Artificial Intelligence

Submitted to: Sir Ameen A.K Wazir Submitted by: Sheikh Adnan Ahmed Usmani Roll # 36 B.S (4th Year)

Sheikh Zayed Islamic Center University of Karachi

Create and justify your own definition of Artificial Intelligence?

“Man used his intelligence and tries to transfer his knowledge to the computer for this purpose he used different ways by using his intelligence and made machine able to response as human intelligence “

“The branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like human. The term was coined in 1956 by John MC Carthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.”

It includes:
Game Playing: Programming computer to play games as a chess and checkers Expert System: Programming computers to make decisions in real life situations (For e.g. some expert system help (Doctors diagnose disease based on symptoms) Natural Language: Language. Programming computer to understand Natural Human

Neutral Network: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the type of physical connection that occur in animal brain. Robotics: sensory stimuli. Programming computers to see and hear and react to

Let me say "A time will come when A.I Researchers will be able to provide so much intelligence to machine that it will behave exactly same as human being and will be consider his true copy." Perform some reasoning based on you know about "A.I" and also provide some reasoning in the light of Quran and Sunnah. To verify and to falsify statement. AI is making computer smarter and more powerful, the dream of building the machine that can fully duplicate the human brain will probably not be realized in our life time. Despite major advances in all areas of computer science many questions whether we will ever be able to create a computer that will accurately immolate the function of a human mind. Dreyfus and Dreyfus in 1988 facts that the public is being misled about AI. Its use fullness is over blown and is goals are impossible. They say we will be never be able to establish rules for all the ways we think the human mind is just to complex to duplicate. After all, a computer is one processing unit CPU while the human being has over 100 billion processing elements.

The human brain with its mind and capability of reasoning places man will above the rest of his creatures Surah Al Baqarah clearly describes the conversation b/w ALLAH and his angels, at the time of man's creation. "And remember when your Lord said to the angels: Verily I am going to place mankind generation after generation on earth". They said: “Will you place there in those who will make mischief there in and shed blood, while we glorify you with praises and thanks and sanctify you” He said: “He knows that you do not know and He taught Adam all the names of everything, then he showed them to the angles and said: “Tell me the names of these if you are truthful.” They said: “Glory is to you we have no knowledge except what you have taught us verily it is you the All Knower the All Wise.”

counting. He said: Did I not tell you that I know the ghaib in the heavens and the earth and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing” (2:30-33) Adam’s ability to learn and understand and remember positions him as a superior being although animals can also learn think and feel but humans can understand and learn from the past and reason himself. . taking decisions and last but not the least dealing with emotions an feeling. not even by the latest technology computers etc until now or later even the computer may work fastly but the brain is much more insight and prudent.He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names. planning. The brains ability to process information is unsurpassed by any other machines. since the dynamic feature of human brain is mind or aql. listening. The brain unsurprisingly can perform multiple complex tasks at a time like thinking memorizing. speaking. Therefore it is almost impossible to build such a machine that works exactly same as human brains in the later centuries.

Even under these conditions on expert has to come out with some acceptable solutions of his problems and how he can avoid it in future the Aalim then asks hum about the conditions of the problems. knowledge Engineer cans all those information regarding the Quran Sunnah and fish and also they develop a logical reasoning to give the solution of the problem. An evidence represented but E C U may be considered to the certain if m (E) =1 we know define a function called belief function. The Dempster Shafer theory is able to overcome the problems associated with uncertainty. Let us now define a function m: P (U) [0. 1] as .3 Explain how an expertly system can assists religion scholars? Mention some of the difficulties than system may face while performing its task to solve such type of problems that consists uncertainties and vagueness and explain how it can overcome the difficulties using the “Dempster Shafer Theory of Evidence” and fuzzy logic? Undoubtly an expert system is the best field of A. The Aalim then asks him about the conditions of the problems. Let U be the Universal set and A its subset.I that is used to assists religious scholars. A. The Aalim then asks him about the conditions of the problems. In most of the real world problems it is observed that the available knowledge is either incomplete or inexact or vague. They knowledge engineer must make sure that the computer has all the knowledge needed to solve a problem related to particular domain problem. belief p (U) [0. It treats like a Faqih.QUESTION NO. The Aalim however may not get the solution under every condition. m=basic probability assignment ranges with 0-1.I knowledge engineers can make that type of Expert System which solves all the problems related to Islamic Fiqh. 1] which satisfies the following conditions Here.

For example in the statement “Ali is muttaqi where the word muttaqi is fuzzy end is truth value exactly 0 or 1.Since the sum of all values m (B) is 1. therefore the belief function lies b/w (0. 1]. . Fuzzy logic was developed to deal with such situation where information may be somewhat vague. 1). In can expert system facts relation judgment opinions contained within the expert knowledge usually manifest various degrees of impression and uncertainty. Here the truth value can assume any values in the interval [0.

Some A. All are placed in isolated locations. The Turing test does not directly test whether the computer behaves intelligently it tests only whether the computer behaves like a human being since human behavior and intelligence behavior exactly the same thing. It proceeds as follows a human judge engages in the natural language conversation with one human and one machine each of which tries to appear human. SOME HUMAN BEHAVIOR IS UNINTELLIGENT The test requires that the machine be able to execute all human behavior whether they are intelligent or not. SOME INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR IS IN HUMAN The Turing test does not test for highly intelligent behavior. It should be limited to a text only channel to test the machines intelligence. If a machine cannot imitate behavior in detail it fails the test. If the judge can’t reliably tell the computer machine from the machine.4 Criticize for computer software being intelligence TURING TEST The turing test is a test of machines ability to demonstrate intelligence. It even tests for behavior that we may not consider intelligent at all.I researchers questioned about the usefulness of the test. WEAKNESS OF THE TEST The Turing test is based on the assumptions that human beings can judge a machines intelligence y comparing only behavior and the value of comparing against the human b/c of these and others. the machine. the test to accurately measure intelligent behavior in two ways. the machine is said to have passed the test.QUESTION NO. . If it were to solve a computational problem that is impossible for any human to solve then the interrogator would know the problem is not human and the machine would fail the test.

It is defined as “The knowledge about solving specific problems is called the domain knowledge.” EXAMPLE A medical expert system designed to diagnose infection disease will have a great deal of knowledge about certain symptoms caused by infection diseases.5 What is mean by domain knowledge? DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE: It means the content of a particular field of knowledge. . In this case the knowledge domain is medicine and consists of knowledge about disease symptoms and treatment.QUESTION NO.

These are known as processes. semantic network.QUESTION NO. scripts table. Once knowledge it needs to be organized. constraints etc. . line. mathematical logic. frames. Second the premises are used by the logical process to create the outputs which contains the conclusion called Inference. With this process fails that are known to be true are used to drive new facts which also must be true. These include the production rules inclusion hierarchies. REPRESENTATION IN LOGIC The general form of any logic process is Input Premises inference Or Facts conclusion • logical process output or • First information is given statement are made or observations are noted. choose and apply one if the scheme check the validity of an argument present in the following paragraph? KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTS SCHEMES: Knowledge is a collection of related facts procedures.6 What are the common schemes used to represent knowledge? Describe each. It can be organized in one or more schemes or configuration. A variety of knowledge representation scheme has been developed over the years. and hevrssties that are used in problem solving or inference system. These form the input to the logical process. The two basic forms of computational logic are predicate logic and propositional logic. trees. models.

Explicitly time and again involves in a relation. It is the basis for the AI language called PROLOG.e. It is not only efficient in terms of saving space but also searching time is very fast. PREDICATE LOGIC Propositional logic is not very useful in A. In propositional logic we use symbols like letters of alphabets to represent various propositions can be combined using logical connections by using symbols for various propositions and relating them with connectives a complete set of premises with resulting conclusions can be expressed.I. . The arguments are the object about which the assertion is made and predicate is the assertion made about them. In predicate calculus a proposition is divided into two parts.I uses predicate logic. efficient in the sense that each object can be represented once and pointers can be used for cross references rather than naming an object.PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC A proposition is a statement that is true or false. A. SEMANTIC NETWORK It is a knowledge representation method is based on a network structure composed of notes and links that show hierarchies’ relationship b/w objects i. quiet. the argument and the predicate. It is more sophisticated form of logic that uses all same concepts and rules but in amore finer detail.

d. and ACF. • DF search works better than BF search. If you reach a terminal node then you backup one level go right and then go left until you encounter either the goal or a terminal node. This process continues until you find a goal.QUESTION NO. The most important and common ones are as follows a. it always prefers to choose the deepest one and the deepest node is one which is farthest from the start node EXAMPLE: To understand exactly the search worked. Depth first search will traverse this graph in the order to AB. DB. . Give an example of a problem for which you find? • B. Consider the tree in which F is the goal.7 Describe and discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of some of the various search techniques. DEPTH FIRST SEARCH In depth first search whenever a choice is given to search from several nodes. There are several techniques for searching for a possible situation. Depth First Search Breadth First Search Hill Climbing Least Cost Search 1. In this you go left until you reach either a terminal mode or the goal. c. EB. b.F Search works better thean DF search.

This type of search method is called hill climbing. poor in cases in which you have to explore a particularly long branch only to find that is no solution at its end.A depth first search is certain to find the goal b/c as a worst case it generates into an exhausted search. HILL CLIMBING SEARCH A search algorithm that attempts to find as a first solution one that minimize the number of connection will use the heuristics that state the longer distance covered. The greater the like hood that you will be places closer to the destination thereby reducing the number of connection in AI. Here C is the goal. this search also generates finding a solution if exists b/c it will eventually degenerates into an exhausted search. This situation cause a time waste and leads to breadth first searching 2. it visits the node ABC. It performs well by finding a solution without back tracking but the disadvantage of the breath first search is seen when you try to find a goal that is located several layers deep. BREATH FIRST SEARCH Breath first search generate all nodes at particular level I before it explores the nodes of next level (i+1)th level. EVALUATION The depth first search found a fairly good solution on its first try without any back tracking which is good. It can be quiet. Here it expands substantial effort to find it. 3. However to arrive at the optimal solution it would have to traverse nearly all the nodes which is not good. EVALUATION . EVALUATION It is easy to find solution at the shortest level.

In this case the hill climbing is no better than depth first search. PLATEUS: in which the next step look equally good or bad. Apply the least cost search to the flight scheduling problem implies that the program will take the shortest connectivity flight in all cases so that the route found will have a good chance of having the shortest distance unlike the hill climbing search which minimized the no of connection least count search minimized no of miles traveled. 4.This is fairly good b/c it tends to reduce the number of nodes that needs to be visited before it reaches the solution however it can suffer three possible maladies. EVALUATION The least cost search has the same advantages and disadvantages as the hill climbing search except in the reverse order. There can be false valley lowlands or gorges but overall the least cost search tends to work fairly well. We can only say that on the average it will out perform a blind search EXAMPLE: When we find breadth first better then depth first or vice versa: In the same example given above to reach from New York to LOS ANGLES. FALSE HILL: here the search back tracks extensively to find the solution. RIDGES: hill climbing is not effective in this case b/c the ridges are to be crossed several times during back tracking. THE LEAST COST SEARCH The opposite of the hill climbing is the least cost search. We will find a different result from different search techniques when we check the result a/c to shortest distance BREDTH FIRST is best it covers the shortest .

It is highly complexes process. . This knowledge may be obtained from several sources E. concept. report.distance of 2600 miles while in order to touch minimize number of node DP| EPTH FIRST is the best b/c it touches only three nodes. textbook. strategies and rules to thumb that a human expert normally follows KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION The knowledge acquired may consist of facts. Knowledge engineer acquires knowledge from the human expert and builds this knowledge into the expert system it may consist of procedures. however the knowledge gathered directly from the human expert may be more close to reality. QUESTION NO.8 What is knowledge engineering? Discuss knowledge acquisition with suitable example? KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING: The process of building an expert system is often called knowledge engineering. procedures.g. formulas or any other important and useful information’s. This is b/c a human expert not only possesses technical knowledge in a particular problem but also has knowledge about how to effectively and efficiently use this technical knowledge for problem solving. rules. the human expert database etc. case studies.

QUESTION NO. Therefore determine texture requires two or more image from different viewpoints in relative to the light source of the objects. In a real world situation it requires more than simply comparing the relative brightness of object. . A program that analyses the image can be used the relative brightness of the surface to determine whether computer is viewing a mountain or a valley. the computer can distinguish b/w the textures by composing the change of the brightness. Due to brightness of each object computer can easily determine whether this surface is smooth or rough. ball. However this is a complex task and becomes over whitening with complex ones. DETRMINING SURFACE TEXTURE: A human being can easily distinguish b/w different things such as glass. the relative brightness of a rough surface is less then smooth surface. iron etc due to surface texture. how computer would determine whether it is a mountain or a valley? To interpret an image of the mountain the computer must know the direction of a surface by studying the way that it reflects light. This again due to the way light reflects on the thing smooth surface scatters light hence. this because that can object is also affected by its colors and the reflective qualities of the object. Therefore.9 One of the difficulties of vision is that a three dimensional array when digitized as an image what are some ways in which the depth information in the scene can be inferred? Discuss in detail the common recognition patterns in vision and pattern recognition? DETECTING SURFACE DIRECTION: If a satellite takes a picture of a mountain.

For example. 2. this is a tracking process in all but highly controlled environments. That has a vertex what is obscured by another object (or perhaps that is out of the cameras field of view) how does the computer know that it is still seeing a triangle when though the third vertex is missing. The trouble is not that the computer cannot tell that one object is in front of another generally shadows and differences in shading supply sufficient clues. Somewhere in the region that is obscured. The real difficulty is programming the computer to recognize partial objects for what they are. In this method the computer guided by the initial information postulates that is seeing a triangle and tries to verify this by some means such as b y computing that the two lines will intersect. It is far easier to make the computer recognize a specific objects than it is to make recognize objects in a certain classification. you still have the problem of correctly indentifying objects or features that make up the image.As of this writing it is not clear how this . There are many approaches to this problem but perhaps the most interesting solution band the one closed to the way that the human eye does it is called controlled hallucination.COMMON RECOGNITION PROBLEM Assuming that you can solve all problems correctly interpreting an image by using either a two dimensional or three dimensional systems.Over Lapping Object One of the toughest problems that you will encounter when trying to create a vision system is the recognition of overlapping objects.Recognition Of Object By Classification Another difficult problem is programming the computer to recognize classes of objects that a tree is a tree or that a house is a house. The problem o\is probably the harder one to solve as the next discussions will show 1. if you instruct the computer that a triangle has three sides and three vertices and if the computer sees a triangle. The reason for this is that you can give specific objects a strict asset of limityations to which they must confirm but you must keep a class definition quite general and loose to cover all slight variances. As you can guess.

problem will be solved for general cases. However a computer would not make the mistake. For example A and B in given figure are exactly the same length but A appears to be longer. Letr as the chapter develops some program that perform pattern recognition you will see that the computer can determine simple geometric shapes based upon a class definition but that the techniques that can be applied to these types of objects donot translates the highly complex objects. 3. .Optical illusions: The overview of image processing is complex without a brief creatrion of optical illusions an dtheir effect on computerized trhe system currently many optical illusions that fool human has effect a computer analysis of same image.

The larger child runs quickly to the window . for most of the examples in this chapter assume that all sentences are declarative and not interrogative and that they generally follow the standard from. Finally it should assume that all sentences must end with a period. • • • The child runs to the house. A Natural Language processor does not care how a sentence is input into the computer. it is tempting to try to restrict the type of sentence that the processor will understand to subset of the natural language.QUESTION NO. verb.However the processor in this chapter will decide that sentence such as. Therefore. Therefore. If this were not done the code to each example would be far too long. the following sentence is valid. While all adverb follow the verb that they modify. RESTRICTING LANGUAGE:One of the most difficult aspects of constructing an NLP driven system is the complexity and flexibility of human language when you implement a natural language processor. usually abbreviated NLP tries to make the computer capable of understanding commands written in standard human language. Subject. In any case it is necessary to restrict the grammar that the processor in this chapter can accept. . The child quickly runs to the house are invalid because the adverb quickly precedes the verb runs. Its job is to extract information from that sentence.10 What is natural language processing? Use restricted grammar to explain natural language processing? NATURAL-LANGUAGE PROCESSING:Natural Language processing. and object:• • • It should also assume that all adjectives precede the noun that they modify.

This diagram of the sentence verify that it follows the GI grammar. FOR EXAMPLE:- A simple example by using the serntence. Adj. A state machine is a directed graph that has shows.FOR EXAMPLE:Word Door Window Has Runs Large The To Type Noun Noun Verb Verb adjective determiner Preposition THE STATE-MACHINE NLP PARSER:The state machine parser uses the current state of the sentence to predict what type of word may legally follow. The child runs quickly to the large house. Noun . The valid transitions from the one state to another. The child DET Noun runs Verb quickly to adverb prep the det large house.

consider this diagram. A context free parser uses there productions rules of the grammar. THE CONTEXT-FREE RECURSIVE-DESCENTS NLP PARSER:To understand context free recursive NLP parser one must look at the construction of sentence in a completely different way from the way that. One looks at they state machine model the rules that govern how each of the pacts may be constructed are called the production rules of the grammar. Sentence NP NP NP VP VP VP VP  NP+VP determiner + noun det + adj + noun prep + NP Verb + NP Verb + Adverb + NP Verb + Adverb Verb To see how can apply these rules to a sentence. The right as produces NP stands for noun phrase and VP stands for verb phrase. Above figure show you the there are two possible transitions from a noun to a verb or to place a new verb into state thus the state machine is now at the mod verb. A Parser that generates this type of tree is called context free because the tree is not based upon the context of each element. The next word the verb runs. The state machine has now been started.The state machine to become noun. THE NOISE-DISPOSAL PARSER:- .

This idea leads to the variation on the context free parser called the noise disposal parser.11 . Assume database will accept queries like Here the commands must always be present but the other four elements are optional QUESTION NO.These types of application only interested in the information that the sentence contain. This type of a parser is actually quite common in database type application such as command processor. FOR EXAMPLE:Consider a database that consists of company names and their respective stock prices.

Any robot. Problem that you will encounter when you attempt to control a robot arm. Fine movement with in what system. Above figure shows a six axis robot arm actually contains tow co ordinate frame of reference. THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOT . Shows a sketch of a six axis arm. Remember that a baby needs several months to do they same thing. Therefore reaching any specific point in space regular. However it is s complicated takes that requires the co ordination of several muscles. They common robot arm is modeled on the human arms most robot arm are six axis arm between they allow they greeted freedom of movement. When most people hear the word robot.What is Robotics? Explain Robotics that covers: • Robot arms • Industrial Robots • Autonomous Robot ROBOTICS:The field of knowledge and technique that can be used to create. For example: When you reach for a glass of water seems to be effortless and without though. Each axis whish commonly called a joint’s operated by its own separated motor on as is they case of large arms hydraulic of cylinder. They base and they two piece of they arm from an x y z co ordinates system and thy grip allow. Industrial as such you must be able to understand a few of them complex. the mental response is usually an image of the hardware that makes up the physical being of the robot.

the teach pendent is a rand held control box that allows an operator to move the various joints of the robots. ROBOTICS CONTROL LANGUAGE: . Because these robots are used in a controlled environment they can be considerable less smart then autonomous robots.In they field of robotics most effort has been applied to creating and improving industrial assembly robots. all teach pendent are similar to the sketch show below. THE TEACH PENDANT: The most common method of programming a robot to perform a new takes is through the use of each pendent . The teach pedant is not linked directly to the but rate is linked through the robots main control computer. Robots can be taught new skills fist they can’t be taught by using a teach pedant or second they can programmed by using a robotic control Lang. For now and for they forcible future industrial robot can perform only those takes that they have been explicitly programmed to do. Although reach manufacture of robots has a slightly different style of teach pendent.

The teach pending is an excellent method for teaching the robots ingle takes such as welding and palletizing . QUESTION NO. AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS: An automat robot is much more complex than the industional robot of automats robots is to operate is the uncontrolled environment of the real world then it will need various skills that the industrial robot does not required. The major roadblock that is preventing the creation of an autonomous robots is a face that program have not yet developed the accessory software techniques also a robot of this type will probably required some parsed processing which is still in its infamy. A robotic control language contains a build in data base that holds serial information about each move that the robot will make.however as the job come more computer and extend even syechroziton become more important or if the robots needs to recognize and response differently to many possible occurrence the teach preening system quickly become over burdened . It is for this reason the robotic control language were developed. An orbit control language is a computer language that is designed to control a robot.12 .

4. Knowledge base: Acquistion module Inference engine Explantory interface User KNOWLEDGE BASE: They knowledge base contains knowledge necessary for understand formulating and suffering problem. Potential source of knowledge include human expert of textbook. CONSULTATION ENVIRONMENT: Issued by an expert to obtain expert knowledge and advice.Explain the component of expert system which are the relative advantages and disadvantages of an expert system and human expert? Expert system are composed of two major parts • Development environment • Consolation environment DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT: They development environment is used by they expect system builder to build they couponed and to introduce knowledge into knowledge base. special research reports. . 3. 1. It includes tow Basie element. ACQUISITION MODULE: Knowledge acquisition module is they accumulation transfer and transformation of problem solving expertise from some knowledge source to a computer program for contracting or expending thief knowledge faze. database. INFERENCE ENGINE: They brain of expert system is they influence engine also known as the control structure or the rule interpreter. They following may exists in an expert system COMPONENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM. 5. 2.

A single virus can damage the whole expert system but there is no problem of virus with a human expert 3. Computerize expert system can never tried and always perform at its peak but human experts get tired. An expert system need some accessories with it to keep it charged or situation one while a human expert need. EXPLANATORY INTERFACE: They ability to take responsibility for conclusion to there sources is cruise both in they transfer of expertise and in problem solving they explanatory interface can takes such responsilbity and explain they expert system behavior. 2. This communication ban best be carried out in a naturally language and in same causes it is supplanted by menus and graphics. 6. Disadvantages of expert system over human expert: An expert system can’t give nay new suggestion that some with them passage of time but they human expert through continuous study and remains up to date. An expert system cannot be available every where at any time but a human expert ban walk form one place to another to solve they problem 4. Advantageous of of expert system over human expert: 1. Expert system available 24 hours a day. 5. Many or number of expert system can create while that are limited number of human experts.13 . QUESTION NO. Every day of a year while a human expert wants work continuously. 3. Nothing with him 1. 4. 2. A new expert system can easily be created though copy past but it takes a long time to become a human expert. Knowledge of an expert system can be copied and stored easily while that of human expert it is not possible. Computrized expert can be disrupted can never die while human expert dies and takes all of its knowledge with itself.USER: Expert system contain a language processer for friendly problem oriented communication between they user and they computer.

. 2. EXPERT SYSTEM: In Islamic studies expert system has provided its services in many fields 1. 5.I has many areas of interest of these. We can see some of they application of A. Constructing Mosques or Physical help they can provide. As proof their success you.In your opinion which topic of is the most suitable fro and most applicable in they field of Islamic studies? Explain A. then it will be the most applicable and beneficial for Muslims. different Hadith from different book of hadith…. Mufti Hafiz e Quran Qaree Muhaddich Aalim Now. This artificial Aalim will not be the natural Aalim but the intelligence will depend upon its knowledge base. From all Islamic studies field of Aalim Human expert are engineered as A. ROBOTICS: May be helpful by showing the performance of Namaz. 4. need only observe the mainly application of expert system. There is most common and most important area. More knowledge is added to the intelligence assistant it acts more like expert. • • • • • Robotic NLP Searching for solution Pattern recognition Expert system.I expert system. Field of Aalim is selected as the most suitable and the most applicable because Aalim guides the Muslim about the manner principles of Islamic correct way of walking in the path of Islam and all the guidance about the successful life when a person is successful in here after this is the final destination of all creation. Today in Islamic studies. SEARCHING: Explanation of Quran. NLP: Can be helpful in the translation of Quran in much language. 3. the major work of Islamic studies has been down using expert system of A.I field. Etc PATTERN RECOGNITION: May be helpful to recognize different animal and birds whether they are harm or hold.I in the field of Islamic studies.

Therefore.14 Describe the sources of Acquisition of general knowledge.? SOURCES OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE: .I is also useful in Islamic studies but in very limited areas unlike Aalim.I field of A. the vast field of Islamic studies. Islamic knowledge and Quran Knowledge. QUESTION NO. we select expert system from A.

electronic Media. Tafseer QUESTION NO.Books. Fish. Tafseer QURAN KNOWLEDGE: Quran reviled by Prophet. news paper. communication with different people. Quran knowledge.15 Differentiate b/w knowledge acquisition and knowledge? . SOURCES OF ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE: History of Islam. internet. magazine. Hadith.

Conventional program uses mathematical and statically method to obtain a prices solution. Conventional system date + algorithm. and domain knowledge from a source into a program. It is concerned with the transfer of knowledge from existing sources such as expert and book rather than learning the knowledge from experience. 2. It mean extraction of knowledge from human expert it is called the track back of expert system. execution is done by using flouriest and logic Knowledge Base . 2. Knowledge extracted by an interfiling b/w participant (knowledge engineer and experts) the goal is to fin out the reason behind and why it is recalled from memory. An expert system program on the other hand attempt to reason a response to an event using its knowing based and logistic rules for problem solving it uses investigative (heuristic) method to obtain solutions. 2. execution is done on a step by Database Expert System 1.Knowledge Acquisition:1. The purpose of knowledge acquisition is to develop effective knowledge bases system. Effective manipulate of large data base. To obtain knowledge only from one source (Called expert) is known as knowledge Election. Expert system = knowledge base+ rezoning engine effective manipulation of large knowledge base. Knowledge acquisition is recognized as the bottleneck in the development of knowledge Based system Knowledge Elicitation: 1. 3. 3. Convention System 1. 5. 4. Knowledge elicitation is the transfer and transformation of problem solving expertise. Obtain knowledge from all sources of knowledge. a conventional program has a sequence of predefine instruction for responding to an event 2. To obtain knowledge and to structure knowledge is called knowledge acquisition.

S. This system explains the reasons of conclusion in detail. Software that uses general knowledge to solve the problems concerned with general routes or program. 3.Q. Software that uses specific knowledge to attain the high level performance is a narrow problem area. it only has general knowledge Expert System 1.1. Traditional System 1. A collection of date organized in such a way that computer program can quickly selected desire piece of data is called date bases. it works a domain knowlwdge . a knowledge base is a collection of any information machine readable knowledge base store knowledge in a computer readable from usually for the purpose of having automated deduction reasoning applied to them 2. 2. Pro Log. 2. it is a software program that is used to create tables quires and views 2. 3. this system does not explain the reasons of conclusion 3. Access 1.L server.

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