Cameroon: Dry Toilets

Business 447

Marketing Plan Gagan Singh: 301052531 Cameroon: Dry Toilets

Table of Contents
Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................................. 2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Geographical Regions ........................................................................................................................................... 3 Language .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Religion ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 Water and Sanitation Infrastructure ...................................................................................................................... 4 Urban & Rural Sectors ..................................................................................................................................... 4 Health ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Public & Private Assistance ............................................................................................................................. 5 Freshwater Source ................................................................................................................................................ 6 Lake Chad ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 Product Distribution.............................................................................................................................................. 7 Roads ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Railways ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 Seaports ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 Airports ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 Political Climate ................................................................................................................................................... 8 Presidential Influence ....................................................................................................................................... 9 Corruption ........................................................................................................................................................ 9 Technological Advances ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Competition ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Direct Competition ......................................................................................................................................... 11 Indirect Competition ...................................................................................................................................... 11 Future Competition ........................................................................................................................................ 12 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................ 17

1|Page

9% which will reduce the effectiveness of any marketing materials supplied with dry toilet products and packaging. A majority of Cameroonians live in poverty and are not able to purchase dry toilets. waste continues to mix with local water sources which pose a serious health problem to the public. This report provides an outlook of successful introduction of dry toilets into Cameroon and the elements that shape and affect the country¶s current toilet market. 2|Page . The lack of government intervention has motivated non-profit organizations to step in and improve the sanitation infrastructure. would increase our exposure to individuals who are able afford dry toilets. setting up a retail store in the most prosperous region. Central Cameroon. foreign competitors will enter the market.K. A strong alliance with Cameroon¶s government will ultimately bar entry to foreign competitors and can be enhanced by strong brand loyalty and collaboration with the non-profit sector. Furthermore. and ports is the most efficient method of transporting dry toilets into and around Cameroon. English and French are the official languages of Cameroon however very few actually speak one or both languages. The use of dry toilets reduces the amount of domestic freshwater extraction which will prolong the life of Lake Chad. non-profit organizations would be the primary customer for dry toilets. If another riot erupts. Currently African Sanitation (AS) is the only dry toilet provider in Cameroon but they have a limited presence. Cameroon¶s literacy rate is 67. Lake Chad will disappear leaving 30 million people without water. Therefore. However. However. The political climate in Cameroon is relatively stable in comparison to its neighbours. If large profits are being made in African countries. due to climate change and overuse. each with their own unique languages and religions. violent riots have occurred due to the President attempts to continue running for office. composting toilets) use little to no water and do not require any connection to sewage pipes. supplying toilets to non-profit organizations will distribute these toilets to Cameroonians and eliminate the need for middle men. a close eye should be kept on the political climate and the people¶s attitudes. A combination of roads. Dry toilets are the solution to community health and sanitation for developing countries that lack proper public sanitation and sewage infrastructure. Because the Islamic community have specific rules for sanitation. Communicating with the local demographic to understand which language is prominent in each region will reduce any language barriers.A. During the 2011 elections. Emphasizing this fact in marketing campaigns will help promote awareness of dry toilets. Ten regions form the nation of Cameroon. As Cameroon¶s population continues to grow. railways. Scientists predict that in 20 years. Therefore. Diarrhea. Competition with AS is possible if support is received from non-profit organizations. Lake Chad borders 5 countries and provides 20 million people with means to provide for themselves. Because dry toilets are a more affordable substitute then complete sewage infrastructures. Religion will affect the marketing of the dry toilet because North Cameroon is home to a majority of the Muslim population. the water and sanitation infrastructure is not able to keep up. Lake Chad has significantly reduced to 1/10 of its size.Executive Summary Dry toilets (A. tailored marketing campaigns emphasizing cleanliness will increase the Muslim customer base. distributing dry toilets in Cameroon will become impossible. Diseases such as Hepatitis A. and Thypoid severely affect the younger generations and in turn have reduced the life expectancy rate in Cameroon.

This report will describe the implications of these regional differences and how they will affect the introduction of dry toilets into the Cameroon toilet market. This report provides an outlook of successful introduction of dry toilets into Cameroon and the elements that shape and affect the country¶s current toilet market. Geographical Regions Ten regions form the nation of Cameroon.Introduction Dry toilets (A. Although English and French are the two official languages. Dry toilets are the solution to community health and sanitation for developing countries that lack proper public sanitation and sewage infrastructure. etc) accompanies dry toilets¶ entry into Cameroon. Kamtok dialects vary by geographic location. If a manual or media campaign (i. very few Cameroonians actually speak one or both languages (Central Intelligence Agency. Radio. 2010). This is best achieved by communicating with and studying the local demographics (Kwintessential. Language The early 1900s colonization of Cameroon by the United Kingdom and France codified the country into an English.A. composting toilets) use little to no water and do not require any connection to sewage pipes. Kamtok (Pidgin English) has become very popular among the Cameroonians as a means for communication. Because Cameroon has approximately 250 native dialects and 24 unofficial languages.K.and French-speaking population. each a centre of unique languages and religions (refer to the Figure 1 in appendix for a map and names of each region). Please refer to Table 1 in appendix for a detailed list of benefits to the owner and local community. 3|Page .e. Newspaper. the language and dialect of the region must first be understood before launch.

4|Page . Water and Sanitation Infrastructure Urban & Rural Sectors Due to inadequate financial resources. Religion The religious breakdown of Cameroon is roughly 40% indigenous beliefs. Additionally. Since many Cameroonians use local water sources as an area to clean themselves. 2009). Muslims are restricted to where they can relieve themselves.5%. Cameroon¶s waste disposal and water supply infrastructure is extremely underdeveloped and continues to pose a problem as city urban centers expand. The dry toilet provides convenience to the Islamic people by supporting their religious codes. Muslim regions will have the heaviest impact on the sales of dry toilets. 2009). This report predicts Muslims to be early adopters of a dry toilet product and will be an emerging market. low levels of enforcement of regulations and poor governance.2009). Southern Cameroon is most comprised of Christians while Northern Cameroon is home to the country¶s majority of Muslims (Kwintessential. the Islamic faith has codified rules of human defecation known as the Qadaa al-Haajah.9% literacy rate will impact the marketing materials supplied with dry toilet products and packaging (Central Intelligence Agency. respectively. One recommendation under Qadaa al-Haajah is ³One should avoid urinating« on river banks or at the edge of water tanks. 40% Christian and 20% Muslim. Cameroon¶s 67. 2010). Cameroons city population growth rate and rate of urbanization is 6 and 3. at places where people perform ablution´ (MSA West. current housing and construction infrastructure cannot meet the growing demand of the Cameroonians (UnHabitat.

Typhoid. As a result. Dysentery. The result is a serious public health concern. Dry toilets would also prevent the mix of waste and drinking water thus inhibiting the spread of diseases and death in Cameroon. Forton. Public & Private Assistance Health expenditure as a percent of GDP in Cameroon for 2006 was 5.5 million toilets throughout the country which will cost approximately US $2. 2010). Diarrhea is a leading cause of death of children under five and accounts for 10% of the deaths in Cameroonian children under four (Water Wiki.89 years (ranks 201 in the world) (Central Intelligence Agency. Hepatitis E. Dry toilets have the ability to improve health conditions and ultimately provide for a longer life expectancy. 2007). Health Improperly disposed wastes are ultimately a threat to proper public health. 2009). Rainfall and flooding mix wastes with local bodies of water and contaminate local drinking holes (Mangaa. Improper waste management is a huge risk factor for the diseases Hepatitis A.1 billion 5|Page . & Readd. These diseases are widespread in Cameroon and particularly affect the younger generations. This has motivated many non-profit organizations like UNICEF and the African Development Fund to begin sanitary operations in the country. UNICEF is organizing an initiative dubbed WASH to install up to 1. Because improper waste management affects children. 2010).2% due to a lack of funds and ranks 148 worst in the world (World Health Organization. 2009). and Violent Diarrhea. only 58% of the urban population has access to improved sanitation facilities in comparison to the rate of 42% in rural areas (Water Wiki.2003). the life expectancy at birth in Cameroon is 52. Therefore many Cameroonians are relieving themselves where they please.

These organizations are potential customers and will save millions by using dry toilet products. leaving 30 million people without means to provide for themselves (Virgo. 2009). 2003). rivers and streams (How Stuff Works). 18% of Cameroon¶s freshwater withdrawal is for domestic purposes.6 million to improve access to drinking water and sanitation (African Development Bank Group. Forecasts has predicted that in 20 years Lake Chad will disappear. This ultimately supports sustainable growth of Cameroon¶s food supply by not affecting agricultural supply. Freshwater Source Traditional toilets are supported by freshwater sources such as lakes. 2010). dry toilets do not increase the domestic proportion of Cameroonian water usage and limit the financial and resource impacts of a running water sewage system. Cameroon. and Niger and is an economically significant body providing water to over 20 million people (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Lake Chad Lake Chad borders Chad. Dry toilets allow the reallocation of funds for other projects operated by the non-profit sector. Dry toilets highlight the ³price´ factor of the marketing mix and provide a cheap substitute for complete sewage infrastructures. Several non profit organizations are trying to ³save´ Lake Chad by either rerouting water into the lake basin or educate the locals on proper water use. 2008). Dry toilets limit the use of freshwater from 6|Page . Most of Cameroon¶s freshwater supply is used for agriculture and food production. Nigeria.(Bongben. The African Development Fund is spending US $61. Lake Chad has shrunk approximately 90% between 1963 and 2001 due to climate change and overuse. relatively significant considering the country¶s current water infrastructure (Central Intelligence Agency. 2009).

Product Distribution A majority of Cameroonians live in poverty and are not able to purchase dry toilets. a special distribution system utilizing roads. In addition. railways. Because Cameroon¶s unpaved roads are not accessible year-round. has the highest household expenditure rate and is the ideal location to open a retail store (refer to figure 7 in the appendix) (Euromonitor. Cameroon is part of the Trans-African Highway network that allows distribution to its capital and neighbouring countries like Nigeria and Chad (Jane's. Because no information on Cameroonian toilet distribution is currently available. ports. 2008). However. and seaports must be developed to supply products around the country. 7|Page . Central Cameroon.Lake Chad and reduce dependence on its water supply. Refer to Figure 3 in the appendix for a map of the Trans African Highway. Supplying directly to these organizations reduces our dependency on middlemen and ultimately reduces the end price of the dry toilet. 2010). This benefits dry toilet distribution from shipping ports to rural areas. Roads Although only 10% of Cameroon¶s roads were paved in 2004. the government has been paving heavily used roads that are located between commercial shipping centres and agricultural areas (Encyclopedia of the Nations. Roads. 2008). and airports are the most feasible methods of transporting dry toilet products into and around Cameroon. the rural areas located near commercial centres and urban centres located near the Trans-African network will be the easiest areas to distribute dry toilet products by truck. railways. in comparison to the other regions. therefore. Locals on the Lake are also predicted to be early adopters of dry toilet products and are likely an emerging market. non-profit organizations would be our primary customers.

Douala is the ideal location for a central distribution warehouse. Flying in the toilets is a feasible mean of transportation where no other means of transportation exist. the presidents¶ power and the level of corruption are still considerations regarding the marketing of dry toilet products. is the country¶s busiest seaport.Railways The 1. as shown in Figure 3 in the appendix (The World Bank Group.008 km of railway extending through Cameroon help connect major and minor urban centres (Encyclopedia of the Nations. due to the proximity to the Trans-African Highway and the seaport. In 2001. of those airports. only 11 had paved runways (Encyclopedia of the Nations. there were 49 airports. Airports The main international airport is in Douala. 2010). Cameroon has a relatively stable political climate relative to its neighbouring countries. 8|Page . These railways are crucial to supplementing dry toilet distribution where roads are inaccessible and large quantities of product cannot be trucked. Seaports Cameroon¶s largest city. Other main river ports are as an option for importing dry toilets to inaccessible areas when they are active between July and September (Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2010). 2008). 2010). Douala is a key port to import product by boat that has been manufactured overseas. Political Climate Cameroon is a unitary presidential republic. Douala. However given this stability. Therefore.

9|Page .Presidential Influence Paul Biya is Cameroon¶s current president who assumed office in 1982. police. another riot is anticipated from Biya¶s favourable revision of the Constitution. individuals who wanted to voice their concerns about Biya¶s intent to revise the constitution joined the strike (GharteyMould. 2008). Although Cameroon is not known for violent riots. Simultaneously.4 in damages. Biya created political tension when he sought to remove term limits from the Constitution of Cameroon (AFP. Biya is not allowed to run for an additional term in 2011 as limited by Cameroon¶s constitution. Cameroon corruption was ranked 146 worst out of 180 countries. customs service and educational sector are [still] rife with corruption´ (Irin. Dry toilets must be carefully marketed near the October elections if the political climate and the people¶s attitudes precipitate another riot. Corruption According to Transparency International¶s (TI) 2009 Corruption Perception Index. 2008). Biya won by popular vote and was elected for another seven year term despite another accusation of fraud. The strike rapidly escalated and led to one of the most violent protests in Cameroon¶s history that killed 40 people and cost US $23. (BBC News. ³the judiciary. During the 2004 election. 2003). Another riot has the potential to shut down roads and halt the distribution of dry toilet products. the urban transport union held a strike asking for lower petroleum prices as well as better working conditions. 2008). President Biya has also won the mutli-party polls during the 1992 and 1997 election. but opposition parties boycotted both elections and accused Biya of fraud (Mbaku & Takougang. It is believed that the President¶s 2006 corruption elimination campaign was unsuccessful and TI says that.

Emphasizing the bio-gas potential in any marketing campaign will spark the curiosity in many potential buyers. bio-gas technology used with toilet waste has seen significant improvement in the last two years. DMT Toilets. however. Nigeria (Dada. Bio-gas would dramatically impact the Cameroonian dry toilet market if a plant were constructed or if waste were transported to a Nigerian plant.2006). 2009) (Vanguard. 10 | P a g e . extra costs will be incurred in order to ship product across the country. has begun construction of a biogas plant in Lagos. foreign companies have the ability to import their toilets into Cameroon at their own will. Competition Although no other dry toilet manufacturers are based in Cameroon. This extends the competition to three different forms: Direct. and Future. 2008). Biogas plants convert sanitation waste into cooking gas that is sold at a very affordable price. Technological Advances Dry toilets have not advanced much in the last few decades. However. along with the Nigerian government. Applications for business licenses and other activities involving the government must be absorbed into the selling price of the dry toilets. Cameroon has better control over corruption relative to its neighbours (refer to figure 3 in appendix). The presence of bio-gas in Cameroon would drive dry toilet demand as Cameroonians are conscious of cooking gas prices (refer to figure 6 for rising cost of cooking prices). Nonetheless. Indirect.

Another toilet manufacturer can compete with AS (or enter the Cameroonian market) by lowering their prices and finding other non-profit organizations for distributive support. However. please refer to figure 5 in the appendix.510 dry toilets to Yaoundé. customs and VAT (African Sanitation.A porta potties) to areas that are lacking functional toilets.Direct Competition African Sanitation (AS) is a South African company provideing dry toilets to several African countries. but has now expanded to urban and rural areas. DMT began supplying toilets to parties. 2009).K. insurance. According to their website. agent commission. freight. they have a limited Cameroonian presence distributing 4. AS already has a competitive advantage with several non-profit sanitation projects such as WASH and South African Toilet Organization. They are the only toilet manufacturer in the West African region. For the specs sheet of their toilets. Marketing communicators must be prepared if DMT jumps over the border and begins supplying in Cameroon. 2010). Indirect Competition DMT toilets is a Nigerian organization that provides portable toilets (A. 2010). The prices for their toilets vary from US $315 $375 excluding. religious activities and other outdoor events. DMT has an inherent competitive disadvantage because their toilets still require water (DMT Toilets. 11 | P a g e . The homeless are hired to manage the portable toilets and dump the collected waste. emphasizing the ³waterless´ factor should help increase dry toilets market share. DMT currently limits distribution to Nigeria but Cameroon¶s market potential is attractive for a DMT entrance into its market (Nubian Cheetah. each project supporting AS distribution across Africa.

None of these organizations have publicly discussed entry into Africa. but because of their resources they are not to be disregarded. Sun Mar (US) and MullToa Waterless (Sweden) are the other global dry toilet manufacturers. 12 | P a g e . A strong alliance with Cameroon¶s government will ultimately bar entry to foreign competitors and can be enhanced by strong brand loyalty and collaboration with the non-profit sector.Future Competition Envirolet. A profitable African market will make foreign entry inevitable.

Protests against Cameroon's Biya.bbc. Retrieved February 5. 2010. (2009. L. April 21).html Central Intelligence Agency. Products. January 28).stm Bongben. 2010.com/pages/802976930/map-direction. Cameroon: US$ 61 Million Funding for Water and Sanitation. (2008. 2010. from The World Factbook: Cameroon: https://www.asp BBC News.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cm.afdb. 2010. January 7). Retrieved February 6. March 10). from Sanitation Updates: http://sanitationupdates.co. Cameroon: 1. October 17). from African Sanitation: http://africasanitation. (2008. from BBC News: http://news. Retrieved February 6.softpagecms. 2010.wordpress. (2008. Retrieved February 6.org/en/news-events/article/cameroon-us-61-million-funding-forwater-and-sanitation-4275/ African Sanitation.com/article/ALeqM5jJqZqCOmhiBm7XKvnTzefuzqvNMQ African Development Bank Group. Central Intelligence Agency. Cameroon government raises violence death toll to 40.com/stories/200810171140. from All Africa: http://allafrica. Nigeria: DMT Mobile Toilets to produce gas from human waste. 2010. (2009. Retrieved February 7.Bibliography AFP.uk/2/hi/africa/7358201. (2010). (2010. from African Development Bank Group: http://www.google.5 Million Toilets to Improve Sanitation.cia. January 15). A. Retrieved February 8.html Dada. Retrieved February 6. from Google News: http://afp. 2010.com/2009/01/07/nigeria-dmt-mobile-toilets-toproduce-gas-from-human-waste/ 13 | P a g e .

Transportation.org/innerpg.monitor. from Peace & Conflict Monitor: http://www.howstuffworks. (2006.org/report. (2008.ca/Portal/ResultsList.html Euromonitor. Retrieved February 5.com/HOME. Retrieved February 7.cfm?id_article=432. Infrastructure (Cameroon). Home. from Irin: http://www. from Afrik: http://en.html How Stuff Works. Jane's. 2010.sfu. 2010. July 7).euromonitor. Cameroon .com/home-improvement/plumbing/how-to-repair-atoilet3.).com/extracts/extract/cafrsu/cames060.html 14 | P a g e . from Jane's: http://www. January 26). December 18).htm Encyclopedia of the Nations. Cameroon Income & Expenditure. from Passport GMID: http://www. Retrieved February 9.DMT Toilets. 2010. March 10). (2008.d.janes. (2010). from Encyclopedia of the Nations: http://www. from How Stuff Works: http://home. CAMEROON: New anti-corruption drive leaves many sceptical. 40 people killed in Cameroon clashes.aspx Ghartey-Mould. How to Repair a Toilet. 2010. January 27).htm Irin.com/article12792.proxy.lib. from DMT Toilets: http://www. (2006. Retrieved February 6.upeace.aspx?reportid=57951 Irin. 2010. Retrieved February 5.irinnews. 2010. (2008.dmttoilet.com.portal. New Anti-corruption Drive Leaves Many Sceptical. (2010). 2010. Retrieved February 2010. (n. 2010.afrik.com/Africa/Cameroon-TRANSPORTATION. Retrieved February 2. W.nationsencyclopedia. Retrieved February 6.

kwintessential.html The World Bank Group.org/governance/wgi/index.co. January 14).scienceinafrica..worldbank.asp UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. & Takougang. (2003). Retrieved February 4.. Cameroon: Improving access to water supply and sanitation.Language. J. (2009. Retrieved February 8. Waste management in Cameroon: A new policy perspective? Amsterdam: Elsevier. A. Mbaku. from MSA West: http://www. MSA West. V. (2003.com/islam/fundamentals/pillars/prayer/prescribed/pp1_2. from Unhabitat: http://www. (2009). Retrieved February 6. 2010. The Leadership Challenge in Africa: Cameroon Under Paul Biya.org/content. & Readd. Customs and Etiquette. Trenton: Africa World Press. from Kwintessential: http://www.za/2003/march/chad. Forton. 2010. The Worldwide Governance Indicators Project.html Nubian Cheetah. 2010. Culture.com/2009/01/dmt-mobile-toilets. D.uk/resources/global-etiquette/cameroon. The Prescribed Prayer: Chapter One. (2009). Retrieved February 6. from Governance Matters 2009: http://info.. Retrieved February 4. J. from Nubian Cheetah: http://nubiancheetah.Kwintessential. (2008). from Science In Africa: http://www.blogspot. 2010.html Mangaa. 2010. Replenishing Lake Chad.co. Cameroon .asp?cid=3243&catid=183&typeid=13&subMenuId=0 15 | P a g e .unhabitat. 2010. (2007). O. March).htm UnHabitat. DMT Mobile Toilets. (2003). Retrieved February 5.msawest.

net/index. from All Africa: http://allafrica. Retrieved February 4.html Water Wiki. December 18). December 26). October 17).int/countries/cmr/en/ 16 | P a g e . (2009. Drying.com/stories/200812290223. Facing the Water Challenges in Cameroon: A WWDR3 Case Study. (2010).html Virgo. from World Health Organization: http://www. from All Africa: http://allafrica. from Water Wiki: http://waterwiki. P. 2010. 2010. Retrieved February 7. Disappearing.who.Vanguard. (2008. (2009. Retrieved February 7.com/stories/200912270080. Retrieved February 7. 2010.php/Facing_the_Water_Challenges_in_Cameroon:_A_WWDR 3_Case_Study World Health Organization. Cuts Prices By 15 Percen. 2010. Nigeria: DMT Builds Bio Gas Plant. Cameroon. Chad: Drying.

Appendix Figure 1: Regions of Cameroon http://en.wikipedia.svg 17 | P a g e .org/wiki/File:Provinces_of_Cameroon_EN.

org/wiki/File:Map_of_Trans-African_Highways.wikipedia.Figure 2: Trans-African Highway http://en.PNG 18 | P a g e .

worldbank.asp 19 | P a g e .Figure 3: Political Stability in Sub-Saharan Africa http://info.org/governance/wgi/index.

asp 20 | P a g e .worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.Figure 4: Control of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa http://info.

com/pages/802976930/Home-Page.asp 21 | P a g e .Figure 5: SA Toilet Specs http://africasanitation.softpagecms.

Figure 6: Cost of Cooking Gas http://www.portal.aspx 22 | P a g e .com.euromonitor.proxy.ca/Portal/Statistics.sfu.lib.

portal.proxy.euromonitor.com.ca/Portal/ResultsList.sfu.Figure 7: US Income per Region http://www.aspx 23 | P a g e .lib.

Unusual Sites Composting toilets can be installed in many different situations which would not accommodate other systems. no water storage. Reduced Marine Pollution Nutrient load on streams and rivers is almost negligible.BENEFITS TO THE INDIVIDUAL Waterfree A significant savings in water storage will result if the household is not on reticulated water supply. the solid end product is a valuable humic fertiliser that can be utilised around trees and gardens. Industry would be more willing to rectify these problems if it were easier to identify the sources. It is also easier to rectify and return to normal operation. there is a large reduction in the ³loading´ on the effluent treatment system by the removal of ³blackwater. BENEFITS TO THE COMMUNITY & THE ENVIRONMENT Odour Problems Reduced The suction air flow in most composting toilets takes toilet and bathroom odor out of the room and acts like a constant extraction fan. then money is wasted.org/compost_toilets_explained/the_benefits_of_composting_toilets/index. Water Use A reduction in water use allows the large capital costs of dams and reservoirs to be spread over a greater population. a significant cost. Pollution Detected Quickly Without sewage systems to flush away wastes. Recycling The composting toilet possesses the ability to recycle much of your household waste. Less Environmental Impact Compared to sewage systems. Flexibility of Planning Composting toilet systems are built only when the need arises.´ Smaller. If development does not go as planned. Flexibility in Estate Planning By eliminating the planning constraints of the sewage system underground piping and infrastructure. Community. less maintenance. rather than how best to situate the blocks to make pipes run straighter. It also enables decentralised water sources to be used. greywater systems are possible. lawn clippings and grease from you grease traps and greywater systems can be composted back through the toilet. On-site composting systems are much more flexible. environmentally sensitive. All these difficult site situations can be accommodated with a small amount of alteration to the basic system design. paper. and Environment http://compostingtoilet. Table 1: Benefits to Individual.php 24 | P a g e . If you choose to put in a reed bed greywater systems. This results in more oxygen being available in the water and a return to improved activity of marine life. Reduced Greywater Loading Where composting toilets are installed instead of septic and minitreatment systems. There is no wastage in this system. Food scraps. ‡ Leakage of raw sewage into groundwater through pipe deterioration and breakage is eliminated. ‡ Disruption to soils systems through pipeline installation is eliminated. they are easier to fix and have less damage potential if operated incorrectly. the annual clippings can also be composted. Independence A household with a composting system is independent from potential problems of the waterborne sewage system. Lower Household Maintenance Costs Sewage rates and water rates (metered) can be in the order of $500 per year. high water table. Local authorities will be increasingly paying rebates to households who own composting toilets. The high headwork and treatment costs of conventional sewage systems must be borne by the community ahead of development. and swampy ground. Other on-site systems have annual maintenance costs that are obligatory. Damage Limited Miscalculation in individual composting systems has a much smaller impact than the same mistake in a large centralised system. housing developments can be designed with more emphasis on environmental and social considerations. close to running watercourses. on-site composting and greywater treatment has less impact on the environment: ‡ Large effluent releases into watercourses and oceans are avoided. there is not much that you can do personally about it. This will only increase if the demand for sewage system upgrading increases. Rocky sites. If future water shortage or system backup problems occur with conventional systems. It would be easier to ascertain where toxic wastes are being leaked into watercourses. End Product Recycled While only small in amount.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful