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Section 25 - Tugs
SECTION 25 TUGS
Page A. B. C. D. E. F. G. General..................................................................................................................................................................25- 1 Hull Structures .......................................................................................................................................................25- 2 Towing Gear / Towing Arrangement ......................................................................................................................25- 3 Steering Gear / Steering Arrangement ..................................................................................................................25- 8 Anchoring/mooring Equipment ..............................................................................................................................25- 8 Weather Tight Integrity and Stability Towing Gear ................................................................................................25- 9 Escape Routes and Safety Measures....................................................................................................................25-10
A. 1. 1.1
General Scope, Application The following requirements apply to vessels
Approval Documents, Documentation In addition to the documents listed in the rules
mentioned under 1.2 above, the following design documentation shall be submitted, in triplicate, for approval and/or information: General arrangement of the towing gear including winch(es), if provided 1.2 Unless specially mentioned in this Section, the requirements of Sections 1-22 apply. 1.3 Special designs not covered by the following Slip device(s) including hydraulic/pneumatic systems and electric circuits, and/or “weak link” 1.4 1. 2. 2.1 Classification, Notations Ships built in accordance with the requirements For instructions regarding towing operations in for towrope on winch drum, Required bollard pull (design value), Towrope specification, In special cases, intended tow configuration(s), For examination of towing gear with towing winch, the direction of the towrope has to be 2.2 Where towing services are to be combined with 3.2 indicated on the drawings. The reliable function of the towing gear has to be other duties such as offshore supply or ice breaking, corresponding additional class notations may be assigned if the relevant requirements are met. proven during the initial tests on board. general, see the “Guidelines for Ocean Towage”, VI, 11Design drawings and material specifications of towing hook and accessory towing gear, towrope guide and/or of the towing winch including winch drives, brakes and fastening elements, rules will be considered from case to case. primarily designed for towing and/or pushing operations or assisting other vessels or floating objects in manoeuvring. Combination with other purposes is possible and will be noted accordingly in the Class Certificate, see 2.2.
of this Section will have the notation “TUG” affixed to their character of classification.
1. 2. The thickness of the coamings is not to be less than 6 mm. will be specially considered. 4. Depending on the type of service expected. For fabricated stern frames. drum shaft(s). Hull Structures 5.1B may be accepted for standard items. of the fore body (stringers. 5.85 H. B. particularly arranged along the upper deck. Stern Frame - Towing winch: Frame.) Shall generally conform to the indications given in Section 9. 1.5.1 The plate thickness of the casing walls and casing tops is not to be less than 5 mm. 3. 2.2 Depending on the towrope arrangements. General to impact loads shall be reinforced by increasing the section modules of side frames by 20%. The section modules WZ of the sole piece is to be increased by 20 % compared to the modules determined according to Section 13. Side Structure The side structure of areas frequently subjected - Towrope(s). if the manufacturer is recognized by TL.1 Fore Body.2.1.3 For ice strengthening see 8.4. Bow Structure On tugs for ocean towage. C.1. Material certificates according to DIN 50049-3.3 The bulwark shall be arranged with an inward classification documents.2 The stiffeners of the casing are to be connected Engine Room Casing.2 A. gear(s) The cross sectional area of a solid stern frame is to be 20% greater than required according to Section 13.B For (harbor) tugs frequently engaged in berthing If a bollard pull test has to be carried out and will be certified by TL. 6. additional strengthening may be required.Tugs 3. The test result shall be documented and kept on board together with the certificate of bollard pull testing and the operations. the deck. including slip device. C.2. couplings. 6.1 Scantlings. 3. fendering may be necessary to reduce indenting damages of the shell plating.25-2 3. strengthening in way 6. including certification of breaking force. the bow shall be suitably protected by fendering and be structurally strengthened.3 Section 25 . C.4 The bow structure of pusher tugs for sea service - Towing hook and attached load transmitting elements. Besides. plate thickness). The coamings shall extend to the lower edges of the beams.2 A continuous and suitable strong fender shall be For the determination of hull structure scantlings the draught T is not to be taken less than 0. to the beams of the casing top and are to extend to the lower edge of the coamings. 5. 3.1 Deck Structure On tugs for ocean towage. The stringers shall be effectively connected to the collision bulkhead. shall be suitably protected or strengthened against sea impact. in the forward region. brakes. 6. if considerable chafing and/or impact is to be expected.1.2.4 TL material certificates will generally be required for inclination in order to reduce the probability and frequency of damages. Superstructures and Deckhouses 5.3 Regarding height of casing and closing arrangements as well as exits see also F. 3. See also C. it shall correspond to the procedure given in “Guidelines for Ocean Towage”. tripping brackets etc. . 3. 2. the thickness of the propeller post plating is to be increased by 20% compared to the requirements of Section 13. the deck in the aft region may have to be strengthened (beams.
2. see C. where provided. shall be thoroughly connected to the ship’s structure.5. if the towrope pull is not defined) stipulated by the owner.5.2 The stresses in the foundations and fastening means shall be provided to prevent the directly pulled towrope from being damaged by chafing/abrasion. 8. see also F.4 arrangement of the equipment shall be such that the towrope is led to the winch drum in a controlled manner under all foreseeable conditions (directions of the towrope). 8.3 The plate thickness of the external boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses is to be increased by 1 mm.1.3. the towing hook/working point of the towing force is to be placed as low as practicable. 7. 2. 1.5 and C.2 Tugs with the notation ICE BREAKER must be specially considered.33 · T Test force PL [kN] 2·T T + 500 the intended service. Towrope protection sleeves or other adequate 1.1 Towing Gear/Towing Arrangement above 1500 General Design Requirements The towing gear shall be arranged in such a way 1. the 1. see also C. The test force is related to the design force as shown in Table 25. On tugs equipped with a towing winch.5 and the foundations of the towing winch.1 Design force T [kN] up to 500 500 ÷ 1500 C.2 The test force PL is used for dimensioning as well as for testing the towing hook and connected elements. see A. see 3.B. and of any guiding elements such as towing posts or fairleads. C.1 Foundations of Towing Gear The substructure of the towing hook attachment arranged closely behind the centre of buoyancy.3 The minimum breaking force of the towrope is based on the design force.1. The attachment point of the towrope shall be 1. . as to minimize the danger of capsizing.3.2.3. above the thickness as required in Section 16. depending on the winch size and towing gear configuration. Table 25. the towing hook The following requirements have to be observed for superstructures and deckhouses of tugs assigned for the restricted services range K and M or for unlimited range of service: and its radial gear are to be designed such as to permit adjusting to any foreseeable towrope direction.3.1 Ice Strengthening Ice strengthening. 7. 1.2. shall be provided according to the requirements of Section 15.C 6. Means shall be provided to spool the towrope effectively on the drum.3.3 and “Guidelines for Ocean Towage”. considering all possible directions of the towrope. and a load of the winch holding capacity in case of towing winches.3.5.3. where necessary according to pull (or the bollard pull. 8. The section modules of stiffeners is to be increased by 50% above the values as required in Section 16. Definition of Loads The design force T corresponds to the towrope 2. The design force may be verified by a bollard pull test.2 25-3 With direct-pull (hook-towrope). 2. assuming a load equal to the test load of the towing book in case of hook arrangements.1 elements shall not exceed the permissible streses shown in Table 25.4 Section 25 . 7. see 4.Tugs 1. C.
4 For the towing hook foundation it has to be 3.2. from horizontal to 45 degr.1 The towing hook shall be fitted with an adequate device guaranteeing slipping (i. Towing Hook and Slip Device 3. Towropes Towrope materials shall correspond to TL Rules 3. If necessary. 3.1 The dimensioning of the towing gear is based on the test force PL.3. see 6. K may be interpolated linearly. see 5. see 2.5 For forces at the towing hook foundation see 3.3 A mechanical slip device shall be designed such that the required release force under test force PL does not exceed neither 150 N at the towing hook nor 250 N when activating the device on the bridge. slipping should be possible by downward pulling.3 The required minimum breaking force Fmin of the 3. 3. upwards 3. the water depth and the nautical conditions. 2. see “Guidelines for Ocean Towage” 4. the rated winch force is the hauling capacity of the winch drive when winding up the towrope. upwards 2. used.2. additionally proven that the permissible stresses given in Table 25. In case of a mechanical slip device.Tugs - C in the vertical plane. the towing hook foundation. as above in the vertical plane. Slipping shall be possible from the bridge as well as from at least one other place in the vicinity of the hook itself.22.214.171.124. 4.25-4 Section 25 .2 The towing hook has to be equipment with a mechanical. using the whole body weight.5.3 Assuming the test force PL acting in any of the directions described in 3.2 The length of the towrope shall be chosen according to the tow formation (masses of tug and towed object)..0 for T ≥ 100 kN Fmin = K · T where. - For a test force PL of more than 500 kN: in the horizontal plane.4. For length of towrope for bollard pull test.e.4 Where a pneumatic or hydraulic slip device is 4. For T between 200 and 1000 kN.1. directions from abeam over astern to abeam K K = 2. the permissible stresses in the towing equipment elements defined above shall not exceed the values shown in Table 25.1 for Materials -Section 11. as follows: 3.5.2. from horizontal to 60 degr.4 The winch holding capacity shall be based on the minimum breaking force. 3. from where in both cases the hook can be easily seen.5.5 for T ≤ 200 kN and = 2.5 Dimensioning of towing hook and towing gear towrope is to be calculated on the basis of the design force T and a utility factor K.2 The towing hook. 4. . the releasing rope shall be guided adequately over sheaves.3. All wire ropes should have as far as possible the same lay. hydraulic or pneumatic slip device. a mechanical slip device has to be provided additionally. Regulations of flag state authorities have to be observed. quick release) of the towrope in case of an emergency. 3.2 are not exceeded assuming a load equal to the minimum breaking force Fmin of the towrope. The slip device shall be designed such as to guarantee that unintentional slipping is avoided. the corresponding substructures and the slip device are to be designed for the following directions of the towrope: For a test force PL up to 500 kN: in the horizontal plane.
where this is not ensured. 5. 5.Tugs Table 25. the winch is fitted with equipment for measuring the pulling force in the towrope.3 The diameter of the winch drum is to be not less than 14 times the towrope diameter.4 Operating levers shall.2. at least additional control stand has to be provided on deck.2.proof stress Permissible stress σ = 0.5.1.4 The length of the winch drum is to be such that at least 50 m. has to be arranged such as to guarantee safe guiding of the towrope in all directions according to 3.5.1 Towing Winches Arrangement and control 5.1. including towrope guiding equipment. .5 The required minimum breaking force Fmin of the tricing rope is to be calculated on the basis of the holding capacity of the tricing winch and a utility factor K=2. the winch shall be provided with a selfrendering device. the power for the towing winch is supplied by a main engine shaft generator. 5.3 Each control stand has to be equipped with suitable operating and control elements. when released.2. 5. From each control stand the winch drum shall be freely visible. 5.1.72 · ReH τ = 0.2 Winch drum 5. 5. The arrangement and the working direction of the operating elements have to be analogous to the direction of motion of the towrope.2 The winch must be capable of being safety operated from all control stands.48 · ReH σeq = 0.2. on vessels for ocean towage.83 · ReH σ = 0.2 The winch drum shall be capable of being declutched from the drive.1. return into the stop position automatically. 5. during normal operating conditions. 5. 4. by a breaking link. They shall be capable of being secured in the stop position. another generator shall be available to provide power for the towing winch in case of main engine or shaft generator failure.2 Permissible stresses 25-5 Type of stress Axial and bending tension and axial and bending compression with box type girders and tubes Axial and bending compression with girders of open cross sections or with girders consisting of several members Shear Equivalent stress ReH= Yield strength or 0.1. 5.2% .2. 5.C Section 25 .4 For ocean towages. Apart from the control stand on the bridge.1.85 · ReH 4.5 It is recommended that.6 If. at least one spare towrope with attachment shall be available on board.1 The towrope shall be fastened on the winch drum 5. of the towrope can be wound up in the first layer.1 The towing winch.
3.3 The operating levers for the brakes are to be secured against unintentional operation.3 Holding capacity/dimensioning 5. drums must have disc sheaves whose outer edges must surmount the top layer of the rope at least by 126.96.36.199. the operability of the gear .8 Each towing winch drum shall have sufficient capacity to stow the length of the provided towrope. at least one other control stand shall be available on the bridge. 5.1 Control stands for the tricing winches have to be located at safe distance off the sweep area of the towing gear. The quick release shall be possible under all working conditions. If a cylinder tested and approved by TL is employed as a loaded gear component. drum shaft brakes.4.2 When towing hooks are provided with a pneumatic slip device. during the load test the cylinder may be replaced by a load transmitting member not pertaining to the gear.1.3. 5. 5. the winch driving motor must not start again automatically.5 6.1 Towing hooks with a mechanical slip device. foundation frame and its fastening to the deck). 5.4.6 Towing winch brakes shall be capable of preventing the towrope from paying out when the vessel is towing at the design force T and shall not be released automatically in case of power failure. 5. if no other means is provided to prevent the rope from slipping off the drum.2 Drum brakes shall be capable of being quickly released from the control stand on the bridge.25-6 Section 25 . For tricing ropes. the movable towing arm and other load transmitting elements have to be subjected to a test force PL with the aid of an approved testing facility. 5.4 Following operation of the quick release device. see 3.1 If the drum brakes are power-operated. but the slip device itself need not be subjected to the test load.1 Testing Workshop testing components. For operation of the tricing winch.5 rope diameters.2 Tricing winches have to be suitably dimensioned depending on Fmin of the tricing rope. 188.8.131.52 Following operation of the quick release device.1.4.1.are exposed to the pull of the towage (rope drum.1.with the brake engaged. normal operation of the brakes must be restore immediately. see 4.7 If a multi-drum winch is used.1.3 Also towing hooks with a hydraulic slip this test.6 At the ends. at least 3 dead turns must remain on the drum.184.108.40.206. then each winch drum shall be capable of independent operation. the slip device shall be tested likewise. In connection with 5. which . the release force has to be measured and shall not exceed 150 N.1. 6.4 Brakes 6. manual operation of the brake shall be provided additionally. as well as from any other control stand.4. 5. including failure of the power drive. 5.1. a design tractive force equal to the holding capacity is to be assumed.4. 6.5. perfect transmission of orders has to be safeguarded.1 Towing hook and slip device device have to be tested according to 6. 5.5 Tricing winches 5.1 The holding capacity of the towing winch (towrope in the first layer) shall correspond to 80% of the minimum breaking load Fmin of the towrope. When calculating the drum shaft the dynamic stopping forces of the brakes have to be considered. 5. both the pneumatic and the mechanical slip device required by 3.1. The drum brake shall not give way under this load.2 When dimensioning the towing winch 5.2.Tugs C 5. Apart from the control stands on deck.4 have to be tested according to 6. 6.1.5 To ensure security of the rope and fastening. 6. 5.2.
test 6.3 Upon completion. Tightness tests are to be carried out at the relevant components. in particular the braking and safety equipment shall be tested and adjusted.2 For all accessories and for the towrope.3. During these trials.1. together with the towing hook. p = Admissible working pressure [b] = Opening pressure of the safety valves However.5 · p where.4. see “Guidelines for Ocean Towage”.Tugs 25-7 being restored subsequently.1.3 TL reserve the right of stipulating an endurance test to be performed at towing gear components. 6.1 The winch power unit has to be subjected to a test bed trial at the manufacturer’s. The brake has to be tested to a test load equal to the rated holding capacity.2.5.4 The surveyor certifies the initial board test by an entry into the Test Certificate for Towing Hooks. may be carried out after installation bollard pull test 6.1.2 Bollard pull test In general a bollard pull test will be carried out before entering into service of the vessel.2. with working pressure exceeding 200 [b].4 Accessory towing gear components.1. These checks may be combined with the Bollard Pull . 6. see 6. 6.1 The installed towing gear has to be tested on the tug using the bollard pull test to simulate the towrope pull.1. the test pressure need not be higher than p+100 [b].2 Components exposed to pressure are to be pressure-tested to a test pressure PD of PD = 1.2 Initial testing of towing gear on board and necessary for assessment of their 6.2.4. 6. under the towrope pull T.220.127.116.11. 6. but at least equal to the bollard pull. 6. 6.2 Certification and stamping of towing hook Following each satisfactory testing at manufacturer’s. the slip device has to be tested with a towrope direction of 60 degrees towards above against the horizontal line.3 For all towing hooks (independent of the magnitude of the test force PL).2. The test can be witnessed and certified by TL.C Section 25 .1.1 Accessories subjected to towing loads. towrope 6. where not already covered by 6.2. a Certificate will be issued by the attending surveyor and shall be handed on board.2.1. In that case only the operational trials without applying the prescribed loads will be carried out at the manufacturers.3. the safe operation of the winch(es) from all control stands has to be checked. A works test certificate has to be presented on the occasion of the final inspection of the winch.3. where considered operability.18.104.22.168 Board test of towing winches After installation on board. If manufacturers do not have at their disposal the equipment required. 6.3 Towing winches certificates have to be submitted. the respective quick-release mechanism for the drum operates well. 6. and including adjustment of the overload protection device. it has to be proved that in both cases. 6. with the drum braked and during hauling and releasing. a test confirming the design winch capacity. see 6. 6. The operability of the slip device has to be proved with the towrope loosely resting on the hook.4. The hauling speed has to be determined during an endurance test under the rated tractive force. on board. towing winches have to be subjected to a final inspection and an operational test to the rated load. shall generally be tested to test force PL at the manufacturer.
shall be observed for tugs exceeding 500 gross tons.E Steering Gear/ Steering Arrangement Steering Stability stability.2.1 Towing hooks 6. another tug with a design force T which is sufficient to jointly reach the required test force PL according to Table 25.25-8 Test.3. 6. 6. Section 25 . Steering capability of the tug. Special Steering Arrangements For tugs operating as pusher units. They are ready for operation with the towrope loosely resting on the hook. 3.3. Additionally all components are to be thoroughly examined. 4.1. towing hooks with hydraulic slip device are to be subjected to a functional test on board every 2.Tugs D. will be considered from case to case.3 Recurrent tests of towing gear The following tests will be applied to all tugs classed by TL unless otherwise required by the Administration. Rudder Movement . 1. 6. Finally the towing hook has to be pulled against a bollard. the steering gear is to be designed so as to guarantee satisfying steering characteristics in both cases. the requirements of TL Machinery Rules. However.1. stable course maintaining The towing winch has to be subjected to a trial during the bollard pull test to a test load corresponding to the holding power of the winch. the slip device has to be subjected to an operational trial by releasing the hook without load. the test force PL can also be produced by fastening in front of the first tug towed to the bollard. see 6. A.5 years. considering only tiers with a breadth greater than B/4.1. 2. Steering units and arrangements not explicitly covered For avoiding dismounting of these towing hooks. Rudder size and rudder force shall be suitable in relation to the envisaged towing conditions and speed. for the determination of the equipment numeral the term 2 · h · B may be substituted by the term Equipment numeral E. B. C.D. the hook of which is intended to be tested. bi is the breadth of the superstructure tier “i”. towing hooks with mechanical and/or pneumatic slip devices have to be removed every 2.3. Special rudder arrangements may be considered in the particular case.2. Slipping has to be effected whilst both tugs are pulling with full test force.e. Regarding the time to put the rudder from one extreme 6. tug alone and tug with pushed object.3 Following initial testing on board. Tugs Operating as Pusher Units position to the other. The Surveyor certifies the satisfactory recurrent test.1. Section 14. see also 4.4 Particular attention has to be paid to the proper functioning of all gear components.2 Following initial testing on board.1. where .3. The release forces at the hook and at the bridge have to be measured. thoroughly examined and exposed to test force PL on a recognized testing facility. 6. and combinations of such units with conventional rudders. 2 (a · B + Σhi · bi) The equipment with anchors and chains as well as the recommended towrope of tugs for unrestricted service is to be determined according to Section 18. i. The release forces required at the hook and at the bridge have to be measured. 1.1 The functional safety of towing hook and slip device shall be checked by the ship’s master at least once a month. shall be ensured under all normally occurring towing conditions. Upon reinstallation of the hook on the tug.3. Anchoring/ Mooring Equipment by the Rules mentioned above.5 years.
the intact stability must comply one anchor is sufficient.3 The stream anchor specified in Section 18. the equipment is intended to be used for anchoring the tug alone. as amended by MSC Res.8 m. the intact stability requirement of IMO Res. Table 18. 1.3. The areas to be determined between 0° and the 2nd interception or the angle of down flooding whichever is less. Alternatively.5. 75(69) The equipment of tugs for restricted range of - service is to be determined as for vessels in the K(20) or K(50) (Coastal Service) range. with one of the following requirements: The residual area between a righting lever curve and a heeling lever curve developed from 70 % of the maximum bollard pull force acting in 90° to the ship-length direction should not be less than 0. if applicable. 2.3 For companion ways to spaces below deck to be bh T zh = Heeling arm [m] = Maximum bollard pull [kN] = Vertical distance [m] between the working point of the towrope and the centre of buoyancy used while at sea. the pushed unit being provided with its own anchoring equipment.2 For tugs engaged only in berthing operations.2 is not required for tugs. The equipment for tugs in L (Harbour Service) may be reduced according to TL’s approval.3 acting in 90° to ship-length direction. shall be arranged with coamings not less than 900 mm. 1.1 General Requirements Section 25 .071 ⋅ T ⋅ z h ⋅ cosθ [m] D are to be arranged as high as possible above the deck.2 The head openings of ventilators and air pipes The heeling lever curve should be derived by using the following formula: bh = 0. F. Watertight steel doors are to be provided which can be opened/closed from either side. shall be provided. requirements: .1. Tugs Operating as Pusher Units The anchoring equipment for tugs operating as pusher units will be considered according to the particular service.749(18). 75(69) Additionally. 1.Tugs - 25-9 The intact stability requirement of IMO Res. 2. sills with a height not less than 600 mm. 1.4 Deck openings shall be avoided in the sweep D θ 2. 2.1.1 Weather Tight Integrity and Stability Weather Deck Openings Openings (skylights) above the machinery space 2.1 Stability The intact stability must comply with the following = Loading condition displacement [t] = Heeling angle [°] area of the towing gear. A. see also G. high. The area has to be determined between the first interception of the two curves and the second interception or the angle of down flooding whichever is less. as amended by MSC Res. see Section 18. Normally. Chapter 4. or else be suitably protected. 3. if a spare anchor is readily available on land. A. Where the height of the coaming is less than 1. 2.2 Alternatively. measured from the upper deck.749(18). A.4 times the area under a heeling lever curve developed from 70 % of the maximum bollard pull force 2. the casing covers are to be of specially strong construction.E.09 mrad.F 2. 1. the area under a righting lever curve should not be less than 1. Chapter 3.
1.1. Fire Safety Structural fire protection measures shall be as 2. Companionways 6.25-10 G. Rudder Compartment Where.3.1.Tugs 4. sill height and further details shall be designed according to the requirements of F. as applicable according to the size of the vessel.3 and C. also in heavy weather during ocean towage. the arrangement. which can be used at any inclination of the ship. The fire fighting equipment shall conform to TL Machinery Rules Section 12. Escape Routes and Safety Measures Engine Room Exit Section 25 . 5. particularly F. an emergency exit is provided from the rudder compartment to the upper deck. Safe Handling of Towing Gear In the engine room an emergency exit is to be provided on or near the centerline of the vessel.1.1. as applicable.5.2 Additional or deviating regulations of the competent Administration may have to be observed.1 outlined in Section 22. Companionways to spaces below deck see F. Access to Bridge G Safe access to the bridge is to be ensured for all anticipated operating and heeling conditions. See requirements under C.4. C. The axis of the cover is to run in athwart ship direction. 6. 3. The cover shall be weather tight and is to be capable of being opened easily from outside and inside. . 6. for larger ocean going tugs.
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