This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Psychology For Mass Media Audience
La Ode Muhamad Arief Akbar 29109367
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANDUNG 2010
MBA Program School of Business and Management Institute of Technology Bandung
Midterm Assignment Cover Sheet
An Assignment cover sheet needs to be included with each assignment. Please complete all detail clearly. If you are submitting the assignment on paper, please staple this sheet to the front of each assignment. If you are submitting the assignment online, please ensure this cover sheet is included at the start of your document. (This is preferable to a separate attachment). The submission method should be done according to the instructors instructions. Name : La Ode Muhamad Arief Akbar Student ID : 29109367 Email : email@example.com Mobile Phone : 0857 2020 8302
Course Code and Title : MM 5001 Business Ethics and Business Law School : School of Business and Management Lecturer : Karl Knapp, MSc, PhD Day, Time, Location of Tutorial / Practical : Assignment Number : Mid - Test Due date : October 4, 2010 Program Code : MBA Tutor : -
Assignment topic / case : PSYCHOLOGY FOR MASS MEDIA AUDIENCE - Advertising and Other Public Statements Individual Group Circle One : Midterm Exam Final Exam Other Assignment Assignment Further Information : (e.g. state if extension was granted and attach evidence of approval, Revised Submission Date)
I declare that the work contained in this assignment is my own, except where acknowledgement of source is made. I authorize SBM - ITB to test any work submitted by me, using text comparison software, for instances of plagiarism. I understand this wil involve the SBM - ITB or its constructor copying my work and storing it on a database to be used in future to test work submitted by others. Note ; The attachment of this statement on any electronically submitted assignments will deemed to have the same authority as a signed statement. Signed (by student): Date Received from student Date : October 2, 2010 Assessment / grade
Assessed by :
Dispatched (if applicable) :
Psychology for Mass Media Audience: Advertising and Other Public Statements
The influence of mass media increased in line with our society is advancing steadily on the information-based economy. Clearly the media provide the most efficient where education about psychology can be given on a number of large public audiences. Unfortunately, what the public learned is the psychology that is often distorted, trivialized, exaggerated, or inaccurate information.
This paper will discuss problems related to the implementation of psychology for mass media audience viewed from several different perspectives. Discussion of the topics by using several perspectives is a necessity considering the publications that come from one party may result in reduced objectivity. Before starting the discussion on media psychology implementation, this paper will present some concepts and theories related to psychology in mass media audience.
Psychology For Mass Media Audience The books and articles written to sell that which tries to provide information about psychology concepts or phenomena, featuring some of the concept of the article when done earnestly and objectively. Psychologists have difficulty here. In the other hand, it is useful to society when psychologists more actively involved in the media, thus exclude the public to receive more precise information about human behavior.Unfortunately the media has to make a sensational, exaggerated and, choose a quick format, which usually provide information that shallow (Koocher, 1993).
The difference between fact and speculation often becomes unclear. What do psychologists say is an opinion often given attribute as a consensus in these disciplines.Broad learning to the audience about the concept of psychology, research findings and sources of mental health, if done well, it will get the benefits to society as the profession.
In the United States, there has been a long tradition of psychologists appearingin the media in a variety of guises²pundits offering insight on news stories, talk show guests giving advice to the studio audience, or even as presenters of radio and television shows whom members of the public call for on-air therapy. The extent to which psychologists can actively ³practice´ counseling skills in a public domain is questionable. During the 1980s a group of radio psychologists formed the Association for Media Psychology, which then became an official division (number 46 of the APA). For these psychologists, ³media psychology´ meant the practice of psychology through media outlets, rather than the systematic study of behavioral aspects of the media, rather in the way that ³clinical psychology´ refers to the medium in which therapies are practiced ratherthan a study of ³the clinic´ as such(Broder, 1999).
Many of the psychologists who practiceon the air in the United States have turned it into a full-time profession. Joyce Brothers began her own talk radio show at the start of the 1960s, and was followed by others such as Sonya Friedman, Toni Grant, and Lawrence Balter (Friedland & Koenig,1997). Some have left academic posts or private practice to become, in effect, full-time broadcasters and journalists; others continue to lecture and practice part time. Most of the time,
professional ethics restrict them from doing little more than offering ³advice´ to viewers or listeners, much in the same way as medical experts cannot diagnose a caller¶s illness but can make sensible suggestions based on more than common sense.
American Psychological Association¶s Code of Conduct First of all let¶s take a look on theEthical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct. The American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles, and specific Ethical Standards.
In the process of making decisions regarding their professional behavior, psychologists must consider this Ethics Code in addition to applicable laws and psychology board regulations. In applying the Ethics Code to their professional work, psychologists may consider other materials and guidelines that have been adopted or endorsed by scientific and professional psychological organizations and the dictates of their own conscience, as well as consult with others within the field. If this Ethics Code establishes a higher standard of conduct than is required by law, psychologists must meet the higher ethical standard. If psychologists' ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists make known their commitment to this Ethics Code and
take steps to resolve the conflict in a responsible manner in keeping with basic principles of human rights (American Psychological Association, 2010). GENERAL PRINCIPLES This section consists of General Principles. General Principles, as opposed to Ethical Standards, are aspirational in nature. Their intent is to guide and inspire psychologists toward the very highest ethical ideals of the profession. General Principles, in contrast to Ethical Standards, do not represent obligations and should not form the basis for imposing sanctions. Relying upon General Principles for either of these reasons distorts both their meaning and purpose. As we can see in the code of ethics, each and every psychologists must strive to achieve efficiency, effectiveness, and avoid any misconduct; otherwise they will receive a punishment for their disobedience. Sadly, even with the implementation of this new set of regulation infringement still happens.
Infringements There is a book about the psychological test called "Understanding and Working Psychotest" sold in bookstores. The contents of the book are the questions about the test of general ability, academic potential test, psychological test, personality tests, mental health and special tests which also contains the answer key (Zaman, 2010). What is interesting is the author of the book is not a psychologist (possibly the name and title camouflaged in such a way) but the comment about the book is a psychologist.Form of comment like this: "This book is appropriately called 'The handbook of psychotest'. Very rich in diversity with quality standards for the professional psychological test". (Lorens Bakar, M.Psi., 2010)
Analysis A psychologist who gave a statement in a handbook in the face of psychological test, which statement inform psychologists as well as promote to the public, that we will be able to work on psychological well after buying this book(Spiegel, 1993). Potential issues that may arise as a result of that statement is a false perception in the community about the psychological test that considers psychological test is an easy thing.
In this case, the psychologist can get benefits such as popularity, given the commercial advantages from the publisher or the author of the book but there are also some disadvantages such as bad stigma obtained by colleagues as a fellow psychologist. In addition, buyers and readers, in this case as a consumer would get the benefits of knowing a description of the problems and how to do psychological test, but the losses generated by the consumer is then to be invalid psychological test and not be able to measure consumers' ability and personality the truth. Both of these later became a dilemma for both sides that psychologists who provide testimony on the psychological test manuals as well as readers or book buyers as consumers, as there are advantages and disadvantages for both parties.
y According to the APA viewpoint:
Testimonials spoken by that psychologist is not in accordance with APA General Principle of points A, Beneficence and Nonmaleficience (American Psychological Association, 2010).
Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research. When conflicts occur among psychologists' obligations or concerns, they attempt to resolve these conflicts in a responsible fashion that avoids or minimizes harm. Because psychologists' scientific and professional judgments and actions may affect the lives of others, they are alert to and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational, or political factors that might lead to misuse of their influence. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work. Psychologists have been promoting a book of psychological test, psychological test, while the learned will not misrepresent the actual client. So with helped promote the book, the psychologist had been detrimental to the target consumers of the book.
Testimonials spoken by that psychologist is also not in accordance with APA General Principle of points C,Integrity (American Psychological Association, 2010). Principle C: Integrity Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology. In these activities psychologists do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact. Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. In situations in which deception may be ethically justifiable to maximize benefits and minimize harm, psychologists have a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of such techniques.
A psychologist was giving a statement to promote the book, so he could influence the target consumer to buy the book but the contents was not necessarily reliable.
Based on the subsection in the APA, the psychologists violated subsection 5(American Psychological Association, 2010). Standard 5: Advertising And Other Public Statements 5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements (a) Public statements include but are not limited to paid or unpaid advertising, product endorsements, grant applications, licensing applications, other credentialing applications, brochures, printed matter, directory listings, personal resumes or curricula vitae, or comments for use in media such as print or electronic transmission, statements in legal proceedings, lectures and public oral presentations, and published materials. Psychologists do not knowingly make public statements that are false, deceptive, or fraudulent concerning their research, practice, or other work activities or those of persons or organizations with which they are affiliated. (b) Psychologists do not make false, deceptive, or fraudulent statements concerning (1) their training, experience, or competence; (2) their academic degrees; (3) their credentials; (4) their institutional or association affiliations; (5) their services; (6) the scientific or clinical basis for, or results or degree of success of, their services; (7) their fees; or (8) their publications or research findings. (c) Psychologists claim degrees as credentials for their health services only if those degrees (1) were earned from a regionally accredited educational institution or (2) were the basis for psychology licensure by the state in which they practice.
In this case as, a psychologist he has provided a false statement relating to the psychological test, where the supposed psychological test is not something learned first before doing it. If studied first, then this psychological test results are not really a portrait of a person's ability.
Based on the subsection in the APA, the psychologists violated subsection4 (American Psychological Association, 2010). 5.04 Media Presentations When psychologists provide public advice or comment via print, Internet, or other electronic transmission, they take precautions to ensure that statements (1) are based on their professional knowledge, training, or experience in accord with appropriate psychological literature and practice; (2) are otherwise consistent with this Ethics Code; and (3) do not indicate that a professional relationship has been established with the recipient. (See also Standard 2.04, Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments.) In this case, the psychologist who gave a statement which recommends to buy the book in order to work on psychological test questions correctly, was inconsistent with the code of professional ethics as a psychologist because it can mislead the general public, because any psychological test is not always the same as the one on book.
y For the psychologists
Statement submitted by the psychologist is not yet clear truth and to mislead the public who have or will buy the book so that it can provide psychological guidance negative impression on other psychologists.
y For the general public
Underestimate the psychological test and could be misleading because of psychological problems does not always equal to the questions outlined in the book. Likewise, the key to the answer given.
y For a psychological test instrument
Confidentiality, validity and reliability test equipment would be declined.
Conclusion and Suggestion Based on the results of the discussion on the case above, it can be concluded that a psychologist should not provide a statement that could mislead the public on matters related to psychology. While in this case, the psychologist has provided a positive statement and an invitation to read a book detailing the psychological test questions. So with this, psychologists have given a misleading public statement.
Psychologists should be more careful in giving statements to the public especially in this case the mass media. I recommend that before doing any act, a psychologist must consider the rules that apply in the psychology ethics code and consider the consequences that may arise as a consequence for his actions in the mass media.
Bibliography: American Psychological Association., 2010. American Psychological Association: Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved February 9, 2010. Available from:http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html. [Accessed 26September 2010 at 23:00] Broder, M. S., 1999. So you want to work in the media? 21 things I wish I had known when I first asked myself that question. In L. L. Schwartz (Ed.), Psychology and the media: A second look (pp. 25±36). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Fischoff, S., 2005. Media Psychology: A Personal Essay in Definition and Purview. Available from www.apa.org/divisions/div46/images/MEDIADEF.pdf.[Accessed 26September 2010 at 18:40] Friedland, L., & Koenig, F., 1997. The pioneers of media psychology. In S. Kirschner & D. A. Kirschner (Eds.), Perspectives on psychology and the media (pp. 121±140). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Giles, David., 2003. Media Psychology. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Available from:www.mbaforum.ir/download/medps.pdf. [Accessed 26September 2010 at 18:30] Lang, Annie., 1994. Measuring Psychological Responses To Media Messages. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Available from: http://www.questia.com/read/58007671?title=Measuring%20Psychological%20R esponses%20to%20Media%20Messages.[Accessed 26September 2010 at 19:30] Spiegel, Patricia K. & Koocher, Gerald P., 1993.Ethics in psychology: Professional Standards and Cases. New York: Inc. McGraw-Hill. Available from: http://www.faqs.org/copyright/decisionmaking-in-the-university-senate-atwashington-state/[Accessed 26September 2010 at 21:10] Zaman, Saeful., & Helmi, Dyah R., 2010. MemahamidanMengerjakanPsikotesDenganBenardanTepatWaktu. Jakarta: Visimedia. Available from: http://www.perpustakaan-ngawi.com/memahami-danmengerjakan-psikotes-dengan-benar-dan-tepat-waktu.html[Accessed 27September 2010 at 17:10]
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.