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Evolution of Helicopters

a report Zalak Upadhyay

The report looks into the history of helicopters, from initial days
of conception beginning from 4th Century A.D to today, with
anatomy, features and a brief insight into Indian scenario.
Helicopter A brief insight into what is a helicopter and its
Basics features .

Definition
A helicopter is a type of
rotorcraft in which lift and
thrust are supplied by one
or more engine driven
rotors.

Features
They are able to hover, fly
forward, backward and
sideward, and perform
other desirable maneuvers.

This versatility gives the


pilot complete access to
three-dimensional space in
a way that no airplane can.
Helicopter A look into the basic components of a
Anatomy helicopter.

Main Rotor
Tail Rotor
Drive Shaft

Cockpit

Tail Boom

Engine, Transmission,
Fuel etc.

Landing Skids
Helicopter A view at the various uses of a helicopter in
Roles civilian and military area.

Civilian Role Military Role


Air Ambulance Troop Transport
Sea and Mountain Rescue Mine-Sweeping
Crop Dusting Battlefield Surveillance
Fire Fighting Assault
Police Surveillance Anti-tank Missions
Corporate Services
Oil-rig servicing

Limitations
Low Speed
Vibrations
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

..........................................................

4th century 15th century


The first reminiscent of a The Helical Air Screw as
vertically flying object was seen designed by Leonardo Da Vinci
in the form of a Chinese hand in 1490, was impractical when
spun toy. This toy made out of blown into proportions but
Bamboo had to be rotated gave an insight into vertical
between two palms and it went thrust. Principle used again was
flying upward in the air. that of rotation.
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

19th century

George Cayley produced Invention of swashplate,


Internal combustion a converti-plane in 1843. a with cyclic pitch control
engine was invented and man named Bourne flew a allowed the rotor blade
solved the need of helicopter like aircraft an angles to be altered giving
adequate engine. year later. equal lift on each side.

Torque and Dissymetry of


lift were still an issue.
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

20th century

Paul Cornu lifted a twin Invention of Autogyro, by


Brothers Louie and rotored helicopter off the a Spaniard Juan De La
Jacques Breget rose some ground entirely without Cierva. These aircrafts
2 inches off the ground in assistance for a few were heavily used for Air
their helicopter model. seconds. Observation post WW I.

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Autogyro
Also known as Gyroplane, Gyrocopter or Rotaplane, it’s a
type of rotorcraft which utilises an unpowered rotor in
autorotation to develop a lift, and an engine powered
propeller, similar to that of a fixed wing aircraft , to
provide thrust.
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

20th century contd.

Etienne Oehmichen First practical helicopter by A joint Sirkorsky - Vought


became the first to fly a the Germans called the effort funded by the
helicopter for a Km in a Focke - Wulf Fw 61 was American Government led
closed circuit. The flight introduced, proving to development of VS-300
lasted 7 min. and 40 sec. vertical flight possible. helicopter model.

24 36 38
19 19 19

VS- 300
It formed the most tangible link between the early design
concept of rotary-wing aviation and the practical aircraft
that is capable of military operation. It was indeed quite
different from earlier models. It was an incredible
advancement in helicopters, but others soon followed.
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

20th century contd.

Sikorsky crafted the Mc Donnell made the first


world's first certified Another man named Hiller helicopter with horizontal
commercial transport created the flying platform winged flight from a
helicopter, the S-55 called the Hiller XROE-1 vertical rotor powered by
Chickasaw (H-19). Rotorcycle. the turbine engine.

50s 50s 50s


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Turbine Engine Kaman K 225


The creation of the turbine engine advanced the
helicopter's capabilities. With assembly lines brought in by
the Industrial Revolution, these engines could be produced
with high efficiency and increased precision. The world's
first turbine gas-powered engine was the Kaman K-225.
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

20th century contd.

The Bell 209 Cobra Also, Gyrodyne QH-50 Development of the


"Snake" icame into picture. was seen. This helicopter Sikorsky S-61 Sea King,
Large missiles protruded used infrared cameras to the heavy-lift S-64 Sky
from the sides of the observe at night for better Crane, and the larger five-
machine on metal bases. protection. Still in use. and seven-bladed CH-53.

60s 60s 60s


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Vietnam War’s Effect


The 1960s and the 1970s marked a widespread advancement in helicopters because of the Vietnam War.
Beginning in 1964 this war lasted for almost a decade. The military's need for advanced helicopters can be
seen in historical pictures of the machines flying through the jungles of Vietnam to retrieve wounded
troops. Helicopters were also used as weapons during this time. Many new helicopters appeared with
missile capabilities.
Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

20th century contd.

Mc Donnell continued to Smaller helicopters were Many helicopters used jet


produce helicopters like produced to fulfill the thrust rather than blades
the Tiltrotor Unmanned public's needs. The to give the directional
Air Vehicle and the Ultrasport Helicopters stability, which made them
Bell/Boeing 609, the and the Air Command extremely quiet.
world's first commercial International
tiltrotor. Commander 14/A are
appreciable examples.

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Helicopter A journey through the evolution of the
History helicopters.

20th century contd.

Helicopters were The Revolution Helicopters were used in


produced by large Helicopter Corporation all areas of the public
corporations like the created a single-seat including the police force
Eurocopter Industry helicopter that can be built and hospitals. They are still
(Sparaco 57) and the Civil by a person at home in in use and are evolving to
Helicopter Industry forty to sixty hours. become more efficient and
(Proctor 88). capable of reaching their
goals.

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Helicopter A look into the basic components of a
Anatomy helicopter.
Tail Fin

Rotor Blade 90 Gearbox

Stabilizer Bar
Swash Plate
Tail Rotor

Tail Rotor
Drive Shaft
Tail Skid
Cowling

45 Gearbox
Mast

Transmission

Synchonized Elevator

Tail Boom
Engine Mount

Landing Skids

Fuselage Cabin Doors


Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

AH-1 HueyCobra

Nation: USA
Manufacturer: Bell Helicopter Co.
Type: Attack Helicopter
Year: 1965 (first AH-1G)
Power Plant: Two GE-T700-GE-401 turbine engines
(1690 SHP Each)
Rotor Diameter: 44 ft
Fuselage Length: 44 ft 7 in
Overall Length: 52 ft 11.5 in
Height: 13 ft 6 in
Empty Weight: 6,598 lb
Max Takeoff Weight: 14,750 lbs
Max Speed: 160 kts
Cruise Speed: 120-130 KIAS
Ceiling: 12,200 ft
Range: 315 miles (sea level, 8% reserve)
Time on Station: 2+00, 2+30 With 77 gal. Aux Tank
Crew: 2, Pilot in Rear Seat, Co-pilot/Gunner in Front Seat
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

AH-64 Apache

Nation: USA
Manufacturer: McDonnell Douglas
Type: Attack Helicopter
Year: 1984
Engine: 2 General Electric T700-701C turboshaft, 1,857
shp
Rotor Diameter: 48 ft
Tail Rotor Diameter: 9' 2"
Fuselage Length: 49 ft 1 in
Overall Length: 58 ft 3 in
Height: 16 ft 9.5 in
Empty Weight: 10,760 lb
Max Takeoff Weight: 21,000 lb
Max Speed: 186 mph (level), 227 mph (never exceeded powerdive)
Ceiling: 10,200 ft (hover)
Range: 428 miles
Crew: 2
Load/Armament: 1 M230A1 30mm chain gun; 4 underwing hardpoints for Hellfire and Hydra 70 rockets.
Typical loadout is 8 Hellfire and 38 Hydra 70 (in 2 17 rocket pods).
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

Bell Eagle Eye UAV

Length: 16.4 ft
Wing Span: 12.3 ft
Rotor Diameter: 8.2 ft
Power: 2 x Allison 250-C20B Gas Turbines
Cruise Speed: 160 knots
Dash Speed: 200 knots
Loiter Speed: 110 knots
Endurance: 5 Hours (Approx.)
Ceiling: 20,000 ft

Expert Avionics/Automated Flight Control


Redundant flight control systems
Heavy fuel compatible turbine engines
Short Range UAV Commonality/interoperability
Ring laser gyro IMU
GPS Navigation
70% off-the-shelf components
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

CH - 3E

Nation: USA
Manufacturer: Sikorsky Aircraft
Type: Cargo Helicopter
Year: 1966
Engine: 2 General Electric T58-GE-5 turboshaft,
1,500 shp each
Rotor Diameter: 62 ft
Fuselage Length: 73 ft
Height: 18 ft 1 in
Loaded Weight: 22,050 lb
Max Speed: 177 mph
Ceiling: 21,000 ft
Range: 779 miles
Crew: 3
Load/Armament: 2 M2 .50 machine guns, cargo
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

CH - 53

Nation: USA
Manufacturer: Sikorsky Aircraft
Type: Assault Transport Helicopter
Year: 1968
Engine: 2 General Electric T64-GE-7 turboshaft,
3,435 shp
Rotor Diameter: 72 ft 3 in
Fuselage Length: 67 ft 2 in
Overall Length: 88 ft 3 in
Height: 24 ft 11 in
Empty Weight: 23,257 lb
Max Takeoff Weight: 37,466 lb
Max Speed: 196 mph
Ceiling: 20,400 ft
Range: 540 miles
Crew: 3
Load/Armament: 38 troops
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

Boeing Vertol CH-47 Chinook

Top speed: 210 mph


Largest Helo ever in the CF
Load: cargo - 28,000 lbs on cargo hook, 5 tons
internally; or 42 loaded troops
Engine: two Lycoming T55-L-11C turbine engines
Nickname = 'Heavy Hooker'
(You can guess the other one!)
Left service in 1991
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

HAL CHETAK (ALOUETTE III)

Empty Weight: 1200 kg


Max. All up Weight: 2200 kg
Main Rotor Diameter: 11.020 m
Overall Length (Rotor Rotating): 12.84 m
Overall Width (Blade folded) :2.590 m
Overall Height : 2.97 m
Fuel Capacity: 575 L
Max. Speed: 210 kmph
Cruising Speed: 185 km/hr
Service Ceiling : 3250 m with 2200 kg.
Range: 500 km. at an altitude of 2000 m
Endurance: 3.4 hrs. at an altitude of 3250 m and weight 2200 kg.
Rate of climb (SL): 4.3 m/s at weight 2200 kg.
Helicopter A look into Military aircrafts of various
Models countries.

HAL CHEETAH

Empty Weight: 1090 kg


Max. All Up Wt.: 1950 kg
Main Rotor Diameter: 11.020 m
Overall Length(Rotor Rotating): 12.910 m
Overall Width(Blade folded): 2.380 m
Overall Height: 3.090 m
Fuel Capacity: 575 L
Max speed (Vne): 210 kmph
Cruising Speed: 192 kmph
Service Ceiling :5400 m with 1950 Kg.
Range: 560 km. at an altitude of 2600 m
Endurance :4.1 hrs. at an altitude of 5000 m and weight 1950 kg.
Rate of Climb: 5.5 m/s at weight 1950 kg.