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INTRODUCTION Superplasticizers belongs to a class of water reducer chemically different from the normal water reducers and capable of reducing water content by about 30%. The Superplasticizers are broadly classified into four groups: sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensate (SMF), sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate (SNF), modified lignosulphonate (MLS) and others including sulphonic acid ester, polyacrylates, polystryrene sulphonates, etc. The benefits obtained by Superplasticizers in the reduction of water in the concrete mixes are best illustrated by the following examples. MIX DESIGN DETAILS 1 2 Grad of Concrete Cement : : M-40 Three mixes are to be designed MIX-A With PPC (Flyash based) conforming to IS:1489-part-I-1991. 7 days strength 38.5 N/mm2. Specific Gravity : 3.00 MIX-B With OPC-43- Grade conforming to IS: 8112-1989. 7 days strength 40.7 n/mm2. Specific Gravity : 3.15 MIX-C With OPC of Mix-B and Fly ash conforming to IS:3812 (Part-I)-2003 Specific Gravity : 2.25 Note: Requirements of all the three mixes are the same. Fine Aggregate, Coarse Aggregate and normal Super plasticizer are the same for all the three mixes. 30% Fly ash is required to be replaced with the total cementitious materials. 20 mm Crushed aggregate River sand of Zone-II as per IS:3831970 360 kg/m3 including Fly ash 0.40 50 mm slump

3 4 5 6 7 8

Fly ash replacement

:

Maximum nominal size of : aggregates Fine aggregate : Minimum cement content Maximum free W/C Ratio Workability : : :

9 10 11 12 13

Exposure condition : Method of placing : Degree of supervision : Maximum of cement content : (Fly ash not included) Chemical admixture :

Extreme for RCC work Site mixing Good 450 kg/m3 Super plasticizer conforming to IS:9103-1999. With the given requirements and materials, the manufacturer of Normal Super plasticizer recommends dosages of 20 gm per kg of OPC, which will reduce 28% of water without loss of workability. For fly ash included cement dosages will be required to be adjusted by experience/ trials.

TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS 1. The grading of fine aggregate, 10 and 20 mm aggregates are as given in Table. 1. Fine aggregate is of zone-II as per IS:383-1970. 10 and 20 mm crushed aggregate grading are single sized as per IS: 383-1970. 2. Properties of aggregates Tests Specific Gravity Water Absorption % Fine aggregate 2.65 0.8 10 mm aggregate 40 mm aggregate 2.65 2.65 0.5 0.5

3. Target strength for all A, B and C mixes fck = fck + 1.65 x S 40 + 1.65 x 5 = 48.3 N/mm2 at 28 days age 4. For Mix A and B free W/C ratio with crushed aggregate and required target strength of 48.3 N/mm2 at 28 days from Fig. 1 Curve D found to be 0.4 Taking into the consideration of water in admixture,let it be 0.39. This is lower than specified maximum W/C ratio value of 0.4 Note: In absence of cement strength, but cement conforming to IS Codes, assume from Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. Curve A and B ± OPC 33 Grade Curve C and D ± OPC 43 Grade Curve E and F ± OPC 53 Grade Take curves C and D for PPC, as PPC is being manufactured in minimum of 43 Grade of strength.

moisture content of site aggregates are to be determine.15 for OPC and 3. If it carries surface moisture this is to be deducted from the mixing water and if it is dry add in mixing water the quantity of water required for absorption.5.5% for 20 mm maximum size of aggregate and 2. kg/m3 Note:.8 kg/m3 for trials say 137 kg/m3 c) PPC = 137/0. percent. Um = Wight of fresh concrete kg/m3 Ga = Weighted average specific gravity of combined fine and coarse aggregate bulk. At the time of concreting. Determine actual value. The weight of aggregates are also adjusted accordingly.00 for PPC (Fly ash based) A = Air content. Therefore ignoring entrapped air value as NIL will lead the calculation of higher value of density.The exact density may be obtained by filling and fully compacting constant volume suitable metal container from the trial batches of calculated design mixes. . in absence assume 3. Wm = Mixing water required in kg/m3 Cm = Cement required. DESIGN OF MIX-A WITH PPC a) Free W/C ratio for the target strength of 48.3 N/mm2 as worked out is 0. There are always entrapped air in concrete. Then W/C = 137/360 = 0. 2/3*180 + 1/3*210 = 190 kg/m3 From trials also it is found that Normal Super plasticizer at a dosages of 21gm/kg of cement may reduce 28% water without loss of workability Then water = 190 ± (190 x 0. b) Free water for 50 mm slump from Table 2 for 20 mm maximum size of aggregate.28) = 136. Then take 360 kg/m3. 1. Other data¶s: The Mixes are to be designed on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates.39.5% for 10mm maximum size of aggregate. SSD Gc = Specific gravity of cement.39 = 351 kg/m3 This is lower than minimum requirement of 360 kg/m3.38 d) Formula for calculation of fresh concrete weight in kg/m3 Um= 10 x Ga (100 ± A) + CM(1 ± Ga/Gc) ± WM (Ga ± 1) Where. Assume entrapped air 1% for 40 mm maximum size of aggregate. The mix be altered with the actual obtained density of the mix.

W/C ratio = 0.65/3.8 to get 20 mm graded aggregate as per IS: 383-1970 10 mm aggregate = 517 kg/m3 20 mm aggregate = 775 kg/m3 g) Thus for M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of materials per cu.65 (100 ± 1.2:1.560 kg/m3 MIX.39 = 351 kg/m3 Minimum content specified = 360 kg/m3 Then take 360 kg/m3 c) Density: 10 x 2.8/3 = 782 kg/m3 e) Thus for M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of materials per cu.5) + 360 (1 ± 2.8 kg/m3 say 137 kg/m3 b) OPC = 137/0.m of concrete on the basis of SSD aggregates are given below: Water = 137 kg/m3 PPC = 360 kg/m3 . of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates: Water=137 kg/m3 PPC = 360 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate (sand) = 637 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 517 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 775 kg/m3 Normal Super Plasticizer = 7.15) ± 137 (2.65 (100 ± 1.2/3 = 521 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 1303×1.m. 50 mm slump found to be for trial 33%.33 = 637 kg/m3 Coarse aggregate = 1929 ± 637 = 1292 kg/m3 10 and 20 mm aggregate are single sized as per IS: 383-1970.B WITH OPC a) Water = 190 ± (190 x 0.65 ± 1) = 2442 kg/m3 d) Total Aggregates = 2442 ± 137 ± 360 = 1945 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate = 1945 x 0.65 -1) 2426 kg/m3 e)Aggregates = 2426 ± 360 ± 137 = 1929 kg/m3 f) Fine aggregate = From Table 3 for zone-II Fine aggregate and 20 mm maximum size of aggregate.33 = 642 kg/m3 Coarse aggregate = 1945 ± 642 = 1303 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 1303×1. Let they be combined in the ratio of 1.39. Fine aggregate = 1929 x 0.00) ± 137 (2.5) + 360(1.2.65/3.28) = 136.Um =10 x Ga (100 ± A) + Cm (1 ± Ga/Gc) ± Wm (Ga ± 1) =10 x 2.

C WITH OPC + FLYASH With the given set of materials increase in cementitious materials = 12% Total cementitious materials = 360 x 1. kg/m 775 Normal Super7.2129 = 0. µB¶ with OPC 137 ± 360 ± 642 521 782 7.Fine Aggregate (sand) = 642 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 521 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 782 kg/m3 Normal Super Plasticizer = 7. kg/m 637 3 10mm Agg.0895 0.4917 = 0.12 = 403 kg/m3 Materials OPC = 403 x 0.5% Total Aggregates = 1 ± 0.7046 1.4917 Fine Aggregate = 0.0071 0.95 Normal Super Plasticizer = 8.560 plasticizer kg/m3 W/Cementations ratio 0.m of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates of Mix µA¶.2 kg/m3 MIX. M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of material per cu.38 Mix. Addition of Flyash reduces 5% of water demand.323 .7046 ± 0.70 Flyash = 403 x 0.2129 x 2650 = 564 kg Note:1. µC¶ with OPC+Flyash 130 ± 282 121 564 521 782 8. µA¶ with PPC 3 Water kg/m 137 3 PPC kg/m 360 OPC kg/m3 ± 3 Flyash kg/m ± 3 Fine Agg.2 0.13 0.2954 0.15 2.2kg Air = 1.38 Materials Mix. µB¶ and µc¶ are given below: MIX.30 Free Water = 137 x 0. kg/m 517 3 20 mm Agg.015 0.0538 0.00 0.2/1150 Total Volume (m3) 0. Specific gravity of Normal Superplasticizer = 1.2 0.2954 Coarse Aggregate 1303/2650 Weight (kg/m3) 282/3150 121/2250 130/1000 8.

36 mm 1. 2. The W/C ratio of PPC and OPC is taken the same assuming that the strength properties of both are the same. Table. If the trial mixes does not gives the required properties of the mix. which will increase the cement content. For exact W/C ratio the water in admixture should also be taken into account. it is then required to be altered accordingly. If it is found that the PPC is giving the low strength then W/C ratio of PPC have to be reduce. PPC reduces 5% water demand. 3. For getting early strength and in cold climate the W/C ratio of PPC shall also be required to be reduced. 1: Grading of Aggregates Percentage Passing Crushed Aggregate Fine Aggregate 10 mm 20 mm ± ± 100 ± ± 100 ± 100 ± 100 85 4 99 5 0 88 0 74 43 24 6 IS Sieve Designation 40 mm 20 mm 12.18 mm 600 Micron 300 Micron 150 Micron Table. when the experiences grows with the particular set of materials and site conditions very few trials will be required.75 mm 2. However.Note:1. and a expert of such site very rarely will be required a 2nd trial. If this is found by trial then take reduce water for calculation. 4. Maximum Type size of aggregate aggregate (mm) 10 Uncrushed Crushed Uncrushed Crushed Uncrushed Crushed of Slump (mm) Degree of workability 25-75 ² vary low 150 180 140 170 120 155 « Low 205 235 180 210 160 190 50-100 « Medium 220 250 195 225 175 205 100-180 « High 240 265 210 245 190 220 20 40 .5 mm 10 mm 4. 2: Approximate free-water content (kg/m3) required to give various levels of workability for non-air-entrained (with normal entrapped air) concrete.

A 0. Wf=Free water content appropriate to type of fine Aggregate and Wc=Free water content appropriate to type of coarse aggregate.4 I 0.Note:.When coarse and fine aggregate of different types are used.3 0. Table.5 0. Table. the free water content is estimated by the expression. 4: Proportion of fine aggregate (percent) with 40 mm maximum sizes of Aggregates and with different workability. 2/3Wf+1/3Wc Where. Grading Zone W/C Ratio of F.6 40 mm aggregate Workability L M 29-35 33-39 31-38 35-42 33-41 37-44 36-43 39-47 VL 27-33 29-35 31-38 33-41 H 38-46 41-49 43-52 45-54 . 3: Proportion of fine aggregate (percent) with 10mm and 20mm maximum sizes of aggregates and with different workability.

7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.4 0. L = Low workability ± slump 25-75 mm M = medium workability ± slump 50-100 mm H = High workability.II III IV 0.3 0.5 0.7 36-44 22-27 24-29 25-31 27-33 29-36 18-22 20-24 21-25 23-27 24-29 16-18 17-20 18-21 20-23 21-24 38-46 23-29 25-31 27-33 29-36 31-38 20-23 21-25 23-27 24-29 26-31 18-20 19-21 20-23 22-24 23-26 42-50 27-33 28-35 30-37 32-39 34-42 22-27 24-28 25-30 27-32 29-34 19-22 20-24 22-25 23-27 25-29 47-57 31-28 32-41 34-43 36-45 38-47 26-31 27-32 29-34 30-36 32-36 22-26 24-27 25-29 26-30 28-32 VL = Very low workability.4 0.4 0.slump 100-180 mm .3 0.5 0.7 0.

Figures From Experimental Data Click on the picture to zoom it. .

cement mortar and concrete (second revision) BIS. New Delhi 2 IS: 456-2000-Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth revision). BIS. BIS. New Delhi 4 IS: 8112-1989 Specifications for 43 Grade ordinary portland cement (first revision) BIS. New Delhi 7 IS: 1489-Part-I 1991 Specifications for portland pozzolana cement (Part-I) Flyash based.REFERENCES 1 IS : 383-1970 Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete (second revision) BIS. absorption and bulking. (Third revision). ³Design of Concrete Mixes with High-Strength Ordinary Portland Cement´. 1986. BIS. PP. New Delhi 8 Kishore Kaushal. 1978. New Delhi 5 IS: 2386 (Part-III) 1963 method of test for aggregate for concrete. The Indian Concrete Journal. April. 103-104 9 Kishore Kaushal. Specific gravity. New Delhi 6 IS: 3812 (Part-I) 2003 Specification for pulverized fuel ash: Part-I for use as pozzolana in cement. University of Roorkee. . density. ³Concrete Mix Design´. voids. New Delhi 3 IS: 9103-1999 Specification for admixtures for concrete (first revision) BIS. Civil Engineering Department. A manual published for Structural Engineering Studies.

etc. pp. March. 1996. pp. pp. 19. pp. 16 Kishore Kaushal. pp. April-June. Mumbai. January. Ltd. Journal of the National Building Organization. Indian Architect and Builder. 14 Kishore Kaushal. 5456 18 Kishore Kaushal. pp. 16-17 20 Kishore Kaushal. 27-40 and ICI Bulletin December.10 Kishore Kaushal. Proceeding of 13th Conference on our World in Concrete and Structures. Bulletin of Indian Concrete Institute No. 1995. Proceeding Volume pp. pp. 2006. pp. 15 Kishore Kaushal. pp. April. The Indian Concrete Journal. 21-31. 21 Kishore Kaushal. ³High-Strength Concrete´. Vol. 213-260. 1992. ³Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash & Superplasticizer´. ³Concrete Mix Design´. 11 Kishore Kaushal. Materials Engineer. 59. 1-12. November. August. 1988. 25-30. polyacrylates. 57-61. 24 Kishore Kaushal. modified lignosulphonate (MLS) and others including sulphonic acid ester. ICI Bulletin No. CE & CR October. Journal of Central Board of Irrigation and Power. Singapore. ³ Mix Design for Pumped Concrete´. Mix Design With Superplasticizers INTRODUCTION Superplasticizers belongs to a class of water reducer chemically different from the normal water reducers and capable of reducing water content by about 30%. 1996. Vol. 1991. Civil Engineering and Construction Review. 1988. Hyderabad. pp.. 1988. 1988. ³Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash´. The benefits . The Superplasticizers are broadly classified into four groups: sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensate (SMF). Kaushal Kishore. 11. 93-97. Indian Concrete Institute Bulletin No. pp. organized by Builders Association of India. July-September. 1991. pp. April. ³Concrete Mix Design for Road Bridges´. ³Concrete Mix Design´. 81-92 19 Kishore Kaushal. 25-26. ³Concrete Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength for Air-Entrained Concrete´. 1990. ³Concrete Mix Design Simplified´. No. ³Method of Concrete Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength´. A Manual Published by M/S Roffe Construction Chemicals Pvt. 1995. Roorkee for submitting this very useful research to us so that other civil engineering students can take guidance from it. ³Concrete Mix Design Containing Chemical Admixtures´. INDIAN HIGHWAYS. Proceeding of the International Conference on Road and Road Transport Problems ICORT. 44-50. January. 12-15 December. 1995. 29-31 22 Kishore Kaushal. Indian Concrete Institute Bulletin September. sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate (SNF). 31-37 17 Kishore Kaushal. pp. 23 Kishore Kaushal. ³Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength of Air-Entrained Concrete´. ³Concrete Mix Design´. February. New Delhi. 29-30 26 Kishore Kaushal. 56. Indian Construction. pp. ³High-Strength Concrete´. 49. ³A Concrete Design´. 19-23. August. 296-305.2. 13 Kishore Kaushal. 1-36 25 Kishore Kaushal. 1989. 51. No. polystryrene sulphonates. New Building Materials & Construction. April-June 1997. January. We are thankful to Er. 12 Kishore Kaushal. VIII All India Builders Convention 29-31. ³Mix Design of Polymer-Modified Mortars and Concrete´. ³Mix Design for Pumped Concrete´. 1989. pp. pp.

Specific Gravity : 3.7 n/mm2. 20 mm Crushed aggregate River sand of Zone-II as per IS:3831970 360 kg/m3 including Fly ash 0.obtained by Superplasticizers in the reduction of water in the concrete mixes are best illustrated by the following examples. the 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Fly ash replacement : Maximum nominal size of : aggregates Fine aggregate : Minimum cement content : Maximum free W/C Ratio : Workability : Exposure condition : Method of placing : Degree of supervision : Maximum of cement content : (Fly ash not included) Chemical admixture : .25 Note: Requirements of all the three mixes are the same.5 N/mm2. Fine Aggregate. Specific Gravity : 3.Grade conforming to IS: 8112-1989. 7 days strength 40.40 50 mm slump Extreme for RCC work Site mixing Good 450 kg/m3 Super plasticizer conforming to IS:9103-1999.15 MIX-C With OPC of Mix-B and Fly ash conforming to IS:3812 (Part-I)-2003 Specific Gravity : 2.00 MIX-B With OPC-43. 7 days strength 38. 30% Fly ash is required to be replaced with the total cementitious materials. MIX DESIGN DETAILS 1 2 Grad of Concrete Cement : : M-40 Three mixes are to be designed MIX-A With PPC (Flyash based) conforming to IS:1489-part-I-1991. Coarse Aggregate and normal Super plasticizer are the same for all the three mixes. With the given requirements and materials.

as PPC is being manufactured in minimum of 43 Grade of strength. which will reduce 28% of water without loss of workability.65 0. For Mix A and B free W/C ratio with crushed aggregate and required target strength of 48. .3 N/mm2 at 28 days age 4. 10 and 20 mm aggregates are as given in Table.65 x S 40 + 1.3 N/mm2 at 28 days from Fig. assume from Fig. The grading of fine aggregate. 10 and 20 mm crushed aggregate grading are single sized as per IS: 383-1970.5 3.3 N/mm2 as worked out is 0. 1 Curve D found to be 0. Curve A and B ± OPC 33 Grade Curve C and D ± OPC 43 Grade Curve E and F ± OPC 53 Grade Take curves C and D for PPC. but cement conforming to IS Codes. TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS 1.4 Taking into the consideration of water in admixture. Target strength for all A.39. 2. This is lower than specified maximum W/C ratio value of 0. 1. 5. DESIGN OF MIX-A WITH PPC a) Free W/C ratio for the target strength of 48.65 2. B and C mixes fck = fck + 1. At the time of concreting. 2.5 0.65 x 5 = 48. Fine aggregate is of zone-II as per IS:383-1970. moisture content of site aggregates are to be determine. The weight of aggregates are also adjusted accordingly. Other data¶s: The Mixes are to be designed on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates.let it be 0. 1 and Fig.manufacturer of Normal Super plasticizer recommends dosages of 20 gm per kg of OPC.4 Note: In absence of cement strength.65 0. If it carries surface moisture this is to be deducted from the mixing water and if it is dry add in mixing water the quantity of water required for absorption. For fly ash included cement dosages will be required to be adjusted by experience/ trials.39. Properties of aggregates Tests Specific Gravity Water Absorption % Fine aggregate 2.8 10 mm aggregate 40 mm aggregate 2.

There are always entrapped air in concrete.38 d) Formula for calculation of fresh concrete weight in kg/m3 Um= 10 x Ga (100 ± A) + CM(1 ± Ga/Gc) ± WM (Ga ± 1) Where. percent.33 = 637 kg/m3 Coarse aggregate = 1929 ± 637 = 1292 kg/m3 . kg/m3 Note:.8 kg/m3 for trials say 137 kg/m3 c) PPC = 137/0. Fine aggregate = 1929 x 0.5) + 360(1.2. Um =10 x Ga (100 ± A) + Cm (1 ± Ga/Gc) ± Wm (Ga ± 1) =10 x 2. SSD Gc = Specific gravity of cement. 2/3*180 + 1/3*210 = 190 kg/m3 From trials also it is found that Normal Super plasticizer at a dosages of 21gm/kg of cement may reduce 28% water without loss of workability Then water = 190 ± (190 x 0. Then take 360 kg/m3.5% for 10mm maximum size of aggregate.The exact density may be obtained by filling and fully compacting constant volume suitable metal container from the trial batches of calculated design mixes.39.b) Free water for 50 mm slump from Table 2 for 20 mm maximum size of aggregate. Determine actual value.65 -1) 2426 kg/m3 e)Aggregates = 2426 ± 360 ± 137 = 1929 kg/m3 f) Fine aggregate = From Table 3 for zone-II Fine aggregate and 20 mm maximum size of aggregate. The mix be altered with the actual obtained density of the mix.28) = 136.65 (100 ± 1.00) ± 137 (2.00 for PPC (Fly ash based) A = Air content.65/3. W/C ratio = 0.15 for OPC and 3. in absence assume 3. Um = Wight of fresh concrete kg/m3 Ga = Weighted average specific gravity of combined fine and coarse aggregate bulk.39 = 351 kg/m3 This is lower than minimum requirement of 360 kg/m3. 50 mm slump found to be for trial 33%. Wm = Mixing water required in kg/m3 Cm = Cement required. 1. Therefore ignoring entrapped air value as NIL will lead the calculation of higher value of density. Assume entrapped air 1% for 40 mm maximum size of aggregate. Then W/C = 137/360 = 0.5% for 20 mm maximum size of aggregate and 2.

10 and 20 mm aggregate are single sized as per IS: 383-1970.15) ± 137 (2.m of concrete on the basis of SSD aggregates are given below: Water = 137 kg/m3 PPC = 360 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate (sand) = 642 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 521 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 782 kg/m3 Normal Super Plasticizer = 7.2 kg/m3 MIX.560 kg/m3 MIX. C WITH OPC + FLYASH With the given set of materials increase in cementitious materials = 12% Total cementitious materials = 360 x 1.65 (100 ± 1.39 = 351 kg/m3 Minimum content specified = 360 kg/m3 Then take 360 kg/m3 c) Density: 10 x 2. of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates: Water=137 kg/m3 PPC = 360 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate (sand) = 637 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 517 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 775 kg/m3 Normal Super Plasticizer = 7.8 to get 20 mm graded aggregate as per IS: 383-1970 10 mm aggregate = 517 kg/m3 20 mm aggregate = 775 kg/m3 g) Thus for M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of materials per cu.m. Let they be combined in the ratio of 1.28) = 136.8 kg/m3 say 137 kg/m3 b) OPC = 137/0.5) + 360 (1 ± 2.65/3.12 = 403 kg/m3 Materials OPC = 403 x 0.65 ± 1) = 2442 kg/m3 d) Total Aggregates = 2442 ± 137 ± 360 = 1945 kg/m3 Fine Aggregate = 1945 x 0.2:1.2/3 = 521 kg/m3 20 mm Aggregate = 1303×1.8/3 = 782 kg/m3 e) Thus for M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of materials per cu.70 Weight (kg/m3) 282/3150 Volume (m3) 0.33 = 642 kg/m3 Coarse aggregate = 1945 ± 642 = 1303 kg/m3 10 mm Aggregate = 1303×1.B WITH OPC a) Water = 190 ± (190 x 0.0895 .

For getting early strength and in cold climate the W/C ratio of PPC shall also be required to be reduced.2 0. when the experiences grows with the particular set of materials and site conditions very few trials will be required.00 0.95 Normal Super Plasticizer = 8. Specific gravity of Normal Superplasticizer = 1. Addition of Flyash reduces 5% of water demand.015 0.2129 x 2650 = 564 kg Note:1.Flyash = 403 x 0. M-40 Grade of concrete quantity of material per cu. kg/m 637 3 10mm Agg. For exact W/C ratio the water in admixture should also be taken into account. The W/C ratio of PPC and OPC is taken the same assuming that the strength properties of both are the same.0538 0.2129 = 0. Table.560 plasticizer kg/m3 W/Cementations ratio 0.2kg Air = 1.4917 Fine Aggregate = 0.5% Total Aggregates = 1 ± 0. µC¶ with OPC+Flyash 130 ± 282 121 564 521 782 8.7046 ± 0. If the trial mixes does not gives the required properties of the mix. 1: Grading of Aggregates . 2. 4.38 Materials Mix.13 0. it is then required to be altered accordingly. 3.38 Mix.2 0.m of concrete on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates of Mix µA¶. If this is found by trial then take reduce water for calculation.4917 = 0. µB¶ with OPC 137 ± 360 ± 642 521 782 7.30 Free Water = 137 x 0. µB¶ and µc¶ are given below: MIX. If it is found that the PPC is giving the low strength then W/C ratio of PPC have to be reduce. kg/m 775 Normal Super7.2954 Coarse Aggregate 121/2250 130/1000 8. However.323 Note:1.7046 1. µA¶ with PPC 3 Water kg/m 137 3 PPC kg/m 360 3 OPC kg/m ± Flyash kg/m3 ± 3 Fine Agg.2954 0.2/1150 Total 1303/2650 0. PPC reduces 5% water demand. and a expert of such site very rarely will be required a 2nd trial. kg/m 517 3 20 mm Agg.0071 0.15 2. which will increase the cement content.

the free water content is estimated by the expression. 3: Proportion of fine aggregate (percent) with 10mm and 20mm maximum sizes of aggregates and with different workability.When coarse and fine aggregate of different types are used. Wf=Free water content appropriate to type of fine Aggregate and Wc=Free water content appropriate to type of coarse aggregate. .5 mm 10 mm 4. Table.75 mm 2.36 mm 1. 2: Approximate free-water content (kg/m3) required to give various levels of workability for non-air-entrained (with normal entrapped air) concrete. 2/3Wf+1/3Wc Where.18 mm 600 Micron 300 Micron 150 Micron Percentage Passing Crushed Aggregate Fine Aggregate 10 mm 20 mm ± ± 100 ± ± 100 ± 100 ± 100 85 4 99 5 0 88 0 74 43 24 6 Table. Maximum Type size of aggregate aggregate (mm) 10 Uncrushed Crushed Uncrushed Crushed Uncrushed Crushed of Slump (mm) Degree of workability 25-75 ² vary low 150 180 140 170 120 155 « Low 205 235 180 210 160 190 50-100 « Medium 220 250 195 225 175 205 100-180 « High 240 265 210 245 190 220 20 40 Note:.IS Sieve Designation 40 mm 20 mm 12.

3 0.Table.7 0. 4: Proportion of fine aggregate (percent) with 40 mm maximum sizes of Aggregates and with different workability.3 III 0.5 0.3 0. Grading Zone W/C Ratio of F.4 I 0.6 0.A 0.6 0.4 II 0.7 0.4 40 mm aggregate Workability L M 29-35 33-39 31-38 35-42 33-41 37-44 36-43 39-47 38-46 42-50 23-29 27-33 25-31 28-35 27-33 30-37 29-36 32-39 31-38 34-42 20-23 22-27 21-25 24-28 VL 27-33 29-35 31-38 33-41 36-44 22-27 24-29 25-31 27-33 29-36 18-22 20-24 H 38-46 41-49 43-52 45-54 47-57 31-28 32-41 34-43 36-45 38-47 26-31 27-32 .5 0.

.7 21-25 23-27 24-29 16-18 17-20 18-21 20-23 21-24 23-27 24-29 26-31 18-20 19-21 20-23 22-24 23-26 25-30 27-32 29-34 19-22 20-24 22-25 23-27 25-29 29-34 30-36 32-36 22-26 24-27 25-29 26-30 28-32 VL = Very low workability.6 0.7 0.IV 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.6 0. L = Low workability ± slump 25-75 mm M = medium workability ± slump 50-100 mm H = High workability.slump 100-180 mm Figures From Experimental Data Click on the picture to zoom it.

New Delhi 3 IS: 9103-1999 Specification for admixtures for concrete (first revision) BIS. Specific gravity. 1986.REFERENCES 1 IS : 383-1970 Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete (second revision) BIS. New Delhi 5 IS: 2386 (Part-III) 1963 method of test for aggregate for concrete. BIS. 103-104 9 Kishore Kaushal. . New Delhi 7 IS: 1489-Part-I 1991 Specifications for portland pozzolana cement (Part-I) Flyash based. ³Design of Concrete Mixes with High-Strength Ordinary Portland Cement´. (Third revision). New Delhi 8 Kishore Kaushal. ³Concrete Mix Design´. A manual published for Structural Engineering Studies. April. University of Roorkee. PP. New Delhi 6 IS: 3812 (Part-I) 2003 Specification for pulverized fuel ash: Part-I for use as pozzolana in cement. New Delhi 4 IS: 8112-1989 Specifications for 43 Grade ordinary portland cement (first revision) BIS. The Indian Concrete Journal. New Delhi 2 IS: 456-2000-Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth revision). Civil Engineering Department. BIS. absorption and bulking. BIS. voids. 1978. density. cement mortar and concrete (second revision) BIS.

January. 12 Kishore Kaushal. 1-36 25 Kishore Kaushal.. March. April-June 1997. ³Concrete Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength for Air-Entrained Concrete´. 12-15 December. 11 Kishore Kaushal. 13 Kishore Kaushal. pp.2. Proceeding Volume pp. 1988.10 Kishore Kaushal. Roorkee for submitting this very useful research to us so that other civil engineering students can take guidance from it. 21-31. April-June. ³Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength of Air-Entrained Concrete´. Materials Engineer. 5456 18 Kishore Kaushal. 213-260. pp. April. ³Mix Design of Polymer-Modified Mortars and Concrete´. Kaushal Kishore. pp. ³A Concrete Design´. Indian Construction. 1-12. pp. New Delhi. 14 Kishore Kaushal. 1995. 27-40 and ICI Bulletin December. 81-92 19 Kishore Kaushal. 56. Proceeding of 13th Conference on our World in Concrete and Structures. ³High-Strength Concrete´. pp. 1995. Indian Concrete Institute Bulletin September. 1995. Indian Concrete Institute Bulletin No. 19. No. ³Method of Concrete Mix Design Based on Flexural Strength´. ³Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash´. 31-37 17 Kishore Kaushal. pp. ³Concrete Mix Design´. 1988. 1996. 59. February. pp. Mumbai. pp. August. ³Mix Design for Pumped Concrete´. pp. Vol. No. VIII All India Builders Convention 29-31. pp. ³Concrete Mix Design´. pp. ³Concrete Mix Design Simplified´. Proceeding of the International Conference on Road and Road Transport Problems ICORT. ³Concrete Mix Design Containing Chemical Admixtures´. 44-50. 15 Kishore Kaushal. 16-17 20 Kishore Kaushal. 93-97. We are thankful to Er. pp. 29-30 26 Kishore Kaushal. 49. 29-31 22 Kishore Kaushal. organized by Builders Association of India. A Manual Published by M/S Roffe Construction Chemicals Pvt. January. 21 Kishore Kaushal. 1988. 19-23. July-September. CE & CR October. April. 1991. pp. 1992. pp. 16 Kishore Kaushal. 57-61. ICI Bulletin No. ³Concrete Mix Design´. 11. 1988. 1989. 24 Kishore Kaushal. ³Concrete Mix Design with Fly Ash & Superplasticizer´. 1991. November. New Building Materials & Construction. pp. January. Bulletin of Indian Concrete Institute No. Ltd. Journal of the National Building Organization. 51. Vol. Civil Engineering and Construction Review. 23 Kishore Kaushal. 1996. ³High-Strength Concrete´. 1989. Singapore. 296-305. Hyderabad. INDIAN HIGHWAYS. ³ Mix Design for Pumped Concrete´. ³Concrete Mix Design for Road Bridges´. 1990. The Indian Concrete Journal. Indian Architect and Builder. . August. pp. 2006. Journal of Central Board of Irrigation and Power. 25-26. 25-30.

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