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ASSIGNMENT 2

Quantitative Techniques in Business Research “Sampling”.

Submitted to: Dr. Asma Salma

Submitted By: Sundas Jamil BBA VII 2007-BBA-028

we have the following five values (suppose for attendance of students).12. 14. Stude Sr. 15 and 20.15 and 20 a) List all the samples of size 3 and compute the mean of each sample In the population. A population consists of the following five values: 12.No 1 2 3 4 5 N=5 nts A B C D E sum = Classes Attended 12 12 14 15 20 73 Population mean = ( Σ X) / N Population Mean = 14.2 Question 1: A population consists of the following five values: 12. 12.6 .14. We consider this as follows.

3 Using the size 3.3 14 15 12 41 13.7 14 15 20 49 16.3 12 15 20 47 15. we make ten samples explained as follows: Sample 1 A B C Sum Total = Mean = Sample 3 A B E Sum Total = Mean = SAMPLE 5 B C E Sum Total = Mean = SAMPLE 7 C D A Sum Total = Mean = Sample 9 D E A Sum Total = Mean = 12 12 14 38 12.7 12 14 20 46 15.7 12 12 20 44 14.3 12 20 14 46 15.7 .7 15 20 12 47 15.7 Sample 2 A B D Sum total = Mean = Sample 4 B C D Sum Total = Mean = SAMPLE 6 C D E Sum Total = Mean = SAMPLE 8 B C D Sum Total = Mean = Sample 10 A D E Sum Total = Mean= 12 12 15 39 13 12 14 15 41 13.

2 0. 0 1 6 Difference between the population and sample means is as follows: Sample Number 1 2 3 4 5 X.2 0.2 0.7 15.1 0.3 13. Mean of Sample Mean = μ Probability Distribution of a Sample Mean SAMPLE MEANS 15.1 0.0 1.0 1.7 FREQUENCY 2.1 1 0.07 0.7 16.60 -0.0 2.0 1.0 2.93 .0 1.3 14.93 0.1 0.0 PROBABILITY 0.7 13 12.4 1 4.μ 1. Population Mean = 6 1 4.93 1.

07 Question 2: What is sampling error? Could the value of sampling error be zero? If it were zero.93 -0. what would this mean? Sample Error: .5 6 7 8 9 10 -0.07 -1.73 -1.73 0.

They will have different means and this difference would be the sampling error. The deviation is called the sample error. Manion and Morrison. It is often seen that as the sample size is increased the value for sampling error also increases and it can be decreased by decreasing the population size. Give an example of each . The population size can be reduced to a point when the sampling mean becomes equal to the population mean. The sampling error is also called the standards error and is the additive of different types of errors when the results are derived from a population. 2007). Explanation of Sample Error: If samples are derived from one single population and if they do not have the same characteristics or similar to that of the population. (Wimmer and Dominick. Question 3: List the reasons for sampling. At this point the sampling error would be zero.6 When the measurements taken from a sample do not respond in a correct manner or there is a variance from what exists in the population. Zero Sample Error: As explained above sample error is not because of any measurement mistal=kes but the variance that occur due to selection of different individuals in a sample. Thus the sampling error can be zero. p.102). In mathematical terms we can define it as the difference between the population mean and the sample mean. 2005. It does not mean that there are mistakes in the sampling method but it is the variation because of the selection of different individuals in a sample (Cohen.

7 Sampling is employed in researches for a number of uses. a researcher is studying a disease he cannot take all the patients suffering from the diseases but would take and study only a few patients selected through random sampling. Whenever one is studying a population. E. it is not possible for one to study the whole population instead the researcher would choose a sample that would be representative of the population. 1.g.g a researcher studying a diseases can study the diseases in detail by choosing a few patients as samples for the study then going to study all patients. e. There will also be more variance and higher error. Quality of data increases: When a study is done through a few samples rather than the whole population the quality oif the data also increases since the time spent on studying each sample in detail is more and the researcher would not get confuse while studying one sample at a time then when studying the whole population as a whole. Restricting the study to a few samples from a population saves time as well as money. when studying the whole population. 2. It is economical: Sampling helps in studying a few representatives of the population which is more economical. Following are some of the reasons that researchers employ sampling. .

Mass media research: an introduction. Research methods in education . j.. (2005).D. and Dominick. . Wimmer. L and Morrison.R. R. L. (2007). K.B.. Routledge.. Cengage Learning.R.8 References Cohen. Manion.

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