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REPOSITIONING SCIENCE,

TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION


SYSTEM TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF
VISION 20:2020

A Paper for Presentation at the

2010 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUMMIT

Theme “STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE QUANTUM LEAP


FROM LABORATORIES TO THE MARKET”

By

Prof. O.O. ADEWOYE FMSN, FNSE, FAEng., FAS


Director General/ Chief Executive

NATIONAL AGENCY FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


INFRASTRUCTURE (NASENI)

9TH – 10TH AUGUST, 2010


2010 Science & Technology Summit

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Objectives of the Paper.
1.2 Fast-tracked Economic Growth through Targeted R&D and
Reverse Engineering
1.3 Social Matrix, Historical Perspective and Current Situation in the
Light of Vision 20:2020
1.2.1 Innovation, National Consensus; an historical perspective
1.2.2 The Need for Shared Vision and Values
1.2.3 Present State and Challenges
1.4 Vision 20: 2020 is Achievable

2.0 ROLE OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND


INNOVATION IN SUSTAINABLE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

2.1 Knowledge-Enabled Manufacturing is Key to Fast-Tracking


2.2 Role of S&T in the Creation and Sustenance of Modern
Manufacturing
2.3 Modelling and Simulation is Fundamental to Sustainable
Development through Advanced Manufacturing
2.4 Virtual Manufacturing, Key to Rapid Final Assembly of Boeing 7E7
2.5 Knowledge from Science and Education is more important than
Abundance of Raw Materials

3.0 MODELS AND FRAMEWORK FOR HARNESSING SETI


CAPABILITIES FOR MANUFACTURING

3.1 Next Generation Manufacturing Initiative (NGMTI)


3.2 Functional Model for the MBE Roadmap
3.3 Synergy amongst SETI Institutes and SME Development Agencies

4.0 NASENI INTERVENTION IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR


4.1 NASENI Advanced Manufacturing Technology Programme
4.2 Virtual Manufacturing Laboratory (VML)
4.3 High Power Computing (HPC) Laboratory
4.4 Computer Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Manufacturing
(CAM)
4.5 The Establishment of Advanced Manufacturing Centres in Nine
Universities within the Niger Delta Area
4.5.1 Objectives

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4.5.2 Facilities, Equipment and Training


4.5.3 AMT Training for Pioneer Staff of Nine NDDC AMTC
4.6 Rapid Prototyping (RP)
4.7 Human Capacity Development in Engineering Design and
Development

5.0 CHALLENGES OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY &


INNOVATION (SETI) AND WAY FORWARD FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
5.1 Limitation in SETI Capacity
5.2 SETI Capacity Building
5.3 Keys to SETI Capacity Building for Economic Development and
Sustainability
5.4 Science Governance is Important
5.5 Technology Transfer Strategy
5.5.1 Innovation, Invention & Intellectual property
5.5.2 Patents and Patenting
5.5.3 Generating Innovation and moving it to the Market:
Invention, Development, Demonstration, Deployment (ID3)
Chain
5.5.4 Indigenous Knowledge Strategy

6.0 THE WAY FORWARD


6.1 Re-Definition of Extant Policies
6.2 Paradigm Shift
6.3 Linkages

7.0 OTHER AREAS OF NASENI’s INTERVENTION

8.0 CONCLUSION

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Vision 20: 2020, to those who have followed the trend of development in
Nigeria in the past, definitely would look bleak and totally impossible coupled
with the facts of Nigeria’s current economic ranking in the world and the
obvious fact that those nations we are to overtake to achieve this vision are not
resting on their oars in the development of their own nations.

For the year 2007, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Fact Book listed Nigeria as the 41st on the
List of Developed Economies based on GDP, while the World Bank listed
Nigeria as the 40th in its own analysis. The three sources listed USA, Japan,
Germany, China and United Kingdom as the first five. In order to achieve the
Vision 20: 2020; for Nigeria to be among the first twenty most developed
economies of the world by Year 2020, the nation’s economy needs to develop at
a rate fast enough to overtake more than 20 countries within the next 10 years;
countries like Indonesia, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Hong Kong
amongst others.

A “tall order” this may seem, but it is achievable. From studies on what leading
economies of the world are doing to achieve and maintain their current status in
the world, two subtle ideologies are the underlining factors; Knowledge and
Manufacturing. These two factors aids the ability of nations to compete
globally.

National competitiveness is the ability of a nation to produce goods and services


that meet the test of foreign competition while its citizen earn a standard of
living that is both rising and sustainable, not merely employment of citizens at
low wages. The achievement of these objectives depends on the the efficiency
by which an economy utilizes its natural resource, labor, capital and technology.
The only meaningful concept of national competitiveness is the value of the
output produced by a unit labour and capital.

In order to make Small businesses in Nigeria competitive, the role of Science


and Engineering cannot be overemphasised. This popular quotation by the
former United Nation Secretary General; Mr. Kofi Anan in 2004 readily comes
to mind: “In the world of the 21stcentury, critical issues related to Science and
Technology confront every nation…Today, no nation that wants to shape
informed policies and take effective action on such issues can be without its own
independent capacity in Science and Technology (S&T)” [1] Even though
Nigeria is blessed with a myriad of highly skilled professionals in Science and
Engineering both at home and in Diaspora, the value of such human capital is

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yet to be transformed into sustainable national development. This places a big


question mark on how these human resources have been managed in the past
and a clamour for a better means of managing them for a sustainable national
development.

1.1 Objectives of this Paper


This paper seeks to highlight the roles of Science and Engineering capabilities
in the production of goods and services for global competitiveness; identifies
the challenges in managing indigenous Science and Engineering capabilities
and proposes a framework for harnessing these resources for sustainable
national development.

1.2 Fast-tracked Economic Growth through Targeted R&D and Reverse


Engineering
In the short run and given the present technology disparities between and the
developed and rich nations of the US and Europe, developing nations can only
really get into the game of national economic development through fast-
tracking and leap-frogging. These two essentially call for Targeted-project
based Science, technology and education. Histories of the US, Japan and China
teach us this fact. The early success of Boeing Corporation benefited from
generous grants from the US government to aid its reverse engineering of
German Technology. The phenomenal rise of both Japan and China through the
dexterous utilisation of reverse engineering and subsequent innovation is no
news to all. Fast-tracking in the Nigerian case has to be seen in the context of
the publicly stated objectives of being one of the twenty largest economies by
the year 2020 and realising the ideologically stated Seven Point Agenda of the
present administration. The realisation of the above stated objectives calls for
the economy to grow at an annual rate of twelve and half percentage point. The
achievement of this phenomenal rate makes Science and the utilisation of
Science the real major business of all for the next ten years.

1.3 Social Matrix, Historical Perspective and Current Situation in the


Light of Vision 20:2020

1.3.1 Innovation, National Consensus; an historical perspective


The extent of the development of endogenous capacity of a nation or indeed
important component parts of it depends on a number of critical factors. Some
of these include history, geography, its standing in international circles and of
course its ability to construct a consensus to define its national goal. A nation
under the threat of war or other natural forces will develop the capability to
defend itself. For instance, a large part of the Netherlands is below sea level,
and has suffered from severe flooding in the past. It has continued to flourish
by being the best in hydraulic engineering. Nigeria needs to develop a

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consensus in order to construct and maintain a coherent science and technology


policy. This latter is of strategic importance to nations. [2]

1.3.2 The Need for Shared Vision and Values


Usually in the Political Economy of any society there is a fundamental nexus
between the economic base and the political super structure. In the same vein,
sometime when you have a visionary leadership, the technological base of the
society is also properly propelled by a vision. An example of this is when Late
President Kennedy said to his people that “America shall land a man on the
moon”. The present administration has also provided a political vision, and
hopefully, several years to come so much development would have taken place
in Nigeria. In order words, if it is very important for Nigeria to be able to
emerge as a nation of prosperity, there must be a grand vision and the grand
vision is being provided right now. However, this grand vision must be
sustained for a long time for Nigerians to benefit. The vision must translate to a
Mission Statement, which will govern the system as a whole.

All the present cleavages in our political system must be ironed out. There is the
need for elites as body to subscribe to the same vision to believe that Nigeria
can be developed within a certain number of years, that Nigeria can be built, can
be uplifted can be maximally catapulted within a given short period of time. In
the last century, Italy probably changed their governments every other year but
there was a consensus amongst the elites that their economy could grow at a
very reasonable rate, and so it did. So there will be need for an ideological
paradigm shift among Nigerian Elite to accept the vision of the economic
development and stay with it so as to allow rapid increase in gross domestic
product.

1.3.3 Present State and Challenges


Brain Drain has been fingered as a major cause of the inability of the Nigerian
Science and Engineering capabilities to transform into sustainable national
development. Nigerians in Diaspora are estimated at between 17-20 million, a
significant fraction of these are professionals. There are about 5,000 Nigeria
medical doctors practising in North America. This continuous outflow of skilled
labour has contributed to widening the gap in S&T between Africa and other
continents. Even the United Nations once stated that the “emigration of African
professionals to the West is one of the greatest obstacles to Africa’s
development”

In view of this, Government initiated actions to turn “brain-drain” to “brain-


gain” by inaugurating the ‘Nigerian Diaspora Day’ - a day in July of every
year. This forum aims at facilitating active participation of Nigerians in
Diaspora in the developmental process. The first Nigerian Diaspora day took

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place in July 2006 concurrent with the Diaspora 2nd science and technology
conference.

Other challenges to harnessing Nigerian Science and Engineering capabilities


for sustainable national development includes the following:

• Lack of conducive integrated policy and institutional framework


• Under-developed technology and innovation promotion capabilities
• Short-term thinking and reactive mode action
• System linkage failures and poor coordination
• Disconnection of application of new technologies from socio-
economic problems
• Scientific institutions with strong and inflexible disciplinary focus
• Low technology and innovation intensity in industry
• Lack of funding for technology acquisition and diffusion
• Absence of adequate equipment and infrastructure
• Commodities-based economy (selling of wosi-wosi) 

All these have led the nation to the present status in the international scene. As
described in the following figures, Nigeria ranks 66th on the Group Description
of Knowledge Index and 95th on the Global Competitiveness Ranking for the
year 2007. This means that for Nigeria to achieve its goal of being one of the
first twenty most developed economies by the year 2020, a new approach of
thinking and doing things ought to be sought.

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Group I Group II Group III Group IV


Frontier Countries Fast Followers Fast Followers Lagging Followers
1.United States 21.India 36.Ukraine 61.Kazakhstan
2.Japan 22.Portugal 37.Croatia 62.Moldova
3.Sweden 23.Ireland 38.Pakistan 63.Kyrgyz Republic
4.Germany 24.Poland 39.Malaysia 64.Guatemala
5.Switzerland 25.Hungary 40.South Africa 65.Peru
6.France 26.Slovenia 41.Bangladesh
66.NIGERIA
7.United Kingdom 27.Turkey 42.New Zealand
67.Panama
8.Canada 28.Australia 43.Belarus
68.Azerbaijan
9.Italy 29.Czech Republic 44.Thailand
69.Syrian Arab Republic
10.Finland 30.Mexico 45.Estonia
70.Ecuador
11.Israel 31.Slovak Republic 46.Tunisia
71Gabon
12.Korea, Republic of 32.Greece 47.Philippines
72.Benin
13.Austria 33.Romania 48.Russian Federation
73.Congo Republic
14.Hong Kong, China 34.Brazil 49.Lithuania
15.Belgium 35.Bulgaria 50.Latvia
16.Spain 51.Jamaica
17.Netherlands 52.Jordan
18.China 53.Argentina
19.Norway 54.Egypt, Arab Rep.
20.Denmark 55.Indonesia
56.Costa Rica
57.Vietnam
58.Colombia
59.Chile
60.Venezuela, RB
7

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Country/Economy GCI Ranking GCI Ranking GCI Ranking
07 06 05 Country/Economy 07 06 05 Country/Economy 07 06 05
United States 16 1 Portugal 40 34 31 Algeria 81 76 82
Switzerland 21 4 Slovak Republic 41 37 36 Honduras 83 93 97
Denmark 34 3 Bahrain 43 49 50 Trinidad and 67 66
Sweden 43 7 South Africa 44 45 40 Tobago 84
Germany 58 6 Latvia 45 36 39 Argentina 85 69 54
Finland 62 2 Italy 46 42 38 Peru 86 74 77
Singapore 75 5 Hungary 47 41 35 Guatemala 87 75 95
Japan 87 10 India 48 43 45 Namibia 89 84 79
United Kingdom 9 10 9 Jordan 49 52 42 Georgia 90 85 86
Netherlands 10 9 11 Barbados 50 31 - Pakistan 92 91 94
Korea, Rep. 11 24 19 Poland 51 48 43 Armenia 93 82 81
Hong Kong SAR 12 11 14 Mexico 52 58 59 Macedonia 94 80 75
Canada 13 16 13 Turkey 53 59 71 Nigeria 95 101 83
13 8 Indonesia 54 50 69 Dominican 83 91
Taiwan, China 14 Cyprus 55 46 41
17 15 Republic 96
Austria 15 Malta 56 39 44 Moldova 97 86 89
Norway 16 12 17
Croatia 57 51 64 Venezuela 98 88 84
Israel 17 15 23 Russian Federation 58 62 53 Kenya 99 94 93
France 18 18 12 Panama 59 57 65 Mongolia 101 92 90
Australia 19 19 18 Mauritius 60 55 55 Gambia 102 102 109
Belgium 20 20 20 Kazakhstan 61 56 51 Ecuador 103 90 87
Malaysia 21 26 25 Costa Rica 63 53 56 Tanzania 104 104 105
Ireland 22 21 21 Morocco 64 70 76 Bolivia 105 97 101
Iceland 23 14 16 Greece 65 47 47 89 89
Bosnia and
New Zealand 24 23 22 Azerbaijan 66 64 62 Herzegovina 106
Luxembourg 25 22 24 El Salvador 67 61 60 Bangladesh 107 99 98
Chile 26 27 27 Vietnam 68 77 74 Benin 108 105 106
Estonia 27 25 26 Colombia 69 65 58 Cambodia 110 103 111
Thailand 28 35 33 Sri Lanka 70 79 80 Nicaragua 111 95 96
Spain 29 28 28 Philippines 71 71 73 Suriname 113 100 -
Kuwait 30 44 49 Brazil 72 66 57 Mali 115 118 115
Qatar 31 38 46 Ukraine 73 78 68 Cameroon 116 108 99
Tunisia 32 30 37 Romania 74 68 67 Tajikistan 117 96 92
Czech Republic 33 29 29 Uruguay 75 73 70 Madagascar 118 109 107
China 34 54 48 Botswana 76 81 72 Kyrgyz Republic 119 107 104
United Arab Emirates 37 32 32 Egypt 77 63 52 Paraguaz 121 106 102
Lithuania 38 40 34 Jamaica 78 60 63 Zimbabwe 129 119 110
Slovenia 39 33 30 Bulgaria 79 72 61

1.4 Vision 20: 2020 is Achievable


To have a mindset that Vision 20: 2020 is not achievable is tantamount to
giving-up without making efforts. The result of this, of course, is a continued
failure and a gloomy future for Nigeria. Even though the Vision might seem to
be a high and lofty one, it is however achievable if the thinking and actions are
done differently.

Taking a cue from nations of the world who have taken great strides and have
achieved resounding developmental records in their economies, for example, it
took Britain 58 years to double its per capita output; it took the USA 47 years,
Japan of course did it in 33 years, Indonesia in 17 years, South Korea did it in

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11 years and China has been doing it every 7 years for the past two decades.
This is fantastic. The Chinese economy grew at annual rate of 8% during the
80’s and first half of 1990’s. Starting with the Japanese, nations who recorded
great economical growth within shorter periods of time compared to their
predecessors achieved it by doing things differently. They invested in
manufacturing and not just conventional manufacturing but also the use of
Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT). So basically, using AMT, the
Chinese have become the fourth growth zone along with the US, Japan and
Germany. In this century, Chinese economy became the fourth largest. With
the second and third largest economies in the world 1990’s, Asia will have up to
four of five largest and seven of ten largest economies by 2020. The thinking is
that soon, Asia societies are likely to account for over 40% of global economy
product.

China achieved this feat in 7 years. With discipline and a new mindset and way
of doing things, Nigeria can achieve quite a lot within ten years.

2.0 ROLE OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND


INNOVATION IN SUSTAINABLE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

2.1 Knowledge-Enabled Manufacturing is Key to Fast-Tracking


Manufacturing is the essential basic strength of any nation. Although
increasingly larger segments of the population may be employed in service
industries, it is manufacturing that produces the wealth of a nation.

Knowledge intensity is having a direct impact on the advanced sectors of the


manufacturing industry, and many of these industries are establishing integrated

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value chains. These global industries assume levels of technological integration


(such as in design, quality control and inventory management) that are not yet
the standard in Nigeria. Countries that make the necessary proactive
investments in advanced manufacturing will benefit with an increasing share of
the knowledge-intensive aspects of production in the future.

Advanced Manufacturing Processes do not necessarily mean new inventions,


but often the identification, understanding and harnessing the most recent
advances in manufacturing technology to increase productivity, improve
existing products and produce quality new products that meets all global
standards. These products will meet domestic needs; meet all regional needs
through export and providing a measured level of global presence. Foreign
manufactures will manufacture their products in Nigeria and/or team up with
local manufacturers while putting to use all the immense human resources of
Nigeria at home and throughout the Diaspora. The efforts will retrain Nigerians
so that Nigeria can become the regional training centre of Prevailing Cutting-
Edge Manufacturing Technology.

Globalization has greatly expanded the availability of new markets, while


simultaneously spurring intense competition in all manufacturing sectors. New
technologies enable developing and developed economies to design, build,
distribute and support new and improved products with speed and quality not to
be believed just two decades ago. The goal of advanced manufacturing
technology innovation is to improve or revolutionize the manufacturing process
and equipment from requirement stage to design and production stage.

Products can now be made better, faster and cheaper and no manufacturer can
afford to operate without the new technology or he might soon find himself
unable to compete in a market that gets more global by the day.

Aside from modern equipment and technology, a strong manufacturing base


needs adequate human capital in the form of a workforce sufficiently qualified
to use this technology. Helping to develop such a qualified workforce through
effective and broad-based transfer of technology is part of NASENI's mission.

In this regard AMT takes the working individual out of the production process
and away from repetitive tasks which can be performed more efficiently by
automated machines, freeing him for tasks where human ingenuity and
creativity cannot be replaced by machines alone: The tasks of planning,
supervising and controlling the productive process.

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2.2 Role of S&T in the Creation and Sustenance of Modern


Manufacturing
Technology and innovation are facilitators for the creation, development and
sustenance of modern manufacturing and the requirements of modern
manufacturing transcend provision of finance and infrastructure such as
electricity, telephone, water and good road. It is also necessary to adopt the
Research and Development concept; moving from Idea to Proof of Concept.

Role of AMT in Production of Goods and Services in most manufacturing


processes in Nigeria are based on products from the subsurface and surface of
the land, i.e., minerals (Solid, liquid, or gaseous) which can be converted to
metal and machine/technologies; and agricultural produce, food which can be
processed using modern technology. In all cases, the technology for the
development of these products has to be endogenous or acquired through
capacity building and technology transfer. Nigeria may leap frog the process of
development and acquisition of those technologies by making forays into
advanced manufacturing methodologies, including CAD/CAM, Biotechnology,
ICT, Nanotechnology, and material sciences, to yield many new industries.
Manufacturing processes and equipment are undergoing radical changes in
response to drive lower costs, environmental responsible products and meet the
increasing demands of global customers. The change in the way products are
translated from concept to delivery must be dramatic, enabled and accelerated
by the emerging ability to integrate manufacturing, from requirements, to design
and to product. The manufacturing processes will become more precise,
flexible, and adaptable, and process optimization. For this to become a reality,
advances in the fundamental understanding of interactions between materials
and processes must be made to enable creation of comprehensive, science-based
process models.

2.3 Modelling and Simulation is Fundamental to Sustainable


Development through Advanced Manufacturing
Modelling and simulation (MS) are emerging as key technologies to support
manufacturing these days and no other technology offers more potential than
MS for improving products, perfecting processes, reducing design-to-
manufacturing cycle time and reducing product realization costs. Although
specialists currently use MS tools on a case-specific basis to help design
complex products and processes, the use of MS tools other than basic computer-
aided design/engineering (CAD/CAE) applications is largely used to solving
specialized design and production problems. The real value of MS tools is their
ability to capture and represent knowledge to make confident predictions. These
are predictions to drive product design, process design and execution, and
management of the company. Product and process development has historically

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been accomplished through testing designs to see how well they work, then
modifying the design and testing it again. This test or evaluate or modify phase
consumes a vastly disproportionate share of the time and cost required to move
a product from concept to delivery.

2.4 Virtual Manufacturing, Key to Rapid Final Assembly of Boeing 7E7


Boeing’s first new jet since the 777, has received much attention for using
composite wings and fuselage instead of metal, but there is another major
difference. A dozen years ago, the 777 was the first digitally designed
commercial airplane; no physical prototype had to be built. This time, engineers
will not only design the plane digitally but also the entire development and
manufacturing process and the aircraft’s entire life cycle. Before the first 7E7
part is made, the plane was digitally defined and produced; so also the tooling
and the assembly processes. Boeing and its partners then created a virtual-
reality airplane, and everything needed to build it, from inception to rollout.

From Japan, Italy, and the U.S., the composite structures will come into the
factory certified, tested and ready for final assembly. A moving line will carry
the centre fuselage section slowly down the factory floor as other sections –
wings, front fuselage, and aft fuselage – are joined to it. In just 72 hours, a 7E7
will be assembled and ready for painting and delivery.

2.5 Knowledge from Science and Education is more important than


Abundance of Raw Materials
Economic development and growth go hand in hand with human capacity
utilization and technological growth. Never has there been any country that
made headway in economic growth relying on the availability of natural
resources alone without full utilization of the available human resources.

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Despite the abundance of raw materials in form of agricultural produce and


mineral (solid/liquid/gas) resources available, African continent remain the
poorest and least developed because emphasis has mainly been on labour
intensive production technologies. To be able to tap from the abundantly
available investment opportunities, the Nation’s manufacturing processes must
be reoriented to adopt STI and apply the best practices in production and
processing technology in their operations, for products of high standard and
quality that will meet international demand. This is better illustrated by the
figure below:

Knowledge vs. Abundance of Raw Materials

A single unskilled worker is required to produce 5000 tonnes of bauxite at a unit


cost of US $5 per ton. This amounts to $25,000 and the contribution of the
worker to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is $25,000. The state of
technology is at its lowest

Three (3) unskilled workers required to process Bauxite into Alumina with
Silica as a by-product. The unit cost of Alumina & Silica is now US $15 per
ton, total cost value of products now $75,000 and the contribution of each
worker to GDP is $25,000 ($75,000/3). The profit margin & GDP still remain
the same despite the small increase in workforce because the skill level is
almost constant.

Thirty (30) Semi-Skilled workers required to process Silica and Alumina into
Aluminium ingots. Unit value of Aluminium produced is $1300, amounting to
US $6.5 million. Contribution of each of the workers to the GDP now

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$216,666.7 ($6,500,000/30). Appreciable increase in the level of skills,


technology and human capacity created more jobs while also increasing the
GDP.

3.0 MODELS AND FRAMEWORK FOR HARNESSING SETI


CAPABILITIES FOR MANUFACTURING

3.1 Next Generation Manufacturing Initiative (NGMTI)


As shown in the figure below, NGMTI uses a combination of research and input
from subject matter experts (SMEs), plus input from industry participants via
internet-based Communities of Practice, to create Technology Roadmaps for
each NGMTI Thrust Area. This serves as input to a structured evaluation
process wherein high-priority topics are selected for more in-depth treatment
and as candidates for focused R&D projects through the NGMTI Testbed
Network or other mechanisms. [3]

The program is built around a series of six Thrust Areas that provide a focused
structure for managing technology requirements that cut across defence and
commercial manufacturing base. These Thrust Areas are:
1. Model-Based Enterprise (MBE)
2. Emerging Process Technologies
3. Intelligent Systems
4. Enterprise Integration
5. Knowledge Applications
6. Safe, Secure, Reliable & Sustainable Manufacturing Operations.

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These topics were selected based on input from industry and government focus
groups to define the right “umbrellas” under which to capture the high-priority
technology needs of the nation’s manufacturing community

3.2 Functional Model for the MBE Roadmap


The MBE Vision is “An integrated, all-digital system will support all functions
of the enterprise. From the innovation process to delivery and support of
product, a rich set of interconnected models that communicate in real time will
augment human creativity and automate the operational component. The models
that define products and processes will be so accurate that they will serve as the
controller for process execution”

The Roadmap provides 1) an assessment of the current state of practice; 2) a


vision of the future state of capability enabled by model-based tools and
processes; 3) goals and requirements that must be met to achieve the vision; and
4) a national timeline for conducting the required research, development, and
implementation.

All business and technical functions will be integrated using model-based


systems for optimized performance and real-time, responsive control of the
enterprise. In the future manufacturing enterprise, knowledge will be captured
and applied through model-based systems and processes. Material properties,
costs and other factors will be readily available to aid designers in engineering
products and processes for total performance.

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3.3 Synergy amongst SETI Institutes and SME Development Agencies


Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN),
Bank of Industry (BOI), National Board for Technology Incubation (NBTI) and
other similar agencies should harmonise their activities and through targeted
linkages with SETI Institutes to drive the development of SMEs through the use
of SETI capabilities already available within the country.

4.0 NASENI INTERVENTION IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR


4.1 NASENI Advanced Manufacturing Technology Programme
The use of Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine tools has spread
rapidly during the last decade. Almost 80% of machine tools in modern
manufacturing industry are computer controlled. Products can now be made
better, faster and cheaper and no manufacturer can afford to do otherwise, else
such a manufacturer will produce goods that are not globally competitive.

In the last few years, the Agency has been implementing projects and
programmes focused on the development of capacity, introduction and
application of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) programme in
Nigeria. This is with the view to develop and provide, on continuous basis, a
corps of manpower with requisite skills in AMT, for use by the nation’s
institutions and industrial sector.

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4.2 Virtual Manufacturing Laboratory (VML)


The process of machinery development is a tedious and unpredictable using the
classical design and development approaches. With globalization and the ICT
revolution, design, simulation and development of engineering systems are
becoming more deterministic.
NASENI headquarters has established a Virtual Manufacturing Laboratory
(VML) which provides state of the art hardware, software and intellectual
capacity for design, engineering simulation, and computer modelling of
engineering processes, plants, machinery and spares. This will ensure rapid
prototyping and hence reduce time and money required from moving from
conceptual design to pilot scale plant development
Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the vital life-line of the advanced
manufacturing technology revolution. It comprises of a process of tests and
experiments on super-computers known as Advanced Modelling and
Simulation (MS), which is used by industries in the developed countries to
replace expensive manufacturing and equipment tests. VM can play a critical
role in the strategic fulfilments of the goal of Nigeria on science and
engineering infrastructure development, industrialization, poverty eradication
and national economic wealth generation. The only way to compete in the
global market is to provide quality goods and equipment. Quality goods are
produced through process reviews, developmental projects and targeted
researches. The cost of these analyses, researches and projects may be
prohibitive for an underdeveloped or a developing nation like Nigeria, but if the
costs are reduced sufficiently, it is possible to embark upon these meaningful
activities that are targeted at quality products. Virtual Manufacturing can reduce
the cost of manufacturing investigation and validation activities by 2 to 20
times, depending on product costs, thus making it affordable for Nigeria. The
goal of Virtual Manufacturing innovation is to improve and fast-track the
manufacturing process of products from conception to delivery.

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4.3 High Power Computing (HPC) Laboratory


The HPC is purposely built to address the need to get solutions to complex
scientific and engineering challenges encountered in research institutions as
well as in the manufacturing sector.

The High-Power Computer Laboratory provides opportunities for engineers and


scientists all over the nation to send in their complex works/designs/calculations
for processing to the main nodes located in the Agency’s Hq, NEDDI, Nnewi
and PEDI, Ilesa.

The following engineering softwares, among others, are available in the HPC
laboratory: Comsol Multiphysics, Pro-Engineer, Granta Design, MATLAB, etc.
The Comsol Multipysics is made up the following modules: AC/DC Module,
Acoustic Module, Chemical Engineering Module, Earth Science Module,
Heat Transfer Module¸ MEMS Module, Structural Mechanics Module,
CAD Import Module, COMSOL Script, Reaction and Engineering Lab,
Optimisation, Signal and Systems Lab, Material Library, etc.

With the Networked NASENI HPC made accessible to stakeholders, analysis


and simulation of Scientific and Engineering problems can be undertaken and
the benefits of these are many:
• The training of engineers, scientists and technologists in our tertiary
institutions will be enhanced greatly.
• Production of skilled graduates of tertiary institutions.
• Practising Engineers and Scientists would have reduced simulation times
drastically by over 70 percent
• Engineers and Scientists would have significantly increased productivity
by fast-tracking the of component parts.

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• Production and Operation cost will be considerably reduced; Engineers


and Scientist will have a virtual view of the end-result of their design
before production.
• Quality products/goods through our SMEs will get to the market faster
• Made in Nigerian products will compete in the international market.

The VML and HPC in the Agency’s Headquarters is being replicated in other
two Institutes’ of NASENI. These are the National Engineering Design
Development Institute (NEDDI), Nnewi and the Prototyping Engineering
Design Institute (PEDI), Ilesa.

Altogether, the Agency has the following infrastructure on ground for


modelling and simulation:
• 50 number of high level workstations at its HPC and VML laboratories at
the Headquarters.
• Head node servers at its Headquarters, NEDDI, Nnewi and PEDI, Ilesa
• A shared Local Area Network with fibre optic backbone.
• 36 number of high level workstations at its HPC and VML laboratories in
NEDDI, Nnewi.
• 40 number of high level workstations at its HPC and VML laboratories in
PEDI, Ilesa.
• 6 site licences of Pro-Engineer software, each accommodating 500
systems, making a total 3,000 systems.
• Installed softwares -Comsol Multiphysics, Granta Design, MATLAB, etc.

iVPN
NASENI is in the process of establishing an Integrated Virtual Private Network
(iVPN). The Network would link all the Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Centres (AMTCs) to the HPC laboratory at the Headquarters and enhance
capacity development in AMT.

All these facilities serve as a national resource in engineering manufacturing


and will be available to the R&D community in Nigeria as well as the SME
sector, engineering firms and for capacity development.

4.4 Computer Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Manufacturing


(CAM)
Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based
tools that assist engineers, architects and other design professionals in their
design activities. It is used to design, develop and optimise products, which can

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be goods used by end consumers or intermediate goods used in other products.


It is a very powerful tool that offers industry the ability to save time and tedium
in the drawing office, produce better designs and faster quotations and to
provide automatic machine tool control from a design produced on a computer.

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is defined as the use of computer


system to plan, manage and control the operations of a manufacturing plant
through either direct or indirect computer interface with the plant’s production
resources. CAD/CAM must be interfaced in order to achieve technology-based
improvement in manufacturing and continually improved productivity quality.

Why Investing in CAD/CAM?


One of the constraints to industrial machinery development in Nigeria is that
most machinery producers are actually “road side” fabricators. Many a time,
proper engineering drawings and design are not used. The result is that the
machines are fabricated without using the best practices. Our programme in
modern design facilities encourages the use of proper engineering design and
drawings, which emphasizes good choice of materials, manufacturing layout
and procedure and standardization of components and parts. That is, machines
will have standard components, which can be manufactured by another
entrepreneur. The overall effect will be lower cost of the machines, and good
quality control.

The Agency’s Headquarter and all its Development Institutes are currently
equipped with some level of AMT facilities. Each of the Institutes has a Vertical
Machining Centre (VMC), CNC Lathe, CNC Training lathe, Grinding machine,
Electro Discharge Machine, 3-D Printer and SLA for Rapid Prototyping,
Induction Furnace, Rotary Furnace and Pattern Shop in their AMT Centres.
This includes the necessary software required for modern design. For one of the
software (Pro/E), the Agency had acquired six (6) site licenses; and each of
these sites can accommodate 500 licenses. This means that we can conveniently
load the software in at least ten (10) personal computers in all tertiary
institutions in Nigeria. Implementation of this has been completed in Federal
University of Technology (FUT) Minna. Arrangement for other Institutions like
Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Ile-Ife, University of Benin, National
Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) Zaria, University of
Agriculture (UNAAB), Abeokuta, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria is
ongoing.

These facilities will be used for capacity building of SMEs in the use of modern
design and manufacturing techniques which will revolutionize the

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manufacturing industry in Nigeria. This will ensure that products meet


international standards and compete globally.

In order to develop capacity in these areas, regular trainings are being carried
out with participants drawn from the Universities, Research Institutes,
Development Centres of NASENI and the private sector. One of such training
was a two-week course with facilitators from USA on the use of Pro /E, Pro
Mechanical, Mould and Die design for participants drawn from the Universities,
Research Institutes, Development Institutes of NASENI and the private sector.
All the bills including paying the per diem for participants, their transport
allowances and provision of lunch and two tea breaks were borne by the
Agency. It is a continuous training. These participants had their computers
loaded with the software in addition to over 30 dual processor computers on
which the training was conducted.

4.5 The Establishment of Advanced Manufacturing Centres in Nine


Universities within the Niger Delta Area
As a consequence of the proposal submitted by NASENI to SKILL-G, the
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) awarded a contract to
SKILL‘G’ Nigeria Ltd to establish Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Centres (AMTCs) in nine (9) tertiary institutions in the Niger Delta Area of the
country. SKILL ‘G’ Nig Ltd then engaged NASENI as a consultant/sub-
contractor on the project.

The institutes, which are being located in tertiary institutions in each of the
benefiting states, is to provide capacity building in Advanced Manufacturing
Technology (AMT) in various areas.

Skills to be impacted by these institutes, will enable graduates of engineering


from these institutions conceptualize, design and produce high quality spare
parts, components and machines. These graduates will also have intellectual
skills with which to contribute to Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
especially in the downstream sector of the petroleum/gas industry.

4.5.1 Objectives
In specific terms, the objectives of this project include :
• Supply and installation of specified facilities at the designated tertiary
institutions in the Niger Delta states by NASENI for training in various
aspects of AMT.
• Provide high quality training and capacity building for the selected
personnel of the designated Niger Delta states universities.

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• Continuous supply of consultancy service in the areas of AMT as the


need arises.

The overall benefits of domiciliation of the Skill ‘G’/NNPC Project would


include, but are not limited to:

• Skills acquisition for the youths


• Development of local competencies in the oil, gas and automotive sectors
• Capacity for self actualization and self employment.
• Competencies acquired for global competitiveness.

4.5.2 Facilities, Equipment and Training


Facilities have been chosen in a strategic manner to give competencies in
advanced manufacturing. This includes:
• Vertical Machining Centre to provide milling, cutting, boring, drilling,
turning, reaming etc.
• CNC Lathe to provide precision turning
• Grinding Machine to provide precision grinding
• Electro Discharge Machine to produce wire cutting for the production of
moulds and dies.
• Induction furnace to provide precision metal melting and casting of iron,
copper etc
• Rotary Furnace to provide Iron melting
• Pattern shop to produce patterns for the foundry shop
• Ductile Iron will be produced as a precursor for Austempered Ductile
Iron required for precision machine parts and spares;
• NASENI will provide training for at least two qualified personnel from
each institution in the use and management of the institutes; and

4.5.3 AMT Training for Pioneer Staff of Nine NDDC AMTC


As part of capacity building, the Agency conducted training for pioneer staff of
the nine AMTCs in the Niger Delta region. They participated, daily, in long
hours of hands-on activities and practice on all aspects of the selected software.

At the end of the training, each institution involved in the program was given
two laptops as part of the Skill ‘G’/NASENI Project. Each of the lap tops, a HP
Pavilion brand with 2GB memory, 180GB hard disk, wireless remote controller,
web cam DVD-ram and Bluetooth installed was loaded with all the licensed
software used during the training.

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4.6 Rapid Prototyping (RP)


The demand for rapid prototyping technology and related machines have been
increasing steadily especially with the application in rapid tooling of machines
for the production and the processing of advanced materials.

RP is the creation of complex 3-dimensional physical models of a product


directly from CAD drawing with little human intervention. Then the issue of
risk and fear that are always expressed by the potential private
investors/entrepreneurs will be put to rest as they will now have the
opportunity to view such products on display as guaranteed and market ready.

Rapid Prototyping technology helps industries to improve their design and


product development activity by reducing design cycle time and eliminating
error early in design stage.
A laser beam is moved over the surface of the liquid photopolymer to trace the
geometry of the cross-section of the object. This causes the liquid to harden in
areas where the laser strikes. The laser beam is moved in the X-Y directions by
a scanner system (D). These are fast and highly controllable motors which drive
mirrors and are guided by information from the CAD data.
The exact pattern that the laser traces is a combination of the information
contained in the CAD system that describes the geometry of the object, and
information from the rapid prototyping application software that optimizes the
faithfulness of the fabricated object. Of course, application software for every
method of rapid prototyping modifies the CAD data in one way or another to
provide for operation of the machinery and to compensate for shortcomings.
The benefits of the Rapid Prototyping will be to:
• Accelerate industrial growth and the transformation of the nation’s raw
materials into useful products.
• Provide the right indigenous machinery and equipment used for
processing of raw materials. Currently, these equipments are highly
fragmented with deficiencies in major supporting industries such as the
foundry, forging, heavy & precision machining, tooling design and
fabrication.
• Enable designers validate their creations and gain confidence in their
work, which would be exploited by the SME.
• Provide investors/ entrepreneurs a unique opportunity to see physically
the workability of the product/ equipment/processes they wish to
commercialize and thereby increase their confidence in the product.
• It will put to rest the issues of risk and fear that are always expressed by
the potential private investors/entrepreneurs as they will now have the
opportunity to view such products on display as guaranteed and market
ready.

 
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• Address the shortage of qualified and competent technical personnel


encompassing skilled labour, technicians, supervisors, engineers,
metallurgists, and engineering based managers which has been a critical
bottleneck in the industries, especially in design & manufacturing of
process equipment needed for Nigeria raw materials.
• It will provide high quality post-graduate training and capacity building
for the industry.
• Help industries to improve their design and product development activity
by reducing design cycle time and eliminating error early in design stage
and ensuring the quality of goods produced.
• Assist SMEs, Research Institutes and tertiary institutions in their capacity
development and in R & D work.

An Institute in Ilesa (Prototypying Engineering Development Instititute, PEDI,


Ilesa) is already established to take up Rapid Prototyping as its mandate. This is
the concept to be adopted on the long run for the Agency’s Reverse
Engineering programme.

4.7 Human Capacity Development in Engineering Design and


Development
Indeed the Agency is investing on human capacity in various areas of Advanced
Manufacturing Technology – VML, CAD/CAM, CNC operations, engineering
design and development, etc. The objective is to develop personnel in these
areas who will be available to provide engineering solutions to organizations
world-wide. For example,
 All our Institutes have skill acquisition embedded in their programmes.
o Our VML lab has played host to a number of training programmes
on Pro-E, Pro-Mechanical, Mathlab, Granta, AUTOCAD, SOLID
WORKS, etc.
o In NEDDI Nnewi, more than 200 participants have benefited from
this skill acquisition programme on
 Basic and Advanced Engineering Drawing and Design
 Fittings
 Computer Aided Design using the AUTOCAD
 Foundry Technology (Ferrous and non-ferrous)
 AUTOCAD 2-D and 3-D
 AUTO INVENTOR
 MATLAB
 PRO E Mechanical, etc

5.0 CHALLENGES OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY &


INNOVATION (SETI) AND WAY FORWARD FOR SUSTAINABLE

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DEVELOPMENT
5.1 Limitation in SETI Capacity
In Nigeria, there is a limited SETI capacity. The limited SETI capacity that
exists is also often fragile, embodied in a small number of individuals and a few
institutions and dependent on outside support rather than any national SETI
infrastructure or domestic means to make them sustainable. This prevents new
knowledge and tools from gaining widespread application and restricts their
potential to spur economic growth and produce other benefits for development.
This reality frustrates both internal and external efforts to foster sustainable
economic development.
Thus, when SETI capacity building is attempted, it typically occurs only within
narrowly defined areas. Moreover, innovation is limited because researchers do
not know what the market wants and users find few incentives or means to
adopt new knowledge and tools. Many barriers hinder sustained SETI capacity
building and promoting innovation for economic growth in the country.
Shortages of human and institutional capacity are also obvious problems.
Economic policies that do not favour competition and weaknesses in the rule of
law do not spur innovation or attract foreign direct investments. Lack of
political will to implement reforms, maintain stable policies, enforce laws, and
pursue good governance also hinder SETI capacity building and innovation.
Finally, governments must balance competing demands for finite resources.
Resources available are particularly constrained so that public investment
decisions often are driven more by short-term demands than long-term goals. As
a result, long-term and sustained investment in SETI capacity building is rare.

5.2 SETI Capacity Building


Capacity Building is much more than training and includes the following:
• Human resource development, the process of equipping individuals with
understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that
enables them to perform effectively.

• Organizational development, the elaboration of management structures,


processes and procedures, not only within organizations but also the
management of relationships between the different organizations and sectors
(public, private and community).

• Institutional and legal framework development, making legal and regulatory

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changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in


all sectors to enhance their capacities.

SETI thus needs assessment focused on solving problems and probes across
multiple silos to identify capacity needs. This should cut across a whole range
of different sectors including: the higher education system, private sector
development, agricultural and rural development.

5.3 Keys to SETI Capacity Building for Economic Development and


Sustainability
Building SETI capacity at the national level is important for a country to
effectively interact and compete in the international arena. SETI capacity
building is a long and cumulative process and it requires more than building
laboratories and technology transfer. Stable investment in human and
institutional resources is necessary to adopt, adapt, apply and develop new ideas
and Technologies.
Good governance is imperative to encourage such investment and to maximize
their effect on economic development. Laws and regulations are needed to
protect physical and intellectual property, and they must be effectively and
efficiently enforced. In this connection, the presence of professional standards
and ethics creates a larger social atmosphere to demand and uphold good
governance.
It is important to remember that no single technology can guarantee economic
growth or achievement of other development goals and there is no single
formula for SETI based economic growth. For example, many rural
communities can now access public services and market information via the
Internet, but few have endogenous capacity to modify this technology to better
fit local conditions. Hence, the basic principles of capacity building have to be
adapted to specific needs and goals of different regions.
The country need to continuously invest in and monitor progress in building
SETI capacity in order to rise above the bottom of the technology ladder.
However, SETI investments that are beyond the absorptive capacity of a
country can result in waste and failure rather than increase their scientific and
economic productivity. Our SETI policy must thus focus on niches, locations,
markets and priorities. [4]

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5.4 Science Governance is Important


The professional, intellectual apparatus and ideological commitment of policy
makers and science administrators are very crucial to the attainment of building
and utilising SETI capacity. Presently, the top echelon of our economic policy
making bodies like the Economic Management Team and Planning Commission
need to benefit from the advice of Scientists than they do. Not one single
scientist of note sits on any of the two bodies. There is need for correction here
in order to facilitate the required synergy to realise the nexus between Science
and the national economy. Additional, the professional experience of Science
Administrators who actually act as desk officers and Directors in most science
based ministries call for urgent attention to say the least. There is also the
prevailing national dictum of ‘Buy, Buy and Buy’. Buying and not making
exports our jobs and competencies.

5.5 Technology Transfer Strategy

3.5.1 Innovation, Invention & Intellectual property


A new kind of society is taking shape in the modern world, one that is based on
knowledge and information and one that is oriented toward not so much the
creation of information as its management. The wealth of nations is also
changing. While prior centuries were dominated by nations with superior
industrial or agricultural capabilities, the Innovation Age rewards new
competencies and strengths. Knowledge – ideas and the people who generate
them- is the new coin of the realm. Innovative capacity will be the key driver of
future economic prosperity, with emerging technologies such as genomics,
bioinformatics, and nanotechnology promising even faster change and greater
disruption.
Invention and innovation, though closely related, are not the same. Innovation is

 
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often confused with research and measured in terms of scientific or


technological outputs. It is rather the application of knowledge in production.
This knowledge might be acquired through learning, research or experience, but
until it is applied in the production of goods or services it cannot be considered
innovation. It is a distinctly different activity from invention.
To invent is to create or design something new and previously non-existent
anywhere. An invention is thus anything created that is novel. To innovate is to
introduce something new and previously non-existent in a particular setting. An
innovation is thus anything that is novel in a given setting.
Innovation is the technical and commercial activities involved in the marketing
of a new/improved product or the first commercial use of a new/improved
process or equipment. It includes continuous improvement in product design
and quality, changes in organization and management routines, creativity in
marketing and modifications to production processes that brings cost down,
increase efficiency and ensures environmental sustainability.
For an invention, the focus is on novelty and this is a key criterion for patenting.
In other words, it must be new to its field all over the world. Innovation on the
other hand does not have to be new except in a specific situation. Thus,
innovation consists in the ‘process by which firms master and implement the
design and production of goods and services that are new to them, irrespective
of whether they are new to their competitors, their countries or the world.

A knowledge-based economy depends upon innovation around products of the


mind or intellect. Thus, capturing value from intellectual capital and
knowledge-based assets is critical to success. Competition is not for control of
raw materials, but for the most dynamic strategic asset: “productive
knowledge.” Finding ways to help innovators with this increasingly important
practice has become an explicit agenda for many countries. Historically, the
economic activity generated by the exchange and evaluation of physical goods
has been supported by functioning marketplaces that provide transparency of
ownership, integrity that creates a stable environment, and mechanisms that
enable valuation based on the principles of an open market.
As economic focus shifts from physical goods to intangible assets in the 21st
century, many agree an analogous supporting marketplace needs to be
developed. This new system must abide by the same principles of certainty and
trust that are found in any flourishing marketplace, while accommodating the
unique attributes of knowledge-based assets and dynamics of the intellectual
property market.
Intellectual property which meets the predetermined requirements and develops
into a legal right is called intellectual property right. Intellectual property in
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current society is important, in the past two decades, intellectual property right
patents have been applied to biotechnology ‘invented’ forms of life such as new
breeds of plants and animals – and to certain types of cultural knowledge, such
as the knowledge needed to produce medicine from a certain plant or the
knowledge of traditional arts such as dances and paintings. In principle,
intellectual property rights could help communities to protect their practices, for
example by patenting medicinal knowledge to ensure that multinational drug
companies do not benefit from the traditional use of plants that has been passed
down for generations. With the proper knowledge of their rights, communities
can also benefit greatly from the rise of intellectual property rights.

5.5.2 Patents and Patenting


Patents have become an important currency and a principal means to establish
value for creators and users of knowledge-based assets. A patent is a set of
exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed
period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention or innovation. A
fully functioning IP marketplace infrastructure has yet to emerge, however,
placing an undue burden on patent systems. This void creates uncertainty that
leads to a number of problems including increased litigation and speculative
behaviours that inhibit the innovation patent systems were designed to protect.
Because of such problems, there is an increasing concern that the IP
marketplace system may not meet its economic and societal objectives:
stimulating innovation-based competition; facilitating spill-over and expansion
of knowledge-based ideas and creative expressions of ideas; rewarding
inventiveness and creativity throughout the economic system and enabling
sustainable development of firms and industries.

In order for innovation to flourish in a global knowledge-based economy, a new


set of principles guiding the creation of ownership and equitable exchange of
intellectual goods should include the following tenets:
i. Inventors file quality patent applications for novel and non-obvious
inventions of certain scope.
ii. Patent ownership is transparent.
iii. Market participants act with integrity.
iv. IP value is fairly established based on the dynamics of an open
market.
v. Market infrastructure provides flexibility to support differing forms
of innovation.

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vi. Realistic introductory levels of global consistency exist for all of


the above.

5.5.3 A National Innovation System (NIS) Links S&T to Economic Growth


“Competitive advantage is created and sustained through a highly localized
process” Improving S&T capacity is necessary, but it is not sufficient to
generate economic growth. Building a National Innovation System (NIS)
provides the environment to apply science and technology to solve practical
problems, such as increasing productivity and competitiveness in the global
economy. [5]
An innovation system is conceptualized as a network of firms and other
economic agents who, together with the institutions and policies that influence
their innovative behaviour and performance, bring new products, new processes
and new forms of organization into economic use. It is an economic concept.

A technological innovation cannot be said to have been fully implemented until


it has been introduced on the market (product innovation). Innovations therefore
involve a series of scientific, technological, organizational, financial, and
commercial activities. A key ingredient in the transformation of an innovative
idea to an innovative product is entrepreneurship. Fostering economic
democracy and entrepreneurship is one tool for self-sufficiency.

Entrepreneurship is the core organizing principle for the continued building of a


company. This is because entrepreneurs:
• Change the business and civic landscape
• Open and lead markets
• Innovate
• Take risks
Since innovation is more of economy concerned than technology, inclusion of
entrepreneurship in the curriculum of science and technology studies is crucial.
This needs to be done for science and engineering curriculum in the universities
nationwide.

5.5.4 Generating Innovation and moving it to the Market: Invention,


Development, Demonstration, Deployment (ID3) Chain
The “ID3 Chain” diagram shown below proposes a conceptual framework to
consider the complex and dynamic relationships that connect different
components, stages and participants that are involved in creating new
knowledge, inserting it into products, and bringing these new products to the
market. Four features in this framework are particularly noteworthy:

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First, research generates new knowledge but it alone does not increase
economic growth. A knowledge base, in the form of scientists, engineers,
technicians, and skilled workers, is necessary. It is the result of investment in
research, education and industry. A strong knowledge base means more people
are able to perceive problems, propose solutions, adopt new problem-solving
tools and effectively use them.

Second, the distinction between deployment and market acceptance reflects the
reality that being able to put products on shelves is different from getting users
to buy them. The latter is influenced by market demand, cultural preferences,
and access to finance among others. This suggests that market reforms are
necessary for new knowledge and tools, whether imported or home-grown, to
be adopted by users.

Third, the feedback loops underscore the importance of organizational and


technological linkages for interaction and/or communication to promote
research and innovation activities that are relevant to the market.

Fourth, the ID3 chain suggests the possibility of a self-sustaining model to


produce new knowledge, tools and innovations for economic development.

Invention, Development, Demonstration, Deployment (ID3) Chain

In Nigeria, innovation systems do not take shape easily because the groups and
organizations concerned are not much interested to cooperate, being more
concerned with day to day survival issues and/or the protection of vested
interests, or because they are lacking the necessary technical culture and this
affects communications and exchanges of information. Therefore innovation
policies should focus primarily on developing an appropriate technical culture
and with the establishment of incentives to stimulate cooperation and

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entrepreneurship.

5.5.5 Indigenous Knowledge Strategy


Sophisticated knowledge of the natural world is not confined to science. Human
societies all across the globe have developed rich sets of experiences and
explanations relating to the environments they live in. These ‘other knowledge
systems’ are today often referred to as indigenous or local knowledge. They
encompass the sophisticated arrays of information, understandings and
interpretations that guide human societies around the globe in their innumerable
interactions with the natural milieu: in agriculture and animal husbandry;
hunting, fishing and gathering; struggles against disease and injury; naming and
explanation of natural phenomena; and strategies to cope with fluctuating
environments.

Indigenous knowledge is highly relevant to knowledge economy. We need to


have a better way to capture, codify, apply and protect indigenous knowledge
for economic productive use.

6.0 WAY FORWARD


6.1 Re-Definition of Extant Policies
The need for Re-definition of some of the Extant Policies to;
• Science and technology must be made integral to all national policy
discussions.
• Make Researchers more Productive
• Turn Research Results to Goods and Services
• Fiscal and Monetary incentives for firms to encourage results and
innovation

6.2 Paradigm Shift


Need for a Paradigm Shift to achieve;
• Target Driven STI activities for Goods and Services
• To produce high quality goods that can compete in international market.
This is only possible through the adoption of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology processes.
• To produce World Class researchers and publications

6.3 Linkages
• The Nigeria Higher Education Institutions must endeavour to link up
other stakeholders in science and technology in the innovation system so
that they could holistic participate in current global technological trends.

 
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• Public and private investments in R&D are needed to build S&T capacity,
which is the source of knowledge and know-how for innovations

7.0 OTHER AREAS OF NASENI’s INTERVENTION

The Agency, apart from its intervention in the manufacturing sector, has
intervened in several other sectors of our national economy. These include:

(A) INTERVENTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR

NASENI as an Agency has made its mark in developing and improving on


teaching facilities for human capacity development at all the three levels of the
nation’s educational system: Primary, Secondary/Technical and Tertiary
institutions.

 

This is a United Nations Education Science and Cultural Organisation


(UNESCO) supervised project funded by the Education Trust Fund (ETF). The
project is development and production of Science kits that can serve as “mobile
laboratories”, training of teachers in the use of the kits was conducted in
workshops in zones across the country. The Agency was commended for the
quality and manner the project was executed.

 

This is a Universal Basic Education (UBE) sponsored project. NASENI


designed and produced science kit for the teaching of science in Junior
Secondary Schools. It also developed activity guide based on the National
Curricular for teaching the subject, produced the user manual for the kits.

 

This project is an extension of an earlier project and entails the supply of two
(2) Mini foundries per state to Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education
and Technical Schools all over the federation. The furnaces have been built and
are currently being distributed nationwide. The project is being undertaken with
active participation/collaboration of SMEs in the private sector.

        


        


 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

The ETF accepted proposals from the Federal Polytechnic, Idah and Taraba
State Polytechnic Jalingo to transform them to Centres of Excellence by
upgrading facilities in their Foundry workshop and provided funds to each of
the institutions for this project. Subsequently NASENI was appointed as the
Consultant to oversee the upgrading of Facilities in the two institutions.

        




In order to encourage the teaching and learning of technical/vocational


education (TVE), the ETF provided funds to each State of the Federation
including FCT and some Federal/State Polytechnics and Colleges of Education.
The Fund is to enable them procure and refurbish Machines/Equipment;
Construct/refurbish workshops etc in some technical and vocational institutions.
NASENI was engaged by the ETF as consultant to visit the beneficiary
institutions with the aim of validating the execution of the projects.

      




As a consequence of the proposal submitted by NASENI to SKILL-G, the


Nigerian National Petroleum Cooperation (NNPC) awarded a contract to
SKILL ‘G’ Nigeria LTD to establish Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Centres (AMTCs) in nine (9) Tertiary institutions in the Niger Delta Area of the
country. SKILL ‘G’ Nig LTD then engaged the NASENI as a consultant/sub-
contractor on the project.

         
        


The ETF is also funding the expansion of the project on the supply of SKILL
‘G’ Micro-Science (MSK) and the National Mathematical centre (NMC)
Secondary Mathematic Kits (SMK) to some selected institutions nationwide. In
recognition of NASENI’s efforts in the development of Science kits, the Board
of Trustees (BOT) of ETF appointed the Agency as consultant to manage and
ensure effective implementation of the project. The project is still on-going.

(B) INTERVENTION IN ENERGY SECTOR

NASENI intervention in the Energy sector involves the establishment of a Solar


Panel plant at Karshi- FCT, design and production of Small Hydro Power
Turbines, the design and production of Pole Mounted Transformers, and the
design and production of Wind Turbines.

 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

 

NASENI has established a 7.5MW solar panel manufacturing plant at Karshi,


Abuja. The required facilities for this project have been imported and a
building/workshop for the operation of the plant is already in place. In addition,
there is an on-going research work at EMDI-Akure on the production of
polymer based solar cell.

NASENI has put in place physical structures for office accommodation,


production hall and stores and has purchased and installed 350KVA generating
set and also installed 5KVA Solar PV power station which powers the perimeter
fence light points at night. A borehole has been sunk with overhead tank
installed to supply water for the manufacturing processes. Some staff have been
trained on how to install the equipment. All the required equipment for the solar
panel manufacturing have been purchased, delivered and installed at the plant
site by the trained NASENI staff. Consequently, final Civil and Electrical works
are being concluded, after which the commissioning of the plant and production
of solar panels will commence.

 

In order to make Small Hydropower projects viable in Nigeria, there is a need to


minimize/optimize the investment cost through the development of local
capacity in construction techniques and equipment fabrication. The National
Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI) is currently
developing local capacity in the manufacture of SHP equipment. Ketti was
selected as a pilot site for the installation of a locally fabricated SHP turbine.
Ketti is a rural community under the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC),
Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The design and fabrication of the turbine has
been concluded. The process for installation at site for electricity generation for
the rural community has already commenced.

NASENI is also collaborating with international agencies like UNIDO and


Hangzhou Regional Centre for Small Hydropower (HRC), Hangzhou, China
and has signed Memorandum of Understanding with both agencies on capacity
building and the establishment of local manufacturing companies for different
types of turbine like Crossflow, Kaplan and Francis turbines

       


The provision of adequate and sustainable power is vital for the growth and
development of Nigeria. To this end, PEEMADI is dedicated to the design,
prototype development, construction, manufacture, testing and production of

 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

maintenance device, Pole-Mounted Transformers amongst others, to support the


electric Power Industry.

 
The project is part of NASENI’s effort at developing capacity in renewable
energy.

The fabrication of both the local blade and reverse engineering of the other
standard components are being carried out at HEDI Kano. The institute is
currently establishing a wind mill that will serve as alternative source to power
supply from the national grid, as a pilot stage of this project.

 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

(C) REVERSE ENGINEERING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN


AGRICULTURAL AND OTHER SECTORS

Reverse Engineering is the general process of analyzing an object in order to


determine how it was designed or how it operates. Reverse engineering is not
confined to any particular purpose, but is often used as a part of a company's
research and development. The process of taking something apart and revealing
the way in which it works is often an effective way to learn how to build a new
product or make improvements to an existing product. NASENI is using reverse
engineering as a process for capacity development and the production of some
equipment:

(i) Establishment Of Integrated Cassava Flour Plant


The aim of the project is to design and manufacture of an integrated flour plant,
to produce cassava and yam flour from tubers. This project was undertaken by
NASENI in collaboration with 5 Nigerian Universities:

- Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi (ATBU)


- Federal University of Technology, Minna (FUTM)
- Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO)
- Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA); and
- Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, (OAU)

The integrated system involves Trimming, Washing, Peeling, Grating, Pressing,


Pulverizing, Drying, Dry milling and Fine sieve processes. The design of the
machines and fabrication of the transport systems between the different
machines as well as the Electrical/Electronic controls, instrumentation and
automation of the whole integrated system has been concluded.

(ii) Standardization Of Drilling Rig Design And Fabrication In Nigeria


The project is carried out in collaboration with the National Water Resources
Institute (NWRI) Kaduna. It is a youth empowerment initiative. The project
involves human capacity development programmes associated with the rig
standardization and fabrication project are training of water well drillers and
training of rig fabricators. The Agency is currently carrying out a reverse
engineering of four (4) niche parts of the deep well rig: Control valve, Power
head, Hydraulic pump and the Water/Mud Swivel.

(iii) Reverse Engineering Of Motorized Power Tiller


Motorized power tiller (DF – 12 – (DF – 15) is of dual – function type that can
be used as a means of traction as well as drive. The power tiller is featured by
its simple and compact construction, good reliability, long service live, easy

 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

operation, ample output, light weight and good cross-country ability. It is very
suitable for use in paddy fields, dry fields, vegetable gardens and hilly land with
a little inclination. It can be used for ploughing, rototilling, and harrowing in
paddy fields as well as harvesting, drilling, ditching, transportation and etc. if
suitable farm implements or accessories are attached. In addition, this power
tiller can also be extensively used as a stationary power source for small scale
drainage and irrigation, spraying, grain threshing, cotton ginning, flour milling,
fodder cutting and so on. The Agency has procured a motorized power tiller.
The process of reverse engineering is on-going.

(iv) Development Of Eco-Friendly Smokeless Burning Appliances For


Arid & Rural Communities In Nigeria
Nigeria is richly endowed with large deposits of lignite and coal spread over
thirteen states, estimated at over a billion tons. Although Nigerian coals are
considered unsuitable for iron and steel making, most of the deposits have good
burning properties – high calorific value, low ash content, high mechanical
strength and low sulphur content (with the exception of Obi-Lafia deposit).
Most of the coal deposits have good potential for processing into cheap
domestic smokeless fuel. This project is planned to design a mini coal-based
smokeless fuel processing plant which can be installed and operated by
entrepreneurs in coal producing areas. The smokeless fuel can then be bagged
and exported at a cheaper rate to current consumers of wood-based charcoal in
the urban areas. The project also involves the design, fabrication and promotion
of efficient, environment-friendly stoves for the burning of coal-based
smokeless fuel and fire wood. The preliminary Engineering Design of the
Smokeless coal and wood stove is on-going. It is expected that this project
would reduce the felling of trees for fuel wood and improve the living standards
of the rural dwellers in the country.

(v) Table Top Seed Oil Expeller


The Table top Oil Expeller is used to extract oil from seeds. As part of the
Agency intervention in the Agricultural development of the Nation, the Agency
imported Table top Oil expeller that is being reversed Engineered. The Table
top Oil Expeller is used to extract oil from Groundnuts seeds. The following
activities are to be carried out:
1. Testing and reverse engineering of imported oil expeller
2. Production of drawing
3. Material selection and analysis
4. Manufacturing layout
5. Fabrication of components
6. Assembling of fabricated components
7. Testing of assembled machine

 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

(vi) 8-Mould Brick Making Machine


The machine which is hydraulically operated has 8 arms (rams), 3 manifolds
and 8 moulds. The machine uses a 20hp diesel engine to power the hydraulic
systems. The machine is turned on and the arms are raised through a lever so
that sand mix (laterite and water) can be fed into the moulds. The arms are
lowered to compact the feed for a while and then a reverse lever is depressed to
prop up the compacted bricks.

8.0 CONCLUSION
The transformation of craft to manufacturing has been possible historical as a
consequence of the infusion of technology. It becomes imperative therefore, in
order to attain sustainable development, the SETI managers need to adopt best
practice, learn how to apply scientific knowledge vigorously to developmental
issues, use ICT optimally, embrace Advanced Manufacturing Technology and
develop the relevant human capacity to meet current National demand.

All stakeholders in the development of SMEs should build effective linkages


that would drive the infusion of SETI in the production of globally competitive
goods and services for a sustainable development of the Nigerian economy.

 
2010 Science & Technology Summit

REFERENCES

1. Isoun, T.T. (2006) Building Scientific Capacity and Expanding Research
Opportunities through Regional Linkages in Africa: The Federal
Government of Nigeria Perspective

2. Adewoye, O.O. (2008) Developing a National Competitiveness Towards


2020: Science, Engineering, Technology and Innovation (SETI)
Strategy

3. Adewoye, O.O. (2009) Beyond Curiosity: Science as Panacea for Fast-


Tracked Sustainable National Development, Nigerian Academy of
Science, Quarterly Public Lecture Series

4. ICSU (2005) Harnessing Science, Technology, and Innovation for


Sustainable Development, A report from the ICSU-ISTS-TWAS
Consortium ad hoc Advisory Group, International Council for Science

5. Adewoye, O.O. (2010) Advanced Materials and Manufacturing


Technology for Sustainable Development

 