this testing lamp, Forthat starter has to removed from tube Itght and both wires of testing has to be connected at fts pi ace. In th is ."Idffi<m current flows tn the circuit fastly and tu be Ug ht beg ins worki ng _ When la rge number of tube lights will to be put to ON position at open public place then sta rter wiU not be used, but by use of above method of .-..)in", lamp at! tube Ughts· wi II be put to. 'ON I •

This board ;S used for checking of defective equipments. When any equipment comes in workshop for

,

IOMl8alrv repair then we check that by co nnecting in two or three pin socket. If that Bq U ipment Iss hort then matn

of workshop will bum. I n this way other be stopped, but if It wilf be a nighttime

. ~ilr be comp4et& dark iO wOrkshop. _ ... - PrQbfemwe Wi~have to check

equipment throug h series testing boa rd _ I ri .

2-PIN PLUG

PIOLET LEMf

e o

."idHit'ln of short tn equipment bulb connected _· ...... ool __ tel1lt1g boMdilimokwi_ fuR light but 'IIi,J riot bum r ,~i t :.:: .: .':. . .__ -. ~., c- :.' "r .. ;.

One series circuit has been made in th is testing board. one two pin or three pin has been connected !n it. That instrument

AC!

. 22fJVI 23JV

·17

HG.(H)19

BULB 6rJN

BA SIC FLECTP ;C.Al. b(

I ..-- r . -, "II:~ , •. T r , i .. ,. t ., -.~ 1

• =-.. .. ' ....... ,..! ., ... ... 1 ~ .. .&t

."._Iclt!~in this socket, which we want to check out. If bulb connected in this board does ._11'h$ that the above equipment rs open. If bulb glows dim then equipment is ok and if bulb glows

I

K6;,""f:.I!IM1N:~ that equipment is short.

'n this way-series testing board proves a very useful instrument for a wireman.

PARALLEL - SERIES TEmNG BOARD

This is a such board, in which parallel and series both type of circuits are made. Series circuit i! testIng any equipment, where as parallel circult is used for checking of any bulb or for final testing of an~ instrument This board works at one time In one positjon. For that one 1pole 2 -way switch has been con it By fixing many bulb holders in this board many colored bulbs can also be fitted in parallel circuit rna

N

p

B1

p

2·WA'1 SWITCH

82

PlOLET LEMP

FIG.{H)20 p

AC 220Vf nDV

N

p

N

PHASE RE-BACK

When ever neutral wire breaks in house wiring then house Ilght does not work, but at that time phas shows pha se j n both ta ppi ng s of two pin socket. It wiU n appen tM at ti me till sWitch of a ny bulb or eq uipn remain ON. Phase comes on other tapping or two pin socket through" that bulb or equipment. This p« ca ned phas e re-baek.

TYPES OF SUBSTANCE

Fer knowing that which type substances are good conductor of efectrfcrty and which are bad cone electricity. Substances are divided in to three categories.

1. Good Conductor or conductor 2. Bad Conductor

3. Semi conductor

,. CONDUCTOR/GOOD CONDUCTOR SUBSTANCES

These substances in which electric current flows very easily Without any hindrance, are called condL good conductor. Generally aU metals are conductor. Gold Metal is a most superior conductor because it costty hei1ce it can not be used" After that conductor substance comes at second ptace (s s~lver. This is alse substances he nee it also can not be used. After t~at nu mber comes for copper, Practically copper wire is u conductor. Presently aluminium is used ln pface of copper, because 8S a conductor it comes at fourth pia, comparatively it is cheaper then copper.

18

----""" _--" _"-.- ---,----

BAD CONDUCTOR SUBSTANCE

These substances ts which electric can not flow, are called bad conductor substances. Where electric current to be stopped to flow, bad conductor substanCes are used, Bad co n ductor substances are also called i nsulators. 8EMI CONDUCTOR SUBSTANCES

Semi conductor s ubsta nces are co nsidered as medi urn category s ubsta nee between condu ctor and bad "'l,UUt;"~1JI substances. These has more capabilityto resist flow orcurrent in comparison to conductor substances Jess than bad condu ctor substances

. You m~ ht have see n that some e rectric eq uipme nts have three wi res in m aj n lead 1 i ke heater, iron, geyser, and freeze etc. Colour of these wires is seriaIly red, blaeka nd green _ Red colo ur wire has to be connected phase and bla ck wfre to neutral, and third green wire is for earthing. Th i s green wi re s hou [d be connected to

pi n (earth~ ng pin) of mai n lead, Thl s earthing pi n h as contact with meta IHc body of electri c equ ipment. for this is that some time phase comes in outer case. Even it may cause some loss, Earth connection is to avoid this l~a8. This earth wire conneeUon has to be made deeper up tc:wet earth level, because of ,phase coming in the outer case wHl go directly to earth. Earth wire connection is essential ~or those equiptents, whi ch have more possi bifity of leakage of eu rrent. Th rae pln pfug has to be used with these equ ipments. siza sockets a re used for these in comparison to com man sockets, because due to h ig h current consum p-

by these equipments excess heat will be produced, small sockets will become hot and burn and also get - Genera lIy sa rthing of good wire is made in powe r house, ea rth in 9 ot every second or thi rd pole is a I so This earth wi re j s given to homes. But even then m a kj ng of earth j n factories an d homes is better for safety of view. P reviously earth~n9 was made -th roug h water pi pe Ii ne, but it also has possibll ity of damage or loss, hHt~""'Guse by touching pipe line and tap it can give shock, Hence this method is not used,

._. ... Of MAKING EARTH

One method of makrng earth is given be'ew~

At fj rst 2 to 2.5 meter deep pit has to be. digged. U sh au ld have so much width that one m etaBic pi ate of 60cm

." . .

x 6mm may be place in It. This plate should be prepared by copper or galvanized iron sheet. Galvanized wire has to lighted with nut and bolt in a hole made in centre of plate or it is welded_ Before putting plate in the

layer of wooden co~e and.salt has to be made and then plate has to be placed in pit and layer of coke and salt to be made again. After that. water h as to be spreaded 0 n th at 1 aye r. At last p;t is to be fWed a nd covered Wire coming out from this pjt is caned earthing wire, Normally plate and wire should be made of same """"",,,1:1''''1:11, Thickness oft'fts wire should be 14 gauge and for power it should be B gauge, This wire is taken out from pit in a pipe, dia meter of this pipe can be from 12mm to 20mm. 16 to 25 Kg salt and 10 to 15 Kg BOft coa~

__ .......... ,u,red for malting earthing wire connection.

Even doubJe earthing has to be made fer three phase supply, twa pits can also be made for this purpose or plates can be used in one pit

fn homes, earth wire of 8 gauge is used upto meter and after tliat 14 gauge Barth wire is used far intemal wiring.

CHAPTER - 2 HOUSE WIRING

F or operating various eleelrica i equi pments at homes, which ever appropriate arrangement hal been ,

. .

~s called house win ng. Ge ne ra lIy followi ng equipment, ere used in hornell

1. Bulb, Tube Ught, Table Lamp

2. Ceiling Fan, Table Fan, Exhaust Fan etc.

3. Electric Press, Immersion Rod, Heater: Room cooler, Fridge, lV, Geya.erl Pump Motor, Mixer etc. Whi Ie doing wiri ng at homes ca re has to be taken for load value of current wled by these an elee

eq uipments and on that base wiri ng wi res and switches a re used.

First of aU we wi II stu dy he r reg a rd! n9 essential material used in house wtring. 1. ONE WAY SWITCH

These swrlches a re used for putting ON and a FF electric orcutt. Their wor1dng voltage and CtJtJ'9nt C8~ h as been rna rked on these swrtches. These switches shoutd be made of such type that there shourd t sparking··whHe puttfng them. For that a SP1"ing is used in these switches, which makeB ON-O FF function PfO!

One way switches are used j n house wi ring for putting s·upply ON of OFF being given to bu lbel tube ti fans and othe r e Ie ctric eq u ipments. Wh fie cannecti ng these switches specially their current capacity has· kept in mi nd. This cu rre n1 capacity h as to be decided on the base of load current capadty. These type of IWil are bghten on-plate with nut and bolts. Far common use 5 ampere 25QV capacity switches are used.

2. 1WO WAY SwnCH

This switch provides any onaway among two ways to current to flow at onetlnie. Generalty these swH are used to make ON/OFF one lig ht from two places. These switches "re made from 5 ampere to 15 ampell volt capacity. .

3. BELL SWITCH

These switches are like common one way switch. There is a speciality In these types of switches t rem ai ns 0 N WI it is pressed. When pressi ng is released it comes in off position, whrctl ts its normal position. type of switch is gene rally used for operati ng ca U bell fitted out side home. Hence this il called ben swHch. I 5 ampere 2SOvoit capacity.

4. WALL-SOCKET - 2 PIN

This 2-pin socket is used for taking supply for any outer equipment. Supply can be t~n by connedinj pin ptug in it. It has 5 A-250V capacity.

5. WAu.-SOCKET -3 PIN

Th is socket is also used fo r taki ng AC su pply for a ny outer equipme~ , but is hse three holes, Th ire! hl comparatively bi g and It is for earthi ng. Three pin ptug has to be con neded in it. This plug has onEI thick p'n, W

is earthing pin:

. ~

BASIC ELECTRICAL & I :. r- 1. -'·T··""I·==--'-~~j· r~T" ·=-r.-l

20

· ..

WAll. SOCKET u..vnSAL ... 2/3 PIN

Two or three pin plug ~ be connected in this socket for obtaining AC supply. It has separate anangements connecting these both p~n plug s. lt has to be tighten on plate with two bolt and nuts

INDICATOR

n is used for indication of main AC line phase incoming position- It has to be fitted on board, normally it is in parallel with supply line, When it becomes ON then it indicates that electric suppty fS coming. Besides that da rk at night it indicates the place of board,

KIT-KAT

It is a fuse assembly for connecting on board. It has to be connected in series with the supply given to board. any equ;pment connected on board gets shorted then this fuse wiJl become open, then at that time fUS8 top

to be putled out forcely. After connecting fl,Jse wire it has to be fitted back in fuse base, But before that it is I to rework that short circuiting otherwtse fuse will ag ain become open. This type of Kit Kat ha s 10A,250V

FAN REGULATOR 80cKET

Now-a-Days controlting the speed of fan, regu lator j s to be fitted on board _ Thi s fan regu later should be

)jQh~nected in this socket.

I n this way other materials required for house wi ring are sh awn in the figu re given below.

DESCRIPTION. ITEM DESCRIPT10N ITEM DESCRIPTION
One wa,,/ SWitch 6A,25OV [2] swit'ch Type Fan Rag. ~ 2 Gang Switch SoP. 6A,25OW
300w AC. witt'! silver colour insel't
Two wa'llwil~~ eA,25OV .: ··0· TV Coonecto; mJ 2 Gang 1 Switch oj- 1 Neon j ilCIicator
s. P. 6A ,2 50V wilti sillier COler ll1Hrt
It
Bel Push SA. '25IJV It Telephone Socket :]. pin 2A m
2 Gang Switd'i 2 way 6A iMth ,Uver
0 COIOf insert
.. "
!II
Wall Soeket :2 pn SA 2!IOV § Swild1 S ,p, wlltllnd. 16A, -mm :2 Gang 1 Swllc:h aA, 1 Belt ~h with
250V 61 .... er color insert
wall Socket! Pin GA., 250V {@ Switch D ,P. with Il'1d, USA. 1m 2 Ga f\g 1 Bell Push + 1 Neon

2!50V With silver GOJor insert 21

HASIC ELECTRICAL & 1-=-:r:-11 .r I"..~ ~-_._T] t it 11": r- 1

o -0 C o 0

00

Wa~ SOCIt;et un i. 2/3 Pjn 6A

250V

S>.Wch two wa'j 16A,25ov

2 Gang 2 Neon ImliCatclr YllIal sooi« ~nMrt

2 Gallg 2 Neon lndic:alor willi 61 color Insert

If'ld;cator

o

Wall socket unt 611 eA, 250V

Kit Kilt 1 OA, 25aV

Fa n Rag. Socke~ SIZe ~OO W.A.C

o

o 0

o 0 G

One way Swilc:h eA, 2~ 'llllith silver coIo~ Ioaen

Two Way Switch GA, 250V witI'I wlltt S~Wlr C~or lnHrt

Extension 90;11'(16 Amp. Elctef1sion Board 1 e Amp_

Bell Pu:!;i'1 SA, 250V with Si lver color in !ert

Neof'l I ndiCliltoFWiIt1 s~lver color Insert

Wall Socket 2/3 Uni

6 h IJUerEKllfII~th silvilr col.

Kit Kat 1 OA With S I""&r

nJ Connector 1 Ga r\9 with Si lver color insert

22

D.P, Swilch Socket comb, MeA Utii, stnJlteied Mt1100.

~ ::k::::~:o:::'OOV [lm] 00'" ;0 .. 0 ~

t-;;=:=:::::=~;;:;:;;~----- .. , .•. -- -----+---:===:--,.-~-------_+_~---_____t--------~-

~~(l j ::~:~~::.fth 8",,, g ;,::~.":,':::~,:: s,

...... - .. _-_.-.-- _~.- .. --------_t-- ..... --+_----------

r~~® DM,.S.;,mTyp.F" [[ ~ ~

W~ ~ :::rt "OW AC wllh sllver @_ i

~~~~~ .. ~ ~~ ~~~~~L_ ~

o

o

o 0

o 0

PlUg. :c! Pin eA. 250V HQrimnta~

~ug ~ Pin eA. 260V ~ri!.ootal

Jambo Datt-lln Holder w~h.lkin 11

J..,..bo Betlen Holder with Jumb SklrllSI

JIlCI_ 16A,25OV wilh Silver color NlMrt

O Colour-!ld Ine.ert

.imil~: Lignt gfay Red Bive Ivory Black

Framoe 1 Gllng

silvBr ootor I nHrt

Jambo CeNing Rose- :il

Ceilin9 RO!4il 2 Plat. FIWihTypti

so rface Type C .P. SWitch wllh Fuse lar.d looica1Q( 16A,25OV

Fe" Regulator 3OOW, A.C . with !itvl!!lr color t.n9E1rt

rrn=n Dummy Plille wilt18iNt!ir ~ ®Jour lnsert

Frame 4 Gang (Square)

Surface type D,P, S'NItc:h With Fu!WI and I"dlcator 32A.25OV

Frame 4 Gang (l.inear}

Frame 6 Gang Square

D

[ I ,

Insert 2 Gang

Batten ~p Holder with Jlilmbo Skirt IS~

Angle Lamp Holder with JambO uirt

Flu,h type D,P, Swdch with FUflurKl Indicator tElA, 250V

Flush T)Ipe D.P. gwitc~ wlll'1 Fuse and I rod~to~ 3:2A. 25(]V

Insert 4 Gang (Square)

EE

I

F I

f

I

I

BASIC ELECTRICAL & 1--=--r .. _l._'I ] .~._r4~11 .. 11 ~ [~.1

23

1. ONE SWITCH - ONE BULB CIRCUIT

MAKING CONNEcnONS ·OF VARIOUS TYP& OF ELEC I .. e ClRCUii

"

2. TWO SWITCH .. TWO IlULI ClR~

-'"

Bulb'

(N)

Swltcl'l1

Swik:h

(P}

(P) 3. THREE swnCH - THREE BULB CIRCUIT

Bulb ·1

(N)

Switch ·1

SWIk:ti- 2"

(P)

4. TWO BULB - ONE WALL SOCKET CIRCUIT

{N)

Sw;tt:h -1

(P)

24

SWltch- 3

Swjloh-1 i·Pot, 2~Wrty (Up-Skle)

SWltch·2 i-Pol. 2.W." (Oown-S1de)

(P)

SW~tch-1 1·Pol, 2.W8>J (Up-Side)

.. B..ECTRIC "BELL WIRING

" Electric-Bell

Bell-Switch

N~--------------------------------

25

9: 4. '~If"": IF.. ~ C"T n." " 1:\ t. H .

."": '-" ...rr... ~ ~ "~ .. f 1"" ~ a , J ."" ""~

fe) nUIi JIt.A.CeI: 8TAlRCAliI UOHT WIRING MADE WfrH, TNI! U. OF ....... ·RMATa awlTClt

Two 1-pole 2..way switch and one intermediate switch has been used in this type of wiring. Both positions of intermediate switch are shown in the figure given below:-

I

(A)

(8)

o

· · · · · · · ·

I nlef Mediate Switch

0, -, , ., .. 0 .::;:{

0'" "D

o

· · · · · · · · ·

o

(N)

(P)

(D. THREE PLAQS "'''IRCASE UdlfT WlRlNO MADE WITH ntE USE OF 1-POLIi 2-WAY SwrrCH In this t~pe of wiring dual2-way switch has been used in place of intermediate switch.

Double l-POI. 2.Way Switch

26

Swltch-1 1·Ptll, 2-Way

Switch-2

, -Pot, 2-Wtiy

7~ TUBE UGHT WIRING

fAl SINGLE TUBE LIGHT WIRING

STARTER

TUBE-LIGHT

(N) o--~-

C~ IOKE

~.J TWO TUBE LIGHTS PARALLEL VlJRINO

(P) 0- -------~~ __ ___,J

c __ 0,01·

STARTER

TUBE-LIGHT 40W

STARTER

,............------.------.1 L. ~ _____,

TU8E~LlGHT 40W

CHOKE40W

ON/OFF ~ SWITCH !

(P) (N)·

M G,T f!fl.1H-J.CMlPIf. _. 2_7_----L ....

ICl OPUAnH TWO 111.1 LIGHTS WITH 0_ CIIOIU COIL

. STARTER

TUBE.LlGHT '2OW

SlARTER

TUBE-LIGHT 20W

(N}o--

CHOKE 40W

.... ~ '="""""

(P) 0---' _.--_ .. (J' 0---- .. _ ... ~L--------.....J

ONroFF

GWJTCI-I

.. IEIIIEI - PAIIALLEL TEmNG BOARD MAKING 'At

Bulb

SWitch

Wall-Sodtet (3-PIn)

28

WRJI·Socket w.~..soc:bt

{3.PWi) (3-Pin)

r-----+O- ...

ONIOFF

(N) SWitch

10. ONE ELECTRIC BELL CONTROLlED AT THREE PLACES

(N)

Bldb·-2

Electric.aell

Switrn ·1

Swttc:h-2

(P~

Ben Switch

Ball SW~tch

SWitch- 3

Be~ Swl~ch

29

e ...... ,;. ~ C iF I ;:: C l ~< .. '-._.... '\ ~ .Jii

I: ~ :.. .~..;_. .:. _..., _ ( -, . _ 1

11. MAKING CONNECnON OF BELL AT FRONT DOOR AND BUZZER AT REAR DOOR j(N}

Buaer

Eler.lric-Bell

Front Door··Bell SW~

Back Coor-Bel Swilcn

(P> o-------i.--------~-----.

MAKING HOUSE WIRING

AEHIAL FUSE BOARD

Hause wiring should be started from main switch board. Electricity Board given electric connection only u meter. Its further wiring we have to get done by ourse! .... es. Besides that the cab~ which comes from pole to me

. -

that is also arranged by Our own expenses. For house wi ring two wires come from pole. Among these one w~r

ph ase (P) wire and second wire is neutral (N) wire. On Iy red wire shou lei be used for Phase (P) (se rvice line) • b4ack wire should be used for neutral. First of a II these both wi res come in meter. After coming a ut from m~

. ~. ~ .~"T

r ..': _,jl. J: I

30

ihese both wires go to DP switch th roug h Me B . (teA), In case of a ny erne rgency house supply be put ON/OFF with this switch. After D P ·awltch phase and neutral wires are gwen to Bus Bar, From these, supply is given to different rooms through MCB or Kft Kat fuse. Th is type of system has m any be naflts. The biggest benefit is that due to fault of any part wiri ng of co m plete house is not effected.

~n this way by giving suppfy to different rooms from dlstribution board I wiring 01 each room is done according to necessity. Wiring of which room has done first of all its etectrical wiring map has to . be prepared. This map is made on the base of all

MCB 1M,

N N N N

..... '" -t.

g 2 ~ ~

S ~ ~ !

2 g ~ ~

. essential requirements oHhe room, There are the under mentioned electric requirements for a general room. 1- One or Two bulb Holders and bulbs

2, One or Two Tube lights_

~

3. One or two Cening Fans

4. One or Two Wall sockets

One switch board is made according these aU requirements supply ~ine com ing from d istri bution board has to be connected to th is board, Bes ides that if any additiona I po int h as to be ta ken for any other room -then supply wiret for that are a Iso ta ken trom th is boa rd.

'SWITCH BOARD ILAYOUn

p

,
SWlTCH BOAR:U
Supply 1
line
from
D,8.
o ;=""l~ ~ 0
(2) 0 0 0 0
[] Q 0 c [!]
0 0 0 0 0
;;;---== f=_---
0 0 .0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 ~
a D
0 0 .

~<?'= 0 0 0 ~-.- 0 0
~- ~~ .. -. ~:.,..-''''' ., _,
0 0 0 p S~1y to

N Addiboolll Board

N

31

BtlSIC FI"ECTP rCAl Ii..

I" "l!f"""'"tII" - , , . .•. "II "if"".. ~ . -". Jt( or .....

• ... ..... .J... ~.~:i • ~ ~ ..; ~ ~ ... "'-.....

" ,

SWITCH BOARD (WIRING DIAGRAM I

... F2

: (FAN)

F' (FAN)

.. ~

o

o

: ... _ ...... ,..

• M~~ 0·
FAN
··ta· .C]
REGUI..
0 0 I I I

.'

Supply From

.. - .... · ..... ·Op

.- -.

..'" ..... • .. -ON

! Una O.B.

...... ill 0

: _J,__ 1:',:;;;;;;;;""'=:7

I -=-

G==;;0~

III...... _I

.

-_ ""' ..

.. ........ 111

N

0t
i
.~
~ J'~\
c ••
0 0! 0
..
I ,. '0
:0 :0 0·

...

.. r5i\. ~.~

o 0·

: 1- - ... SuW~ out to

_I • - - - Acklltklnal

~ B~

. 1--.... t

'Q 11- ...... .,._

.D·· .1

:0 0

e

p

WALt·SOCKET INOICA~

o

t t

61 92

(BULB) (8ULB)

t

T1 (TUBE-UGHT)

,t

T2 (TU8E.UGHT)

,SWITCH SOARD

DESCRlP110N

Supply wires ~ ieh are com ing to switch board from distribution board, among these phase (P) wire has to I

~~~~:I~:I:el:::;:::~~ ::~~:~:I~ ~:~:::i: :~::;:g~~~~::~:::":~~:::i~; ;O~I

is taken out from one tappi ng of all switches accordtng to fig ure and thei r nut are also tighten. Here this thing l should be specially kept in mind that wire and nut should not be left loose otherwi~e it wiJl give sparking or sparking~ win take place and switch will become hot and burn. r

Neutra-l wire is to be connected at one ta p~ng of ind icator. Now one black long 'Ni re is taken and about 2 inch ~

. t

sleeve is removed from its one tapping. This board unsleeved part of wire is to be taken out from that tapping of~

indicator in which neutral wi re was connected _ Thi s base wi re is taken out up to sleeved part of wire and nut i' tighten. U nsleeved wires com ing out from these ta ppings has to be connected at both tappings of wall socket a, shown in fig ure and their nuts are: tighten. Cut excess wires coming out from these tappings. After that red wire fiji

. to be taken from s~c·oncHap~ng. 'nthis waywires·c~tng out from both tappings Qj,ndicator ~~des this boa~ are used for connecting points on other boards. Besides that newal point has been given at each point of th,

room. Now wi ring of swftches and regulator connected on switch board has to be dene. .'

WIRING OF SWITCHES . , g

wiring of switches is most important in switch board wi ring. ~ts main reason is that ta king of wires fro~ switch board to concerned pOint In a safest and good looking way, Many methods are used for this_ Here we art· giving description of all types of methods,

. I .-. j -!'":' IE I f: C T R 1 C A ~ li·

f ..,. -: _. ~ ~ ~ ·1 ~ -~. 1

..., ~ ...- .::.:.. ( - :.. :.: .. .._ .

32

·OF WIRING·

Main~y three methods are used for wiring as given mentioned below:- 1- Casing Capping Wiring

2. Batten Patti W~ri n9

3. Underground Wiring

CASING CAPPING WIRING

This wiring is a best wiri ng for de ~ng in side house wir~ng and it looks bea utrruL Wooden Q itties at about 2.5 distance are to be fixed in waUs at beginn ing a nd wooden channeled strips are tig hten with BCteWS. Gitties are in the careful~y. Method of fixing these ~s given as under:-

ool\llG OF GrmES IN WAll.

1. At first wi ring tayout should be made on wall.

2. Ma rking is made on layout at a certai n distance fo r ff xi ng 9itti9s.

3. Flat part of gltti is touched at marked potnt ofwaU and marking is made on outline of gitti on waU,

4. Now take cotd chisel in left hand and make slowly markIng with hammer on giUi outline.

5. Make Hole so much deep that its inside depth should be more the n 6. 5mm from 9 itti le~gth_

~

6. 'Now fill this hole with cement solution mixture.

7. Now put side of gitti towards wall and make ham mering so much th at 9 itti shou Id go tnside hole 6. 5mm more from its length and clean out comi ng solution.

8- At last make plaster at upper surface of gitti like a smooth waH.

g_ Length of gitti should be 5 centimeter, area of inner portion 2.5 square centimeter and area of outer portion should be 2 sq uare ce nUmeter-

Presently plasbc gitties are also available in the market. These plastic gftties can be (»led in the wan by , aliitinn holes with masonry d rill bit By

awll ~n l-hlJllnMIr

_ .. to ..... screws th is 9 itti expands inside and catches wall tightly. Th is gitties

bricks, stones or tiles may be in it. Masonry bit makes hole in

very easUy a nd by putting little ce-

this gitti works very nicely by

_ ... ·nn ... screws. With its usa there is no nesd to cut wa II more.

tn thts way by fixing wooden or plastic g itties in the wall ca sing

By putti ng VI R or PVC wi re s in these cha nnel s cappi ng is ... .,""n on it with screws. I n this way this wiring ls call ad cas i ng

33

BASIC El.ECTPICAL 8..

I -:- (" -. 11 "[ ~"1 -- _...- - j.j f ~ 'i i ~~ T ~ 1

caprAng wiring_ This type of wir.ng was used few time before. Presently use of thil system .• 81fT10SlWn1lblBfll use of plastic casing capping is increased. Its method of fitting and use is similar like old caBin; capping, Specially of casing capping is that because neutral and phase w;res ate in separate channers, hence no risk of their mutuaUy shorting, Hence for safety point of view this method is more beneficiaL MAKING JOINT IN CASING CAPPING

Manv type of JOInts have to made at the time offitting of casing capping, It length of casing is les .. then piece has to be jointed with it. Besides thatjoints.-have to made at the time of giving tum or making junctlon. we are giving description of methods of making at! type of iOints in castng cappjng, (.) MAKING OF PlAIN JOINT IN CASING CAPPING

This joint is making for increasing the length of Capping.

METHOD

1, Make both ends smooth of the Casing,

2. Make a mark with scale at 16mm distance on both ends of casing and drawa line with tri-squara.

J_ Now cut walls of channels up to this mark in this type that lower wood should remain intact, make both end smooth with file.

4, Now put one piece on other and see carefully that these are comins. smoothly on each other of not, If there are not smooth then make them smooth wrth file. After that tight 15mm wooden screw at central wall,

t_~-~~~~:: ij

~ ... _ . __ . ~--- .. _.- .. _---_. _._.,._ .. - _--.

PRECAUnONS

1_ At the time of cutting of casing hacksaw (300mm} should be used carefuUy,

2_ No Space should be left open between joints.

:1. Joint should not be loose,

4. Marking should be made correct and at equal distance.

BASIC ELECTRICAL & I ; i:_ <1'; 1 : 1 .: _.~~'f i 1 ;1· r; [<"1

".JONG T .IOINT OF CAS~G CAPPiNG

When wires ·have to be taken below sWitch board or to brought at socket poInt then IT' Joint h'3s to be there.·

IWCINO T JOINT IN CAIINQ

1, First of alt take two piaces ~~~~~~~~~~~

of easing of different length. T

I

Length of these p~eces· 1

should be min'm um 20 ern and 3Ocm. Make marking of these pieces as shown in the figure.

Those parts of casing which are not requN"ed, cut them and remove as

shown In the fig ure. Nowtight both ~s With 12mm wooden screw. rn th is way 'T' - Jotnt Is ma.de incasing

lIAIING or JOINT IN CAPPING

1. first of all make a sq uare with the size of capping width at the place of capping jOint, make a cross on this &qua re and cut its 1/4

part. AppJy this method on both pieces of cappirig I cut 3/4 part of square of other ~ce and keep, 1/4 part in.

balance,

1*-- 1.75 inch -, .

.. , ,

. I ..

, ,

T

1

.1

1

1

T

1.75Jnd\

35

F.it SIC F.:t.f:CTr H::A L ~ .··w r .. 1 :: 1· ~ \ . _. , ; t .. t • , ( t 1

• . ... _.... I ......

2. Now put both pieces on casing and tight them with 12mm wooden screw ..

tel MAKING ANGLE JOINT OF CASINO CAPPING

Whe n wiri n9 has to be take n up or down fro m the corner then this j oi nt is made.

METHOD

1. Take two equal pieces of casing. Make a width size square on end of both pieces and draw a line in of square.

2. Now cut outer triangular part of one piece in such a way that tts lowerwcod should not be cut and piece should be cut fn such a way that its channel walls snouid not be cut, means on~y lower wood be cut.

3. Now put both pieces at right angle and tight them with 12mm screw. Capplng Joint is also made l

ROUI'II[)~O

same way and it is tighten upon caslng by wooden screw. CORt-IEFlS

36

.... lrunQ CORNER JOINT OF CASING CAPPING

Thrs joint js made at roof corners or at waU for safety of wires from bending

Take two equal pieces of casing and make the~r angular joint according to method given earJier.

Now take three pieces of 15cm length each and put all the three en each other and tighten them wfth screw. Now as shown in the figure herght of jointed pieces is B and length is 2B.

B

1

,

• I

'. ' . ' .,

Cut these jointed pieces at two places from height After that joint centre of length (29) at comers and cut these at line made, In th is way one comer wi II be obtained,

Joint this corner with already made angular joint.

37

'eJ MAKING T-8RIDGE JOINT OF CASING CAPPING

According to Indian Electri city Act. at wirkng tim e neutrat wire sf1 Quid not be cross directly upon While dOing wiring when phase wire crosses neutral wire then in that condition T-Bridge Joint is made them separately.

METHOD

1. First of 8 II take two equal size pieces of ca sing and T -Joint ls made according to method already given.

2. Now one a noth e r T -Joi nt is made. wh i ch is sm a ner fro m prevj ous joint.

Three comers cfthis joint should be cut in slopjng shape, as shown in the

fJg!.lre. .

3. Make smooth of sloping part with file and joint is tighten with screws. Nowthis T -Jolnt is to be put upon the first T -J ol nt and trg hten with screws. In

this way T~Bridge Joint is made. A capping T-

Joint is also to be made and fitted on it.

~f) MAKING CROSS JOINT OF CASING CAPPING VV~len wfres cross each other while doing wiring or wires are to be taken to all s.i?es then thisjoint is at that place.

METHOD

1. Take two casing pieces of 30cm length each.

2. Make marking at centre on each piece at certain distance w;th the help ottri-souare .... ·:.·

: .. :".:... .~~ ~~:::":':~.:. . ;": :-_:.':!:::::::;.- .-~.

:" :~~ .. :..::~~ :~ .. ;.~ ~ ~ ~~~·;'~:~7;; ~~:::..:.~ .:. -~~.:". _".

..

.

~ -

38

wire. lk1ng

Make two part at ce ntre of other ~iece and cut Uke T -Joi nt on one side of each part and tig ht both pteces with screws at both sides of a lrea~y cu t part of long piece. After th at ca ppi ng she uld be tig hten on it with wooden screws. In t his way cros~ j 0 i nt sh ape will be obtai ned ass hown in the fig ure.

. .. ..

- I _. •• __ •• •

_. -_. , _ - _._ -

. -

- --. _ .

_. - - _ .. _--_. _.

MAKING CROSS BRIDGE JOINT OF CASING CAPPING While doi n9 wiring th i s j o tnt is made for avoid ing cross ing among phase a nd neutral wires. OD Take two casjnq pieces with 30cm length each. Make two part of 30cm cas rng a nd make its ordinary cross joint as aj read y desert bed,

. Ma ke two parts of otbe r casing piece and also

make its crossjcmt. Make aU ire four ends slop- m-l ~·m

ing ofthis cross joi nt. ~

Tighithi s s Ioping.erossjointupoo crdinerv croes I-c., ~ ~.~§

joint wit h 1 2mm wooden screws. ?( ." . .- .. _. jl G..~_::.=

Fit Capping on ~ in p;operw~y. ·:·::'W-:::-· .. -.

~~~~~~~~~

39

-.~ .. - .~ - -. .• ·l

. . ~ . -~ ~ ~.!.:.: : ; ~

2. BATTEN WIRING

This type of wiring is done for house wir~ng because this wir~ng is not more expensive and this wiring done easily- Plain strips of teak wood (Batten) are used for this type of wiring, Thickness of these strips is mately 1 Omm to 13min, These strips have different size of widths, wt1ich can be used according to req JirAl."I'UllfIi The se are us ed on the basis of nu m ber of wi res, Width of batte n stri p is decided on the basis of total wke s passing. If n urn ber of wire s i ncrea se s th en wi dt h of batte n strip will also be increased. Size of batten strip number of wires is given below,

-- Wi-_'-_~-!~-O-f-B-a-tt;~-~ T~i~k;~T-'-· No. of Wlrew

13mm)( 13mm 2

--~~---- ......

19mm x 13mm 3

---------1

25mm x 13mm 4

31mm x 13mm 5

. - .--.----- --.- --.~-----___l

_.- .. ---_. - -_ ... -_ .. __ .-._._--- .- .- .. __ .__. -.----.-~-,.--.~-

35mm x 13mm

6

-_ ... -.--~---------.,......

45mm x 13mm 7

---- ---------~

50mm X" 13mm 8

----~-__l

56mm x 13mm 9

- .. --- .... -------." .. - .------ -----,.- .. ---------l

._ .. _. ,_,6;3mm.Li: . .1.3.mm. __ .. _ __ .. 1.0 __ - __ _J

1 f width of batten strips ls req ui red more then th is the n two or more batten stn ps can be used- J oi nt 01 should be fittec( on s trip with 12 m m na tis at a bout 1 5cm distance _ Batten stri ps prepared like this is fitted wooden gitties with wooden screws. After that wires are tighten in these cUps_ CTS orTRS wires are used fort wi rin 9 _ Hen ce this type of wlri ng is kn own as C TS win ng, Presently in place of these wires PVC wires and P

. batten is used _ Th isis che a p wi rin 9 a nd it can be com pteted ins ho rt time.At present tfm e this is used ma xim L

PRECAUnONS

1 _ Th i s wi ring s hou Id not be do ne at that pi a ce where su m rays come directly.

2 _ Batte n stri ps sh 0 uld be made of better wood with 0 ut knot.

3- Gitties for bncxs waH and rowal plug or PVC gitties for stone walt should be used.

4, Joint Clips should be fitted on batten strip before fitting it on wall ..

5, Batte n sh 0 uld be fitted with fI at head screws.

6. Wl1en wiring is to be taken out from one room to other room, then wires should through inside conduitpijp

7. When wi rin 9 is fin is hed ijt s ho uld be painted with good colou r, MAKING JOINT OF BATTEN STRIP

(a) STRAIGHT JOINT OF BATTEN STRIP

Thi s joint ls made for extend i ng length of batten stri p.

METHOD

1. Take two equa t pte ces of batten strip

2, Make marking an each piece with pencil at 20mm distance from end.

40

Make mark ing at he If of tt ... ;ckness. If thickness of batten strip il 12mm then m.ke marking or 6mm, fn:Jm this thickness cut Btri p up to 20mm. 'n the same way cut other strip also and remove cut part with funnll chisel and hammer,

Make these ~ces smooth with the ~el p of fiI •.

Put both pieces on each other and tight them with wooden screw.

~ 45Gm ~ I-- 20mm~

::~." -:-: .-: . .:.::-::.::",:.:.!.~._"L.:_" .;' I :":",,;: __ • .-.:::;~. _ .:~_ ( :.~: ": .. :: .. : ,,"_: :""::=-:":. ~~ :::~::=-:: -;::;:;':" :::".:-::": ::::: .!::~~~~;

:'::.~.~.'-_'.- - :i·:-~::-_-::=::'::-"::~':' ~~._" :~~:~~~-=--

MAKING T..JOINT OF BATrEN STRIP

Th is joi nt is made at Jhat tlme whe n Ii ne h as to be taken towards lower side from straight line.

'I. Take two equ al piece s of batte n stn p,

2, MAke marking of 20mm widUl in the centre of one piece by tri square,

3, Take other piece and make marking at 20mm length from its one end.

r--2Omm~

.' pijpe.

j_

Now cut both batten strips up to 6mm thickness fr om rna rk ing point.

5. R amove cut part with the hel p of fa rm al chisel and hammer.

6, Make t hi s cut part sm ooth with th e help of fde,

. ~. . .

. 7. Now tig ht both pie ce a n each other wit h wooden screw,

lei MAKING CROSS JOINI' OF ·BAII EN 81WIP'

Thts joint is made at that time, when phase (P) and' neutral (N) wires cross each other-Whife doing 1 , " Take two equa' pieces of batten stn p,

2- Make marldng of 20mm width in the centre of each piece.

3. Now at marked ptace cut both strips up to 6mm thiCkness.

4. Remove cut part With herp of purmal chlsef and hammer

5. Make cut pa rt s mootn wUh file

~---, ~m----------~

I-

12mm

_1

.. -_._" ...

"" _,,_. ._" - - I _ _. _" " _

::" .~:" _ _" ... ..:. -:-:-::-:-~= _ ._~: ~-":ii::::;::':.:':':"'_

_ :.~ ~ "~~i .:.~_~ ~-~: .. ~.;- ~~.~:~.-~ ..

() Put bot h pieces on each oth er and tig ht with screw.

(dJ MAKING 900 JOINT OF BATTEN STRIP

. Whe n wirrng h as to he turned up to 90iJ a n9 Ie then th i s j oj nt has to be made

-I. Take two equal sizt~ pieces of batten strip_ . -------- , ....

2. Make marking of 20mm length and Smm r---"""'r""-"~--~---{o

6""(

20mm

6"',"_J.~~JUl1

thick ness at ends of both pieces.

J. Nowcul both pieces upto marked point.

4 Remove cut part wah purmal and hammer.

~} MClke cut part smooth with file.

6. Now tight both pieces on each other with wooden screw.

'a' MAKING CROSS BRIDGE JOINT OF BAnEN STRIP

lhls joint Is made for provfdfng safety to avojd crossing of phase (P) and neutral (N) wires. With the useof Ihi~ ,.)1111 rhese wlres pass from up and low side of bridge

METHOD

·1 At hrst III a ke a co m m on cross [ojnt.

2. Now take two batte n stri ps of 30cm length and fix them each other with favico~. Now m ak~ 4 em marking in its centre and from these both points draw llnes connecnon at tower ends. Now draw a straight line with Iri square from both 'PQints of 4 em di stan ce a nd cut s lr i P below this line.

: J~ .- ~-_ ... ~-.- _-- ~!Ocm ---.---~- .. -t

1-- ~m ----4

I- -~~--. :Wcm - __ •. -.~-_:_~-_-~

1-- -icm ~

.1 Strip made by cutti ng 'ike this, fi x it on cross joint with wooden screws. In th is way cross Jotnt of batten strip has been made.

MAKING CORNER JOINT OF BATTEN STRIP

Thls Joint is used at that place. where ~ring has to be taken up or doWn by giving hJrtl.

1. First of aU gal L-Joint is made forthis.

2. Now sj m ilar size three pieces of batten strip a re jointed toge.ther .

.: 3. Draw a Una at centra of these three pieces and· connect it ~t c~rs 8S shOwn in the figure. "Cut atlCI remove ·U lin ttl is way a tria ngular part js obtieUned. A corner Joint ·Is made by fi.xing it at centre· of L·Joint. ,

43

6mm

T ~"'___~20~m--.-'m--}-~---~-·~

~ 20mm-~

""'''Y -

?Omfl~

I"tlu,,,,,r· .. _ ~ •... ". ,,~- •. - ._. _ .. -

3. UNDER GnOUNp WIRING

In llus 1ype of wiring wIres are fiUed through conduit pipe or PVC pipe under the wiJll plaster at thu time of COl ~!)I rucuon of house. Conduit Pipes made with soft iron sheet pipes. These have different stze s. Their 5 ize can be ruensured by their outer diameter. Generally size of conduit pipe depends upon number of wires. In this type of wlnnu uus thing is very essential to keep in mind that number of wires in this pipe Shoul_d not be more then tOflt mod quantity. Otherwise in the condiUon of defuel of wiring, it creates difficuUy in rup~m:ing wires. PresenUy

. .

J 'V<.~ • :1"11 ,rI'Jit plpD is more L ISHd ill place 01 iron conduil pipe nus IS comparatively l(ls~, In cost. Benides tha~ 11 fS

I

mi~~I.ha! to ITldk(:l earthing Of iron pipe, where as there is no. need of earthing of PVC. Win;~ used for under grour.d

wiring In ust have 9 Dod:q ualfty bees lise in condH:ton of nne break it becomes very difficuHies taking wAs out .:

TYPES OF CONDUIT WIRING

Conduit wiring is done by Mia methods as mentioned below: 1. SURFACE CONDUIT WIRING'

II I Ihis tvpe wIring em .duit pipes are to be fittod on the waH with the help or saddle Of clip Those uddles are hltud oil tjiU ios fil(oo in the waH,

Some time hook is used in place of saddle for makinq conduit pipe stable. tho pnu! is very low then sadd Ie.

2. CONCEALED CONDUIT WIRING In this (ype of wiring conduit pipe is fixed inside the waH, Before plaster channels are made in the wall, [;ol1d. jil pipes are fitted in these channels atong with wiring wire inside, Wiring is done with this wiring and chan-

IIOIR .111 ~. .overod.

PRECAUTIONS

I PVC or enamelled l:onduit pipes should be always used,

2, Heavy gauge saddle and clips should be used for conduit pip.e .fittlng,

3. Better quaMy wire~, should be used for conduit wrring.

JI. Wooden pfllg shou'd be used in between conduit & wall, For this there is no movement in the pipe.

. .

~j F or in c reel sin'!} lauf[ trl of co nd uit pi pe cond uit s ock E~ ls o r GDupling sh Quid be usnd.

H. At the lime 01 wmnU juuctron box and mspochon <T should be used at various places.

t . lnspeclion T and conduit bends should be fitted tightly on conduit pipe.

8. Size of threads made on conduH: prpe ends should not be tess then 13mm and not more then 25mm length.

9. Ru boor or wooden bu shes should be used at ends of con d uit pi pe. due to th is pipe wilt not be damaged

with th(~ pressure of wires.

10. Mntailic conduh pipe S~lOUJt1 be made earth with earth wiro

1 r There ~ihourd bo mi~kn H distance between comhnt pipe and water pipe,

1~, Aftar cuHing threads pipe should be made smooth by fjle,

CONDUIT ACCESSARIES

While d oi ng conduit wi rin 9 the other' m aterial w~ ud I ~s required j s as u ndar:-

1. ~lJNCTION BOX

Whm1 supply wires are to be taken to two or UIW(! direction from one place than this junc1ion box is

45

2~ CONDUIT TEE

used 2-way juncHon b9x is used for taktng wires in two mrections and 3-way junction box is used fot ta~ ;.., Uuae direction. 1

~

~

~

.

,

WhOrl wiling has to be tnken in two opposite rlnectjuns is gal angle it mil ccnduU· Tis used.

3 .. CONDUIT BAND

r hi s is used for: giving round tu rn in the wiring.

4~ INSPECTION EUIOW

This lS also used fot turning wiring. It has one window, which has been

. . .

closed with hetp of screw. Wiring can be inspected! checked by opening it.

IS. INSPECTION BEND

Jhis box is made wi,h cast ;ron, which is used for ~~jling wiring.

This is also used for turning wir~ng like inspection elbow. Window tS also ImRt.'·in n By opening if wrms can bn checked.

IS. INSPECTION ~ TEE

..

This is a 3~way-T. Means wiring can be turned in three direction with it. One wutdnw j!i alsn made in it, hy opening it wi ring can be check ed .

..

7. e.r, CEILING BOX

8. GRIP ELBOW - BOX Th,s box is used for Wming-wldng at 900 angle. But it is used only in (:un r h'ion 01 joint in the wiring.

TYPES ·OF CONDUIT PIPE

Condu~' plpt:\!S are of thrtw lollowing typos· 1'~ THREADED CONDUiT PIPE

This threaded condllU pjpe is used at rnuisturud place and concealed wiring_ Generally these are usee

~J!lO vult and 650 Volt wir;llg. Besides that at that place where .good wOII~ltlen shtp and safely h om moisture is required Ihjs Ihu~!aJ.nd con- 1.luil Wit U1U is requtred .':

2. SP,LIT ~ CO"~IT PIPE

This fS a h~h gauge conduit pjpe. This 15 used tor surface wiring in factors and domesticwirjng_ This is I

nand .ot concealed and undergrou nd wiring.

46

FLEXIBI.E CONDUIT

. . ... ':- ......_ ~ .

1 h~8 is made by fle)(tbte steel tube made- of couvex metal strips and thtS is winded on each other in such a , Wily I hat its every turn is i n'er locked by second turn,

nmt: ME D DOUSL f. ~, J RlP

HAl DOl)Bt EST Fi' IP

o;INGl. EST RlP

Pmsently non metanic f1e)(ibte conduit pipe is also avaifable in the market. This is t.I~d for sUrface wiring. tt fs less expensive.

COUPLING

For joi,ning two stm ilar type or differe nt type of cond uit pipes, ~ hrtnn mt fype of co upling accassary is used. Type!l of thl s coupling is liS lJUdBr, ~

fLEXliRE

t.J FLEX I aLIi COUPLING WITH TWO SCREWS

This coupling is used for jointiAQ tw6"flexibte conduit pipes, Both . piptlS are ta ken in ce ntre and Path the boits of cou:pl~ ng are tlg bten. (bt TOP HALF AND aorroM HALF COUPLING

.

BOLTS TWO SCRE"W FLEX IDLE COUPlING

This coup!ing is also used for joJnting nexible cond uit pipes. I n this, coupfin 9 is fittud at top and bottom of the

plpU X, tigh te n t he both en (Is with nut and be Its.

TOP HALF

/C:-: -J/

rt E;.I;nl_E f:ONDUIl (;OUPliNG

fLEX8LE CONDUIT

/

r:tE)(BLF GONPUn C(JU F'llNG

-, HOIJ :'I:O~

s rovr. UOl.l s

81010 Ca..DUIT AND FLEXI.LE CONDUIT PIPE COUPLING

This cou~ing j S used for jointing f1exi ble conduit pipe and threaded condu it pipe, fn this flexible conduit pipe

. ..

ias to be jointed with threaded pipe from threaded side .:

d

. HOLES FOR

CONDUIT. BOLTS

COUPUNG ./ .

~~:::::==::-;;.----®-~~~~ TOP HALF

HALF COUPLtNG

auSHING . These are fttted at the ends of conduit pipe. Then there rema ina no possibility of cutting tearing or

of pipe. These are made of various shapes and designs. Two type of bushes are shown in the figure nnno,n·1!II LARGE-RAD IUS rWUt-lOED EDGE

STANDARD P1PE THREAD"

. ......

COllER AROUND BASE

PROJECTION fOR GRIPPING

LOCK NUT

This ts fitted at last end of threaded conduit pi pe. Due to this

pipe. does not becomes loose and come out from packing.

ESSEN11AL MATERIAL USED IN CONDUIT WIRING

1. CONDUIT NIPPLES Z. CONDUIT REDUCER

ROUNDED HeXAGON

EDGE GRIP

12.5mm Coupling Threaded .on Qutslde

DPiPE THREAD

3 .. OCTAGONAL OUTLET FITTING

4. RECTANGULAR QUnET FmlNG RECTANGULAR

OUTER FIT11 NG

ing

MACHINE SCREW

".lIN.

IWrrCH OUT1.ET F1TTING

. . .... PULl. GUT ncTANaI.A.AII

8. RECTANGULAR PULL OUT RmNG

Roller bander Of" pressure bander is used for bending condud pipe, Canduit pipe is kept between fixed and rollers and lever h and le is moved BCCO rdi n9 to req u ire ment.

.,INgtNG JlOl.LE~

c:Qi?tc:d-

r

HANDLE

_·CO"lOU,f 9E~t..IU BENT

Itlduit ~I roller bander Of pressure bander is not avallabfe then a bending - rack can be made for general use, For the

tn is. condu it p+pe can be banDed-

I

AEW

,EXPERIMENT, DIAGRAMS OF WIRING .

WIRING NO.1: CONTllOL~NG OF ONE au .... WITH ONE SWITCH IN PVC CAPPING

------_-_-----.~------------

------.

BULB

I

:""II_~'_ CASING lI. I CAPPING

I I

BULB II;

/

_.

N

P ----...,

SWlTCH

SWITCH

(A) LAY-OUTDIAGRAM (B) CJRCUIT DJARGAM

WIRING NO.2: CONTROLLING ·OF ONE BULB WITH TWO SWITCHES IN PVC '-"'Io:Iolnla PING (STAIRCASE W1RING)

------~--~-~~---~.~"r ~_.r.~

N·-----

• • I i

i ._. __ y~._~ _~_~ __

p--

_ CASING & GAPPING

1-PO,':E_.t. 2-WAY SWlICH

\ \ I /./

::'Ei::

.J

~UlB

1-POLE. 2-WA"t SWl1'CH

H'OLE,l-WAV SVVlTCH

(A, LAy..oUT DIAGRAM

(8) CIRCUIT DIARGAM

,,4. S~C r::\. ECTR tCAl &. i ; l It 1. t 1. .. 1. : __ -. ~';·l ~ ; 1 l : ~ '-."1

~'.

50

WIRING NO~3: CONTROWNG OF··ONE But. AND 'ONE ",Au. SOcKET PoiNT wri1t' sipASWl1"CHlS IN PVC CASING CAPPlNG~

-----~

- .. __ .. - ... -

I

E ---~--------------~--- ---l P ~-------....-.'1'.., I

N----------------~ __

BULB

CASj NG ·CAPPI NG

I ,.

: SWITCH BOARD0

I .... _ "'.

o ,....--. ~__.

SWITCH SWITC H WALL

0- SOCKET r 0

.IING NO .. 4: MAIQNO 'WIRING· OF IN-OUT BULBS WITH ONE ELECTRIC BELL ..

. ~ -, .. : ~ . - .: : ~~ . r .,' :

__ .;....... __ .~c -_::i'\. OUT !:IOLS .. ~.

.. _ ... .>. , ,:: : ~: ..

UNG

, . <

N----~-- ~ ~~

P - - - _ .. ~ .. _. - _ .. - _. _ .. _ .. -'

i

.

,

E ledric-Ben

,

I

.

r· ,

! ~ .. - .. --.-. ---: 0

e

, r·-··~'. ---_ .. ......J

o

~.2-WAY II1CH

BELL-SWITCH

, . .-~-.__ .. -.... .... - ..... -

: IN-OUT SELECTOR,

l_ .. _~~CH .. ., .. J 0

o

.-~,- '. ,

r· .......... ~ r - 11' I...... r...r

-.i f- •• .,.. ~~ it. . l1li:.. ". t ~,. .. ~ , < '\. liII

I : _l·.11 _l .: j '. ~.. I • 1 I ~ l ~.1

·51

I,

r

._. NO~_I: MAKING. WIRING OF 1WO UGHT Cl8CUITS~ ,.......,;...;.._ ......... ~

I"'- .. -.'-.'-

I .... -ir ... :1----

, I

.~.~.-~-------------~_&.~& ~ .. ,

• ,

,

I~-------~-·&·····- ........ ·

,

D,P. SWTCH x2

r---___.t

o :

.,_.,_J

I

j

- .. I ......

o

- _

N F' £

- .

L _S_~Tft!_ J

o

\IWo.Ll SOCI<ET 0

_1M NO.1: MAKING OF PVC CASI"G CAPPING WIRING WITH THE USE OF ,1\JIIE CIRCUIT BOARD (Mea,

~--------------------------------------~

__________ ~~_--~.~~~ .. - ~.r-~--~----~-----~-----· -.I·~·-·

_._------:

i

I

r:i :

: .

-·----··~··-··-·'-··-'·1

f l

l :

t . i

i

f ,

o il1fjfl~

~m

SWlTCl; L.~,~~ .. _

·0

1 ~ ~

i .:

f"-;:=:=~=--~--,..::~.-J : __

IWflIlkifll ~m

, $Wl~ !_.~.~ .. _ _!

~ .

. ",Qs.~-:: E'-ECTRICAl 11

I .t. 'If 1 _~'J·i 1< ... !P'" ....... ~ ....... i" tAL.

52

AT IRON GUARDER

. At same places wi ring has to be done at iron guarder. This INlring can be done eae:Uy but H requires spedar clamps. OITferent type of damps al"fl shown in the fig ure A. C lamp Pipe and Ceiltng rose fitted on guarder in figure B .. I n place of kon conduit PVC conduit or PVC chan nel can also be used here.

cc c

CC c

J

v

J

First of all ma ke rna rking on condu ft with blade at that place where you want to cut .

. Now tight prpe in the ~ipe vice in such way that marking poj nt should remain at least 15 to 20cm WNWt from vice jaws.

Now fix a btade in hacksaw frame in such type that its teeth should be fadng towards your s kla.

Now by making gOD angle between hacksaw blade and pipe, cut pipe by moving complete blade on pipe.

Cut com plete pj pe with hacksaw. Do not cut it little and also de not break it by bend ing_

After cutting rna ke it smooth b]l file.

"Jig ht pipe in pipe vice in such way that pfpe may not be over pressed.

Blade should be fitted in hacksaw frame incorrect way. It should be neithei" toose nor more tighten other. w,se it wi II brea k

Position of blade should be at 900 from pipe and full blade should be used. Means it should be moved from one end to other end.

THREAD IN CONDUIT PIPE

For connecti ng condu1t pipe in j unction box 0 r making T -m ode I making of threads is essentiar for it.

Piipe shouid be kept at dists nee of 20cm from which threads have to be made.

53

BAS Ie ELECTJ:t: I.e 4.f ....

•• [ ~ ·1 ~ _., ~ , . 1

• ".6.1 l .... ~ .. ~~ ... ~

2. Now make filing at ends of pipe with flat file,

3. Clean stock and die set.

-, : .'. .

4, Fit die let in pipe in that way so that cutting edge of dle socket should

be towards pipe face.

5. Move die set in clock wise. Move die set handle with both hands.

6, 7.

8. 9,

"\

Move die set in anti clock wise after moving in clockwise side. Make only that much threads as essential,

While cutting threads continue use of oil at pipe endS',

maximum depth.

PRECAUTIONS

1. Taper side of socket should be equal to pipx end side.

2, For appropriate pipe size use appropriate guid e.

3, While maklnqthreads die should be at 90C from pipe.

4. Threads should not be sa much deep that pjpe may be damaged

_,

5. At the time of cutting threads move die in both sides.

6. Threads should be 12mm (112").

7" After Cutting the threads, clean the die set.

8. Use high speed cutting oil.

WIRES AND CABLES

Wire and cables are that medium by which electr)cfty can be taken or brought from one place to other Difference between Wire (overhead) and cable is this that wire (overhead} is only a base wire of conductor t"n!:lilD"'_ It is not insulated where as that wire is called cable which is covered with insuJation. Rubber or PVC etc. has been covered on wires in a cable. It has following benefrts:

1. This wire hss not current leakage

2. While touching hand there is no risk of getting shock.

Wire which IS used on electric poles is not insulated because it is fitted at about 25-30 feet height and beyond reach of common men. When ever any work is needed to be done in this Wiring than its supply should trrpped off. There are called over head wires,

ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced) wires are also used for over head wtres. Thete is one core between these wires and this has aluminium wires surrounding if. Steel core provides essentiat strength wire and current follows in aluminium is part. These type of wires are used for high voltage Une. Distance of

can be increased by using these. " "

" .

Some cables are such Which h.v~ m~ny layers of insulation, These cables are U$~d for underground

. ". . .. I

pose. These are called under ground cables. Because of different anti under ground OQn<iition many IU~I"~'~\l layers are made in these cables so that wires may not be damaged,

54 ".

dorneitie wiring are catled domestic wires. These wires are thinner and t-.. lrBulated.

wires have" m a~nly two things:

Wires used for domestic purpose are" genera1ly "made of a'Umtn1Um or copper. " "or ona common wire is made by' winding many IlJires, Normally alumlnlum wires are

ioft.

" "non" conductive materia I used for i nsutation covering on aluminium or copper wkes.

are a Iso used for covering W1res.

with oU is covered on these wires, Thi s type of paper; s used as a first insulation In undM many other type of ins ul ation are used on It.

rubber is obta ined from trees _ This is raw and fastly melting rubber.

forelectric.work, Finished rubber is made by mlxtng sulphur«n raw rubber. This process II K7Ailit'ln T"hese 'Nires are called VI R (Vulcanise<t I ndian Rubber) wires. "

Is poly vi nyl chtorlde, Th1S is used for ~nsu lation covering of electrie wires.

is also used for insulation of electric wires. This is flexible materia1 hence plastic covered 'called flexib~ plastic wires,

WIRES AND THEIR USES

name; s vules nized I ndian Rubber wire, Th it is used mostly for wiring of houses. This wire is used i n and casing capp~ng.

MRES

name of CTS is Cable Type Sheath- One more white colours hard insulation covering is made en ita nsulation. Because of that it has no effect of water and heat. This is used for Batten Patti wiring. These one I two or three core wires.

Its fu II name is Poly Viny~ Chi oride wi res _ PVC is a ins u lati on wh ieh is covered on conductor wire. 1t is and flexi ble ins utatio n, wh ich ca n be a gOOd enoug h to bear heat and co~d, It can be used in aU the condu it wiri ng, ca si ng-ca p ping wi ri n 9 an d batta n strip w;ring. But it sh ou Id not be u sed with hangi ng electri c equ ipments,

FLEXIBLE WIRE

These wires are ve ry much flexi bla. Ttl e se ha ve P_ V. C. insu lati on _ But very thi n wires are u sed in these , Ttl ese wires are not used for perm a ne nt wi ri ng. T h ~s is us ed fo r tern po ra ry wi rin g, Th's ~s used on the 's of numbe r of wi re sand 9 a u ge of wi re. Ge ne rally th is is used for ta king 0 uter con n ectio n fro m yo'sll

:_..._,.

~"

socket. Two separate wires are used in its cable which are turned each other, Many·time two inti,; nox~bfe wires combtne covered wrth addmonal rubber or plastic insulation are used as a cabfe. Many tim table is made with heat resistant rubber, asbestos or cotton thread. Thjs types of cables are USeG electric press and heater,

CORE OF WIRE (J.

Number ofwlres comfng out from insulation of any cable are caJled core, If only one wire ~scommg ~ any insulation then it is ca tied sing Ie core cabJ e. If number 01 wIres is two then it is called dou ble or twin COrEl ,1 and jf number of wires is three then it j s called th ree core cable. Th ickness of IIII'i re is measured by wjre gaugl wires of 18 gauge are used in a ny cable then Jt is c.::aUed 3118 cable, First digH: in it is for number of wires and ~ digit is for indication of 9a uge of wire.

I n pi ace of us 'ng· hard a nd thick wire in electric ca ble n umber of wires a re increased, Due to this flexi~ cable increases. Besides that its cu rrent capacity also j ncrsases. ,Because ca bles sizes are rounded t so num~ wires are put in it such a way that after insufation cable size could be rounded, Normally these numben 3,7, 19, 37-~tc,

SIZE OF WIRES

Size of wire is measu red on th e bas.fs of its diameter (th ickness) and the basts of diameter specific nU11 is given to wires_ This is caued standard wire gauge (SWG). As diameter cfwire increases number of wire g~ decreases. Maximum number upto 40 can be measured by standard wire gauge the diameter of which is 0.1211 Lowest gauge is number 7,0, its diameter is 12_7mm_ tn this way number of all main wires are measured

~

fhese aU are provided a specific gauge number.

Here we are giving one detailed table for this.

BRfTISH STANDARD WIRE GUAGE (SWG)

7(0 .5 12.7000
610 ,464 11, ra6
510 ,4~2 10.9728
410 ,4 10,1600
3/0 ,372 ·9.4488
2/0 ,348 8.9392
0 .3.24 8.2296
.300 7.620(J
2 .276 7,0104
3. .252 5,4008
4, ,232 5.8928
5 _212 5_3848
e .19:2 4,8768
7 .176 4,·mu
a ,1430 4.0640
9 ,144 3,-6578
10 .128 3.2512
11 116 2.9464
12 .104 2.6416
13 .092 2.3388
1. .oso 2,0320
15 .072 {8288
16 ,064 l,e2~
17 .066 t_422'( B. _S.~ r:lE(",TRJe~.L s:

• "If r .- ., ~ \ .• -~ , T r ~ _... 1 .... I r 1·

• ~ .J.. ... ~ ~ -II • .- 'II

NO,
Hl ,048 1,2192
19 .'040 1.0160
20 _038 0,9144
21 .032 O.812a
22 .028 0,7112
23 ,024 0.6096
24 ,0:22 0_5588
25 _020 0.50&0
26 .016 Q,4Sn
27 .0164 0.4156
28 ,01-48 0,3759
29 _0136 0,:)454
30 _012,( 0,3150
31 ,0118 O,2fW.1l
32 .0108 0,2743
33 ,0100 0_2'540
34 ,0092 0_2337
n .0084 0.2134
36 .Q076 0-1930
37 -0068 0,1727
38 ,0060 O,16U
39 .0052 0.1321
40 .QGCS 0,1219
56 OF WIRE

iBleC:tlon of wire for any wiring can be the basis current load value. For an exam pie if we have to make wiring rwMr .... rA current 'oad, th us we wij ~ make selection of that wi re, 'Nh ich can bear 10 am pere current load. If less cable is used then it wlH become hot and bum.

Here we are givin 9 data table for current load ca pa city of so me s paclfi c type .of cables,

3 Ampere 1/18

10 Ampere 3/20

7/20

20Ampera

5 Ampere

This cable is used for bring,ng supply from po'e to main switch board. At first its conductor is covered by insulation and then after if s covered by cotton kneeted coven ng. This is a weather proof covering ~i.ch has

15 Ampere 28 Ampere

. .

dipped in water proof compound. This is a double core cable, From pore to main switch beard one 10SWG

r. wire has been also connected with this service wire.

It is call ed !ow-tensj on cable (L T cable) '. It j s u sed for 1000 volt supply-

:\'V.NAYAL CHLORIDE DIFFERENT TYPE OF WIRES .

, A = Solid Conductor 'A 2 ; 18 2

tB = Struded Conductor ~ ;; £ ••• 11 ....

:- PVC Insulation

VIR WIRE (vULCANISED INDIAN RUBBER)

1

==

1 = Cond uctor 2 = Ru bbe r J nsul ation at C ontuctor

3=Vulcanis~d rubber Insulation 4 = Tap 5:;;;; Cotton Breading

(CABLE TYPE SHEATH) oR 1'RS WIRE (TUFF RUBBER SHEATH' 2

2

,

5

3

1:: Conductor 2 ~ Rubber

4 = Tuff Rubber Sheath WEATHER PIIOFI= WIRE

3 = Vulcanised Rubber

. . . ~ .

. ,

1 ;:: C ondu ctcr 2 := Ru bbe r 3 = Vulcanfsed

4= Contton Tap 5 ~ Impere Tap 6 ~ Cotton Breading

FLEXIBLE tc01TON oil SILK C,OVE.JlEDl

'. .

1:= Streaded Conductor 2;; Vulcanised Rubber

3;:: Cotton or Silk Breading

RUBBER OF JiVe INSULATED

1

:~

2 = Rubber of PVC Covering

1 = Streaded Conductor 3;; C, T.L. or T, R Flexible

1 = Cood uctor 2 = Rubber Insulation

3 : Tuff Rubber Sheath ing

.J

_':"'~"::--'-"-- .

. -_: , ......

. - .- .. _ ....

57

B.AS :~C E I. F,... T R ,~:;: : S.

I-e 1'1 ...... ~}~- l r

• ~)~ } ~ '" AI .i. ~ ,.. ilL ~

.JOINTING OF WIRES

General'Y wires and cable are made of 100 meter tength. Wh ile at the time of dOing house ..wing, m any time

r

these wire are needed to cut or jointed. At the time of jointing wi res it essential t~ keep in mind that their joint mUIt ,

be strong a nd it should be correct on electrical base, otherwise wi res wi II become h ad and ca n break..

Here we are display~ng the method of jointi ng of va rious type of wires by fig ures:-

1.. Maklna dr •• gIrt Joint 7/22 V1R wi ....

.b",'~

3. MIlking .tralght T~Joint of 7/22 VIR Wire.

,4.. Making .,elght twin Joint of 1/18 vtR. wtr ••

'NSUl ATION ( 1.5 e III ) CQN)UCTOR (. C: .. )

I. M ....... Tall lolnt of 1/1. VIR wlr ...

,-" 58

ELECTRICIAN HAND TOOLS

used for measuring the lengtt'i of any thing or job. Steel measurtng tape can also be used

is very useful tool for electrician, whfch is used more then any other tool. screw drivers are 8vaitabJe in

1 generally its sI%e is measured from handle head to tip. These I··

""'rY\rf'Ul'ln to job requ;rement. In these wooden or plastic handles C:: -; _

I'

.... I ... nttype of pliers are used for wire cutting gripping and bending. lhasa are availabje in different d8signs Description some main pliers is give below;-

_fNA:TIOfN PLI ••

is used for cutting t bendj ng and re moving the insiu latlon of the wires. Pliers YJith insulated handle be used forefectric relaj:edworks. These are available In the size of and 25 em. Co nee rned work these are availa ble j n diffe rent sizes

is pifer has flat from front face. This Is used far gripping of wi rea. Besides that it is used fer gripping and tighting etc .. These are available in 10 to 20 em stzes.

ND NOSE PUER

It has round face from front side, hence it is caUed round nose pller, It is ~-...[o

. giving round turns of the wire and gripping nut etc. It js avaHable in 10

CUTTINO PLI ••

.. .

·.il is used for cutting thin wires· and strjps. tts both face sidings have sharp ..... -.J

These are made of cast iron orsteef and these are avaUable in the market on the basis of weight of design. for electric concerning jobs different type of hammers of 200,400, and 800 grams weight are· used. handles are fitted in these. These are given names according to their different sizes. SO~$pecial types 'SI ... ,rnDI""'are give below-

59

B4S:::C El.ECTRIC?~l. e;

•·-11 o· . .. 1 ...,.. .•. 1

IIl~l· : ..... ·4,.!~~.~I"

m BALL PIN HAMMER

This type of hammer has round from the top side hence it is called bali Pin hammer. It is used for fitling the chisel f rawal plug and many he avy st ri king ty pes of wo rks. A GO m m 0 n wo ode n ha n d Ie h as bee n fitted in it. ell) CROSS PIN HAMMI!R

This type of ham mer has flat and pointed end at one sides and its other end is round and heavy. It can be used for multipurpose jobs. It is used for striking, fixing nails and riveting etc .

•. SAW ..

This is used for curti ng purpose, These are available in the different sizes. Separate type of saws are used

cutting wood and iron, Every type of saw has iron blade. But its handle can be made of wood or iron, Description of Borne special type of saws are given below:-

CD TANNON 8AW

Thi sis used for cutt ing wood. It has very th i n bl ade, teeth are made in it. In comm on ta nnon wooden hand'e has been fitted on long and wide strip of iron, Teeth are made on lower part of this strip.

type saw is mostl y used by carpe nters Thi s is ave ua bl e in th e market in different sizes. Genera l1y It is used for cutt in 9 m ore lang th y wo od s. I n other type of wooden saw has been in iron stri p. This is a very hard, strip due to th at blade does not gets ba ndad and ceca use of it cutting is made a \ways straig ht. Where 8S ordlnary saw has flexibility and there is possibility of cutting inCline. It requires big practice for operating crdlnary saw. where as strip type saw can be used in common way. It is used for cutting casing capping, batten st ri p and ro und blocks etc,

Ull HACJ( _W

This saw; s used for cutting iron or other type of metallic 9 ooda. For .electrical concerning jobs this law

used for cutting conduit and G, I. pi pes.

t

Saw Saewt.

EdgeTannon Saw

There is a fra me made with meta Uie strip or pi pe. One tn nut ... has been rltted in this frame. This nut is fitted l n it for tighti ng or removing the btade in the f~e. Blade used in it fS made of steel and there are very thin teeth a re made in it. One metallic handle has bee n made on one skte of frame.

There a re two type of hacksaws:(a) Fixed hackSaw

(b) Adjustable hacksaw

B A~ ~C F.I F.f":;TRIC :=.0.1 & •. : t ~ 1 .. ,~ 1 - 1 ..,' ~'--j-·I ~ 1 I : t- \

60·

I

FllU!D HACKSAW

A fixed length of blade ca n be fitted in H:. Its frame has iii specific design and Hs ~ign can not be increases decreased. This frame has a standard size and blades as this standard size can be fitted in it.

ADJ'UITAaLE HAC.UW

This.t'Jack-sBw h.Q!f~justable frame. In it frame can be adjusted according length of btade.

I. ELECTRICAN KNIFE

This is a folding knife made of metal, which is used for removing insulation of wires. These are available in types ~jng Ie biade and double blade. In double blade knife one blade is used for scraping/rem Dving insulation and other blade is used for creaning wires. SharpneSB of edge of blade can be spoiled by using one blade for . I1lncvlng tnsu 'ation and clea nj ng wi res.

for

f

'g

III·

: 7. FIRMER CHISEL

Its blade is made of cast iron and handle is made of wood. it is used for making groove, chipping and scraping in the wood. ns normal size is taken from the width of its blade, which has flat shape. Its width can be from 3mm to 38mm. GeneraUy electrician use chisel hav-

ing width from 1:2 m m to 2Smm.

a. COLD CHISEL

It is used for making groove or hoke in concrete and stone wall. Its srze is taken on the basis of its lengtf1 and wtdtM_ It is made of high carbon steel and its cutting part is made more hard. Its front part ls made j n different sizes and desig ns, generally which has angle from

NIS

30° to 45°.

Chisel with the tength of one meter or more is ca"ed crowbar, it is used for shifting the maohtnes.

•. HAND DRILL MACHINE

c

0->

c

It is used for making hole in wooden blocks, boards and other things, According· to requirement bits are fitted in its jaws. For this ~t.s jaws can be moved manually catch by hand or moved by catch the handle which moves the drill, due to that space can be made for tighting bit nuts in its jaws. After fitting bit jaws are tighten. It il tighten in reverse dIrection of lighting screws means in anticlock wise direction. By . applyfng force on the top of the handle holes can be made in any metarlic prate by mov~ng ha nd Ie.

61

10. POCKER

Before fixtng screws in wood a Is essential to make one guide hOle, it rna kes easy in fitti ng screws. gUide hole is made by peeker, This tool has pointed tip whh;:h is made of steet Wooden hand1e has been its upper stde. By pushing its poi nted tip forcefy in wood by gri ppi ng its handle guide hole is made. Care has to be taken while taking peeker ln hand. n shou Id never be put in pocket

". GIMLET

It is a ordtnary type of tocl, which we rks on the principle of screw. It has one po ,nted tip on its from side after th at sha rp edge screw threads are made. One wooden handfe h as been fitted j n on ijs u ppe r part. By mov}ng this hand Ie it makes hole in wood. It is availa ble in diffe rent sizes. 12~ FILES

It is used for rem oving un wa ntad material or making sm ooth or providing sh ape a ecording to requi iran 0"- wood. It is made of carbon steel and it has rough upper surface. I t is avai I able in various des igns and Differe nt type of files are sh own in the 9 lven fig ure.

,I) FLATE FILE

It is a long file in flat shape. It has rough surface on both sides, its upper part is Wide and lo_wer comparatively thinJ Its size is taken after handle, normally it is available in the size of 15,20, 25,30 and 35

. .. .

length. 1t ls avauable in different grade and cuts like rough, fine, si ng le cut a nd do uble cut qua lity.

(II) ROUND FILl!

This (lie has round shape a nd it used for openi ng close ho!es and making round.

(IIU HALF ROUND FILE

It has one surface round and otMer surface flat. It is specially used for maki ng half radius or ~.ular design. half round file is used for wooden work, because it is a rough file.

(Iv) 8OUAlU! FII,.E

It haa square shape. JtB 2/3 pa rt is in a si m Ua r size. Afle r th is its

. .

sizewiB be less·& less.lt is used for making corners and gap smooth.

(yl TRI4NGlULAR FILE

It has a tri ang ul ar shape r if ; s used for making wooden saw teeth sharp. Besides that it is used for making smooth and design· with got! ang!e.

Mostfy half round file Is used for wooden work. Because it is not very smooth.

P AS-IC ~ 1.lECTIi rc Al. f.i.:

I : [.15 _f-l-~··~·/ l·~ ;.11 ~ [.~

62

13. STANDARD WIRE GAUGE

It tS about 2. 5m m thick round strip. Different size hales are made around its al~ the four sides. One nu m ber is written on each hole. Wire gauge is used for measuring size or gauge Of wi re.

'4. TRI-SQUAR.

I t is a most important tool for electrlcia n. It is made on 90° ang Ie. It is used fo r checking 90° ang Ie of wood joint r wi ring and man yother thing s. It has 15 x 30 em size, U ts made of wood or metal. It has sea Ie at its one side.

11. VICE

Vice is iii such tool by gri pping·; ron or wooden piece I ~ can be 9 ivan shape accordi ng to requ irement. It is used fo r cutting pipe of giving it definate s ha pe by fi Ii ng or open ing nut of a ny bolt.

Different types-of vice has been used. Here we a re giving the description of different vice.

m .IiNCH VICE

It is also called parallel vice, it is fftted on the bench permanently. It is used for aU type of jobs. This vice is fitted al most ~n every. works hop.

UI) PIPII VICB

It is used for gri ppi r-.g rou nd shape th ings Uke pipe, cutti ng and threads m ai<:i ng etc.

~y nm LINE VICE

It is used for 9 ripping over head wi res in over head system. (lw) MACH •• VICE

It is used for gri pping any t hi ng on machine a r doing any jog on it.

IV. PIN via

It is a very small vice. It is used for gripping things hke pin and making it ecJII ,. ~~ .

rou nd or fili ng it. It is mostly used by watch rna kers or at the time of repai ring any d J

sman instrument.

,8.. RAWAL PLUG TOOL

This took is used for m aki ng hole in stc ne or brick in wall. This tc 1)1 h as two parts. (0 Tool Holder:- Which is made of mild steel.

. (ii) Tool bit :- Which is made of Carbon steel.

3J

·63

ECT~ICAL & .--..._ - •. ;. ~ _ 1 I :_" r·-,

Its size is made according to number, NormaUy it is used of number 8, 10, 12.Ad 14. It should be stowIy whi Ie rt is using.

, 7~ LINE TESTER

-,

It ~s used fa r testi ng pha sa wi re ~n supply line and wiri ng. Its body is made of pJastic and from part ~

Ii ke screw driver. Th is part has to be tou ched at phase wi re anoj finger is to be touched _at upper pa rt, due to that its

inner neon bulb wnl glow. t8. SCISSOR

Scissor is used for cutUng leathero ld paper, empire cloth and s leave etc in the electric works. Its size ts ta ken from the lengt h. These ate genera lIy used ~n the S lze of 15 and 2 Oem.

19. nN CUnER

It is used for cutti ng th ~n metal sheets. 1t is avalla ble in the size of 150. 200 and 250m m. I t has Ie ngthy han die part and sm all cutting edg B. ! t can cut iran, copper a nd brass sheets easlly.

20. STOCK AND DIE

Stock is made of cast iron and die has to be fitted in it. It is used for making threads in the pipe or rod. Size of stock is taken according of dje. Generally it is used in the size of 12, 20,25 and 30mm.

21. MALLET

It is a hammer made afwood or rubber. It is used forgiving pr6per sh ape r m aki ng straight c r be nd ing coif wh Ue fitting. It is a lso used at th e tim e of removing or fitting covers of motor. It she uld not be used for fitti ng hard things by hammering.

22. PINCER

jl

It is used for removing nails from wood. It is available in the length size of 1 Or 15 an d 20cm.

23~ PIPE WRENCH·

It is used for gripping iron pipe removing or opening nut etc. Its jaws has two parts. One 1 s fixed and other is adjustable. It ca n be used by adj usti ng req u i red size by its adj u sta ble screw. It; s al s a ca n ed mon-

I ........ ... -Ij,J,. ...

Fixed Jaw

Moving Jaw

o

AdJUlllng Nut Monkey WAtncll

keywrinch. 24. WIRE STRIPER

It is used for removing upper insulation of wires. Different size holes are made in it. Only insulation cuts by putting wire in holes which ca n be removed by pu IIi ng. Us

; ~ • • II •• ..

BA~HC !E"LEC:TRICAL &

I : r It< 1.. ,i _I "1- \ ~ 4 r .r r; T I"~

64

move HOUSE WIRING MAP
.
! 10'-3~ 14'~9~ 15'
j ........
·made
~·-r·- .. - ._ ... - .... -
~ 0, EtI EJ} ~
&~ ~
~
_._.}.- ---$----
~ I
0 N
--~l--
BED ROOM
~ @ LOUNG ElDIN rNG ~
14'·0" X 25'-9" t;l
~ @ ~ N
-.n N
.-
~I ROOM
~
<j-+ 9'.10.5" )( 15'
~
-o ---1-------

I

- -u ..... ~ H- -rl -:L

II II It II Il

'I II II 11 If .""""" ........... ~4

II II II Il I

II " II Il II

II ~, II J,;",;.1 • .;...;;;~tl--~---:..;,,;=-!""__-=.;~=--.-..-.-.:.;~~ ---_L _

65

BASIC ELECTRICAL & • rr -:1--':1::]. ~l /." I ~ 1 I : r ~.~

----t--

BED

13'AS x 11·-0H......__-~

E9

STUDAYRQOM

9'~' x 12'-(1·

DRAWl NG ROOM EB 15'-3" x 4'.O"{j;I

I

. .

f*-- 10'-3"

16' -------

13'-9"

CHAPTER -3 VARIOUS TYPE :OF METERS

Various type of meta rs are u sed for electric co ncem ing jo bs. These meters a re used for measuri ng pressu ra, elect ric curre nt and res lsta nee _ These are used S 9 pa rately and the se t h rea meters can also be com bi nes. It is ca fled m u ~ i mete r, Here we make st u dy of these all ty pe of meters.

VOLTMETER

This meter is used for measu ring electric pressu re (Volt).

Vo Itmeter show Id be always con nected in paralle 1_ Volt meter is available in d iffere nt ra nge _ Its dial has bee n made according to its rang e. Range of any voltmeter ca n be seen at its dial. Some voltmeter a re used for measuring low voltage and where as some meters are u sed for rneasuring h igh vo~tag e. I n this way at the time of using voltmeter it is esse ntial to have informatio n of hig hast voltage of concerned in stru me nt. Because low range voltmeter ca n burn at high voltaqe range and while using hiQ h range volt mete r at low voltage it will be diffi-

.

AMPERE METER

Flow of current (electric current) in any circuit can be measured by ampere meter. Ampere meter should be connected in se rles with load _ These meta rs are also available in d iffere nt ra nge. While measuring current in any circuit according to approximate current load cu rrent meter of appropriate value should be used otherwise meter can burn or damaged. Comparatively low range ampere meters are used in electronics I where as high range ampere meters are used in electric concerning j obs. Separate meters are used for measuring AC and DC Current.

OHMS METER (RESISTANCE METER)

This meter is used for measuring resistance. Besides that it is used for checking continuity of an~ or wire. For checking continuity ohms meter should be connected across wire means at both tappi checking value of any resistance connected in circuit is it very essential that supply must not be given circuit.

BASIC ELECTRICAL & .: [·1II:l_·~7IiIT.:-r~--'

66

TIMETER

ACIDC voltage, DC current and resista nee can be measure~ by wh ich that is calfed multimeter, Besides that checkjng can be made of and electri c parts. Different type of test Ii ke - contin u ity test an d test can also be done. In this way thrs rnuitlmeter is equally usen.l in and electri cal both fiel ds.

Multimeter Sanwa P-3 is a popular multimetar. In this multhneter plugs are made different ranges. Mujtlmetar is used by connecting p'ug according to requirement. Because of these plugs and pins of multimeter is called plug pin type mulhmeter. Jt is a popular multimeter, its use is simple and comfortable (easy). Outer shape of this rnui-

There is a one ptug ln 'eft side oalow, On that ~, Q. a (minus, ohm, Ale) marking has been made. It is plug of meter. For using meter for any purpose always black prob or lead is connected in ft. One knob has fitted just upper side of this common plug. on ADJ is wjrtten on this knob. lt is caned 00 adjuster knob. At ffme of measuring resistance-(ahms) pointer has to be adjusted at right side Zere(O) made on scale. Just below ill centre one screw has been fitted rn meter. By moving this screw polnter should be adjusted at zero (0) made side of dial. While using meter for any work pointer must be adjusted at zero (O) made jn If'ft Slde. Otherwlse reading will be accurate. This screw should not be moved much (frequency), other Wise balance of I coil of meter can be damaged. Method of use of multimeter sanwa P-3 is given below.-

.... __ 1''''' RESISTANCE BY MULTIMETER SA~WA P .. 3

In this ri'lu Iti meter two ranges are given for measuring resistance. These ranges are serially of K!l and 1 MQ ~ich are made up and low near common point of meter.

For measu rl ng resistance in 1 mega ohm range, black probe should be co n nected in com men and red probe should be connected in 1 MQ plug. Now at rrrst it is necessary that the pointer of shou~d be adjusted at zero on rIght side. For that bigger pins of both the probes shou~d be together, by shorted these pointer of meter comes in right side. Now by on ADJ knob pointer is at zero en right side.

For measuring resistance on 1 Mega ohm range upper top scale made in meter dial should be This scale should be read from right to left. value of each small column is gJven according to table.

For rneasurlng the value in the range of 1 OK:O of any resistance black probe of the meter should rn connected in common plug and red probe should be connected in 10KO plug. Red probe should sed foreely in 1 OKn Plug, because 1 OKQ range has internal plug leek. It probe win not be fixed

at

67

BASIC ELECTRICAL & L-r.I-'I~-j-~~.~l.;·ll·:_ C""_"1

properly by ap~ylng pressure and because of being no change in lock position 1 MO range

be obtained in 10K:O range lock positron changes by pressing red probe and what ever .-8<:1 ..... t.that is from 10 Kn range. '

While measuring value of any resistance on 10K!) range scale below from 1 MO should be used, shou'd also·be read from right to left. Before obtaining value on this range meter pointer should be Q .... JI ... If~ on right side. Its method is similar Hke adjusting zero on 1 MO: range.

Value of each arnall column is 1 OKfl and 1 Mn range in meter is according to table given below:· .

S.No. Range of 10K Q Range 011 MO
SCALE. Value of Per SCALE Value of Per
Column Column
1_ o to 70 Ohms 20hms o to 7 Kilo Ohms 200 Ohms
·2. 70 to 100 Ohms 5 Ohms 7 to 10 Kifo Ohms 500 Ohms
3. 100 to 200 Ohms 10Qhms 10 to 20 KHo Ohms 1 Kilo Ohms
4_ 200 to 400 Ohms 200hms 20 to 40 Kilo Ohms 2 Kilo Ohms
5. 400 to 500 Ohms 50 Ohms 40 to 50 Kilo Ohms 5)(JloOhms
6. 500 to 1 Kilo Oh ms 100 Ohms 50 to 100 Kilo Oh ms 10 Kilo Ohms
7_ 1 to 5 Kilo Ohms 1 Kilo Ohms 100 to 500 Ki ro Ohms 100 Kilo Ohms
8 .• 5 to 10 Kito Ohms 5 KifQ Ohms 500 Kllo Ohms. to 1 Mega Ohmtl 500 KJlo Ohms I

MEASURING CURRENT BY MULTIMETER SANWA P-3

When current is measured in rnultlrneter sanwa P-3

then it should be con nected in se nes with 10 ad as shown in the figure.

There ranges are given in this multi meter f_or measuring current. These ranges are serially 2-50 MilU Ampere 10 Milli Ampere and 0-25 Milli Ampere or 250 Micro Am pere. In this meter 250 Milil Ampere ls biggest range for measuring current a nd fewest ran ge 0.25 Mill i Am pere 0 r 250 M ,croAmpere.

o to 250 scale of DCA & A is used for rneasurinq current in 250mA range. Value of one small column in this scale in 5 MUll Ampere (rnA). 10 Milli Ampere {mA) is sec-

ond range fo r me asurlnq cu rrent. Wh i Ie measu ring cu rre nt

in this range a to 10 scare of DeV & A js used. In this scale value of each smaH coJumn is O.2mA or 200 Ampere.

BASIC ELECTRICAL & .-: r·T-l.r-·T~"7]~I~:r .. '

68

6. ...
~ "
0 > z ~\ w
0 0 oC u- ~
'" It Z Z
~ . c C
JIIo ..,
e:: • w
0 ,;. > e .,
iusted . z z
u. 0 0 II( 4
0( .. "" 0:: «
% u f'iII >
w:- 0 "' . '> 0
~ 0
z: - In
0 Z u.
u.
0 0( ..:
z z
0 0 _, 4:

-

o

lit 0 00

.... .,...

v
.0
c >
.....
> «
-
~ 0
- 0
S 0 0
- 0 ..
-' 0
N
-
U 69

BASIC ELECTRICAL & 1-: [.1. I r - 1 _ \' j I ... 1 I : [" 1-1

Third and lowest range for measuring current is 0,25 Milli Ampere (mA) or 250 MicroAmpere (~) For measuring current in this range 0-250 scale or DeV &A is used and this value is to be read in micro (~)~ In this scale value of one small column is 5 micro ampere. MEASURING DC VOLT BY MULTIMETER SANWA P-3

For measuring AC or DC volt (Potential Difference) multimeter has to be connected in parallel with shown in the figure,

T BATT.T T

LOAD BULB

For m easu ri ng DC volt tota I fa u r rang es are given these ranges are serl ally 10V, SOV, 25 1000V.

While measuring vo~tage on lOV DC range 0 to 10 scale of DCV &A is used. In this scale value of column is O,2V or 200 Milli Volt (mV).

While measuring volt on 50V DC range 0 to 50 scale of DCV & A scale is used, In this scale value column is 1 volt.

While measuring volt on 250V DC range 0 to 250 scale of DeV & A scale has to be used, In this of one small column is 5 volt.

white measuring volt on 10QOV DC range 0 to 10 scale of D.C.v. & A. is scale is used and the is comin~ in this range its mu!tiply by 100 and get 1000V DC range. One another method is also used range. In it, 0 to 1 OV scale of D.C,V. & Als used and here 2 is considered as 200,4 as 400,6 as 600, and 10 as 1000_ In this condition for this range value af one small column is 20V.

MILL. VOLT MEASUREMENT BY MULTIMETER SANWA P-3

M i IIi volt can a Iso be measured by mu ltirnete r sanwa P-3. As mentioned ea rl ier that th ree ra nge 250 mill i ampere, 10m i lli ampere, and 0.25 mill i a mpere for measu r~ng the cu rre multimeter. For m sa su ri ng millivolt m u ltimeter has to be connected j n the series with load, If eter has to be con nected w~th load in 0.25 milli 'ampere range then receiving reading -is volt: ~n we can measure up to 250 mV (milli volt) in this multimater. In this condition in this range val ill

70

n~~",RING AC VOLT BY MULnMETER SANWA P-3

Multimeter Sanwa P-3 has 5 ranges for measurlng AC volt. These ranges are serially, 10V, 50V, 250V, and 1000V The method of using 10V, 5QV, 250V and 1 OOOV range is slm ilar 'ike DC volt range_ For "ng AC on 1 OV range upper scale of DeV &A scale has to be read, AC 1QV has been written in right

For meas uri ng volt in AC SOOV ra ng e. O~50 scale of DC V & A is used and whjch ever reading j S obta i ned it be multiplied by 10 and reading is obtained on 500VAC range,"Forthis range 0 to 50 scale afDCV &A 10 should be read as 100,20 as 200,30 as 300,40 as 400 and SO as 500_ Inthis conditiqn vatue of one small

MEASURING VALUE OF CAPACITOR BY MULTIMETER SANWA P-3

Value of row value capacitor can be measured by multimeter Sanwa P-3. Capacitor is such part which COllEtClS electric cJ1 a rge and ca n s u pptv ag a in, Unit fo r m eas uri ng va I ue of ca pa etor is Farad, Sm aU units of farad seria lIy pice-fa rae, kHio plco farad, micro fa rad and k illo m icro farad, PIca fara d js the 100000st un it for measuri ng of capacitor. Capacitor value from 0_0001 microfarad to 0-6 micro farad can be measured by multimete:P-3- For this two scales are given in multimeter, which can be used serially on AC :250V and AC 10V.

Method of there use is given below:

. ON AC Z50V RANGE

Capacitor has to be connected in series or 250V AC range ultimeter and 2SOV sUPP'y should be given accorcHng to figure value at capacitor can be obtained. For this purpose 0 to 0.3 micro farad is given in meter. He re twa se pa rate sca fe s are given for two frequ en cies 50C/S an d 60 C/S_

ON AC 10V RANGE

For measuring value of capacitor from 0 to 0-6 microfarad range one scale is given in multimeter Sanwa P-3. Forthat capacitor has to be connected in series of lOV AC range and 10V AC supply is given_

Note: For obtaining value of capacitor by these two methods it is essential that AC voltage must be correct 250V and 10Volt. Besides that frequency of AC should be 50c/s or 60c/s. otherwise value will not be obtained,

MEASURING VALUE OR MORE THEN 1 MEGA OHgM!.!!!!!~~ METER

For obta i ning value more than 1 mega oh m re sisranee one scale is given ln multimeter sanwa P·3, Which is shown in the fjgure in which one diode BY127 is shown .in 250V DC range. It is essentiaf for that supply given must be correct 250V, ot her wise value of resi stance will not be obta ined accu rate, Th iss caJe s hou Id be read from right to left,

~.;;;:;;::;:;;::;;:;;::;:;;:;::;;;=

GT PU8f.IOATION

71

Un it of measuli ng i ndu eta nee in henry (H), 1 Henry = 1000 milli henry (m H)

1 mriU henry = 1000 micro henry (J-LH)

For meas,¥ing induction one scale has been given in multirneter sanwa P·3. This scale is from 1 QmiUi to infinite, This scale ~s used in 1QV AC range, Here two separate scales are given for twa AC frequencies and60cJs,

METHOD OF CHECKING WHILE PURCHASE OF MULTIMETER SANWA Pal

At the time of purchase of multimeter sanwa P-3 following tests should be made for fts good or bad ing. At first black prob has to be fitted in common plug of meter and red prob has to be fitted by pressure in 1 Then after both bigger tappings of probs should be touched together and pointer has to be adjusted at right zero. Now red probe has to be removed and fitted in 1 Mega Ohms range. Also checking should made for its side zero whether it shows any dlfference or not If it h_~s difference then meter is correct otherwise its 10Ka defective, Bes i des that voltage of cells of mete r ca n a I so be checked. For that one tapping of meter probe has to bI co nnected ln 1 Mn ran ge and secon d ta p pin 9 of sa me probe h as to be connected 10VAC range. In th is conditiaj what ever reading will be indicated by meter pointer, that will be the volt capacity of meter internal cells, CHECKING CONTINUITY BY MULT.METER SANWA P-3

MEASURING INDUCTANCE BY MULTIMETER SANWA P-3

Multinieter sanwa P-3 can also be used for checking continuity of any electrical or electronic component e conductor wire, For measuring resistance anyone of both ranges 10 kilio ohms or 1 mega ohms can be us~ Whe n bl ack pro be ha s bee n co nn ected in com m 0 n pi ug and re d pro be has bee n co nn acted in any 0 ne 10 .kiQ ohms or 1 mega ohms. other tappings of probs are touched togetherlhen meter pointer indlcates zero resistanc means after full deflection goes in other side. Now if any component or conductorwire is connected between bat tappings then if meter pointer goes, in other side then it means it has continuity. But if pointer of meter does n~ move from its position then it means that component or conductor wire has no continuity, In this condition tm component or conductor wire can be said open. In this way with this rnultimeter we can check not only continuil of any component, but we ca n a lso get i nd icat i on of its good or b ad co nd ition _ So me parncul ar type of com ponen!

. .

9 iva continuity in so me speci al cond itia n not inn orma I condit i on _ But identity of their gOOd or bad can also be mad this m ultimete r sanwa P - 3, Beside s 1 h at identity of good 0 r bad of som e co m po nents ca n also be m ade ~ checki ng their voltage.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MULTIMETER SAMWA P-3

Circuit diagram of multimeter sanwa P-3 is shown in the figure. Repairing of defective multimeter can b made with the help of this cfrcuit diagram. Mostly multimeter becomes defective elther by falling or by using ~ wrong range its any co i I or res lsta nee gets bu rn _ Wh i Ie usin 9 it shou ld be ke pt ; n mi nd that it may not tell down a~

it has been set on correct range. Even then if meter has gone defective due to some carelessness then it $hould ~ :i

checked as mentioned before

72

O.25mA
.(l-;n 2500mA 10mA 10K 1M &O-2SV
~ ?w ...
0
<
: T~
: .....
:-I
tI'
CI
<
...
Or""
NUl
m
CD
;0(0)
~CD w r-
m N ... to.,)
Q) ~
m < .... CI C Q

<

o n ~

t

o ~

FINDING OF IiIULnMETER SANWA N

When ever mulbmeter falls down on floor from table or by sUpptng from hand. Then its. balance gets very jeri<. and bala nee becomes defective. Repl acem ent of balance is very costly and diffICult. For that new batlnce to be replaced by bringing it from market in the name of Sanwa P·3. At first cpen screw S1, S2 and S3 for lIIIW~nn balance (refer lay-out diagram) after that remove dia' plate. Now balance can be removed eastJy_ After

tight new batance right tn the same way_ RANGE 18 NOT WORKING

When ever AC volts are measured between 10KO and common tappings, then 10Kn range becomes . In this condition load coil L5 (1020) becomes open and noclifferent:eia made in both ranges 10Knand means10Kn range also works in 1M!l range. In this concHUan pointer can be adjusted on zero at right aide moving control, but 1 mega ohm range wiH be di8pla~ed- if coil L3 or L4 wiB become open then pointer of meter

give fun deflection, which ¥Atl not be seton zero even by control. Hence when contro6 works on defective 10 ohm range and no difference is made in 10 killo ohm and 1 mega ohm range. Then 100 ohm 112 watt ., ... anr, ... should be connected in place of coli L5 and if.control is not wor1<ing then coil L3 and L4 shoukj be _.c-...I. By connecting 530 resistance Ul place def~ctive L3 and 2.2Q in place L4 range becomes correct.

But if pointer does not move at all on 10 Idllo ohm range theri resistance R1(11KE) controf R2(638E) and coil (326E) should be checked _ If anyone of there three becomes open then TIlOVtng coli witl not get positive supply. to that pointe r (needle) will not move.

73

BASIC ELECTRICAL &

•.• -r .. -, I 1 ) _ - , ... \ .:.'.. 1

• ..._ •• 1_,,~_l

D1 IN4148

BATT. 1.SV

+

+

BATT. 1.5V

54

~

02 IN414B

S3~

2S0mA

1540E

Whe n by mista ke, AC volts are me asu red in th ts ra ng e then ran ge beco m es d efe ctive. Along with needle of meter also gets banded by getting jerk. For making needre straight screw 31, S2 and 83 (Refer diagram) should be opened and this complete portion has to be taken up carefully. Now needle should be straight very 81 ow by fine pointed tweeze r, When needle beco mes straight com p I ete I y then screw S 1, 52 and should be tig hte n at ori 9 inal pos it~o n.

BASIC '"ELECTRICAL & •. : [-21·; .. ]-· .---.~~_j I ;Tr:"r'"

74

at ut Ie :3

f"'~Uft OHM RANGE IS NOT WORKING

When AC 220V measured on 1 range in meter, thus this range stops working. In case of defect l' needle is adjusted on zero then it does not gets adJusted on zero. In this condition mostly anyone of coil L3 and l4 becomes open. As previously mentioned this range can be repaired by rep~acing 53E resistance in place of le and 2.2E in place of L4. But if no ~nd,cation is obtained in this range then R1 (11KE), Control R2(638E) and coil L 1 (326E) should be checked serially.

If we check 10KE range from inside then one jack switch has been fitted there. \t this switch will become defective the n both 1 OKO and 1 Mn rang e will not wo rk. If adj uster control wm be come defectlve then 10 kUlo oh m ~inear control can be connected in ~t&place. If both cells fltted in meter will not work properly. In this condition by shorting both wires needle will not reach up right zero and it will stop before zero even by moving adjuster, In this condltion both cells should be changed. Cells fltted In meter work only on 1 OKa and 1 M:O range. Hence in case of cells getting weak 1 OKa and 1 MQ range only will not work proper1y. Other ranges will w.ork properly.

But it cells are correct even then needle does not comes up to left side Zero then 'lJalue of resistance connected at positive tapping of moving coil should be reduced.

2&0 MILLI AMPERE RANGE ·IS NOT WORKING

As you know 250 MilH ampere range In the biggest range for measuring DC current In multimeter sanwa P-3, while measurlnq current this range should be connected in series wltl'lload and battery. In the internal clrcult of multimeter L4 has been connected between 250 mmi ampere range and common plug. if AC220V would be checked in this range then this coil L4 will become open. In that condition. 250 Mini ampere range will not work.. in that condition ;f this range is used by connecting in series then meter needle comes very fastly in other side and load does not work. If 2.20 resistance should be connected in place this coil then this range w;U begin working.

If coil L4 Is correct and needle does not give any indication on 250 miUi ampere range then coill3, resistance R3(1540E), zero adjust centro' R2(638E} and coil L 1 (326E) has to be checked. In this condition mostly coil L3 beconies open_ 250 milH a rllpere range of m ultlmete r with type of fault if used in series then needle of meter win not give any indication but load will work. In this condition because coil L4 will bear whole load, Mance after some time this coill4 wW also become open and load wU1 stop working.

10 MILU AMPERE RANGE IS NOT WORKING

In this fault if needle of meter comibaCkWjth force_ then fault may be of coil L3 or L4. In case of open of any one coil in both coils needle of meter will g~ve fuU deflection j indlceucn In this condition load will not work.

But if 10milli ampere range is used by connecting in series then load works but meter needle does not given any deflection I indication then fault may be due to open of anyone among resistance R3( 1540E), zero adjust control R2(63BE) and coli L 1 (326E).

7S

0.211 ~IW AMPERE RANGE IS NOT WORKING

0-25 mini ampere I s lowest for measu ring current in mu Iti meter sanwa P -3 _ If th i s ra ng e is used in series then It ind!eates the cu rrent of load a nd if used in parallel fh e n ~t becom es O. 25V ra ng e.

If needle of meter gives full aeflectjon than fau It will be beca use of open of a ny one of these adj ust contro1 R2(638E) resistance R3(1540E), and coll l3 and L4. If needle of meter does not give deflection then fauf{ will be bees use of open of anyone L2 (400 E) a nd coil L 1 (326 E) ,

DC VOLT MEASURING RANOE IS NOT WORKING

It any DC Volt measu ri ng range does nat wo rk the n th i s fau It may bl3 due to ape n of a ny one resista nee R4(39,5K) and coil L 1 (326E), But if 10VDC range is working then it means resistance R4(39.5K) and coil L 1 (326E} are correct, Now if 5CV DC range is not worki ng the~ resistance R6 (800 KE) has to be checked and resista nee R7 (3M) has to be checl<ed for 1000V DC ra nge,

AC VOLT RANGE II NOT WORKING

.

If any AC measurlnq range is not workfng then at first resistance R8(186KE) diode 01 and 02 should be

checked. ~n place of co nnectia n two se pa rate diodes only one dau ble diode has been fitted in multi meter sa nwa P-

. .

3. But ~f this diode becomes defective then anyone diode among IN34, OA 79, IN4148, tN4001 and 1N40.07 may

be used - One tappi ng resistan ce RB ( 186 KE) has bee ri con nected at positi ve negative joint of these both diodes a nd negative tappi ng of one diode has been con ne cted at neg stive tappi ng of moving coil a nd positive ta pping of other diode has been cenneeted at positive tapping of moving coil, If anyone diode among both diodes will becomes open then non of the AC volt mea s uri ng ra nge wi II work, but ff 1 OV AC ra ng e is wo rking then it mea ns resistance R8(186Kn) and both diodes are correct. After that R9(80K) for 50V) range, R1 0(400K) for 250V range, R 11 (500K) for 500V range and R 12 (1 M} for 1 OOOV ran 99 h as to be checked.

METHOD OF CHANGING MOVING COIL

!

Moving coil wh ich can be fitted in new Sa nwa P ~3 mu Itlm ete r h as been made by 50 n umbe r gauge wire j it has 10000 impedance, If thi s coil b urn or becomes ope n the n it h as to be changed. Moving coil which is avaUabie in,the mari:<et for thIs multimeter has been made by 49 number gauge wire and it has 700 ohm Impedance.

For 'changi ng moving coil fi rst of aU defective m ovi ng ha s to be removed 0 ut. At first for that screw S, I $2 and 53 has to be ope ned an d th is co m plete portion ha s to be taken up ca refu Uy. Now cUp plate has bee n kept sepa rate by open fng both screws of dial plate, Movi ng co i I wtth needle h as to be removed out by open ing both screws fitted at both side at hale and after fitling new movi ng coil ft should ttiighten carefully. Just upon it one be II bea ring has been f~tted _ If it becomes defective it can be changed, In th fa way re pa lr of mu ~i meter sanwa P·3 ca n be done,

76

OT PU8UCArlON ~

,

~ , i

i

!

f

,

CHAPTER~4 RESISTANCE

The properly of substance which produces hindrance in the flow of current is ca!led resistance. It is tndicated

R. UnU of measuring resistance is ohm (0). There is no such substance inthe natL.irewhich has no its internal ~liC>t~i"''''''~. Differe nt su bstan ces have d iffe rent resistive capacitie s. Belli ides that these have different value of resistan ce. Som e s ubsta nee produ ce res ista nee value in eleetrl c cu rrent only, 'lJhere as some prod Ute heat or . light. Different type of resistance are used in electric concerning equipments. For that different resistive sub-

DIFFERENT TYPE OF RESISTIVE SUBSTANCES

Main substa nces used. as res lstan ce a re as unde r: ~ 1. CARBON

Carbon is such substance which has very high resistance in original condition. But when some other specific type of su bsta nce is wrth it. Then its ch anges accord ing to property or qua nUty of substance m i.xed in It. Different vaj ue of res ista nces ca n be made with different compositio ns of mate ria I.

2. UREKA

It is a compound.metal, which has been made. with the composition 60% copper, and 40% n~ckel. It has more resistive property, it is used for mak~ng resistance.

3. MANGANIN

It is also a compound metal. It has 84% copper, 12% manganin and 4% nickel. It is also used for making resi sta nee.

4 .. NICHROME

IUs a compound metal. It has 65% nickef, 23% ferrous and 12% chromium. It has more resistive power.

Besides that it has high melbng point (melting temperature). 5~ TUNGSTEN

It is a hard metal. It ha s a I so high me Itin 9 poi nt (tem peratu re) _ It is us ed far m a krng til ament of electric buj b and tubelight.

DEPENDENCE OF RESISTANCE

Resistance of any conductor depends UPQJLfoUowing things:-

1. Lenght of wire

2. On thickness of wj re

3. On Temperature

1. ON LENGTH OF WIRE

Re si stan ce of a ny wi re is in proportion a I to its Ie ngth. Me an s lts resistance incre ases in correspondence to increase of fts length.

07· PUBL,CAT'ON .

77

2. ON THICKNESS OF WIRE Resista nee of an y wi re is anti proport ion al to its length. Mean_s as resistance decreases in ccrrespo to increases of its thi ckn ass a nd resistance of w~re in crea ses in corre spondence to decrease of thi ckness of In thls way it can be said that thicker wire has less resistance and thin wire has mere resistance.

Thickness of wi re is m easu red by wire gauge. Se ria I wlse nu m bers ha s been written on wire gauge. th ickness of wi re j nere ases acco rdingly wj re 9 au ge n urn ber decrease and as th i ckn ess of wire decrease-s ingly gaug e nu m be r in crea se s.

3. ON TEMPERATURE

Effect of on any resistan ce depe nds upon matertaj used in that resistan ce. Ge ne rally such type of SUClSlalriQ is u sed for rna king res i stan ce wh i Ie increasing h eat its resista nee shou Id not increase. Althoug h accordi n 9 to resjsta"'~ of every conductor increases but carbon tS a such substance its resistance decreases as its tern ture (heat) increases. Hence m os t I}I rests tan ce is ma de w~th carbo n .

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL OF RESISTANCE

UNIT Unit of measuring resistance is ohm (Q). lts higher units are serially: Killo Ohm and Mega Ohm. ~o=..liahtl

am ong these un its is 9 iva n below: _. 1000 ohm (n) = 1 kino Ohm (K.Q)

1000 Kflo ohm (~n);;;: 1 Mega Ohm (MQ).

TYPES OF RESISTANCE

Vari au s type of resistance are u sed in electro nic and e lectrica I. Each type of resistance has its specific Any specific type of resistance is used in any circuit according to requirement of the circuit Description of type of resistances ls as mentioned below:-

BASIC ELECTRICAL & 1-:1: .. .1 , .I·:·r=-~_Il-;_l_I_-:·r .. ~

78

WIRE LEAD

BON RESISTANCE -

This type of res i sta nce is made by ca rbon a nd other special type of produ ets filled in metanic tu be in the

of paste, It is small in size and its maximum wattage is 2 watt. For knowing its value different colour rings made on it Each colour has its specific number, Value of ca n be obta ined by u sing certain ru I es with the help

colou rs. This method is k nawn a s colour code method I is aces pted at intern ation allevel,

C olou rs and their values used in carbon resistance:

IN SULAri NG A~ D SCALING MATERIAL

INSUlATING TUBE

COMPRESSED CARSON + BINDER

Colour CodeNo. Tolerancy
Black 0
Brown 1
Red 2
Orange 3 Golden= t5%/1110
Yeltow 4 Silver= ±10%J/1/1 00
Green 5
Blue 6
Violet 7 !
·Gray 8
!
l I
White 9
I ce ~at

Mini codes of these colours are given below. These can be counted senaBy with 0 to 9 digits.

Code Colour Colour Colour Co1our
0 B Black S, Black
1 B 8rown e, BrOlMl
2 R Red R. Red
3 a Orange 0_ Orange
4 y Yellow Y. Yelfow
5 G Green G, Green
6 8 Blue B, Blue
7 V Violet V. Violet
~
8 G \ Gray G. Gray
9 W I White W. l Whj~
1 on

ie, us

79

BASIC ELECTRICAL &. 1_.:. r- '1- •. J_: J .- .• "":'" J"T--;-l ~ : r"-l

GENERAL RULES FOR OBTAINING VALUE OF RESISTAr4CE Ra .. ·No.':

(A) Any resistance has m i nimu m three COlour and

COLOUR SAND

maximu m s i.x colou rs. (8) First Colour ., considered co lou r nea r resi sta n ce tapping. (C) Bla ck, Golden and Silver Colou rs wiU never be first colour, Rul. No.2~

Value of two colours shoufd be written as it is in four colours resistance, Third Cofa.ur has whfch so zero has to be written or added Figure obtamedin this way is va~ue (:0) of that resistance, Fourth COlour its tolerance. When golden it is ±S%, When Stiver it is ±10%, But if no colour has been given among

lst nlld-----'

Mil ~---jilfd

colo urs then tolerance of that resistance is :t20%. Example: Brown, Black, Brown, Silver 1000±10%

Rule No.3

number will be marked.

Exampre: Brown, Black, Black, Golden 100: ±5%

Rule No.4

t,

Example: Brown, Black, Golden, Golden 10 x 1/10 = 10 ±5%

Rul. No.5 If among fou r colo urs of resista nee third colou r is si rver colour then figures obtained from two fIrst be dwided .by 100. Value obtained by this method will be between 0,10 to 0.990, ExampJe: Brown, Btackt Snver, Golden 10)C 11100 = 0.10 ±5%

Rule No .. 8 If Ffve colours are given in any resistance, then value of first three colours wilt be written as it is, to be added accc rdrng to value of fa urth eolcur. Fjfth colour is for to leran ce.

8ASIC ELECTPICAL & I :. ("1:.'-1·:] _~ ~T.4 I ;TI ~ [<1

80

IImI~fe: Brown, Red, Orange, Yellow, Golden 12300oo0::=: 1230K ±5% or 1.23MO ±5%

1 ~ ~ __ 0d<IIrl

2 ~ ~ ~~

If six colou rs are given in any resista nce then val ue of first th ree co lours wit! be written as it is and zeros are

according to va lue of fa urth colou r, fifth colou r is far tolerance and colou r indicates wattage. Va lue of sixth is given below:-

Brown = 1 watt

Red:;:: 2 watt

Orange = 3 watt

. Yellow ;:: 4 watt Gree n ::=: 5 watt Bfue = 6 watt Violet = 7 watt Gray = 8 watt

White = 9 watt

plo: Bro'M'l, Red, Orange, Yellow, Golden, Red

.

or 12300000 ±S% , 2W

or 1230K ±5% 2W

or 1.23Mil±5% 2W

WIRE WOUND RESISTANCE

-

. .

Wi re wo un d resista nce ls made by wi nd ing with high resistan ce metallic wi re (ureka or m a ng anese) on

W!:III"YI i,. tube of ch ina clay ba se _ Its va Ius, tolera nee and wattage has bee n writte n on it. Th is resistance may be

one watt to 50 watt or even more. Less wattage rssistan ce has small size. But a s its wattage increases . its size of resistance increases. Because val ue of wire wound resistan ce depends upon the ~ngth of res lsta nce wire 1 he nce it va lu e ca n be made more reliable by accurate Ie ngth of wi re. Th is resistance is ble from ±O. 1 % to 10% tolera nee.

Mostly .wIre would resistance is uses in electrjcal instruments.

F=:=======i;:::(. ~JI.1\

1 OOE 7W +ti% 1 ')}

-

10wmE

81

BASIC ELECTRICAL & I : [>III ~ I I - J :~_-T~~ i i "' t I ~ [~··1

TYPES OF CARBON AND. WIRE WOUND RESISTANCE

There a re three types of ca rbon and wi re wound resista nee

1. F IX Resistance

2. Variable Resista nce

3. Sam i Va riabl e Resistance , ~ FIX RESISTANCE

This type of reslstance has fix value, We can not increase or decrease it according to our choice. cal sym bol it given be low:-

2. VARIABLE RESISTANCE

These are also called controls. It has three tag, Among tag (1) and (3) are total resistance control and tag (2) is a variable tag. This variable tag can be adjusted any where between tag (1) and (3) , control has a carbon strip between lts tag (1) and (3), tag (2) can be adjusted on it according to has been connected between tapping (1) and (3) of wire wound type control. One tapPfng touching on moved on it Va lu e of wi re we und control de creases or increases accord ing to its Ie ngth. 2

1

There are two types of va ria ble co ntrol- 0) Linear Type ... (ii) Log Type

m LINEAR TYPE Rs s i sta nce of every pa rt of carbo n strip is simi I a r is linea r type va nab!e resj sta nee. Ac:cording to value of a ny linea r control is 100 oh m (n) then va rue of its ea ch one fou rth (1/4) of part Ii rst 25n I In centre in 3/4 part 75 ohm and 100 ohm at end.

Th is type 0 r control is u sed in su ch circu its where supply c r sig na I is made up and down in slmuar manner. Every tin ear control has been marked Jinear (U N) on it.

Linear control can be checked by multimeter, For that meter has to set on proper oh ms ra ng e, its probs ha ve to con nected at 1 and 2 ta ppin 9 0 r control and control is moved. In this condltion needle of meter will indicate eq us I va riation from ze ro to maxi mu rn.

Linear type variable resistance are available in both types carbon and wire wound,

BASIC ELECTRICAL & • : 1·· ]_ • .I . T·~_~ .' J !";; 11 :·T t .,

82

TYPE VARIABLE RE8J8'FANCIl

This type of resistance or controlst resfstance of carbon strip hiiS not divided in similar parts from its one to end. According to figure if value of any log control is 100 ohm then of half part of resistance win be either less of more then half of total HI!r!llln~ and remaining value wiH be in other half part, means if 100 parts are made if resistance connected in 100 ohms jog control then of each pa rt will not be sam e. General! y Log ha s bee n written on log

LOG

· If log has not been written on any control then it is also a log controL If rag or line has not been written on any control then that will be also log · If variattons is checked between (1) and (2) tappings of any log then un equal variation will be obtained. In this way identification of linea r con be made by checking its variation.

," ... tv .. '. TYPE OF CONTROLS

various type of controls are shown in further comjng figures. Different type of controls are used in dlfferent of electronic and electric equ;pments. Some ccntrols are such, in which On/Off switch has been attached. OnlOff switches are made in some controls While double On/Off switcMes are made In some controls. Many outer structure of these controls is made so much typical that under standing of their connections become

difficult. For solution of this problem descripttcn of some main controls is give below:ORDINARY 3 TAG CONTROL (ROTARY TYPE)

Th)s type of control can be used with any circuit. In common language n is knoWl'l by the name of tone · These are avaUab'e in different values and log and tin ear both types. Some of this type of controls have aI\IM2111ir. shaft and have piastre shaft. Plastic shaft co ntrols

small in size where as metanic shaft controls are big· in size. But these both have simifar working system these both can be used In place of each other in conthese both have same value.

) 3-TAG CONTROL + SINGLE ON/OFF (ROTORV. :TYP£)

3

2

GRAPHrCAl SYMBOL

ThiS control works ilke ordInary 3-Tag control, but OnlOff sw;tch is also connected with it. As shown in

· Tapping A and B are On/Off switch tappings. These are ~

'lW) ONIOFF

R

are generally1Jsed as volume control fa r decreasing I 01 sounct Atlriitia~ stage ~hen sWitch is Put On and tS received b~ ea,u\t;m\en\. N.OH ~e~ C()'r\\to\ \s mQ\leo

increa ses accordingfy. .

LOG 1M

83

BASIC ELECTRICAL & I. : 'r ·"1'··1 - ] :._' / J I ; 1 I : r- .•

(III) 3- TAG CONTROL + DOUBLE ONIOFF SWITCH (ROTORY TYPE)

This control rs similar like crdjna!y control but fI: has double ON/OFF switch. Main lead has been connected to each tapping of both switches and supply is received through other tappings. These swtiches most important. for a safety point of view. Phase and neutral both remarns cut-off at off positron of swrtch, beCi8l11 of that these remains no possibility for getting any type of shock rn chasis.

A r ... ··-----~·

~ ;WIl

~

: F7ZA

B o

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL

3

o -0

(iv) 4- TAG CONTROL + DOU BlE ON/OFF SWITCH (ROTORY TYPE)

In this type of control 3 tags made closely work as main contra I and tou rth tag which is made sepa rately at other srde is used for feed back process. According to graphical symbol this fourth tag is closer to tag no. 1 and that is a fixed ta ppi ng.

(v) WIRE WOUND CONTROL

~

r~ TAG VARrABLE CARBON RESISTORS

SYMBOL

T

.;1111).,1

" I~.I .. ,

.~.: _.

~--"':""

4

T

This control has been made by winding resistance wire on bakafite-round base. length, and ~"'U'W''''.''_ wire used as to be decided according to value of control. It is a tungsten or magnin wjre. Porcelain

pressed pa per i nsuieted core is used. Generally un insulated ba re wi re j s used in this type of control. This co ntrol is used for 'ow value resistance and from 5 watt to 100watt or even more. Its value can be from 1 ohm to several mega ohms. When more reliable and constant value controls are required generally wire wound controls are used at that place. These controls are only

linear controls.

(vI) SLIDING CONTROL

This type of control is like an ordinary rotory control but difference in only that, in sliding controls carbon strip is long nor rounded. It has one more metalltc strip in parallel with tn;s carbon strip. This plain strip and carbon strip are shorted together by sliding knob. Resistance between both fixed tapp,ng can be made low and high sriding knob.

(vii) DUEL CONTROL

These are sliding and rotory both type of controls. In whfch two controls are inside a one compact wh ich works 0 nJ y on e s haft a nd slid lng knob.

BASIC ELECTRICAL & .: [·III~]~~~7_1;_'_.r~r.-~

84

0102 0230 0.2 02

01, 30

Due L. SLIDI NG C OOTllOL {T~VlE~

PRE-SET CONTROL

DUAL ROlTERY CONTROlI

Pre set centro l is a such control, wh lch has nos haft of s tid in 9 knob for chang fng val ue - Its va ius can be by moving aligner. Preset controls are fitted in prlntad circuit board (PCB). value has not to be ch an ged agai nand again. WhiJ e doing tu ni ng of any i nstru-

these are adjusted accordi ng to req uirement and these. a re moved on Iy at that ...... tt ...... when retun ing of that tnstrumenf is req ulred or any fa uit h as developed.

Presently some such preset are coming which have shaft. Thts type of preare used in that circuit whose voltage and current frequency has to be ad-

SEMI VARIABLE RESISTANCE

Th ls type of resista nee is on Iy wire wou nd res i sta nee _ I ts val ue is adj usted accord ing to circuit requ i rement

~

use. After adj usting va lu e on ce its readj ustrnent of va lue is not needed. In th is type of res ~St8 nee both end

tclP'lr\ir"ll'\e a re fixed, betwee n these two ta ppings one af twa tappi ng s may be varia ble. Value of resistan ce can be INJ\.';:' U.iU by ch a nging position of these va rla b 1 e

Actual fig ure and graph lcal sym bol of 58 mi ble resistance i3 shown in the fig u re. Tap- 1 and 4 a re fixed tappings and tapping 2 and 3 are va ria ble. These can be adj usted at a ny position between tapping 1 and 4. Presently this type of resistance is net used.

Presently reslstance with th rea or more then Ihree tappings a re used in solid state instruments. It h as all fixed tapping I it is called ta pped resistance. Th is type of resistance is used in fan reg ulators.

SEMI VARIABLE RESISTOR

1

4

gether, then this is called tl"leir pa rallel com bin atien.

Total value of resistances connected in parallel can be obtained by the formula gjven below.-

1/~ = 1/R1 + 11R2 +1/R3 + -------.-Exam pie: Three reaistance va lue of 330 a re connected in parelle r . What Wi II be their total value?

Solution: 1/~ = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

100 20n Son ~

R1 R2. R3

COMBINATIONS OF RESISTANCE W~entwo or more then two resistance, are used by connecting together is called their resi stan ce can be rna de ,n two types:- 1. Series Com bi nation 2. Parallei Combin ati on 1. BERIES COMBINATION

When one resi sta nce has been co nnected tOI seco nd and second has been connected third then called series combination. In this combination value of total resistance is equal to total value 01 all the resists nces. Va lue of total watts ge in series is eq ual to wattage fewest wattage resistance connected in com bin aU on.

Total val ue of res istan ces connected in series ca n be obtai ned by the form U I a given below:~ = R 1 +- R2 + R3 Exa m pie: Three re s i sta nces or 1 on, 20a and 50n a re con nacted in series. then thei r total value WiI 10+ 20 + 50 = 80n , If wattage of these resistances is seria ny 1/2 wattt 1 watt, and 2 watt then val ue of total

will be 112 watt, because it is a lowest wattage resistance in this combinations. 2. PARALLEL COMBINATION

When two or m ore then two resistances are connected together in this way that, one commontapping hal made by their one tapping together and second com mon tapping has been made by connecting second tapping to-

331l

86

== 1/33 +1/33 + 1133

1/R1;;;; 3/33 hence RT = 33/3 :::11rl WATTAGE

Wattage of resistances connected in parallel is added together. If wattage of each resistances is 1 watt in the a beve example then val ue of total wattage wUl be 3 watt.

CHAPTER-5 CAPACITOR

Capacitor IS such part, which is mad e with two metallic plates and dlelectrlc has been placed between these

Ca pacito r is also ca lied condenser. Its is to accum u late electri c energy an d its pply is a 9 a ~n, Ttl is process is ca lied and discharge capacito r, As a fact a works I ike a storage tank. As water B

be stored in tank right in the same capacitor is also stored electnc. It is called that capacitor ts charged, As

stored in the tan k can be re obtained nght in the sa me electric stored in the capacitc r can be re obtai ned. It

discharging of capacitor,

CITANCE

Capacity of storlng etectric by any capacitor is caBed capacitance of that capacitor- It is indicated by 'C', is unit for measuring capacitance but farad is a very bIg unit. Its }ower units are kilo micro farad (KMFD), Farad (MFD), Kilo Pice Farad (KPF) and Pico Farad, Kilo Pico Farad '5 also called Neno Farad (nF), Ulll!:lolr. ... " between these u nlts are given as u nd e r ~-

1000 Pico Farad =

he

1000 Kilo Pico Farad (KPF) =

1000 Micro Farad (MFD I M F I !IF) ==

1000 Ki to Micro Farad (KM F DIKMF 1KttF) ::;:

IO!:PEIIWDliNI:~ OF CAPACITANCE

As you have read capaCity of aton ng electric in an y ca pa citar is called its ca pa cita nee. Va Ius of ca pacitance

depends u po n following th ings :-

1 . Area of PI ates

1 Micro Farad {MF D IMF I ~F)

1 Kilo Micro Farad (KMFD/KMF/KttF) 1 Farad (F)

1 Klio Pica Farad (KPF) or 1 Neno Farad (nF)

2. Olsten ee betwee n two p! ates

3, Efficiency of die electric materi al kept between two plates. ,. AREA OF PLATES

Value of capacitance of any capacitor ls propc rtion al to effected areB of pi ates, means as area of plates

- .

connected in it lncreased according Iy its ca pa clta nee increases.

Ccr.A

Here A ;;: Area of Plates C = Capacit;imce

z. DISTANCE BE1WEEN PLATES

Capacitance of any capacitor is ant; propc rtlon al to distance of both plates. Means as d i sta nee between

pl~teB increases com pa ratively its capacitance decreases and when distance decreases accordingly ca~)aClrtal1l increase.

c ~ 1/d Here d = distance between both plates C = Capacitance

3. DIE-ELECTRIC CONSTANT OF MATERIAL KEPT BETWEEN BOTH PlATES Ca pacito r of a ny capacitor is proportio na l to mate ria I ke pt between plates C~ER orC;::;: ER ER = Efficiency of Ole - Electric mate rial (Die·E lectric Con sta nt) C = Capacitance of C anacttor Different type of die-electric material have different d~e-electric constant. Die-electric constant of

prod ucts is 9 ivan below:Vaccum = 1

" Ebonite:: 2.3 to 5.3 Mica = 5.8 Polythene = 2.3 Air;;:: 1.0006 Rubber = 2.57 Glass::; 5.5 to 10

When distance between both plates of any capacitor is more then area of die electric increasesj due to working voltage ca pacity increases. Due to decrease in distance betw&en plates area of die electric m decreases. In this way working voltage of nay capacitor depends upon the area of die electric material between both plates of th at capacitor.

TYPES OF CAPACITOR

. As you know 0 ne caoaclto r rya s bee n m ads by keeping bad conductor material between both plates bad conductor material ls caBed die electric material. A good die electric material is that whtch _ms loss in energy across die electric material which produces heat energy loss in etectric is not cal\ed a type of dl e e lectrlc,

Type of capacitors are named acco rdi ng to the name of die electnc m aterta~ used in them. Ca pacitors can be divided main Iy ~ n to two categories on the bas is of die electric:-

1_ Simple Capacitor

2. Electrolytic C a pa eitor 1. SIMPLE CAPACITOR

Those capacitor in which polyester air, paper, mica, ceramic, plastic and stero flux are die electrlc material are called simple capacitors. These capacitors are recognized by the nam"s

BASIC ELECTR'CAL & 1:"["'1-'-1" J ~T,fl"; rr: r-j

88

electri c mate ria I used in th em, F or an exa m pie th 0 sa ca pa cito rs in wh i ch p a per is use d B I a die eleetrlc are called paper capacitors, Those in which mica is used are caUed mica ca pacltcrs. I n the same way ceramic capacitor, polyester capacitor. plastic capacitor, and stero ffux capacitors are 9 ivan name according to die e~ectric materlal. Both tappings of these capacitors are similar. Hence while using these in circuit there is no need to check po~a rfty. ln place of any simple capacitor any other si mple capacitor of sa me value can be used,

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL OF SIMPLE CAPACITOR

Some mainsimple capacitors and theirspeciaUties are as under:-

U) MICA CAPACITORB

Mica is a such substance wh ich is available in the sh ape of thin layer in the nature, n has very h ig h die electric consta nt. S pecia fly for hig h freq uency it works as good j nsu lato r on high temperat u re. j t ha s also very less frequ e ncy I ass _ Due to these qualities it is used as die electric material in capacitors. These type of capacttors are caHed mica ca pacltors. Beca use mica call not rolled hence m lea capacitors are available in flat sha pe, These capacitors are used at such pi ace, where m ore reality stabil Hy

.

and more die electric energy is required.

,Oil PAPER CAPACITOR

It is a such capacitor which

is used for hig h voltage DC and AC work on medium lavet loss and medium level capacitance stability, This capacitor is made by rolling . alum ini urn th in sheed ~ayer w;th tis~ sue paper layers, For removing wet- CemJic Disc ness wax layer has been coated.

Value of paper capacitors is generally from 0.001 microfarad to 0,2 m kro farad. Its vo ltag e capacity Is maxrn urn up to 100 volts,

pm CERAMIC CAPACITOR

-----tIl ...... --

Metal damp~ pate

moulded case

,

A such capacitor *n which cera m ic material has been used as die electric is cal led ceramic capacitor.

Categories of work of this capacitor should made accordln,g to electrical property of ceramic material. A ceramic.

CONSTRUCTION OF TUBULAR ANO BOX-TYPE PAPER CAPACITORS

..

material has very wide range its electricaJproperties. Because of high electric constant ceramic capacitor hal very

smaU size in comparison to other type capacitors. Ceramic material is just like a chi na clay material, which Is good insulator. Very h!g h va lue of die electric con stant h as been obtained with the combination ot different type silicates in th is cera m ,c material.

Generally ceramic ca pacltors has two types disc type and tubbier type_I n disc type ca pacftor two plates are m ada by putting th ing silver sheet layer on both sides of cera m lc pl ate. Two electrodes are made connecting one wire tapping on each plate. Insulation material coating has been made for protecting caClacltOl: from m oj sture. Other type of cera m lc capacitor which has a shape of rssl stance areca lied tubb~ r type .... .cr.M~rnll!' capacitor. Silver coating has been made on inner and outer side cf ceramic tube, which works as conductor One wire has been taken out from every coating. Tubblar capacitors from 1 PF to 500PF work similar like m capacitors , RANGE OF CERAMIC CAPACITOR

Presently ceramic capacitors are used in very large quality_ This type of capacitors are used almost in electronic equipment. Range of use of ceramic capacitor is very wide because of its wide range of __ .' __ .... Generally ceramic capacitors are availabja in the range from O.5PF to 1000PF. The voltage capacity of capacitors from 12V, 25V, 5OV, 20DV, 500V, 1 KV and 3KV

Cape caors sh 0 uld be always eM ecked before use. It should be a Iways kept in m fnd th at component chased from market ca n be defectJve hence it should also be checked before use.

Detailed description of method of ct'lecking of simple· capacitor has been given further.

CHECKING MEDIOD OF SIMPLE CAPACITOR

As already mentioned eartier that none of the capacltor passes DC_ Hence wneAwe check co multi meter sanwa P-3 of any simple capacitor then meter needle should not give anydeflectionj because at time meter circuit wiB not get DC B uppty of cell.

Meter needte does not give any deflectIon white checking continuity of any capacitor, means Innl ........

B~.SIC EI .. ECTRICAL &

•---,;,; '!II""" .11. I ~. _l'.~. r» .~ t I .~ [·:-1

.... -<!. :J.:.._... ~ .. I .- ...

maximum resistance then capaC:itor may be even open and may be correct. Because neither good capacitor passes DC neither open capacitor passes DC-

Capacitor

Capacitor

CAPACITOR SHORT

NOT SHORT IT MAY BE OPEN OR OK

CAPAcrTOR OPEN

CAPACITOR OK

But while checking continuity of nay capacitor, after giving indication if needle comes to zero made on right skle means give full indication or shows zero reslstance then it means capacitor is short. In this way checking continu~y by meter, it can be checked that capacitor is short or not.

Now for making jdentification of open of correct of any capacitor 1 ,t has to be connected in series of 250V AC rilflge of multi meter and second big tapping of lead has to be connected in AC 220V plug accDfdJng to figure. In tnis condition if meter needle gives no indication then it means capacitor is not passing AC S uPEJly mea ns it,s 0 pen,

A simple capacitor can be checked by connecting a in aerlea with bulb. If bulb g'OW8 with itl full light then capacitor ~$ short. If bulb not glows then capacitor IS cpen and if bulb glows dim then capacitor is correct.

ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR

Theae capacitor are totally different from simple capacitor, "Electrolytic mate"rial ha's been uied in these -between both metallic plates as" a bad conductor, whtch is a chemical material. Bec~use of this

materia! electrolytic capacitor has one positive tappfng and second negative tapping. While using these "i capacitor it is important to take care for polarity of their tappings otherwise due to produce of gas these ~ can be burst,

~

CIT eu.LleATION

81

r ~I I

Work1ng voltage and value of electrolytic capacitor has been

written on them, Only neg ative (-) $i9n has been made on one

tapping oithese capadtors I It is a negative tapping of this caoaci- I t\) - 0 ~~

tor and second tappi n9 on which noth ing h as bee n writte n is a ......

positFYe tappi ng. a ~~, 0

Generally in one body there is only one capacitor. But many ~ t, 0

two or three ca pacitors are j oi ntly made tn one body. Most~y these .......... .......------'

.----------.

capacitors are made ~ n meta !He

body. Red s~n has been on their two or m ore then two positive tap~ pings, where as metallic body works as negative tapping far all capacitors, Hence it is essential to make earth of this body.

METHOD OF CHECKING OF ELECTROLvnC CAPACITOR

--- 22!IlMF zmM1" mr:r..f' 1===

35V 35V 3:SV 1=====

..-::: CIII[: ..-:

A~~' Ai! I _iii

Electrolytic capacitor can be checked by multimeter. When we check continuity of capacitor on 1 OK(O) or 1M(rl) range ofmult~meterthen needle of meter should go fastfy in other side and come back. slowly. Ifit appears so then capacito r is correct. If meter needle does go other side the n capacitor is open and if goes other side :and' does not retum then capacitor is short.

NON~ POLARIZES ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR

Intern al design of these capacitor is sim i1 ar to e tectrolytic capacitors. But these have no negative and

. .

tive polarity sig n on their tappings, These a re used as a starting capacitor in AC motors, I n fact ina none Actuaify tNo capacitors works in series &I nd a re connected with pc ta riUes worki ng 0 pposite to each other.

. .

value is ha If of the value of both capacitors. 8 ut working voltage is added due to increase of d!EI-electric. If not

a tt~ S Ie E~. !E.CTR ICAL & I : r '" ] Ii· 1 ··a \ .~] I ·;1 I : r- ...

92

none polarized capacitor has been available then two electrolytte capacitors in series can be used in ita These total valu J should be eq ual to value of none polarized capacitor.

======>c=: ======

CHECKING OF NONE POLAR CAPACITOR

None po la r electrolytic ca pacitor can be checked in se ries c~rcuit by giving AC 220V supply after that by rem oving s uppty both ta ppings have te be sh orted with screw driver, By doi ng so there win be high sound. If high" sound is obtained then capacitor is correct (ok). If low sound is obtained then this capacitor is weak. If no sound ie obtai ned then capacitor is open, By 9 iv~ng supply bul b con nected in series circuit glows high a nd no sound Is obtai ned by short i ng capacitor then capacitor is short.

AC220V

COMBINATION OFCAPACITORS

!

~

f

l

t I

~

I I ,

Method of us i ng the two or more the n capacitors tog ethe r is called combination of ca pecltor. Comb~nation of caoacltors is made by fallowing two methods.

1. Series

2, Paralrel

1. _&8 c:ar.lNATICIIII OF CAJIAaTOII8

Connecting two or more capacitOt'$ in series is simi1ar to increase in dl..electrieal material. AI mentioned ea rlier when a re of die-electric materia I between two plates of any capacitor wltl increased then capacitance of ca pacitor Vii II be decrea sed. When som e capacitors are connected one af-

•....

• ,

ter one as per figu re mean s con nected in series com binaUan then their total capacitaoce becomes even lower then the value of towest value capacitor of that combination. tfthree capacttorC1, C2 and C3 have beencennected in an.y series circ~H: \hen thei"r tota I ca pacitance ~ can be obtained by the following formula:"',,. ,'"

Formula: 1/CT -= 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3

A

+ r.-C1 I n~2 ... ~~;:..__B

V1 V2 V3

VOLT

1-

83

wmple·1: Ifth.re capacitors of 50"F~ 26V are conneeted In series, than whatwill be thalrtotal Capacitance Formula: = 1/CT = 1/C1 + 1/C=l + 1/C3

= 1/50 + 1/50 + 1/50

= 1 + 1 + 1150 = 3/50

1/CT== 3/50

= cr = 5013 = 16.66MF

In this way by connecting three capacltor of 50MF.ln selies then their total value win be 16.66 MF, which is lower then the value (50M F) of one capacitor.

In T h fs type of com bi n at ion, because are a of di e·e lectrlc m ateri a I betwee n both tnte rnal plates lncreases, hence value of working voltage capacity of capacitors are equa~ to total working voltage capadty of each capacrtors.

VT = V1 + V2 + V3 = 25 + 25 + 25 ~75V

In this way by connecting three capacitors of 5OMF, 25V in series their total value will be 16.65MF. 2~ PARALLEL CONNECT10NS OF CAPACITORS

Connecting two or more then two capacitors in parallel combination is similar to increasing area of plates. Capa~tance of capacitor increases due to increaSi ng area of plates.

'n this way total va Ius of capacitors con nected in pa ra Uells s 1m iI ar to addrng value of each capacitor. According to fig ure if three capacitors C 11 C2 and C3 has been connected in parallel combinat~on then their total value CT can be obtained by following formula.

CT= C1 + C2 + C3

Because r:ri'I area of plates inaeases in paraIIet combination of capacitonI, thicknNs of cie etadric not Increases hence total voltage capadty of combination is equal to value of lewest voltage capacity of that combination. H: all capacitors have sim liar capacity the n voltage capacity of one capacitor will be the tots t value of vottage ca pacity .

Exa m pie: Th ree ca pacitors of 470M F50V a re can nected In parallel, ca tculate the~r total VI tu •. Total capacitors CT = C 1 + C2 + C3

-= 470 + 470 + 470 = 1410MF

Because aU the capacitors have 8im ilar voltage capacity, hence total voltage capacity of com binatian will be eq ua~ to voltage capacity Of one capacitor.

BASIC ELECTRICAL & I ; l· 111 t . j .; ~ . i ! ~"1 I ~ [" ~ .,

94

CHAPTER -8 COIL

r I

I

Component made by winding fnsulated conductor wire [s called coil. When these turns are Winded on any bad conductor base or winded without base then these are called air core coils. But when these twfns are winded on ferrite or iron core coil, These aU coils are made for different uses. In this way we can say that coils are made on the basis of requirement in different desIgns and different basis.

INDUCTANCE

When AC supply is given to any coil, whose value changes ,n continuous manner Induces voltage of oppo~ site polarity then given supply, This voltage oppose to the voltage given 10 coil. Quality of the coil due to which opposlte voltage j s produced in it, is called inductance. Unrfof measuring Inductance is Hahery. HanelY is ~& higher unit. Its lower units and their mutual relation is given below,

1 Hanery (H) = 1000 Mill! Hanery (mH)

1 Millf Hanery (mH) = 1000 Micro Hanery (J.tH)

DEPENDENCY OF INDUCTANCE

Inductance of any coil depends upon following things:-

1. Number of turns "

2. Gap betWeen turns

3. Direction of Wire used,

4. Thickness of wire used 5, Quality of core

1. CORE OF TURNS

fnductance of any coil is proportional to its number of turns. A coH of less turns has less inductance where as coj~of more turns has more inductance.

2. GAP BETWEEN TURNS

If turns of coils are winded with a gap, then inductance of that coli will be less. If gap between turns is ress then inductance will be high.

3. DIRECTION OF TURNS

One coil has to be made by winding turns in only one diret;tlon, In any coil IT some tums are winded In direction and some more turns are winded in opposite direction then because of this opposite direction Inductance be reduced, But if two coils winded in some direction should be jointed together then value of total inductance be equal to total inductance of both coils

95

sr::. SIC ELECTR~CAl & • : t .. 1 • ~ 1 _ \" j i • .. I ~ ( ,.- ".

"

II

"' ! '

4. THICKNESS OF WIRE

I nductance of coit is p~ortional to the resistance of wire used. Becau se thin wire has more resists nee and thick wire has less resista nce _ Hence j nductan ce of thi n wire is more in com eanson to thi ck wire.

EFFECT OF DC ON COIL

According to figure when 1 pole 2 way switch is kept in 'A' posaien, then current flows begins in coil. Because of this current, magnetic flux Induces in the coi I and opposite polarity voltage are induced in the coil. These voltage oppose current flowing ~n the coil. Result of this value of current increases COIL gradually in the cou. After some time tata ~ current flows in the con. At th~s time strength of magnetic field is hig hest and at this pcsttlon opposite polaray voltage is not induced. In this way we can say that One coil does not oppose DC. That maqnettc fields of coll which ~s induced by DC is a stable. Because the value of DC is also stable, It is stored in the cere connected with magnetic field. When we brrng one pole two· way switch in 'B' Position then battery removes from circuit. Hence current should not flow through meter but it does not happen. After removing switch from battery even then meter shows current a value of current decreases graduaHy andafter that it is finlshes. This current is induced due to dis· charge of mag netic field stored in core. Becs use this magnetic field is discharged very slowly hence due to that voltage inrJuces tn cot! and because of this voltage current flows through meter, When thil magnetic fie~d discharges completely then ind ucing af voltage stops in coil and meter does not i nd~cat esc u rre nt.

In this way this thing should be kept in mind that stable magnetic field produces in coil by giving DC Supp~ in coil.

EFFECT OF AC IN COIL

When AC supply is given to any coil then because directi on of AC ch a ng as conti n uo us. He nee d i recti 0 n of magnetic field induced also changes continuously and because of continu 0 us ch a nge in mag neti c fie I d a pposite po I a rlt y vo Itag e Is produced in continuous manner, Because of that it creates continuous oppose to given supply,

In this way we can say that a coil works as resistance in AC. Besides th at va riable magneUc field included in coil by 9 ivi ng ACsupply.

C'

Coun terr;:lcI<xwiaa , C~oIckwi"

Mag~Cn~ll.d

IMPEDANCE

Combined resistance produced by inductance of coil and resistance of wire used in coil is caBed im no=o .. ~an,NI Ohm (allB unit for measuring impedance,

HASte ELECTRfCAL.. & I : (.11 .I . I _ .• ., & ~ J I ii 1 I = [~-.

96

·1

COMBINAnON"OP ·COIL

, ,

Jointing of two'or·mo·re then two coils together is caned combination of coils. There are three type of combt-

natl-on of coUe:- ... ~~: .. ':. : .

1 . Series Combination 2. Parallet Combination

3, Series Parallel Combination

1. SERIES COMBINATION

Whe n two or more t hen two coils a re con nected In regular serial

according to figure then It is caned their series combination. Total ~n" d ucta nee of co Us connected in series 18 eq ual to total com bi ne inductance of each cci I. Although same ClI rrent flows in each ccHI connected

~ 1

t,

.[

, '

in series, But val us of oppasite voltage i nd uced in aU coils is equ al to 0 pposite voltage ind uced resultant of total ~ ;

turns, In this way value of total inductance of series combtnatl0l1 of colis can be obtained by the formula given

below:-

Lt = L 1 + L2 + l3 +-~--------~y-

Pos ition of these co Us connected in serles de pends upon their mutua I combination,

It two coils are con nected each other in such type their direction of turns have sarna direction then inductance of both coils win be added as shown in the figure.

This method of joi nting coils is caUed series add~ng,' Se rles· add ing means that common current induces

m agnetit field of lame direction. Here con L 1 and L2 Windi!19' a re connected Series 0 pposi1g

ln same direction in series adding method, rTIIDIDn ~mm-,

Now if these both cons are ~ing connected in this type that they eachlJ [ ~~

cthe r h ave opposite d lractl en tums, as shown in the fig ure then inductance of

Serial AId! ng

rm~n)--'»ID9- e~.~~1

l L1 L.2

I

these both win be decreased.

Th is method of jointl ng coil is. called series opposi ng method. Here colt ~ 1 and coil l2 a re connected on opposite term ina Is. Dot symbol shown on coils indicated tapping of the i r si mUar w1 nding_

Z~ PARALLEL COMBINATION

~

1 When two or more then two coils are connected in th is type that their all

~ one side should be co nnected together and.all tappings of second side should be -1 connected together then it is caned their parallel combination. Total value of thIs

com bi natio n8 can be obta ined by following formu la. 1JU:: 1111 + 1/L2 1- 1/L3

L2

L- __ ..... __ ~,._ ~

A coil co nnected in circuit lnduces impeda nce of a certain va~ue due to va riation of cu rrent flow. If another coil of similar design and va~ue should be connected ~n peraltal YJith this coil then value of inductance decreases in ci rcuit. Reason for. this that at this tum two cu rre nt paths are made. Although each coil wi II oppose variations of current flow in circu it Because two paths are made fo r current flow hence flow of c.wrent 'Mil be increased. I n this way oppose of current variation decraaaea.

3 .. SERIES - PARAllEL COMBINATION

I n rna ny ci rcuits para lIel co m binatlo n of coils a re conn eeted wtth series combi nation of coils. Th is is called the ir series paranel com binati an. Beca use in thi scorn bl nanc n sari es and pa ra Uel both combinations a re made.

l n th is type of co m binatio n for obtai ni ng tota I inductances series a nd para~l~ both formulas are used. In this

com bi nation at fi rat value of para lIel circu tt win be obtained: Now this va lue wu! come j n se ries with rema ilJn9 coils I which is obtained by series form u I a. Solution of th is ci reuit ca n be made by following form u la:

L 1 + {L2 ~ L3}1 L4 = 12Volt ELECTRIC MAGNEnC FIELD

Mag netic field induces B urrou nd ~ng coll accordi ng to flow or current in coi I, which is caUed electric mag netic ffeld, I n thIs way by giving supply coil is made magnetic. Magnet m ack:llike this is called electro magnet. Strength

th is electro mag net depends upo n the value of cu rrent flowing in it. If more cu rrent win flow in the co i I then mag netic field wiH also be powerfu I, Bas ides that more number of turns in coil a~so increases power of mag netic fie ld. Th is mag net works like a magnet rod which has no rth and south (S) poles.

By cha ng in 9 di rection of wi nding or di rectio n of current magneti c poles mag net are cha nged _ But jf both are changed at a time then polarity wit! rem a tn sa me,

98

L3 8mH

L1 4mH

12mH ~

L1 4mH

(L2 +L3) 4mH

L4 4mH

GT pYBLICAT'ON

CHAPTER - 7

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRIC MAGNET

Magnet is a such metar whktl attracts iron or things made by iron. Its one end is CB!1ed north (N) and second end south (8).

North

North pole

East

South

'Nhen magnet is hanged freely by a thread' then it sticks to north and south direction. That end of magnet which sUcks toward north side is caJled north pole B nd that end wh ich sticks toward south side is catted south pole. Similar pojes of two magnets repel each other and opposite pole attract each other.

Natural magnet is obtained in the shape of stone. These magnets have very low power. Artlficiaf magnet has been made for Increasing strength of mag net. There ca n be made in design. Artificial mag nets are of two types:- 1. Permanent Magnet

" " 2. Temporary Magnet "

That m8Qnet. whiCh keeps Hs mag net stable for long ti me is ca lied pe rmanent magnet. These magnets are made in different sha pes bar magnet, Horseshoe ~agnet I U-m ag net t and compass needle_

ELECTRO-MAG€NET

99

BASIC ELECTRICAL & .--: r .. "l_ I"I- ] '"::a \' i-' ; -rr~ [C""1

- .O~

LOUD ~

SPEAKER MAGNET ~

rtmfi:. _0

BAR MAGNET

North pole

Temporary magnet is also caned electro magnet. These are made by wi ndl ng coil on [ron bar. 11 II supply is given to coi I this magnet remetns. Its magnet remain till that time when supply is given. By removing supply its magnet finishes,

MAGNEnC FIELD

$01J:h pole

It is a that place surrounding magnet, in which magnetic effect of magnet remains active. We can

" Un" for force

not see th is area but existen ce of such type of fie~d made surrounding mag-

I ~":-:~~~::::::: ::~.~::,~ ••• ~",

'{ , _. .'. l

.'L l.!

"~:-~i S 0 N("

/.,' ~

i l~... ,~, \

'. ~ ' '~. ,

•• ~ I~I ~ •• ~ - •• """ ...... '"

-c , ~ •••• ~ •• ~ ..

net ca n be checked by com pass needle and this area can be Indicated magnetic force of li nes. These I,nes of force go from north pole to south pole. These magneti c lines of force are also known by the name of mag netic flux. MAGNET1C FLUX ~

Total lines of force of any magnetic fiek:l are known by the name of magnetic flux.

FLUX DENSITY

Maxi m urn qu a ntity of f ux passj ng through cross section area of one un it of a point j s called ." ux density of that point.

MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE

Magneto motive fa rce is that force in any mag neti c circu it. which moves flux in mag netic fi eld. Thi s force is

measured by multiplication ofturns of coil and currant flowing in it. Its unit is Ampere Tum (AT), Ampere Turn (AT) = N x I

where, N = Number of turns of CoB I == Current flowing in the coil

I n a co i I mag net r powe r of mag netic f,eld depen ds upon th is thing that how much cu rrent flows in coi I tu rns, ff m ore current flows then strong m agnetl c field will be produ ced, Besid es that in a certain 1ength of coli

\ v

bei ng more nu m ber of tu rns mag netic field will also be powerful. AT thls

time coil will work as a bar magnet, which has M.'O opposite po4es at ends.

~~.. . . .....

r I "'2A ( 1"':""lA

NI .. 10)( 1" '0 Blmpere & turn s (b)

Measu rement of its magnetic field csn be made according to ampere turns (N x I),

NI=!5 x 2=10 IIImpete· t~8 (&I)

BASIC ELECTRICAL & .": (.J~!!"f :J ""_r~i r;;"1I":"I~""'1

100

Circu it of two cOi Is are shown ln these fig urea, Coil shown in frg-a has 5 turns and 2 am pare current is fIoMng , It has 10 ampere tum 9. Cofl B hown in figure-b has 10 tu ms and 1 am pare cu rrent is flowing in ti, I t also has

o a m pare tu rns, I n this wa y j n both cone! rtions ampere turns are sa me. Val ue of current can be decided on the resistance of wire used in cci I and source voltage. Value of am pere tu rns depends on the strength of essential magnet] c field.

OF MAGNETIZATION

Pole stre ngth produced eve r per unit pole area of bar magnet is caUed ~nte nsity of m agn etization.

PERMEABIUTY

Mag netic: lines· of force passing through any medium in com parison to air is ca lied permeability ofthat medium, IUSCEPTHiIUTV

Power af making mag net of any substance is called its suscepttbjHty. A soft iron h as more su sceptibHity then steeL

MAGNE11C CIRCUIT

P as sa ga made m agn etic fl ux is ca lJed magnetic cj reuit.

RELUCTANCE

I n an y mag neti c ci rcu ~ h in d ranee probstructi 0 n produ ceo in the passage mad e by mag netic fl ux is called

~

reluctance,

RESIDUAL MAGNETISM

rt is that magnatrsm which remains balance after removing effective magnetic force.

~

MAGNETIC LEAKAGE .

That unity or addition of magnetic flux which is being removed from the passage of its use, is ca~ted mag~ netic I.aakage, Because of this reason it makes decrease ln wor1<in·g efficiency of concerned instrument. MAGNEi"IC INDUCTION

Obta inlng magnetic property by a su bstsnce comi n9 in conta ct with any m agn st. Th is method i~ known its m agnatic induction.

MAGNETI,C;:; EFFECT IN CURRENT

Wh&n.current ~ows in any cond.uctorthen magnetic fields develops surrounding conductor- Value of mag~ netic field decreases due to decrease in flew of current, value of magnetic field increases by increasing current. Due to this reaaon it Pl1I~ that va lue of magnetic field depend s upon val ue of current. Magnetic field direction and . cu rrent di redion make 900 eng 1.s- to each othe r.

Mag netic field direction. a nd current direction can be ea s Uy obta i ned by rig ht hand ru Ie.

RIGHT HAND RULE

When conductor h as been kept in hand in such type th at direction of th urn b sh 0 uld be j n d'rection of current then figures indicate mag netic field made surro undj ng conductor, as shown j n the figure,

~cordor

+-G Ch::: )

Current D lrectlon of Itnes of force

101

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