Safavid-Mughal Relations the numismatic evidence

Dr Sanjay Garg Assistant Director National Archives of India, Ministry of Culture, New Delhi 110 001 (INDIA)

The Mughal & Safavid Empires

The Mughal Dynasty
• Descendents of Tamerlane and Chingiz Khan • Ruled India from AD 1526 to 1858

Shah Ismail I and Babur 1511: Provided military assistance to Babur to recover his Transoxanian dominions. . 1512. Babur promised to have coins stuck and Khutba read in the name of Shah Ismail. Shah Ismail I sends a force under the command of the vaqil Amir Yar Ahmad Isfahani to rescue Babur from Hisar-i Shadman. sends back the Iranian troops. In return. May: Uzbegs drive Babur out of Samarqand and Bokhara. Babur captured Samarqand in October.

Shah Ismail I and Babur .

Babur (1526-30) 2. Akbar (1556-1605) . Humayun (1530-40 – 1st reign) Suri Dynasty (1540-55) Humayun (1555-56 – 2nd reign) 3.Tahmasp I and the Mughals Tahmasp I (1524-76) 1.

. 1555 Humayun captured Lahore (February). Agra and Delhi (July) and once again became the ruler of northern India.Tahmasp I and Humayun 15 May 1540: Humayun is defeated by Sher Shah Suri at the battle of Bilgram near Kannauj. he fled to Persia. Unable to find asylum in India. September 1545: Humayun occupied Kabul and Qandahar.

Tahmasp I and Humayun Vassal Coinage: Shah Tahmasp of Persia Qandahar. . nd Shahrukhi std.

Tahmasp I and Humayun Kabul. 952 AH Shahrukhi std. .

Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) . Ismail II (1576-77) 2. Shah Khudabanda (1578-87) 3.Akbar and the Safavids Akbar (1556-1605) 1. Mohd.

the manifestor of miracles. O Ali . All care and grief shall vanish By thy holiness. O Ali. Thou shalt find him a help unto thee in adversities. O Ali.Shah Ismail I Nad-e Alian mazhar-ul Ajayeb Tajid hu unan laka fin nawayab Kullouhammin wa ghammin Sayenjali Be walayete ka ya Ali ya Ali ya Ali Call upon Ali.

Persian Bait us-Sikka Shah Ismail II : Coin dated 984 [AD 1576] Ze mashriq ta ba magrib gar Imam ast Ali wa Aal-i-U mara tamam ast If an Imam there be between the East and the West Ali along with Ali’s house for us is best. .

Akbar Allahabad Couplet Type Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh by Mulla Abdul Qadir Badauni. . the coin of AIlahabad. • Coins were struck there with the following Persian couplet composed by Sharif Sarmadi: Hamesha hamchu zar Mihr-o-Mah raij bad Ba Gharb-o-Sharq-i Jahan. • Akbar came to Allahabad in AH 991 (28 Ilahi/ AD 1583). Sikka-i Ilahabad May always be the gold current like Sun and Moon In the East and West of the World.

Jahangir .

Obv. Rev.Jahangir Obv. The letters of ‘Jahangir’ and ‘Allah-o-Akbar’ are equal in value from the beginning of the time Rev. Qaza bar Sikka-i-zar kard tasveer Shabih-i-Hazrat Shah Jahangir Haruf-i-Jahangir-o-Allah-o-Akbar Ze roz-i-Azal dar ’adad barabar Destiny has drawn a picture on Coin of gold (Of) the portrait of Hon’ble Shah Jahangir. .

Jahangir .

Jahangir and Shah Abbas I .

Jahangir and Shah Abbas I 1000 Muhr. the ambassador of the Shah of Iran” Tuzuk-i Jahangiri (19 Farwardin RY 8 = 10 Apr. 1612). Agra “I gave one gold muhr of 1.000 tolas. . which is called Kaukab-i Tali to Yadgar Ali.

son of Shah Akbar It would not be surprising if in the yearning of his coin Stars come from the sky to his Coin-house. . (in the Centre) Abu al-Muzaffar Nur ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi (around) Hazar guna sharf yaft ru-i Sikka-o-zar Ze naqsh-i nam-i Jahangir Shah Akbar Ajab na bashad agar zar zu-i Sikka-i u Ba Sikka-khanah ash ayad ze asman Akhtar The face of the Coin and gold received a thousand kinds of honour From the impression of the name of the Jahangir.Jahangir Obv.

(in the Centre) Sanh-i Julus 8 Mutabiq 1022 Hijri . . Zarb Dar al-Khilafah Agra (around) Ze Faiz-i-didan-i-Muhr-i-hazar tolach ash Hazar bar bi balad ze zauq-i-nur-i-nazar Ba nam-i-nami-i-u bad Sikka-o-Khutbah Ba dahr ta buwad az Sikka-o-ze Khutbah athar Through the bounty of seeing his 1000 tola Muhr The light of vision increases thousand-folds in ecstasy May the Coin and Khutbah be (current in) his illustrious name As long as there is vestige of Coin and Khutbah in the world.Jahangir Rev.

Shah Jahan Sikka-i Shahjahanabad raij dar jahan Jawidan bada banam-i Sani Sahib Qiran May the Coin of Shahjahanabad. be current in the world Forever in the name of the Second Lord of the Conjunction .

Legacy of Timur Shah Abbas II Sāhib-i Qirān (lit. Lord of the [Fortunate] Conjunctions) Shah Jahan .

Shah Shuja.Legacy of Timur Nine Mughal emperors have adopted the ‘alāmāt Sāhib-i Qirān (lit. Sāhib-i Qirān Sāhib-i Qirānī Shah I Sāhib-i Qirān Sānī Murad Bakhsh and Jahandar Shah Shah Alam Bahadur and Shah Alam II Shah Jahan I. Lord of the [Fortunate] Conjunctions) in its five distinct variants. Muhammad Shah and Akbar Shah II Shah Jahan I Farrukhsiyar Abbas II Shah Safi II (Sulaiman I) Tahmasp II Sānī Sāhib-i Qirān Sālis Sāhib-i Qirān Abbas III . The same title was adopted in two variants by four Safavid rulers.

the World Seizer] .Aurangzeb Sikka zad dar jahan chu Mihr [or Badr]-i munir Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir [Struck coin in the world like the shining Sun [or Moon] King Aurangzeb.

the World Seizer] Sikka zad ba qurs-i panir Aurangzeb Beradar-kush Pidar-gir [Struck coin on frozen cheese Aurangzeb.Parody of the Coin Couplet of Auragngzeb Coin Couplet: Parody: Sikka zad dar jahan chu Mihr-i munir Shah Aurangzeb Alamgir [Struck coin in the world like the shining Sun King Aurangzeb. father seizer] . brother-slayer.

Aziz ud-Din Muhammad (1754-1759)  Shah Jahan III. Qutb ud-Din Muhammad (1707-1712)  Azim ush-Shan. Muin ud-Din Muhammad (1788. Siraj ud-Din Muhammad (1837-1857) 10: Regular Kings 8: Claimants/Puppets . Muiz ud-Din Muhammad (1712-1713)  Farrukhsiyar. Nasir ud-Din (AD 1719-1748)  Ahmad Shah. Azim ud-Din Muhammad (1712)  Jahandar Shah. Zahir ud-Din Muhammad (1720)  Muhammad Shah. Jalal ud-Din Muhammad (1759-1806)  Bedar Bakht. Muhi ud-Din Muhammad (1759-1760)  Shah Alam II. Nasir ud-Din Muhammad (1788)  Akbar II. Muhammad (1707-1709)  Shah Alam Bahadur Shah I. Muin ud-Din Muhammad (1712-1719)  Rafi ud-Darjat. 1806-1837)  Bahadur Shah II. Mujahid ud-Din Muhammad (1748-1754)  Alamgir II. Shams ud-Din Muhammad (1719)  Shah Jahan II (1719)  Nekusiyar (1719) [No coin found]  Ibrahim. Qutb ud-Din Muhammad (1707)  Kam Bakhsh.Successors of Aurangzeb  Azam Shah.

1140 AH Az Khorasan sikka bar zar shud ba Tawfiq-i Khuda Nusrat-o-Imdad-i Shah-i Din Ali-ye Musa Raza From Khorasan coins minted in gold with God’s grace With victorious help from the King of Faith. Ali Musa Reza . Ag.Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747) As Viceroy of the East (Khorasan) TAHMASP II. Abbasi Zarb Mashhad Muqaddas.

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747) As Waqil ud-Daulah and Naib us-Sultanat ABBAS III. Abbas III. 1147 AH Sikka bar zar zad ba Tawfiq-i Ilahi dar Jahan Zill-i Haq. Ag. Abbasi Zarb Qazvin. Abbas Salis. Second Lord of the [Fortunate] Conjunctions . Sani Sahib-i Qiran In this world struck coin on gold by the grace of God The Shadow of God.

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747) As King of Iran Ag. 1149 AH Sikka bar zar kard nam Saltanat ra dar Jahan Nadir-i Iran Zamin wa Khusru-i Gaiti Sitan The stamp on the Gold has famed the kingdom in the world The Phoenix of land of Iran. Rupee Zarb Qazvin. The world-conquering King .

Nadir Shah Afshari (1688-1747) Nadir Shah in India Ag. the Lord of Conjunctions . Nadir. Rupee Zarb Shahjahanabad. 1151 AH Hast Sultan bar Salatin-i Jahan Shah-i Shahan Nadir Sahib Qiran Over the Kings of the World. is the King King of Kings.

Thank You .

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