Dytran


2010
Example Problem Manual
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Cont ent s
Dytran Example Problems Manual
Contents
1 Structural Dynamics
Overview 14
Impulsively Loaded Strip 15
Problem Description 15
Dytran Model 15
Results Evaluation 16
Files 17
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 18
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel 20
Problem Description 20
Dytran Model 21
Results 21
Files 23
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 23
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall) 25
Problem Description 25
Johnson-Cook Material Model 25
Theoretical Approach – Taylor 25
Dytran Model 26
Dytran Results 26
Tetrahedral Elements 28
Theoretical – Taylor 29
Comparison of Shape 30
Comparison of CPU time 31
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 33
Taylor Test with Euler 35
Problem Description 35
Dytran Model 35
Dytran File 38
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements 40
Problem Description 40
Dytran Model 40
Dytran Example Problems Manual 4
Results 42
Files 44
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 45
2 Structural Contact
Overview 48
Three-plate Contact 49
Problem Description 49
Theoretical Result 50
Dytran Model 50
Results 50
Files 52
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 52
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate 55
Problem Description 55
Desired Results 57
Dytran Modeling 57
Results 58
Files 60
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 60
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall 63
Problem Description 63
Desired Results 63
Dytran Modeling 63
Results 64
Files 67
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 67
Impact Loading 70
Problem Description 70
Theoretical Results 70
Dytran Model 71
Results 71
Files 72
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 73
5 Contents
Pipe Whip 76
Problem Description 76
Dytran Model 77
Results 77
Files 78
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 78
3 Fluid Dynamics
Overview 82
Shock Tube 83
Problem Description 83
Desired Results 84
Dytran Modeling 84
Coarse Model 84
Fine Model 85
Results 85
Coarse Model 85
Model 86
Coarse Mesh 88
Fine Mesh 88
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 88
Blast Wave 90
Problem Description 90
Theoretical Solution 90
Dytran Modeling 91
Results 92
Files 93
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 93
JWL Explosive Test 95
Problem Description 95
Theoretical Background 95
Dytran Model 98
Results 99
Files 100
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 100
Dytran Example Problems Manual 6
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method 103
Problem Description 103
Dytran Modeling 103
Results 106
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 115
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry 121
Problem Description 121
Dytran Modeling 121
Results 123
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 130
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX 133
Problem Description 133
Dytran Modeling 133
Results 136
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 138
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries 140
Problem Description 140
Dytran Model 141
Results 142
DYTRAN Input files 145
4 Fluid-structure Interaction
Overview 151
Shock Formation 152
Problem Description 152
Theoretical Background 152
Dytran Model 153
Results 154
Files 156
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 156
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container 158
Problem Description 158
Dytran Modeling 158
Results 159
Files 161
References 161
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 161
7 Contents
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel 165
Problem Description 165
Dytran Model 166
Results 167
Files 170
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 170
Slanted Piston 173
Problem Description 173
Desired Results 174
Dytran Modeling 175
Results 175
Files 177
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 177
Sloshing using ALE Method 179
Problem Description 179
Dytran Model 180
User Subroutine 180
Results 181
Files 182
References 182
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 183
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags 186
Problem Description 186
Theoretical Analysis of the 2-Vessel Flow Problem 186
Dytran Model 191
Results 193
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 193
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker 196
Problem Description 196
Dytran Modeling 196
Results 198
Mine Blast 200
Problem Description 200
Dytran Model 200
Results 206
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 207
Dytran Example Problems Manual 8
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure 212
Problem Description 212
Dytran Modeling 213
Results 214
Files 215
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 216
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
219
Problem Description 219
Dytran Model 220
Results 223
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 225
Fuel Tank Filling 227
Problem Description 227
Dytran Model 227
Results 234
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 236
Water Pouring into a Glass 240
Problem Description 240
Dytran Modeling 240
Results 244
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 245
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe 249
Problem Description 249
Theoretical Analysis 250
Dytran Model 250
Results 252
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 261
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses 266
Problem Description 266
Dytran Model 266
General Setup 267
Results 268
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 273
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh 276
Problem Description 276
Dytran Model 277
Results 279
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 284
9 Contents
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions 287
Dytran Model 287
General Setup 288
Results 291
Dytran Input files 293
Prestressed Concrete Beam 297
Problem Description 297
Analysis Scheme 297
Dytran Model 299
Results 300
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 304
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam 308
Problem Description 308
Analysis Scheme 308
Dytran Model 309
Results 311
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 313
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction 319
Problem Description 319
Dytran Model 320
Results 321
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 324
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions 330
Problem Description 330
Dytran Model 330
Results 333
Cohesive Friction 339
Problem Description 339
Dytran Modeling 339
Results 342
Dytran Input Deck 343
5 Forming
Overview 348
Square Cup Deep Drawing 349
Problem Description 349
Dytran Model 351
Dytran Example Problems Manual 10
Results 353
Files 356
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 357
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup 360
Problem Description 360
Dytran Model 361
Results 362
Files 364
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 364
Three-point Bending Test 368
Problem Description 368
Dytran Model 369
Results 371
Files 374
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 375
Sleeve Section Stamping 378
Problem Description 378
Dytran Model 379
Files 383
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 383
6 Occupant Safety
Overview 388
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG) 389
Problem Description 389
Results 390
Files 392
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 392
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag 397
Problem Description 397
Dytran Model 397
Results 398
Files 401
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 401
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%) 411
Problem Description 411
Usage of GEBOD to get the Basic Setup of a 50% HYBRID III 412
11 Contents
Completion of the ATB Input File 413
How to Create FEM Entities for ATB Dummy 414
Attaching Dytran Finite Element to ATB Segments 417
Positioning the Dummy with Patran 418
Integrating the Dummy into other FEM Models 420
Defining Lap and Shoulder Belts 421
Applying an Acceleration Field to the Dummy 422
Comparison of the Results with Experiment 423
Appendix A: File EXAMPLE.AIN as generated by GEBOD 424
Appendix B: Complete ATB Input File for Sled Test Calculation 428
Appendix C: File Create_fem_dummy.dat 440
Appendix D: Properties and Materials of Hybrid III Dummy 444
Appendix E: Groups created by Session File for Positioning within MD
Patran 447
Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv) 450
Problem Description 450
Dytran Model 452
Results 456
Input Deck 458
Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy 466
Problem Description 466
Model Description 466
Conclusions and Recommendations 478
Input Files 479
Appendix A: Overview of the Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy 487
Appendix B: SURFACE and SET1 Definition 491
Appendix C: hyb305 Positioning 492
Reference Database 495
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing 496
Problem Description 496
Dytran Modeling 497
Results 498
Dytran Input File 501
Dytran Example Problems Manual 12
7 Quasi-static Analysis
Overview 506
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
507
Problem Description 507
Dytran Model 508
Results 508
MD Nastran Results 510
Dytran Results 510
Files 512
Abbreviated Dytran Input File 512
Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Dytran Example Problem Manual
1
Structural Dynamics

Overview 14

Impulsively Loaded Strip 15

Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel 20

Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall) 25

Taylor Test with Euler 35

Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements 40
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Overview
14
Overview
In this chapter, a number of example problems are presented that show the structural capabilities of
Dytran. The user can find in these examples how to model dynamic structural problems, what material
models to use, how to apply loads and constraints.
15 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Impulsively Loaded Strip
Impulsively Loaded Strip
Problem Description
An aluminum strip clamped at its left and right edges is subjected to an impulsive initial velocity
(v
z
= -132 m/sec) over its central portion (one-fourth of the length).
The overall dimensions and material properties are shown below:
The purpose is to investigate the sensitivity of the response to Poisson’s ratio (v =0.01, v = 0.3)
and to check results against data available from experiments performed at the Air Freight Flight
Dynamics Laboratory.
Dytran Model
Due to the symmetry of the problem, only half of the strip needs to be modeled (see Figure 1-1). The
left-hand half strip is discretized by a regular mesh of (30x3) quadrilateral elements.
The DMATEP and YLDVM entries are used to input the aluminum elastic-plastic material data.
Since plastic deformations occur, the PSHELL1 entry is used to specify five integration points across the
thickness. The PSHELL entry defaults to three integration points.
The SPC entry is used to impose the zero displacement/rotations of the damped left-hand edge and zero
out-of-plane displacement/rotations of the right-hand edge (symmetry plane).
To better represent the actual experimental conditions, the initial velocity distribution is slightly modified
so as to have a smooth transition to the remainder of the strip. The TIC1 entry is used to input
initial velocities.
Using the PARAM, INISTEP entry, the initial time step is set to 0.1e-6 sec according to the
COURANT criterion.
The ENDTIME Case Control entry is used to follow the dynamic behavior in the range up to
0.001 seconds.
length L = 0.254 m
width W = 0.0305 m
thickness t = 0.00318 m
density p = 2791 kg/m
3
Young’s modulus E = 7.17 10
10
N/m
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.3
yield stress o
y
= 2.854 10
8
N/m
2
hardening modulus E
h
= 0. N/m
2
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impulsively Loaded Strip
16
The Case Control entries TYPE, SAVE, GPOUT, GRIDS, and TIMES are used to build the z-displacement
time history of Grid Point 31 (in the plane of symmetry) by saving results every 0.01 msec.
The experimental results are available for every 0.1 msec.
Figure 1-1 Numerical Model Layout
Results Evaluation
Calculations have been carried out for two values of the Poisson’s ratio (v = 0.01, v = 0.3).
The numerical and experimental results are shown in Figure 1-2.
The results demonstrate that the behavior is not sensitive to the value of the Poisson’s ratio.
Furthermore, the numerical and experimental results agree satisfactorily [Ref 1.].
17 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Impulsively Loaded Strip
Figure 1-2 Vertical Z-displacement Time History of the (Free)
Corner Grid Point (31) of the Half Strip
Files
Reference
1. Balmer, H. A. and Witmer, E. A. “Theoretical-experimental Correlation of Large Dynamic and
Permanent Deformation of Impulsively Loaded Simple Structure,” 1964, Air Force Flight
Dynamics Laboratory report FDRTDR-64-108.
impulse_a.dat
impulse_b.dat
Dytran input files
IMPULSE_A.OUT
IMPULSE_B.OUT
Dytran output files
IMPULSE_A_ZDIS_0.THS
IMPULSE_B_ZDIS_0.THS
Dytran time history files
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impulsively Loaded Strip
18
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = IMPULSIVE LOADING OF A STRIP OF ALUMINUM (Units = m-Kg-N-sec)
CHECK = NO
ENDTIME = 0.001
TIC = 1
SPC = 1
$
$Data for Output Control Set 1
$
TYPE(zdis) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(zdis) = 99999
GPOUT(zdis) = ZDIS
GRIDS(zdis) = 1
SET 1 = 31
TIMES(zdis) = 0tEndb1e-05
$
$
------------
BEGIN BULK
------------
SETTING,1,VERSION2
$
PARAM INISTEP 1e-07
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$Geometry definition
$---------------------
$
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 2 .00423330.0 0.0
.
.
.
$
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 33 32
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 34 33
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE LOADS, CONSTRAINTS, AND CONTROL BULK DATA ENTRIES
$Boundary condition
$---------------------
$
SPC 1 1 123456
SPC 1 32 123456
SPC 1 63 123456
SPC 1 94 123456
SPC 1 31 156
SPC 1 62 156
SPC 1 93 156
SPC 1 124 156
$
$Material Properties
$-------------------
PSHELL1 1 1 Bely Gauss 5 Mid +
+ .00318
$
19 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Impulsively Loaded Strip
YLDVM 1 2.854+8 0.0
$
DMATEP 1 2791. 7.17+10 .01 1
$
$Initial Conditions
$--------------------
$
TIC1 1 3 -132. 31 THRU 124 BY +
+ 31 30 THRU 123 BY 31 29 THRU +
+ 122 BY 31
TIC1 1 3 -116. 28 THRU 121 BY +
+ 31
TIC1 1 3 -100. 25 THRU 118 BY +
+ 31 26 THRU 119 BY 31 27 THRU +
+ 120 BY 31
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel
20
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel
Problem Description
A 120° cylindrical panel (see Figure 1-3) is loaded impulsively by imposing a initial velocity normal to
the surface over a region along a part of the crown line of the cylinder. The ends of the panel are simply-
supported boundaries, while the sides of the panel are fixed.
Figure 1-3 Initial State
The properties and initial conditions are listed below.
Material of the Panel (6061 – T6 aluminum)
Size of the Panel
Initial Load
density p = 2.5 x 10
-4
lb sec
2
/in
4
Young’s modulus E = 1.05 x 10
7
psi
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.33
yield stress o
y
= 4.4 x 10
4
psi
thickness t = 0.125 in
radius R = 2.94 in
length L = 12.56 in
velocity v
0
= 5650 in/sec
21 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel
Dytran Model
Because the panel is symmetric, only one half of the panel is modeled using 12 x 32 (348) shell elements
(CQUAD4). Through the thickness, a five-point Gauss integration is applied to produce sufficient
accuracy. Two types of shell formulations are used, Belytschko-Tsay and Key-Hoff ([Ref. 2.]).
The initial velocity is defined in a cylindrical coordinate system using the TICGP entry. The cylindrical
system is defined by the CORD2C entry.
Results
A time history is used to give the y-displacement at the midpoint of the crown line of the cylinder for
both the Belytschko-Tsay and Key-Hoff shell element. The results are shown in (Figure 1-4) and
can be compared with the experimental results of Balmer and Witmer (see [Ref. 3.]). The differences
between the results of the two shell formulations are small because Key-Hoff only performs better
when a significant part of the element is warped. In comparison with the experiments, the results are
acceptable. If one takes into account that the experimental edges were not ideally damped ([Ref. 4.])
.
Figure 1-4 Displacement of the Midpoint of the Crown Line
Figure 1-5 shows the deformation and effective plastic strain of the cylindrical panel for the
Belytschko-Tsay shell elements at different time steps.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel
22
.
Figure 1-5 Deformation and Effective Plastic Strain of the Cylindrical Panel
23 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel
Files
References (Continued)
2. Belytschko, T., Wong, B. L., and Chiang, H.-Y. “Advances in One-point Quadrature Shell
Elements,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 96, 1992, pp. 93–107.
3. Balmer, H. A. and Witmer, E. A. “Theoretical-experimental Correlation of Large Dynamic and
Permanent Deformation of Impulsively Loaded Simple Structure,” 1964, Air Force Flight
Dynamics Laboratory report FDRTDR-64-108.
4. Morino, L., Leach, J. W. and Witmer, E. A. “An Improved Numerical Calculation Technique
for Large Elastic-Plastic Transient Deformations of Thin Shell = Part 2 – Evaluation and
Applications,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, June 1971,
pp. 429–436.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
$
$ A 120 degree cylindrical panel is loaded impulsively. It is simply
$ supported at the ends. The model consists of half the panel, with
12x32
$ shell elements. The loading is generated by imposing initial
velocities
$ on the grid points.
$
START
CEND
TITLE = Cylindrical Panel (12x32 - B-T or Keyhoff Shell 5 G-Pts)
CHECK = NO
ENDSTEP = 10000
ENDTIME = 1.e-3
TIC = 1
SPC = 1
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 1
$$
$$ Time-History plot of the y-displacement of the midpoint along the
crown
$$ line of the cylinder (grid 209).
$$
TYPE(TH_G_24) = TIMEHIS
GPOUT(TH_G_24) = YDIS
SET 1 = 209
cylpan.dat
panel_xl.dat
Dytran input files
CYLPAN.OUT Dytran Output File
CYLPAN_PANEL_0.ARC Dytran Archive File
CYLPAN_TH_G_24_0.THS Dytran Time History File
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impulsively Loaded Cylindrical Panel
24
GRIDS(TH_G_24) = 1
TIMES(TH_G_24) = 0 THRU END BY 1.e-5
SAVE(TH_G_24) = 10000
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 15
$$
TYPE(PANEL) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS(PANEL) = 15
SET 15 = 1 THRU 384
ELOUT(PANEL) = EFFPL03,TXX03,TYY03,TXY03,TYZ03,TZX03
ELOUT(PANEL) = EFFST03,EXX03,EYY03,EXY03
TIMES(PANEL) = 0 THRU END BY 1e-4
SAVE(PANEL) = 10000
$
BEGIN BULK
$
$ Definition of some parameters.
$ -----------------------------
PARAM INISTEP 1.e-6
PARAM STEPFCT 0.9
PARAM SHPLAST VECT
PARAM HGCOEFF 0.1
PARAM SHTHICK YES
$
$ Model geometry and boundary constrain.
$ --------------------------------------
INCLUDE panel_xl.dat
$
$ Shell Properties for the panel(B-T or Keyhoff).
$ -----------------------------------------------
$PSHELL1 1 1 keyhoff GAUSS 5 1.0 MID
+CONT
PSHELL1 1 1 bely GAUSS 5 1.0 MID
+CONT
+CONT .125
$
$ Material and yield model.
$ -------------------------
DMATEP 1 .00025 1.05e7 .33 10
$
YLDVM 10 44000 0
$
$ Initial condition for gridpoints.
$ ---------------------------------
CORD2C 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -12.56 +
+ 0.0 2.94 -6.28
TICGP 1 1 CID1 1 XVEL -5650
SET1 1 14 THRU 339 BY 13 15 THRU +
+ 340 BY 13 16 THRU 341 BY 13 +
+ 17 THRU 342 BY 13 18 THRU 343 +
+ BY 13 19 THRU 344 BY 13 20 +
+ THRU 345 BY 13
$
ENDDATA
25 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
Problem Description
The Taylor “bar test” is an important laboratory test in the science of ballistics. It enables to determine
an average value of the dynamic yield stress of a material. It consists of accelerating a cylindrical bar (the
velocity being parallel to the axis of symmetry), and then let the bar hit a rigid target. As a result, the bar
shortens and the impact side expands radially acquiring a mushroom like shape.
Much research work has been done on these impact tests. In this example, the experimental work done
by Johnson/Cook is validated with a number of simulations in Dytran with different element types. On
top of this work, the results are compared against the theoretical solution developed by Taylor.
Johnson and Cook developed a material model that represents a constitutive model for materials
subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. The Dytran implementation is
validated for a set of constitutive constants presented in [Ref. 5.].
Johnson-Cook Material Model
This material model is described in the Dytran Reference and User manuals. For more detailed
information and data sets for various materials, see [Ref. 5.].
Theoretical Approach – Taylor
Taylor developed a simple expression for the final length of the bar, , as function of the initial length
, the impact velocity , the yield strength , and the density .
The assumptions made in this expression are:
• There is a stationary yield front near the wall
• A quasi-steady process is assumed
Figure 1-6 Schematic Overview of the Taylor Impact Test
L
f
L
0
V o
y
p
L
f
L
0
pV
2
– 2o
y
( ) exp =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
26
In this Taylor test, the process stops when all the kinetic energy has converted to plastic work. It is
interesting to note that the governing parameters of the process give a non-dimensional quantity,
therefore, the result depends on this combination and not on the specific value of each parameter.
Dytran Model
A cylindrical rod with a length of 25.4 mm and a diameter of 3.82 impacts a rigid wall with a velocity of
190 mm/s. The material data:
• rho=8.96e-9 tonne/mm3
• Bulk modulus K=143e3 MPa
• Shear modulus G=47.7e3 MPa
• Two different material models have been used:
• Johnson/Cook
• Constant von Mises: o
y
= 600 MPa (elastic-rigid-plastic)
The interface between the wall and the rod are assumed frictionless.
Dytran Results
Hexa Elements
As a first step, a comparison is made between an experimental result in [Ref. 5.] and a simulation that
uses Johnson-Cooks constitutive model that is presented in the same reference. The simulation
performed with Dytran is setup with CHEXA elements. The simulation is done with the widely used
one-point Gauss integration scheme.

Figure 1-7 Dytran CHEXA Model – Impact of Cylinder - Quarter Model
27 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
To be able to compare this result with the other element solvers in Dytran, an equivalent von Mises yield
stress is chosen such that a simulation with the von Mises yield criterion gives the same answers. The
von Mises yield stress is found to be ~ 600 MPa in order to give the same results as with the Johnson
Cook material model. This 600 MPa seems realistic, see Figure 1-8.

Figure 1-8 Armco Iron Material Data – Johnson Cook
Next, a simulation is done with the new 2x2x2 CHEXA element in Dytran 2004. This element has a
larger reduction in length.
The results of the simulations with Dytran are shown in Figure 1-9.
In summary: the Hexa – one point (von Mises) result is tuned to be on top of the Hexa – one point
(Johnson Cook) result. The CHEXA – 2x2x2 result has the largest length reduction.
Figure 1-9 Comparison of Dytran CHEXA Elements
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
28
Tetrahedral Elements
In order to evaluate the new and old tetrahedral elements in Dytran, the model is meshed with CTETRA
elements. The old tetrahedral implementation is a 8-noded hexa element with 1 gauss point, degenerated
into a tet shape. This element is known to give imprecise answers. This is clearly shown in Figure 1-11
and Figure 1-12. The new 4-noded tetrahedral element gives answers much closer to the hexahedral
one point element.
Figure 1-10 Dytran CTETRA Model – Impact of Cylinder - Quarter Model

Figure 1-11 Comparison of Different Element Types in Dytran
In Figure 1-12, a detailed section of Figure 1-11 is shown. The results all show an oscillating behavior
that is common in all transient dynamic events and is physical. Furthermore, the new 2x2x2 CHEXA
29 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
element is deviating from the experimental result. and further developments are targeted to improve the
behavior of the new CHEXA element in impact events involving metal plasticity. The 2x2x2 CHEXA
element has specifically been implemented and tested to reduce the hour-glassing phenomenon in rubber
and foam modeling
Figure 1-12 Detailed Comparison of Different Element Types in Dytran
Theoretical – Taylor
In Figure 1-9, Figure 1-11, and Figure 1-12, the theoretical reduction in length according to Taylor
is plotted:
This theoretical reduction is based on an assumption of constant yield of 700 MPa.
L
f
L
0
0.78 =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
30
Comparison of Shape
The shape is compared in Figure 1-13 through Figure 1-17.
Figure 1-13 Dytran Simulation - Johnson Cook Material Model with CHEXA -
One Point Gauss
Figure 1-14 Dytran Simulation - von Mises Material Model with CHEXA - One Point Gauss
Figure 1-15 Dytran Simulation - von Mises Material Model with CHEXA - 2x2x2
31 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
Figure 1-16 Dytran Simulation - von Mises Material Model with CTETRA - Old Element
Figure 1-17 Dytran Simulation - von Mises Material Model with CTETRA - New Element
Comparison of CPU time
Figure 1-18 shows the total CPU time for the various simulations. This doesn't show the performance of
each element very clearly, because the total timings for the various runs are still heavily dependent on the
physics and modeling used: the deformation and the size of the elements. The number of elements in all
models is approximately the same, but the model with the Tet elements contain a few tiny elements which
determine the timestep. At the end of the simulation, the time-step of the hex-models is 1.53e-5 msec,
while the time-step of the tet-models is 1.28e-5 msec. Therefore, Figure 1-19 shows the timings weighted
per element-cycle. This allows a fair comparison of the element's performance. The new tetrahedral
element shows a dramatic speed up compared to the old implementation, and is in fact the fastest
element available.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
32
Figure 1-18 Comparison of Total CPU Time for Several Dytran Elements
Figure 1-19 Comparison of Timings for the New CHEXA and
CTETRA Elements in Dytran
References
5. Johnson, G.R. and Hook, W.H. “A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large
strains, high strain rates and high temperatures”, April 1983, 7th Ballistic Symposium, The
Hague, The Netherlands
6. Wilkins, L.M and Guinan M.W. “Impact of cylinders on a rigid boundary”, August 1972,
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
33 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.06E-3
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: Hexs-EPM-default-JC
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: Cylinder_Elem
TYPE (Cylinder_Elem) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Cylinder_Elem) = 1
SET 1 = 1 THRU 1224
ELOUT (Cylinder_Elem) = TXX TYY TZZ TXY TYZ TZX EFFSTS PRESSURE EFFPLS SIE
TIMES (Cylinder_Elem) = 0 THRU END BY 0.03e-4
SAVE (Cylinder_Elem) = 10000
$ Output result for request: Cylinder_Grid
TYPE (Cylinder_Grid) = ARCHIVE
GRIDS (Cylinder_Grid) = 2
SET 2 = 1 THRU 1768
GPOUT (Cylinder_Grid) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL RVEL XACC YACC ZACC RACC ,
XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE RFORCE
TIMES (Cylinder_Grid) = 0 THRU END BY 0.03e-4
SAVE (Cylinder_Grid) = 10000
$ Output result for request: GridTHS
TYPE (GridTHS) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (GridTHS) = 3
SET 3 = 1 1735
GPOUT (GridTHS) = XPOS YPOS ZPOS RPOS XVEL YVEL ZVEL RVEL XACC YACC ZACC ,
RACC
TIMES (GridTHS) = 0 THRU END BY 0.06e-5
SAVE (GridTHS) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,5E-9
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE Hexs-EPM-default-JC.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * Prop_cylinder 2x2x2 *
$
PSOLID 1 2 TWO FULL
$
$ * Prop_cylinder_VM *
$
PSOLID 2 3
$
CORD2R 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+A000001
+A000001 1 0 0
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Cylinder_VM id =2
DMAT 28.96e-09 2 2 2
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test (a rod impacted against a rigid wall)
34
EOSPOL 2 143000
SHREL 2 47700
YLDVM 2 700
$
$ -------- Material Cylinder_JC id =3
DMAT 38.96e-09 3 3 3
EOSPOL 3 143000
SHREL 3 47700
YLDJC 3 175 380 .32 .06 55 14.52e+08+A000002
+A000002 1811 293
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- Initial Velocity BC InitialVelocity -----
SET1 4 1 THRU 1768
TICGP 1 4 ZVEL -197000
$
$ ------- Rigid Plane BC RigidWall -----
WALL 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 5+A000004
+A000004 PENALTY
SET1 5 1 THRU 1768
$
$
ENDDATA
35 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test with Euler
Taylor Test with Euler
For most structural problems, the Lagrange approach is the preferred solution. But if deformations
become large, the Euler approach can become more accurate. As deformations are increased, the
Lagrangian elements are severely distorted affecting the accuracy of the solution. In the Euler approach,
severe distortion is irrelevant and does not exist. Eulerian elements are stationary and have a fixed
volume; only the material inside the elements can move and is transported over the faces of the stationary
Euler elements. In addition, the Euler approach does not need any contact definition when an impactor
hits a plate.
This example shows how the model from Example1-4 is handled by the multi-material Euler solver with
strength. It also illustrates the use of PARAM, AXIALSYM.
Problem Description
The problem is the same as in Example 1-4. A bar impacts a rigid wall. This example will compare the
results of a Lagrangian approach using the Johnson-Cook material model as shown in Example 1-4 and
an Euler simulation.
Dytran Model
Setup of the Euler Domain
To construct the Euler mesh, a pie shape consisting of one layer of elements will be created as shown in
Figure 1-20. Because the simulation will assume axi-symmetric behavior the following requirements are
imposed on the Euler mesh domain:
• For accuracy the angle of this pie should be small, say 5°.
• When creating a pie mesh with Patran, the grid points are written out in single precision,
resulting in very small errors. The small errors are large enough to cause errors in the normals of
the faces of Euler faces. A normal that is supposed to point in the circumferential direction gets a
very small component in the axial and radial direction. For a problem involving strength, this
leads to small dynamics in the circumferential direction. To keep the dynamics small and
bounded, the stable time step has also to be based on the circumferential direction. The pie
model has a small angle which results in a small mesh size and therefore a small time step. With
PARAM, AXIALSYM, these grid points can be slightly corrected resulting in aligned normals.
This technique results in a much larger time step.
In addition, PARAM, AXIALSYM can be used to create a pie mesh directly from a rectangular block slab
of elements. This approach has been followed in this example. First of all, a rectangular Euler mesh
consisting of one layer has been defined in the input file. Secondly, PARAM,AXIALSYM transforms this
mesh automatically into a pie shape mesh in the Dytran solver. Please refer to the reference manual for
further information on this option.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test with Euler
36
The Euler elements are defined by
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.0,26.0,0.2,3.82,,,+
+,128,1,44,,,,EULER,1
Figure 1-20 Pie Model
To make this rectangular mesh into a pie-shaped mesh PARAM,AXIALSYM will be used:
PARAM,AXIALSYM,RECT,X,ZX,2.5
The pie-shaped mesh will also be used in the initialization. The time step will only be based on the mesh-
size in x and z-direction. The mesh size in the y-direction would require a much smaller time step. Since
there is no dynamics in the y direction, the mesh size in y-direction can be left out. This is also defined
by PARAM,AXIALSYM.
Setup of Material and Initialization Data
The multi-material Euler with strength solver will be used:
First model: PEULER1,1,, STRENGTH,4
PEULER1,1,, MMSTREN,4
The material is defined by
DMAT,1,8.96e-9,1,1,1,,1
PMINC,1,-1.e+20
EOSPOL,1,143000
SHREL,1,47700
YLDJC ,1,175,380,0.32,0.06,0.55,1,4.52e+008,+
+ ,1811,293
37 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test with Euler
The Euler elements are initialized using geometric regions:
TICVAL,3,,XVEL,-197000,DENSITY,8.96e-9
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC init-euler -----
TICEUL,4,,,,,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,1,,,1,,,,+
+ ,BOX,2,1,3,2,,,,+
SPHERE,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0,100.0
BOX,2,,0.0,-0.3,0.0,25.4,0.6,1.91
Results
Results at time 4.8 e-5 sec are shown in Figure 1-21 and Figure 1-22
.
Figure 1-21 FMAT of the metal
Figure 1-22 Plastic strain, Range 0 to 1.08
As in Example 4.1, the rod elongates slightly after 0.48e-5 sec as shown in Figure 1-23. The total length
reached at the end is 19.9. This translates into a reduction of length of 0.78. These results compare well
with the results presented in Example 1.4
If the compression is more severe or when damage is used it is preferred to add PARAM,
EULSTRESS,MASS. With this PARAM, stresses are transported by using mass instead of volume. The
mass approach can be more accurate, but for this simulation it is not needed.
Running the same problem with the single material strength solver also gives reasonable results, although
the material is not as smooth. This is explained by the fact that the transport algorithms of the multi-mat
strength solver are currently more sophisticated.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Taylor Test with Euler
38
Figure 1-23 Elongation as Function of Time
Figure 1-24 FMAT at Time 4.8e-5 seconds with the Strength Solver
Dytran File
START
MEMORY-SIZE = 6500000,6500000
CEND
ENDTIME=7.e-5
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: taylor-euler
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: euler
TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 1
SET 1 = ALLELEMENTS
ELOUT (euler) = DENSITY TEMPTURE EFFSTS ,
VOID XVEL YVEL ZVEL MASS PRESSURE,
FMAT EDIS EFFPLS
TIMES (euler) = 0,THRU,END,BY,6.e-6
SAVE (euler) = 10000
39 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Taylor Test with Euler
$------- Parameter Section ------
$
PARAM,INISTEP,5e-9
PARAM,MINSTEP,1e-10
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * peuler1 *
PARAM,AXIALSYM,RECT,X,ZX,2.5
$
PEULER1,1,, MMSTREN,4
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material JC id =1
DMAT,1,8.96e-9,1,1,1,,1
PMINC,1,-1.e+20
EOSPOL,1,143000
SHREL,1,47700
YLDJC ,1,175,380,0.32,0.06,0.55,1,4.52e+008,+
+ ,1811,293
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC init-bar-val -----
TICVAL,3,,XVEL,-197000,DENSITY,8.96e-9
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC init-euler -----
TICEUL,4,,,,,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,1,,,1,,,,+
+ ,BOX,2,1,3,2,,,,+
SPHERE,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0,100.0
BOX,2,,0.0,-0.3,0.0,25.4,0.6,1.91
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.0,26.0,0.2,3.82,,,+
+,128,1,44,,,,EULER,1
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
40
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
Problem Description
Hourglass modes in simulations with 1-point integration hexahedron and quadrilateral elements are
always present. In the past, a lot of research in suppressing these modes have been done in Dytran and
other explicit codes. Therefore, nowadays, the hourglass modes are often suppressed to a sufficient level
by default. However, in certain occasions, the modes are still persevering and can easily trouble the
solution. A rigorous solution for this is the use of fully integrated quadrilateral and/or hexahedron
elements. These elements do not exhibit hourglassing modes, and therefore, do not need hourglass
suppressing terms in the algorithm.
To illustrate the above, a load is applied to a plate modeled with one layer of hexahedron elements.
The model has a load (linearly) applied in the top mid center and is supported in the lower corners. It will
be shown that the new fully integrated hexahedron element in Dytran does not suffer from hourglassing.
Theoretically, this can be proven because no hourglassing modes exist in the solution, contrary to the
1-point integration hexahedron element, which has several hourglassing modes.
The model will be run with four different settings, as summarized in Table 1-1.
The model has the following
Dytran Model
The hexahedron mesh is shown in Figure 1-25. The model has one element over the thickness, and 64
elements in total. The force is applied on two nodes in the top center and the bottom corner nodes are
clamped using a SPC. The force is ramped up linearly in 0.1 seconds to minimize oscillations. The
ENDTIME is 0.1 seconds.
Table 1-1 Summary of Analyses Settings
Case Element Integration Method
Hourglass Control
Method
Hourglass Control
Coefficient
1 1-point – constant stress Stiffness Based (FBS) 0.1
2 2x2x2 points – fully integrated – -
3 1-point – constant stress Stiffness Based (FBS) 0.01
4 1-point – constant stress Viscosity Based (DYNA) 0.1
Dimensions Material, Linear Elastic Loads and BC's
LxB = 5x5 G = 7500 F = 400, linear in time up to 0.1 [sec]
Thickness = 1 K = 16250 (as a result: v = 0.3) Clamped at bottom corner nodes.
r = 1.2e-3
41 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
Figure 1-25 Model
Case 1
This case is using default settings.
Case 2
Starting with the model of Case 1, choosing the following options on the PSOLID entry activates the
2x2x2 fully integrated hexa element:
IN = 2
ISOP = FULL
Case 3
Starting with the model of Case 1, choosing the following option on the HGSUPPR entry activates the
lower hourglass coefficient:
HGCSOL = 0.01
Case 4
Starting with the model of Case 1, the overall hourglass control method for solids is modified to the
viscous method, by entering the parameter:
PARAM, HGCSOLID, DYNA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
42
Results
The results for the four cases are shown in Figure 1-26 through Figure 1-29 below.
Figure 1-26 shows that applying point loads as done in this example introduce hourglass modes when
using 1-point integration.
Figure 1-27 shows that the hourglass modes do not occur when using the 2x2x2 integration method.
Figure 1-28 shows that by lowering the hourglass control coefficient more severe hourglass modes occur.
Figure 1-29 shows that the viscous hourglass mode suppression method is not working well in this
example. This is understandable, because in general a viscous hourglass mode suppression method is
only suited for problems with high velocities.
Note that in all the figures, the displacements are all scaled up in order to show the hourglassing modes
more clearly.
Figure 1-26 Case 1: 1-Point Integration Hexa, Hourglassing to a Small Extent
in the Bottom and Top Rows
Note: Displacements are scaled up.
43 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
Figure 1-27 Case 2: 2x2x2 Fully Integrated Hexa, No Hourglassing
Figure 1-28 Case 3: 1-Point Integration Hexa with Lower Stiffness Damping
Coefficient (0.01)
Note: Displacements are scaled up.
Note: Displacements are scaled up.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
44
Figure 1-29 Case 4: 1-Point Integration Hexa with Viscous Hourglassing
Suppression, Hourglassing very Clearly Present
Files
References
7. Dytran reference manual, chapter 5, Bulk data description of Hourglass suppression modes
HGSUPPR
8. LS-Dyna version 970 Keyword's User Manual, *HOURGLASS
Note: Displacements are scaled up.
Case 1: EPM15-default.dat
Case 2: EPM15-2x2x2.dat
Case 3: EPM15-lowcoef.dat
Case 4: EPM15-hg-dyna.dat
45 Chapter 1: Structural Dynamics
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.1
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: Comparison-iso
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: elems
TYPE (elems) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elems) = 1
SET 1 = 1 THRU 64
ELOUT (elems) = TXX TYY TZZ TXY TYZ TZX EFFSTS EFFPLS SIE
TIMES (elems) = 0 THRU END BY 0.05
SAVE (elems) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-8
$
$ Case 1: no extra parameters
$
$ Case 2: no extra parameters
$
$ Case 3:
$ PARAM,HGCSOL,0.01
$
$ Case 4:
$ PARAM,HGSOLID,DYNA
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ --- SPC-name = Clamp
SPC1 1 123 1 9 82 90
$
$ --- Define 162 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .00000 .00000 .00000
… .
GRID 162 5.00000 5.00000 1.00000
$
$ --- Define 64 elements
$
$ -------- property set Property ---------
CHEXA 1 1 1 2 11 10 82 83+A000001
+A000001 92 91
… .
CHEXA 64 1 71 72 81 80 152 153+A000064
+A000064 162 161
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ Case 1,3 and 4:
$ * Property *
$
PSOLID 1 1
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Hourglassing in Hexahedron Elements
46
$ Case 2:
$ * Property 2x2x2 Hexa fully integrated *
$
$ PSOLID 1 1 2 1
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Material-iso id =1
DMAT 1 .0012 1 1
EOSPOL 1 23000
SHREL 1 7500
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- Force BC Force -----
TLOAD1 1 5 0 1
FORCE 5 77 0 1 0 -200 0
FORCE 5 158 0 1 0 -200 0
$
$ ================ TABLES =================
$
$ ------- TABLE 1: Table -------
TABLED1 1 +A000065
+A000065 0 0 .1 1 ENDT
$
ENDDATA
Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Dytran Example Problem Manual
2
Structural Contact

Overview 48

Three-plate Contact 49

Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate 55

Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall 63

Impact Loading 70

Pipe Whip 76
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Overview
48
Overview
In this chapter, a number of example problems are presented that show the capabilities of Dytran to model
structural interaction. Through these examples, the user can learn how to model the interaction between
structural parts using the different types of contact available in Dytran.
49 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Three-plate Contact
Three-plate Contact
Problem Description
Plates 1 and 3 are moving towards a third, resting Plate 2, which is located between them. The initial
situation is given in Figure 2-1 below:
Figure 2-1 Initial Situation
The required data is shown below.
• Size of all three plates:

• Material of the plates (steel):

• Initial conditions:

The purpose of this example is to investigate the treatment of contact between structures in Dytran.
width in y-direction a = 2 m
width in z-direction b = 2 m
thickness t = 0.005 m
density p = 7800 kg/m
3
Young’s modulus E = 2.1 10
11
N/mm
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.3
distance d = 0.005 m
velocity v
0
= 15 m/sec
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-plate Contact
50
Theoretical Result
The conservation of momentum and energy will only be achieved if the plates are reflected with a
velocity equal to the initial velocity but with reversed direction. For symmetry reasons, the central plate
stays at rest.
As shell elements (which are infinitely stiff in their normal direction) are used, the duration of the contact
is theoretically approaching zero.
Dytran Model
The plates are modeled by 4 x 4 shell elements. The initial grid point velocities are prescribed using TIC
entries. The CONTACT entry refers to SURFACE entries, which define the surfaces by sets of element
faces or by property IDs of shell elements. In this example, a CFACE is defined for each shell element.
The CFACEs of the plates 1, 2, and 3 are grouped in the face sets IDs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Three
different ways to model the contact are compared. The following table shows how the surfaces and
contacts are defined in three cases:
Time histories for the position and velocities of grid points on each plate are requested for output. In
addition, two Contact variables are requested for output. One is the magnitude of Contact force in the
x-direction and the other is the smallest distance between slave and master face.
Results
When a contact between two surfaces is defined, the code applies a constraint force pushing the
corresponding parts away from each other, as soon as penetration occurs. In the case of the master-slave
contact, the grid points of the slave surface are checked for penetration of the faces of the master surface
and the force is related to the depth of that penetration. The grid points of the master surface are not
checked against the slave surface.
In the case of the single surface contact, the algorithm checks all grid points for the penetration of
any face of the surface. As the stiffness of the contact (which is a numerical and not a physical entity)
is related to the number of penetrating grid points, the single surface contact is stiffer than the
master-slave contact. In this example, it should behave exactly as two master-slave contacts with
interchanged surfaces.
Master Slave Single Surface
CASE 1 Contact 1
Contact 2
2
3
1
2
CASE 2 Contact 1
Contact 2
2 1
2,3
CASE 3 Contact 1
Contact 3
Contact 2
2
1
1
2
2,3
51 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Three-plate Contact
The time histories of the central plate grid points velocities in x-direction agree with the expectations.
The plots of Case 1 (Figure 2-2) and Case 3 (Figure 2-3) show that the energy and momentum are
conserved and that symmetry is achieved. The acceleration of the plates during the contact has a finite
value according to the finite numerical stiffness of the contact.
Comparison of the plots show the stiffer behavior of the single surface contact. As a result of this, in
Case 2 (Figure 2-4), there is a delayed exchange of momentum in the master-slave contact causing a part
of the momentum to be transferred to the Plate 2.

Figure 2-2 Two Master-slave Contacts Result in a Symmetric Behavior
Figure 2-3 A Single-surface Contact behaves as Stiff as Two
Master-slave Contacts Interchanged Surfaces
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-plate Contact
52
Figure 2-4 The Combination of a Single Surface Contact with a Single Master-slave
Contact produces an Unsymmetric Result
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
TITLE = Three Plate Contact
ENDSTEP = 40
TIC = 1
$
$ --------- Requesting the Position and Velocity of one
$
TYPE(grxpv) = TIMEHIS
pl3contact1.dat
pl3contact2.dat
pl3contact3.dat
Dytran input file for the three cases
PL3CONTACT1.OUT
PL3CONTACT2.OUT
PL3CONTACT3.OUT
Dytran output files for the three cases
PL3CONTACT1_GRXPV_1.THS
PL3CONTACT2_GRXPV_1.THS
PL3CONTACT3_GRXPV_1.THS
Dytran time history files for grid point
output for the three cases
PL3CONTACT1_CONT_DIS_0.THS
PL3CONTACT2_CONT_DIS_0.THS
PL3CONTACT3_CONT_DIS_0.THS
Dytran time history files for contact output
for the three cases
53 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Three-plate Contact
SAVE(grxpv) = 9999
GRIDS(grxpv) = 1
SET 1 = 12t62b25
STEPS(grxpv) = 1t100b1
GPOUT(grxpv) = XPOS,XVEL
$
$ --------- Contact distance output vars
$
TYPE(cont_dis) = TIMEHIS
CONTS(cont_dis) = 2
SET 2 = ALLCONTACTS
CONTOUT(cont_dis) = DMIN,XFORCE
STEPS(cont_dis) = 0,THRU,END,BY,1
SAVE(cont_dis) = 9999
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 1e-05
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
$
GRID 1 -.005 -1. -1.
GRID 2 -.005 -.5 -1.
GRID 3 -.005 0.0 -1.
GRID 4 -.005 .5 -1.
.
.
.
GRID 72 .005 -.5 1.
GRID 73 .005 -4.44-161.
GRID 74 .005 .5 1.
GRID 75 .005 1. 1.
$
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 7 6
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 8 7
CQUAD4 3 1 3 4 9 8
CQUAD4 4 1 4 5 10 9
.
.
CQUAD4 45 1 66 67 72 71
CQUAD4 46 1 67 68 73 72
CQUAD4 47 1 68 69 74 73
CQUAD4 48 1 69 70 75 74
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE LOADS, CONSTRAINTS, AND CONTROL BULK DATA
$ ENTRIES
$
$
TIC 1 1 1 15.
TIC 1 2 1 15.
TIC 1 3 1 15.
TIC 1 4 1 15.
.
.
TIC 1 51 1 -15.
TIC 1 52 1 -15.
TIC 1 53 1 -15.
TIC 1 54 1 -15.
$
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-plate Contact
54
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE DEFINED FEFACES OF ELEMENTS
$
$
CFACE 1 1 1 1
CFACE 2 1 2 1
CFACE 3 1 3 1
CFACE 4 1 4 1
.
.
.
$
PSHELL 1 1 .005
$
DMATEP 1 7800. 2.1+11 .3
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1
SURFACE 2 SEG 2
SURFACE 3 SEG 3
$
CONTACT 1 SURF SURF 1 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ Both Full +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Distance0.002 +
+ 0.0 1.+20 On On 1.+20
CONTACT 2 SURF SURF 2 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ Both Full +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Distance0.002 +
+ 0.0 1.+20 On On 1.+20
ENDDATA
55 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
Problem Description
Consider the situation where a rigid steel ball with a weight of 2.6 kg strikes a square steel plate with a
thickness of 0.005 m at a velocity of 230 m/sec. The ball hits the center of the plate perpendicularly. Two
alternative models of the plate have been computed [Ref. 1.].
In the first model, the plate is composed of individual shell elements without any grid points in common.
the connection between adjacent elements is defined by constraints (BJOINS), which are eliminated
when the average plastic strain of the connected elements exceeds a specified value (see Figure 2-5).
Additionally, when the ball penetrates the plate, the elements that break off do not go to pieces but
remain in the Dytran model, as is shown in Figure 2-6. This approach might be used to simulate. e.g.
welding lines.
Figure 2-5 BJOINS: Connection Fails if 1/4
The second model concerns a plate composed of shell elements with a failure criterion (eroding
elements). Input data are equal as for the first model. As is shown in Figure 2-7, the failed elements vanish
if they lose their stiffness. The mass and momentum at the grid points is retained. An advantage of this
approach is that the CPU time is about five times smaller than for the first model. The properties of the
plate and ball are listed below.
Plate
material steel
Young’s modulus E = 2. 10
11
N/m
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.3
yield stress o = 4. 10
8
N/m
2
percent of elongation 50%
thickness t = 0.005 m
length L = 0.3 m
width W = 0.3 m
c
p1
c
p2
c
p3
c
p4
+ + + ( ) c
p
> 0.5 =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
56
Ball
Figure 2-6 Ball Penetrating Plate using BJOINS
material steel (rigid body)
density p = 7850 kg/m
3
mass m = 2.617 kg
radius R = 0.043 m
velocity v = 230 m/sec
57 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
Figure 2-7 Ball Penetrating Plate without using BJOINS
Desired Results
The two models will be compared with respect to the failure of the plate. In the BJOIN model, the
elements should break off without failing themselves and they should remain visible in the Dytran model.
In the eroding element model, the failed elements are only used in the calculation but should be invisible
to the user.
Dytran Modeling
The ball is modeled as a rigid body using the RIGID entry. The outer surface of the ball consists of 1000
CQUAD4 dummy elements, which are defined as such by the PSHELL1 entry. The elements are covered
by CFACEs so that by using the SURFACE entry, the outer surface can be both defined as a rigid surface
that is needed in the RIGID entry as well as a Lagrangian interface in the contact with the plate. There are
no constraints imposed on the ball, but it is given an initial velocity of 230 m/sec in the RIGID entry.
The plate is modeled using 30 x 30 (900) Belytschko-Tsay shell elements (CQUAD4). Furthermore, a
nonuniform mesh with smaller elements is used near the center, where the impact takes place. By using
the SPC entry, the boundary of the plate is fixed in all directions.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
58
In the BJOIN model, there are 4 x 900 (3600) different grid points defined, since the 900 elements have
no grid points in common. Constraints are imposed on the grid points, using the BJOIN entry to tie the
elements together, and a user-written subroutine exbrk.f to define the failure mechanism (see Figure 2-5).
For the BJOIN entry, you must define an input set that contains all the joined grid point pairs, while the
subroutine exbrk.f causes the connection of a set of tied nodes to break when the average plastic strain of
the four adjacent elements surrounding this set of nodes exceeds 50%. The entire plate is defined as a
Lagrangian interface by the SURFACE entry. Finally, the Lagrangian interaction between ball and plate
is established by the CONTACT entry, where the ball is defined as “master” and the plate as “slave”. Note
that the plate must be a slave surface since the elements (segments of the SURFACE) are separate during
the contact, which will cause problems with sliding.
In the eroding element case (normal failure criterion), there are again 900 elements but only 961 grid
points for defining the plate. Instead of the BJOIN entry, the FAILMPS entry is used and the maximum
plastic strain is set to 0.5. The results are shown in Figure 2-7.
Results
Figure 2-6 and Figure 2-7 show the penetration of the ball through a plate modeled with BJOIN and
modeled with eroding elements, respectively. In the BJOIN case, the elements that break off remain
visible, whereas in the eroding element case, the failed elements disappear as was expected.
In Figure 2-8, the velocity of the ball, the kinetic energy, and the internal energy of the plate are compared
for both models. In the BJOIN case, the ball loses more kinetic energy during the impact than in the
eroding element case. Finally, the BJOIN case consumes about five times more CPU time than the
eroding element case.
59 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
Figure 2-8 Difference in the Velocity of the Ball, and the Kinetic and Internal Energy Plate
between both Cases. The Thick (Upper) Curve is made using BJOIN
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
60
Files
Reference
1. Gere, James M., and Timoshenko, Stephen P., Mechanics of Materials, 1985, Wadsworth
International.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Ball penetrating a steel plate
CHECK = NO
ENDSTEP = 1100
TLOAD = 1
TIC = 1
SPC = 1
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 1
$$
TYPE (Ball) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Ball) = 8
SET 8 = ALLDUMQUAD
ELOUT (Ball) = ZUSER
STEPS (Ball) = 0,THRU,END,BY,100
SAVE (Ball) = 10000
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 2
ball_plate.dat Dytran input file for BJOIN case
ball_plate_adap.dat Dytran input file for the eroding element case
ball_xl.dat Geometry input file for ball
non_equi_plate.dat Geometry input file for BJOIN_plate
bjoin_grid_set.dat BJOIN grid_pairs file
fail_plate_xl.dat Geometry input file for plate for eroding element
case. Dytran Input Files
BALL_PLATE.OUT
BALL_PLATE_ADAP.OUT
Dytran output files
BALL_PLATE_BALL_0.ARC
BALL_PLATE_PLATE_0.ARC
Dytran archive files (BJOIN case)
BALL_PLATE_ADAP_BALL_0.ARC
BALL_PLATE_ADAP_PLATE_0.ARC
Dytran archive files (eroding element)
BALL_PLATE_RIGID_BALL_0.THS
BALL_PLATE_ENERGY_0.THS
Dytran time history files (BJOIN case)
BALL_PLATE_ADAP_RIGID_BALL_0.THS
BALL_PLATE_ADAP_ENERGY_0.THS
Dytran time history files (eroding element)
exbrk.f User subroutine used for BJOIN case
61 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
$$
TYPE (Plate) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Plate) = 7
SET 7 = ALLSHQUAD
ELOUT (Plate) = EFFPL-MID,EFFST-MID
STEPS (Plate) = 0,THRU,END,BY,100
SAVE (Plate) = 10000
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 3
$$
TYPE (Rigid_Ball) = TimeHis
RIGIDS (Rigid_Ball) = 9
SET 9 = 200
RBOUT (Rigid_Ball) = XCG, YCG, ZCG, XVEL, YVEL, ZVEL
STEPS (Rigid_Ball) = 0 THRU END BY 2
SAVE(Rigid_Ball) = 10000
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 4
$$
TYPE (Energy) = TimeHis
MATS (Energy) = 12
SET 12 = 100
MATOUT (Energy) = EKIN, EINT, EDIS
STEPS (Energy) = 0 THRU END BY 2
SAVE(Energy) = 10000
$
$
BEGIN BULK
SETTING,1,VERSION2
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-7
PARAM,BULKL,0.06
PARAM,BULKQ,1.44
$
$ Model geometry.
$ ---------------
INCLUDE ball_xl.dat
$
INCLUDE non_equi_plate.dat
$
$ Definition of joined grid points.
$ ---------------------------------
BJOIN,1,229,1.E-5,USER,,EXBRK,,,+
+,,,,,YES
$
INCLUDE bjoin_grid_set.dat
$
$ Dummy elements to build the ball.
$ ---------------------------------
PSHELL1,200, ,DUMMY
$
$ Define the ball as a rigid body.
$ --------------------------------
RIGID,200,2,2.617,,.15,.15,.044,,+
+,,0.0,0.0,-230.,,,,,+
+,,.124767,0.0,0.0,.124767,0.0,.124767
$
$ Structural elements to build the steel plate.
$ ---------------------------------------------
PSHELL,100,100,.005
YLDVM,222,4.+8,0.0
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Ball Penetrating a Steel Plate
62
DMATEP,100,7850.,2.+11,.3,,,222
$
$ Contact surface on the plate.
$ -----------------------------
SURFACE,1,,ELEM,111
SET1,111,1,THRU,900
$
$ Surface for defining the ball as a rigid body,
$ which is also used as contact surface.
$ ----------------------------------------
SURFACE,2,,SEG,1
$
$ Contact surface for master (ball) - slave (plate).
$ --------------------------------------------------
CONTACT,1,SURF,SURF,1,2
$
ENDDATA
63 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
Problem Description
In the case of an impact between a moving object (given an initial velocity v
0
) and a rigid stationary wall,
it is common for the user to request forces, stresses, and deformations resulting from this impact. In some
cases, it might be easier to consider an equivalent problem where the object has no initial velocity and
where the rigid wall is given a constant velocity v(t) = –v
0
. The resulting forces, stresses, and
deformations are exactly equal for both cases since the first problem is identical to the second problem
if the frame of reference is moving with the same velocity v
0
.
To verify that Dytran is consistent with this theoretical result, two alternative analyses are used to model
the impact of a tapered beam (made of steel with a length of 1 m and a weight of 40.71 kg) with a rigid
plate. In the first case, the beam is given an initial velocity of 100m/sec while the plate is fixed. In the
second case, the plate is given a constant velocity of –100 m/sec while the beam has no initial velocity
but is free to move. The properties of the beam are as follows:
Beam
Desired Results
The two alternative analyses should yield the same results with respect to forces, stresses, and
deformations. Furthermore, the resulting velocities and momentum of the tapered beam for both cases
should differ by exactly 100 m/sec and 100 kg m/sec for every time step, respectively.
Dytran Modeling
The plate is modeled using 5 x 5 (25) Belytschko-Tsay shell elements (CQUAD4) covered by CFACEs.
Using the PSHELL1 (with the DUMMY option), the SURFACE, and the RIGID entries, the plate is defined
as a rigid body as well as a Lagrangian contact surface. Using the TLOAD1 entry (TYPE = 12) and the
FORCE entry, the plate is given a constant velocity of 0 m/sec and 100 m/sec in the first and second case,
respectively.
The tapered beam is built from 4 x 20 (80) nonuniform CHEXA elements that get smaller towards the
one end. The PSOLID entry together with the DMAT, EOSPOL, SHREL, YLDVM, and PMINC entries
material steel
density p = 7830 kg/m
3
mass m = 40.71 kg
bulk modulus K = 1.64 10
13
N/m
2
shear modulus G = 8.18 10
12
N/m
2
yield stress o = 1.4 10
11
N/m
2
spall pressure p
s
= –3.8 10
9
N/m
2
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
64
define a steel material property for the beam. The front part of the beam, which is in contact with the
plate, is covered by CFACEs to define a Lagrangian contact surface. In the first case, all the grid points
of the beam are given an initial velocity of 100 m/sec by using the TICGP entry.
Finally, the CONTACT entry defines the contact between the beam (slave) and the plate (master).
Results
As shown in Figure 2-9 through Figure 2-14, the results are identical for both cases, as expected.
Figure 2-9 Moving Beam - Effective Stress Contour of the Deformed Beam
after 1200 Cycles
Figure 2-10 Moving Plate – Effective Stress Contour of the Deformed Beam
after 1200 Cycles
65 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
Figure 2-11 Z-Forces for a Grid Point on the Front of the Beam – The Curves are identical
for both Cases
Figure 2-12 Z-velocities for Grid Point on the Front of the Beam –
The Upper Curve is derived from the Moving Beam Case
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
66
Figure 2-13 Z-momentum averaged over all the Grid Points of the Beam –
The Upper Curve is derived from the Moving Beam Case
Figure 2-14 Average Kinetic Energy of all the Grid Points of the Beam –
The Thick Curve is derived from the Moving Beam Case
67 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Moving beam strikes fixed wall.
CHECK = NO
ENDSTEP = 1200
TLOAD = 1
TIC = 1
SPC = 1
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 1
$$
TYPE (BEAM) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (BEAM) = 8
SET 8 = 1t80
ELOUT (BEAM) = EFFSTS,PRESSURE,EFFPLS
STEPS (BEAM) = 0,THRU,END,BY,50
SAVE (BEAM) = 10000
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 2
$$
TYPE (PLATE) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (PLATE) = 17
SET 17 = ALLDUMQUAD
ELOUT (PLATE) = ZUSER
STEPS (PLATE) = 0,THRU,END,BY,50
SAVE (PLATE) = 10000
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 3
$$
TYPE (VEL) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (VEL) = 9
SET 9 = 229
GPOUT (VEL) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,ZFORCE
STEPS (VEL) = 0,THRU,END,BY,2
SAVE (VEL) = 10000
tapered_beam1.dat
tapered_beam2.dat
tapered_beam_xl.dat
Dytran input files (case 1)
Dytran input files (case 2)
TAPERED_BEAM1.OUT
TAPERED_BEAM2.OUT
Dytran output files
TAPERED_BEAM1_BEAM_0.ARC
TAPERED_BEAM1_PLATE_0.ARC
Dytran archive files (BJOIN case)
TAPERED_BEAM2_BEAM_0.ARC
TAPERED_BEAM2_PLATE_0.ARC
Dytran archive files (eroding element)
TAPERED_BEAM1_VEL_0.THS
TAPERED_BEAM1_ENERGY_0.THS
Dytran time history files (BJOIN case)
TAPERED_BEAM2_VEL_0.THS
TAPERED_BEAM2_ENERGY_0.THS
Dytran time history files (eroding element)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
68
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 4
$$
TYPE (ENERGY) = TIMEHIS
MATS (ENERGY) = 13
SET 13 = 1
MATOUT (ENERGY) = EKIN, EINT, EDIS,XMOM,YMOM,ZMOM
STEPS (ENERGY) = 0,THRU,END,BY,2
SAVE (ENERGY) = 10000
$
BEGIN BULK
SETTING,1,VERSION2
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-7
$
$ Model geometry.
$ All entities are measured in cm.
$ --------------------------------
INCLUDE tapered_beam_xl.dat
$
$ Define plate.
$ -------------
PSHELL1,2,,DUMMY
$
$ A surface is needed to define the plate as a rigid body and
$ to define a Lagrangian contact surface.
$ ---------------------------------------
SURFACE,2,,SEG,2
$
$ Plate is rigid. In this case v=(0,0,0).
$ ---------------------------------------
RIGID,2,2,50.,,5.,5.,101.,,+
+,,0.,0.,0.,,,,,+
+,,1.e20,0.,0.,1.e20,0.,1.e20
$
$ Plate is fixed in space for this case.
$ By changing the data in the Force-entry, the plate can be
$ given a constant velocity.
$ --------------------------
TLOAD1,1,2,,12
$
FORCE,2,2,,0.,0.,0.,1.
$
$ Initial velocity beam is 10000 cm/s for this case.
$ The TICGP-entry is skipped when the plate is given a velocity.
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
TICGP,1,5,ZVEL,10000.
$
SET1,5,45,THRU,233
$
$ Properties beam:
$ ---------------
PSOLID,1,1
$
$ Material beam is steel.
$ -----------------------
DMAT,1,0.007830,1,1,1,,1
$
EOSPOL,1,1.64e9
$
SHREL,1,8.18e8
69 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Tapered Beam Striking a Rigid Wall
$
YLDVM,1,1.4e7
$
PMINC,1,-3.8e7
$
$ A contact surface is needed for the beam.
$ -----------------------------------------
SURFACE,1,,SEG,1
$
$ Contact between beam (slave) and plate (master):
$ ------------------------------------------------
CONTACT,1,SURF,SURF,1,2
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impact Loading
70
Impact Loading
Problem Description
A simple elastic bar is subjected to an impact load on one end and supported on the other end. The impact
load on the elastic bar is applied by a rigid body with mass m = 0.00311 lbs
2
/in and an initial velocity
v
0
= 240 in/s.
The elastic bar has the following properties:
The purpose of this model is to study the response of the simple elastic bar to impact loading and to check
the results against theoretical data.
Theoretical Results
The contacted end of the elastic bar experiences an impulse, which causes an internal force locally in the
bar. This pulse starts traveling down the length of the bar and the force in the bar at any point away from
the impacted end remains zero until the distortional pulse reaches that point. The distortional pulse (stress
wave) travels with at a fixed velocity equal to the speed of sound in solids, which is a function of material
density and stiffness.
The magnitude of the initial pulse is given by
The fixed velocity of the distortional pulse is given by
The time required by the pulse to traverse the entire length of the bar is given by
From the conservation of energy, the magnitude of peak load in the bar is
Cross sectional area A = 0.2025 in
2
Elastic modulus E = 10.5 x 10
6
psi
Material density p = 0.000262 lb.s
2
/in
4
Bar length L = 6.00 in.
P
pul se
Av
0
Ep 2,549 lb = =
c E p 2000,322 in/s = =
t
L
c
--- 0.03 ms = =
P
max
EAm
L
------------ xv
0
7967 lb = =
71 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Impact Loading
Dytran Model
Due to one-dimensional problem, a simple mesh is set up (see Figure 2-15).
The rigid body is modeled as a single Lagrangian solid CHEXA element of dimension 0.5 in × 0.5 in ×
0.5 in. The elastic bar is modeled as 1 × 40(40) equidistant Lagrangian solid CHEXA elements for the
entire length of 6 inches and all the nodes at one end of the bar is constrained in all directions. All the
nodes of the rigid body are given an initial velocity of 240 in/s. A cross-section is defined at the center
of the bar using SECTION option to monitor the axial force at the center of the bar.
Figure 2-15 Numerical Problem Layout showing CHEXA Lagrangian Solid Elements
Results
The plot for the axial cross-sectional force at the center of the bar is shown in Figure 2-16. It can be seen
from the plot that the time taken for the stress wave to travel the entire length of the bar is t = 0.03ms.
After the stress wave reaches the fixed ends of the bar, it gets reflected as a compressive wave traveling
back towards the impactor. Because the initial pulse did not impart the entire impact energy to the bar,
the impactor is still moving forward. Therefore, a secondary compressive pulse is initiated with a slightly
lower magnitude than the initial pulse because the velocity of the impactor is slightly reduced. This
secondary pulse adds directly to the reflected initial pulse. This process continues with the addition of
ever diminishing pulse magnitudes until all the impact energy has been absorbed. The correlation
between the theoretical values and the numerical values obtained from the Dytran result plots are
very good.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impact Loading
72
Figure 2-16 Plot for Axial Force at the Center of the Bar
Files
References (Continued)
2. Jones, Rodney H., Hethcock, J. Donn, and Mullins, B. R., “Analysis and Design of Dynamically
Loaded Fittings” American Helicopter Society 57
th
Annual Forum (2001).
bar.dat Dytran input file
BAR.OUT Dytran output file
BAR_ELEMENT_0.ARC Dytran archive file
BAR_SEC_0.THS Dytran time history file
73 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Impact Loading
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.0007
ENDSTEP=999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: bar
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
$Output request for the stress distribution in the elastic bar
$
TYPE (element) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (element) = 1
SET 1 = 1 THRU 40
ELOUT (element) = EFFSTS
STEPS (element) = 0 thru end by 20
SAVE (element) = 10000
$
$Output request for the forces on the cross-sections of the bar
$
TYPE (sec) = TIMEHIS
CSECS (sec) = 5
SET 5 = 1 2 3
CSOUT (sec) = XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE FMAGN
STEPS (sec) = 0 thru end by 1
SAVE (sec) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
$
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-7
PARAM,CONTACT,VERSION,V4
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,CONTACT,GAP,0.0
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
$
BEGIN BULK
$
SECTION 1 99 999
SET1 99 161 THRU 164
SET1 999 40
$
SECTION 2 88 888
SET1 88 81 THRU 84
SET1 888 20
$
SECTION 3 77 777
SET1 77 1 THRU 4
SET1 777 1
$
$
$ --- SPC-name = fixed_ends
$
SPC1 1 123 161 THRU 164
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Impact Loading
74
$ --- Define 172 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .0000000.0000000.0000000
:
:
:
GRID 172 .4750000.4750000.0250000
$
$ --- Define 41 elements$
$
$ -------- property set rigid ---------
$
CHEXA 41 1 165 166 168 167 169 170+A000049
+A000049 172 171
$
$
$ -------- property set bar ---------
$
CHEXA 1 2 1 2 4 3 5 6+A000050
+A000050 8 7
.
.CHEXA 40 2 157 158 160 159 161 162+A000089
+A000089 164 163
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * rigid *
$
PSOLID 1 1
$
$ * bar *
$
PSOLID 2 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$ -------- Material bar_mat id =1
DMATEL 2 0.000262 1.05e+007 0.33+A000090
+A000090
$
$ -------- Material rigid id =2
MATRIG 1 .00311
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- Initial Velocity BC initial_velocity -----
$
SET1 1 165 THRU 172
TICGP 1 1 ZVEL -240
$
$ -------- Contact : contact
$
$
CONTACT 3 SURF SURF 1 2 +A000091
+A000091 V4 BOTH SLAVE+A000092
+A000092 +A000093
+A000093 ON
75 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Impact Loading
$
$ Slave contact surface for contact
$
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1
CFACE 1 1 1 2
.
.
CFACE 162 1 40 3
$
$ Master contact surface for contact
$
SURFACE 2 SEG 2
CFACE 163 2 41 2
CFACE 164 2 41 5
CFACE 165 2 41 1
CFACE 166 2 41 6
CFACE 167 2 41 4
CFACE 168 2 41 3
$
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Pipe Whip
76
Pipe Whip
Problem Description
A tubular pipe that rotates with an initial velocity of 200 radians/s around one end hits another tubular
pipe that is clamped on both ends:

Figure 2-17 Initial Configuration of Pipe Whip Model
The overall dimensions and material properties of both pipes are the same, and are shown below:

The center of rotation of the rotating pipe is equal to the center point of its one rear end. The impact point
is at the middle of the stationary pipe and for the rotation pipe, it is at a distance of 0.9144 m from the
rotation center.
The initial rotational velocity is 200 radians/s.
The calculation is carried out from the time just before the impact until the time that the rotating pipe
begins to reverse. The Problem Time is 3 msec.
Radius R = 0.1778 m
Length L = 1.524 m
Thickness t = 0.01097 m
Density p = 7827 kg/m
3
Young's modulus E = 2.07E11 Pa
Poisson’s Ratio v = 0.3
Yield Stress o
y
= 3.1E11 Pa *
*A very high Yield Stress has been defined to mimic almost elastic behavior. This will result in a quick
rebound of the rotating pipe, and is meant for demonstration purposes only.
77 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Pipe Whip
Dytran Model
The pipes are modeled with quadrilateral shell elements, and a contact is defined between the rotating
pipe and the stationary pipe. An additional self-contact is defined for the rotating pipe.
A DMATEP with YLDVM is used to define the material.
In order to easily apply the rotational boundary condition, a plate closes off the pipe, and an SPC is
applied to the center node. This plate is given a thickness 10 times higher than the thickness of the pipe
itself. This mimics a rigid connection between all the nodes in the rotation plane.
The entire analysis from modeling to postprocessing is carried out by using the Dytran Preference of
Patran. The complete description for this step-by-step Patran based Analysis performance is reported in
the workshop 12.
For quick reproduction of this model in Patran, two session files are available:
Pipe_Whip_1.ses: From modeling to submission of the Dytran Job
Pipe_Whip_2.ses: From reading the result files to postprocessing
Results
From the Time History of the Kinetic Energy of Material_1, it can be seen that the rotating pipe has
bounced back around 2.5 mseconds.
Figure 2-18 Kinetic Energy of Rotating and Stationary Pipe
The deformation of the pipes at 3 msec is shown in the Figure 2-19
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Pipe Whip
78
.
Figure 2-19 Deformed Shape at 3 msec.
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.3E-2
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: Pipe_Whip
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: Lag
TYPE (Lag) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Lag) = 1
SET 1 = 1 THRU 7896
ELOUT (Lag) = EFFST-MID
TIMES (Lag) = 0 THRU END BY 0.3E-3
SAVE (Lag) = 10000
Pipe_Whip.dat Dytran input file
Pipe_Whip.bdf Dytran input file
PIPE_WHIP.OUT Dytran output file
PIPE_WHIP_LAG_0.ARC Dytran ARC file
PIPE_WHIP_MAT_0.THS Dytran THS file
Pipe_Whip_1.ses MD Patran session file: Modeling & Job Submission
Pipe_Whip_2.ses MD Patran session file: Postprocessing
79 Chapter 2: Structural Contact
Pipe Whip
$ Output result for request: Mat
TYPE (Mat) = TIMEHIS
MATS (Mat) = 2
SET 2 = 1 2
MATOUT (Mat) = EKIN EINT EDIS
STEPS (Mat) = 0 THRU END BY 10
SAVE (Mat) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
PARAM,LIMCUB,5500
PARAM,MINSTEP,1.E-15
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE Pipe_Whip.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * p.11 *
$
PSHELL 11 1 .1097
$
$ * p.1 *
$
PSHELL 1 1 .01097
$
$ * p.2 *
$
PSHELL 2 2 .01097
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material m1 id =1
DMATEP 1 78272.07e+11 .3 1
YLDVM 1 3.1e+11
$
$ -------- Material m2 id =2
DMATEP 2 78272.07e+11 .3 2
YLDVM 2 3.1e+11
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ -------- Contact : Contact1
$
CONTACT 5 SURF SURF 1 2 +A000001
+A000001 V4 TOP
$
$ Slave contact surface for Contact1
$
SURFACE 1 SUB 1
SUBSURF 1 1 ELEM 3
SET1 3 3988 THRU 4011 4023 THRU 4046 4058+A000002
+A000002 THRU 4081 4093 THRU 4116 4128 THRU 4151+A000003
.
.
.
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Pipe Whip
80
$ Master contact surface for Contact1
$
SURFACE 2 SUB 2
SUBSURF 2 2 ELEM 4
SET1 4 73 THRU 98 115 THRU 140 157+A000043
+A000043 THRU 182 199 THRU 224 241 THRU 266+A000044
.
.
.
$
$ -------- Contact : Contact2
$
CONTACT 6 SURF 3 +A000084
+A000084 V4 BOTH
$
$ Self Contact Surface for Contact2
$
SURFACE 3 SUB 3
SUBSURF 3 3 ELEM 5
SET1 5 73 THRU 98 115 THRU 140 157+A000085
+A000085 THRU 182 199 THRU 224 241 THRU 266+A000086
.
.
.
$
$ ------- Initial Rotational Velocity: Inivel -----
TIC3 1 1 1 +A000126
+A000126 0 0 0 0 200 0 +A000127
.
.
.
$
$
ENDDATA
Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Dytran Example Problem Manual
3
Fluid Dynamics

Overview 82

Shock Tube 83

Blast Wave 90

JWL Explosive Test 95

Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
103

Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry 121

Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX

Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries 140
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Overview
82
Overview
In this chapter, a number of example problems are presented that show the fluid dynamics capabilities
of Dytran.
The user can find in these examples how to model the dynamic behavior of fluids and gasses using
Eulerian technology in Dytran, what material models to use, and how to apply loads and constraints. The
use of materials includes high energy explosive materials.
83 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Shock Tube
Shock Tube
Problem Description
The propagation of shock waves is an important consideration for many Dytran application areas.
Shock tube gas dynamics constitute a relatively simple process and as such a closed form solution can be
found by analytical means. For one-dimensional plane shock, two adjacent regions of gas are initialized
at time = 0 and there is a single discontinuity at the boundary between them
.
Figure 3-1 One-Dimensional Plane Shock
At time > 0, the situation is much more complex. At point b, the expansion front of the compressed
material has a velocity U
b
, the sound speed of the compressed material. Point c is the contact front
between the compressed and uncompressed materials and has a velocity U
c
, and point s is the shock front
with velocity U
s
. In the region between c and s, the material variables are constant (p, P, U
c
) with a local
sound speed. This time region is therefore useful for the study of hypervelocity events.

Figure 3-2 Density and Velocity Profiles in a Shock Tube
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shock Tube
84
Desired Results
For this example, the ideal gas equation of state is used. The initial conditions are:

A time > 0, the analytical technique produces ([Ref. 1.] to [Ref. 3.]), the following results:

Dytran Modeling
Two models were analyzed with different mesh densities. In both models, hydrodynamic Euler elements
are used, and the gas regions are initialized using a TICEUL entry. (See Chapter 2, Eulerian Elements of
the Dytran User’s Guide.)
Coarse Model
The shock tube is modeled using 2500 (5 x 5 x 100) CHEXA elements. The numerical mesh is given
in Figure 3-3.
High Pressure Low Pressure
p = 1 p = 0.125
u = 0 u = 0
e = 2.5 e = 2.0
P = 1 P = 0.1
P = 3.03130
P
c
= 0.303130
p
R
= 0.265574
p
L
= 0.426319
e
R
= 2.85354
e
L
= 1.77760
U
c
= 0.927453 (peak flow velocity: at point c)
85 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Shock Tube
Figure 3-3 Coarse Finite Element Mesh
Fine Model
The shock tube is modeled using 5000 (5 x 5 x 200) CHEXA elements.
Results
The sharpness of the steps in the graph as produced by a Dytran analysis is dependent on how fine a mesh
is used. This effect can be seen by comparing the graphs produced from the two analyses.
Coarse Model
The results are plotted in Figure 3-4 and Figure 3-5 show that the variation of material variables along the
length of the shock tube. A selective number of elements along the axis of the shock tube were selected
for this purpose.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shock Tube
86
Figure 3-4 Length along the Shock Tube plotted against Material Density
Figure 3-5 Length along the Shock Tube plotted against Material Sound Speed
and Material Velocity
Model
The fine model shows the effect of a finer mesh on the resolution of the results graphs (see the graphs
shown in Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7).
87 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Shock Tube
Figure 3-6 Length Along the Shock Tube Plotted against Material Density
Figure 3-7 Length along the Shock Tube plotted against Material
Sound Speed and Material Velocity
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shock Tube
88
Coarse Mesh

Fine Mesh
References
1. Buis, J. P., “Analysis of shock Tube Calculations Performed by the PISCES-2DELK/V4 Code,”
1967, PISCES International B.V.
2. Harlow, F. H., and Amsden, A. A., “Fluid Dynamics,” 1971, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
Monograph.
3. Jardin, S. C., and Hoffman, R., “Simulation of Explosive Processes in PISCES-1DL,” 1972,
Physics International Company.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Shock Tube #1
ENDTIME = 0.138
ENDSTEP = 100
TIC = 1
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE(tube) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(tube) = 9999
ELOUT(tube) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,SSPD
STEPS(tube) = 0,End
ELEMENTS(tube) = 1
SET 1 = 13t2488b25
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 0.0005
PARAM MINSTEP 0.0001
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$ Model Geometry: gridpoints and elements
$------------------------------------------
$
GRID 1 .05 0.0 0.0
.
.
eul1_coarse.dat Dytran input files
EUL1_COARSE.OUT Dytran output files
EUL1_COARSE_TUBE_0.ARC Dytran archive files
eul1_fine.dat Dytran input file
EUL1_FINE.OUT Dytran output files
EUL1_FINE_TUBE_0.ARC Dytran archive files
89 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Shock Tube
.
.
GRID 3636 -.05 -1.39-161.
$
CHEXA 1 1 1 37 38 2 7 43 +
+ 44 8
.
.
.
CHEXA 2500 1 3593 3629 3630 3594 3599 3635 +
+ 3636 3600
$
$Property,material and equation of state data
$--------------------------------------------
PEULER1 1 Hydro 1
$
DMAT 1 1. 1
$
EOSGAM 1 1.4
$
$Allocation of material to geometric regions.
$--------------------------------------------
TICEUL 1 +
+ ELEM 1 1 11 1. +
+ ELEM 2 1 12 2.
SET1 1 1251 THRU 2500
SET1 2 1 THRU 1250
$
$Initial material data
$-----------------------
TICVAL 11 density .125 zvel 0.0 sie 2.
TICVAL 12 density 1. zvel 0.0 sie 2.5
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave
90
Blast Wave
Problem Description
The effect of a detonation on the environment can be simulated by assuming that the detonated material
can be idealized by a sphere of hot gas with a homogeneous density and specific internal energy. This
approach is suited for problems in which the processes inside of the explosive material are not to
be investigated.
In this example, the propagation of a blast wave will be simulated starting from the initial shock front
radius R
0
= 0.05 m at the time t = 0 sec until it reaches a radius of R = 10 R
0
.
Both, the gas in the sphere and the surrounding environment behave as an ideal gas (¸ = 1.4).
The initial conditions are:
Blast Products (r < R
0
)
Environment (Air at Room Temperature, r > R
0
)
The index “1” denotes values at the shock front and the index “0” values in the ambient atmosphere.
Theoretical Solution
A theoretical solution is available for a spherical blast wave originating from a point source (Taylor’s
similarity solution; see [Ref. 3.]). Assuming p
1
>> p
0
, the evaluation of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations
deliver in the case of a blast wave:
(3-1)
This relation has been considered in the given problem setup.
Assuming a point source and internal energy E, the pressure p
1
at the shock front (r = R) should be
(3-2)
specific internal energy e
1
= 1.29 10
10
Joule/kg
density p
1
= 7.74 kg/m
3
specific internal energy e0 = 1.938 10
5
Joule/kg
density p0 = 1.29 kg/m
3
p
1
p
0
-----
¸ 1 +
¸ 1 –
------------ =
p 0.155 E
0
r
3 –
=
91 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Blast Wave
Inserting the initial conditions yields
(3-3)
and
(3-4)
Figure 3-8 Radial Pressure Distribution for several Time Steps and
the Theoretical Maximal Pressure
The results of the simulation should converge to this solution as the radius of the shock front increases.
The analysis should generate an x-y plot of the pressure distribution along the x-axis and compare it with
the theoretical solution. Also, a contour plot should be produced to check the spherical shape of the
expanding pressure front.
Dytran Modeling
The motion of the gas is radial. Therefore, only a part of the area of interest need to be analyzed. Here, a
mesh of 20 x 20 x 20 hexahedral Eulerian elements has been used for investigating the volume (0 < x <
0.3 m, 0 < y < 0.5 m, 0 < z < 0.5 m). The center of the blast wave is located at the origin of the global
coordinate system. As discussed in Chapter 2, Eulerian Elements of the Dytran User’s Guide, TICEUL
entry can be used for describing the initial conditions. A higher level has to be used to indicate the higher
priority of the spherical condition. The value for the parameter INISTEP has to be below the minimal time
step that follows from the Courant Criterion:
E e
1
p
1
4
3
--- tR
0
3
1.6641E7 J = =
p
1
R ( ) 2.58E6 J R
3 –
=
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave
92
(3-5)
where l denotes the smallest element dimension, c
0
the initial speed of sound, and S is a safety factor
Dytran’s default value is 2/3).
With and Equation (3-5) yields for the time step
seconds. Therefore, the value 1.96E-7 sec is used for the INISTEP parameter.
Results
Figure 3-9 shows pressure profiles in the elements 1 to 20, which are located along the edge y = z = 0 m
of the control volume. The theoretical value of the shock front pressure is also included in this plot.
Though this mesh is very coarse, the analysis results is a fairly good approximation of the theoretical
values. Note that at t = 0, element 2 is not completely inside of the sphere of high energy gas. Therefore,
its pressure is below that of element 1 at t = 0 sec.
Figure 3-9 Pressure Contour Plot for Step 50
The contour plot of the pressure in Figure 3-9 shows an almost spherical shape of the shock front.
Deviations are due to the fact that mass transport takes place along element faces only. Thus, the relief
of pressure is hampered for the elements on the diagonal.
At S
l
c
0
----- =
l 10R
0
20 0.025 m = = c
0
¸ ¸ 1 – ( ) e
1
= At 1.96E-7 =
93 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Blast Wave
Files
Reference (Continued)
4. Baker, W. E., Explosions in Air, University of Texas Press, 1973, Austin and London.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Blast Wave
CHECK = NO
ENDSTEP = 60
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE(profile) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(profile) = 99999
ELEMENTS(profile) = 1
SET 1 = 1t20
STEPS(profile) = 0,5,10,15,20,30,40,50,60
ELOUT(profile) = PRESSURE
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 2
$$
TYPE(contour) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(contour) = 999999
ELEMENTS(contour) = 2
SET 2 = 1t8000
STEPS(contour) = 50
ELOUT(contour) = PRESSURE
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 1.5e-07
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 2 .025 0.0 0.0
GRID 3 .05 0.0 0.0
GRID 4 .075 0.0 0.0
.
.
.
.
GRID 9258 .425 .5 .5
GRID 9259 .45 .5 .5
GRID 9260 .475 .5 .5
GRID 9261 .5 .5 .5
$
blast.dat Dytran input file
BLAST.OUT Dytran output file
BLAST_PROFILE_0.ARC
BLAST_CONTOUR_50.ARC
Dytran archive files
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave
94
CHEXA 1 1 1 442 443 2 22 463 +
+ 464 23
CHEXA 2 1 2 443 444 3 23 464 +
+ 465 24
CHEXA 3 1 3 444 445 4 24 465 +
+ 466 25
CHEXA 4 1 4 445 446 5 25 466 +
+ 467 26
.
.
.
.
CHEXA 7997 1 8795 9236 9237 8796 8816 9257 +
+ 9258 8817
CHEXA 7998 1 8796 9237 9238 8797 8817 9258 +
+ 9259 8818
CHEXA 7999 1 8797 9238 9239 8798 8818 9259 +
+ 9260 8819
CHEXA 8000 1 8798 9239 9240 8799 8819 9260 +
+ 9261 8820
$
$
PEULER1 1 Hydro 1
$
DMAT 1 1. 1
$
EOSGAM 1 1.4
$
TICEUL 1 +
+ SPHERE 1 1 1 10. +
+ ELEM 1 1 2 5.
SET1 1 1 THRU 8000
$
TICVAL 1 density 7.74 sie 1.29+10
TICVAL 2 density 1.29 sie 193800.
$
SPHERE 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 .05
ENDDATA
95 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
JWL Explosive Test
JWL Explosive Test
Problem Description
A slab of explosive, COMPOSITION B, 1 cm x 50 cm, is detonated at one end.
The explosive material data is shown below:
• JWL equation of state parameters
• density p
0
= 1717 kg/m
3
• specific chemical energy q
0
= 4.95 10
6
Joule/kg
• detonation velocity D = 7980 m/sec
The purpose of this example is to model the detonation of the explosive and to check the pressure behind
the detonation front (peak pressure) against the theoretical Chapman-Jouguet value.
Theoretical Background
Detonation of High Explosives (HE)
Detonation is the mechanism by which the “HIGH EXPLOSIVE” materials release their
chemical energy:
• The chemical reaction, causing the energy release, takes place in a narrow zone (reaction zone)
which propagates at high speed through the explosive that transforms the solid explosive into hot
compressed gasses.
The reaction zone is then a form of discontinuous wave, like a shock wave, with physical behavior that
is governed solely by the properties of the unreached and completely reacted material on either side of
the wave.
This means that a hydrodynamic approach of detonation can be used.
Hydrodynamic Theory of Steady-state Plane Detonation
The model of the plane, steady-state reaction zone propagating at constant speed D through the explosive
is depicted in Figure 3-10.
A = 5.24229 10
11
B = 0.07678 10
11
R1 = 4.2
R2 = 1.1
e = 0.34
Dytran Example Problem Manual
JWL Explosive Test
96
Figure 3-10 Plane Reaction Zone Propagating at Constant Speed
The Rankine-Hugoniot relations, which express the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the
material stream flowing through the reaction zone, are used to relate the hydrodynamic variable across
the reaction zone.
Conservation of mass and momentum
(3-6)
Conservation of energy
(3-7)
Equation (3-6) describes a straight line (Rayleigh line) defining the locus of all possible final states (p,V)
attainable by a discontinuous transition from the initial state (p
0
, V
0
) consistent with conservation of
mass and momentum.
Equation (3-7) is purely thermodynamic from which, with a given equation of state p = p (V, e) for the
detonation products, the energy term may be eliminated, resulting in the Hugoniot curve of the explosive.
The Hugoniot curve defines a concave downward curve locus of all possible final states (p, V) attainable
by a discontinuous transition from the initial state (p
0
, V
0
) consistent with conservation of energy.
(See Figure 3-11.)
p p
0

D
2
V
0
2
------ V
0
V – ( ) =
e e
0

1
2
--- p p
0
+ ( ) V
0
V – ( ) q
0
+ =
97 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
JWL Explosive Test
Figure 3-11 Hugoniat Curve and Rayleigh Line
The forms of the Rayleigh line and Hugoniot curve are such that their interaction permits the existence
of any detonation speed D above a “minimum value” and each value of D is consistent with two possible
final states for the detonation products.
One further condition is therefore required. Chapman and Jouquet added the following condition to
conservation of mass, momentum, and energy:
• The detonation speed D is such that the Rayleigh line is tangent to the Hugoniot curve of the
explosive (or the detonation speed is the minimum velocity consistent with the Rankine-
Hugoniot relations). this process is shown in Figure 3-12.
Figure 3-12 Hugoniot Curve and Rayleigh Line for Detonation Process
Dytran Example Problem Manual
JWL Explosive Test
98
According to the above considerations if the ideal gas equation of state (with constant specific heat
ratio ¸) is used to model the detonation products, the following formulas result:
(3-8)
(3-9)
These relations are applicable also when using the JWL equation of state (with variable specific heat
ratio) if measuring at the Chapman-Jouguet state behind the detonation front.
Dytran Model
Steady-state Detonation Modeling with Dytran
Dytran use the “programmed burn” technique to model the detonation of high explosives (HE).
The basic assumption of this technique is that the reaction zone propagates in all directions at a constant
speed equal to the Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity .
As the reaction zone reaches and proceeds into an element, the chemical energy is proportionally released
into that element over its “burn time.”
The arrival and burn times of each element are computed according to Figure 3-13 below:

Figure 3-13 Arrival Times of Detonation Wave
The following input entries are required when modeling detonation:
EOSJWL Defines equation of state of detonation products.
TICEL Is used to assign the specific chemical energy as initial specific internal energy of
each element.
DETSPH Defines the ignition point, ignition time and speed of a “spherical” detonation front.
P
cj
2 ¸ 1 – ( )q
0
p
0
=
V
cj
¸
¸ 1 +
------------ V
0
=
¸
cj
P
cj
V
cj
. ( )
D
cj
99 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
JWL Explosive Test
Preparing Input
Due to symmetry, the reaction zone (detonation front) is a plane traveling along the length of the slab.
Therefore, it is sufficient to model only a portion of the slab with all boundary faces closed to transport.
A mesh of 200 elements along the 50 cm of slab length is used (element thickness of 0.25 cm).
Figure 3-14 Geometrical Layout of Explosive and Detonation Point
At the start time, all the elements are filled with explosive material. Therefore, they all reference a
EOSJWL equation of state defined by a DMAT entry.
The specific chemical energy q
0
is assigned as the initial specific internal energy of the explosive by
using the TICEL entry.
The Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity D
cj
, the ignition point, and the ignition time are specified by
the DETSPH entry. The ignition time is taken as the start time of the analysis and the ignition point is the
center of the left face of the mesh. (See Figure 3-14.)
The duration of the analysis is set to 60 usec necessary to burn the slab (50 cm) at a detonation speed
of 7980 m/sec.
Edits of pressure profiles are requested every 10 usec.
Results
The solution of the detonation analysis is shown in Figure 3-15.
The peak pressure of each profile corresponding to the pressure behind the detonation front is depicted
in Figure 3-15 in terms of the Chapman-Jouguet pressure fraction.
From the hydrodynamic theory of steady-state plane detonation for a ¸-law gas, the CJ pressure is
(3-10)
with ¸
cj
= 2.706 for TNT, this leads to
(3-11)
P
cj
2 ¸
cj
1 – ( )q
0
p
0
=
P
cj
2.9 * 10
10
Pa =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
JWL Explosive Test
100
The code needs about 60 elements to build up the detonation front at which time the pressure reaches
approximately 0.85 of P
cj
. Subsequently, the front propagates with only a small increase of pressure.
These results are acceptable if the fact is taken into account that Dytran is a first-order code that smears
the shock front over a number of elements (always conserving momentum and energy). The result of that
will be a reduction in peak pressure
.
Figure 3-15 Peak Pressure Profiles at Different Distances
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = HE DETONATION TEST
CHECK = NO
ENDTIME = 6e-05
TIC = 1
$$
jwl.dat Dytran input file
JWL.OUT Dytran output file
JWL_P_0.ARC Dytran archive file
101 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
JWL Explosive Test
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE(p) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(p) = 99999
ELEMENTS(p) = 1
SET 1 = 1t200
ELOUT(p) = PRESSURE
TIMES(p) = 0tEndb3e-06
$---------------------------------
BEGIN BULK
$---------------------------------
PARAM INISTEP 2e-07
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
$------------------mesh geometry
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 2 0.0 .01 0.0
GRID 3 0.0 0.0 .01
GRID 4 0.0 .01 .01
.
.
.
.
GRID 801 .5 0.0 0.0
GRID 802 .5 .01 0.0
GRID 803 .5 0.0 .01
GRID 804 .5 .01 .01
$
CHEXA 1 1 1 5 6 2 3 7 +
+ 8 4
CHEXA 2 1 5 9 10 6 7 11 +
+ 12 8
CHEXA 3 1 9 13 14 10 11 15 +
+ 16 12
CHEXA 4 1 13 17 18 14 15 19 +
+ 20 16
.
.
.
.
CHEXA 197 1 785 789 790 786 787 791 +
+ 792 788
CHEXA 198 1 789 793 794 790 791 795 +
+ 796 792
CHEXA 199 1 793 797 798 794 795 799 +
+ 800 796
CHEXA 200 1 797 801 802 798 799 803 +
+ 804 800
$
$------------------all elements filled with HE material
$
$
PEULER 1 100 Hydro
$
DMAT 100 1717. 100
$
EOSJWL 100 5.242+117.6783+94.2 1.1 .34
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
JWL Explosive Test
102
$------------------initial state of HE material
$
DETSPH 1 100 0.0 .01 .01 7980. 0.0
$
$------------------detonation characteristics
$
TICEL 1 1 density 1717. sie 4950000.
SET1 1 1 THRU 200
ENDDATA
103 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical
Symmetry Method
Problem Description
In many blast applications, the explosive is spherically symmetric and small compared to the distance
from ignition point to target. An efficient method is developed to reduce the computation time
significantly by initializing the spherical blast wave by constructing a 1-D model first, and then as the
wave progresses and expands, the pressure wave is mapped to a full 3-D model just before the blast wave
reaches the structure.
The pressure in the wave front should be adequately maintained during the mapping process by avoiding
excessive coarse mesh. This limits the amount of mesh coarsening one can apply. To validate mapping,
the 1-D mesh and the 3-D mesh will have comparable mesh-sizes. In addition, mapping on a coarser mesh
is also considered.
To model the blast, ideal gas is used. The initial radius of the sphere will be R0=0.1 m.
Ideal gas model:
Blast Products (r<R0)
Environment (r>R0)
The simulation will be run for 0.843 ms. Remapped results will be compared with results that do not use
remapping.
Dytran Modeling
The Spherical model
The Euler region is defined and initialized as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.001,-0.001,0.5,0.002,0.002,,,+
+,15,1,1,,,,EULER,1
Specific internal energy = 9.E+6 Joule/kg
Density = 10 kg/m3
Gamma = 1.4
Specific internal energy = 3.E+5 Joule/kg
Density = 1 kg/m3
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
104
This defines one row of Euler elements. To make the mesh suitable for spherical symmetric analyses
PARAM SPHERSYM is added
PARAM,SPHERSYM,RECT,X,2.0
This transforms the rectangular 1-D mesh into a wedge-shaped mesh. In addition, only the radial mesh
size will be taken into account in the time step computation. In the 1-D spherical modeling technique, the
analysis has to be terminated as soon as the material starts leaving the 1-D mesh model. In this example,
the last cycle (cycle 48, t=0.11 ms,) where the material is still inside the domain, is considered.
To import the 1-D result into the 3-D simulation, the following steps can be followed.
• Read in the Euler archives in Patran and select a cycle in which the material has not left the
domain yet.
• In Patran Click Results->Graph
• Set as target entries the centers of the Euler elements and select variables. After apply, a graph
is shown
• Converting the graph to a text file (.xyd file):
a. Click XYPOT.
b. Select Create->XYwindow and create a new window.
c. Click POST> Curve. Select a curve and Apply.
d. Click Modify->Curve.
e. Select the Curve and Apply.
f. Select Data from Keyboard .
g. Check Write XY Data to file and apply. This writes out a text file.
For the remap, text files have to be created for density, specific internal energy (SIE), and radial velocity.
These are called rho.xyd, sie.xyd, and vel.xyd.
The follow-up 3-D model:
The Euler region is defined and initialized as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1,-1,-1,2,2,2,,,+
+,60,60,60,,,,EULER,1
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,2.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,20.0
TICVAL,8,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,400,density,200,SIE,300
TICVAL,9,,DENSITY,1.0,SIE,3e+5
$
TABFILE,200,rho.xyd
105 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
TABFILE,300,sie.xyd
TABFILE,400,vel.xyd
TABFILE allows defining a table from a text file.
The full 3-D model:
To check the integrity of the remapped results, a full 3-D model will also be simulated and results will be
compared to the previous method.
The Euler region is defined and initialized as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1,-1,-1,2,2,2,,,+
+,60,60,60,,,,EULER,1
The material initialization is identical to the spherical 1-D model.
The follow-up 3-D model coarse model:
The Euler region is defined and initialized as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1,-1,-1,2,2,2,,,+
+,30,30,30,,,,EULER,1
In this example, the following calculations have been performed.
1. Spherical Model
2. Follow-up 3-D Model
3. Full 3-D Model
4. Follow-up 3-D Coarse model
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
106
Results
Spherical Model
The mesh and the results of the spherical symmetric model are shown in the following figures.
Mesh Density at Time = 0.11 ms
SIE at Time = 0.11 ms Radial Velocity at Time = 0.11 ms
107 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
The remap data are shown in the following figures.
Rho.xyd SIE.xyd
V el.xyd
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
108
Follow-up 3-D Model
The initial conditions of the follow-up 3-D model at cycle 1 closely resemble the spherical symmetric
solution results at cycle 48 as shown in the following figures.
3-D Mesh (60 x 60 x 60) Density at Cycle 1
SIE at Cycle 1 Velocity Magnitude at Cycle 1
109 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
The validation of the 1-D to 3-D remap is shown in the following figures.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
110
The following figure shows the pressure at time = 0.733 ms (cycle 76). This time represents the total
problem time of 0.843 ms (1D + 3D=0.773+0.11).
Full 3-D Model
The results of the full 3-D model at Time = 0.11 ms (cycle 48) is shown in the following figure. This time
is equivalent to the time of cycle 1 of the 3-D remap run.
111 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
The use of an orthogonal mesh is clearly visible in the square shape. The following figure shows the
pressure profile comparison with the 3-D remap run at cycle 1.
The following figure shows the pressure distribution at time = 0.836 ms. This compares well with the
3-D results using remap. The pressures in the wave front are very similar.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
112
Follow-up 3-D Coarse Model
3-D Coarse Mesh (30 x 30 x30)
113 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
Comparing initial conditions at cycle 1 with 1-D result.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
114
Pressure distribution and radial pressure profile at Time = 0.877 ms
Comparison pressure profiles Run 2, 3, and 4
115 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Spherical Symmetric Model
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 100
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: sphersym
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT,MASS,DENSITY,FMATPLT,
FVUNC
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,thru,end,by,3
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
PARAM,SPHERSYM,RECT,X,2.0
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO,19
$
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,10,sie,9e+6
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.001,-0.001,0.5,0.002,0.002,,,+
+,15,1,1,,,,EULER,1
$
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
116
3-D Model with Mapping
MEMORY-SIZE=16000000,12000000
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 100
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: undex-2d
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT,MASS,DENSITY,FMATPLT,
FVUNC
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,1,thru,end,by,15
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO,19
$
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,2.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,20.0
TICVAL,8,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,400,density,200,SIE,300
TICVAL,9,,DENSITY,1.0,SIE,3e+5
$
TABFILE,200,rho.xyd
TABFILE,300,sie.xyd
TABFILE,400,vel.xyd
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1,-1,-1,2,2,2,,,+
+,60,60,60,,,,EULER,1
$
117 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
$
ENDDATA
3-D Reference Model
MEMORY-SIZE=16000000,12000000
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 100
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: undex-2d
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT,MASS,DENSITY,FMATPLT,
FVUNC
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,thru,end,by,6
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO,19
$
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,10,sie,9e+6
$
$TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
$+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
$+,SPHERE,4,100,9,2.0
$SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0
$SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,20.0
$TICVAL,8,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
118
$+,R-VEL,400,density,200,SIE,300
$TICVAL,9,,DENSITY,1.0,SIE,3e+5
$$
$TABFILE,200,rho.xyd
$TABFILE,300,sie.xyd
$TABFILE,400,vel.xyd
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1,-1,-1,2,2,2,,,+
+,60,60,60,,,,EULER,1
$
$
ENDDATA
Coarse Model with Remap
MEMORY-SIZE=16000000,12000000
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 100
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: undex-2d
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT,MASS,DENSITY,FMATPLT,
FVUNC
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,1,thru,end,by,15
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO,19
$
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,2.0
119 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0.0,1.0
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,20.0
TICVAL,8,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,400,density,200,SIE,300
TICVAL,9,,DENSITY,1.0,SIE,3e+5
$
TABFILE,200,rho.xyd
TABFILE,300,sie.xyd
TABFILE,400,vel.xyd
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1,-1,-1,2,2,2,,,+
+,30,30,30,,,,EULER,1
$
$
ENDDATA
Rho.xyd
.016666668 0.17599975
0.050000001 0.11755728
0.083333336 0.13820617
0.11666667 0.17730692
0.15000001 0.23573031
0.18333334 0.30357549
0.21666668 0.41232908
0.25 0.69994283
0.28333333 1.3444314
0.31666666 1.8983461
0.34999999 1.5142108
0.38333333 1.0990304
0.41666669 1.0090078
0.45000002 1.0003828
0.48333335 1.0000119
Sie.xyd
0.016666668 1644110.4
0.050000001 1521182.6
0.083333336 1650291.4
0.11666667 1871300.8
0.15000001 2126423.
0.18333334 2316476.3
0.21666668 2376442.8
0.25 2337180.
0.28333333 2127134.5
0.31666666 1557344.5
0.34999999 738252.38
0.38333333 328480.25
0.41666669 301103.97
0.45000002 300045.94
0.48333335 300001.44
Vel.xyd
0.016666668 551.55115
0.050000001 343.2377
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method
120
0.083333336 417.90549
0.11666667 592.59894
0.15000001 727.58636
0.18333334 765.23682
0.21666668 778.4917
0.25 932.18738
0.28333333 1135.2539
0.31666666 1092.1925
0.34999999 602.56567
0.38333333 125.99188
0.41666669 9.3862505
0.45000002 0.3385168
0.48333335 0.010169516
121 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D
Spherical Symmetry
Problem Description
The JWL model requires very fine mesh to reach the correct peak pressure. After sufficient expansion of
the blast wave, fine elements are no longer useful and it would be very computationally efficient to
replace the fine mesh by a coarse mesh. Furthermore, the initial stages of the explosion are spherical
symmetric and allows the use of a 1D model.
As in the previous example, the spherical initialization is done by constructing a 1-D model and results
are remapped on a first quadrant 3-D model. The air outside the explosive will also be modeled. The
multi-material Eulerian solver is used.
The initial radius of the sphere will be R0=0.25 m.
Blast Products (r<R0)
JWL model, refer to section 4 of Chapter 3: JWL Explosive Test.
Environment (r>R0)
The simulation will be run for 2.5 ms.
Dytran Modeling
Spherical Symmetric Model
The Euler region is defined and initialized as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.001,-0.001,4,0.002,0.002,,,+
+,1600,1,1,,,,EULER,1
This defines one row of Euler elements. To make the mesh suitable for spherical symmetric analyses
PARAM SPHERSYM is added
PARAM,SPHERSYM,RECT,X,1.0
This transforms the rectangular 1-D mesh into a wedge shaped mesh. Also, in the time step computation,
only the radial mesh-size will be taken into account.
Ideal gas gamma 1.4
Specific internal energy = 3.E+5 Joule/kg
Density = 1 kg/m3
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
122
To allow outflow of air, a transmitting boundary condition is added:
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
As soon as material is starting to leave the 1-D mesh, the analysis has to be terminated. In this example
cycle 3000 and time 1.1 ms will be taken for the remap.
For details as how to import the 1-D results into the 3-D simulation refer to the previous example. For
the remap text files have to be created for air density, JWL density, air specific internal energy (SIE), JWL
SIE and radial velocity. These are called rhoa.xyd, rhoj.xyd, siea.xyd, siej.xyd, and velj.xyd.
In the files containing density information the entries with zero densities have to be removed.
Follow-up 3-D Model for the First Quadrant
The Euler region is defined and initialized as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,0,0,5,5,5,,,+
+,75,75,75,,,,EULER,1
Using the material fraction the position of the interface between JWL material and air in the 1-D run
can be computed. This interface is at 2.83244 m. This is used in SPHERE to define a sphere of
explosive products.
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,2.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,200,9,4.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0.0,10.0
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,2.83244
TICVAL,8,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,100,density,200,SIE,300
TICVAL,9,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,100,density,400,SIE,500
$
TABFILE,100,velj.xyd
TABFILE,200,rhoa.xyd
TABFILE,300,siea.xyd
TABFILE,400,rhoj.xyd
TABFILE,500,siej.xyd
$
To allow outflow of air, a transmitting boundary condition is added:
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSY,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSZ,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
$
Here, a geometric boundary condition has been used. Otherwise a CHEXA mesh and CFACES would
have to be made with Patran.
123 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
All JWL material should have a burn factor of 1 at cycle 1. To enforce this, the VEL field of the DETSPH
entry is set to a sufficiently large value:
DETSPH 1 200 .0 .0 .0 1E+12 0.0
Results
Spherical Model
The mesh and the results of the spherical symmetric model are shown in the following figures.
Mesh (1600 elements)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
124
Density Explosive Material at Time = 1.0951 ms (cycle 3000)
SIE Explosive Material at Time = 1.0951 ms (cycle 3000)
125 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
Radial Velocity Explosive Material at Time = 1.0951 ms (cycle 3000)
Pressure Explosive Material at Time = 1.0951 ms (cycle 3000)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
126
Follow-up 3-D Model
The initial conditions of the follow-up 3-D model are equal to the remapping result at cycle1 as shown
in the following figures.
Mesh (75 x 75 x75)
127 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
Pressure at cycle 1 Comparison with 1-D
Comparison with 1-D Density at cycle 1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
128
SIE at cycle 1 Comparison with 1-D
Comparison with 1-D Radial Velocity at cycle 1
129 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
The following figure shows the pressure at time = 0.799 ms (cycle 76). This time represents the total
problem time of 1.894 ms (1D + 3D).
The following figure shows the pressure at time = 1.431 ms (cycle 100). This time represents the total
problem time of 2.526 ms (1D + 3D).
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
130
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Spherical Symmetric Model
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 4000
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: sphersym
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT100,DENSITY100,SIE100,
FMAT200,DENSITY200,SIE200,FBURN
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,thru,end,by,50
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
PARAM,SPHERSYM,RECT,X,1.0
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
EOSGAM,100,1.4
$
DMAT 100 1.29 100
$
DMAT 200 1717. 200
$
EOSJWL 200 5.242+117.6783+94.2 1.1 .34
$
DETSPH 1 200 .0 .0 .0 7980. 0.0
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,200,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.25
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,1717.,sie,4950000.
$
131 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.001,-0.001,4,0.002,0.002,,,+
+,1600,1,1,,,,EULER,1
$
$FLOWDEF,25,,MMHYDRO
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
$
ENDDATA
3-D Model with Mapping
MEMORY-SIZE=40000000,40000000
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 100
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: undex-2d
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,FBURN,
FMAT100,FMAT200,
DENSITY100,SIE100,
DENSITY200,SIE200
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,1,thru,end,by,15
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
EOSGAM,100,1.4
$
DMAT 100 1.29 100
$
DMAT 200 1717. 200
$
EOSJWL 200 5.242+117.6783+94.2 1.1 .34
$
DETSPH 1 200 .0 .0 .0 1E+12 0.0
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Modeling the JWL Explosion using 1-D Spherical Symmetry
132
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,2.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,200,9,4.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0.0,10.0
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,0.0,2.83244
TICVAL,8,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,100,density,200,SIE,300
TICVAL,9,RADIAL,X-CENTER,0,Y-CENTER,0,Z-CENTER,0,+
+,R-VEL,100,density,400,SIE,500
$
TABFILE,100,velj.xyd
TABFILE,200,rhoa.xyd
TABFILE,300,siea.xyd
TABFILE,400,rhoj.xyd
TABFILE,500,siej.xyd
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,0,0,5,5,5,,,+
+,75,75,75,,,,EULER,1
$
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSY,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
FLOWDIR,4,MMHYDRO,22,POSZ,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
$
ENDDATA
133 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
MESH,BOX allows the user to create nonuniform block meshes. These meshes were traditionally
constructed only by preprocessors such as Patran. A uniform Euler block consists of a number of planes
in each direction. These are at fixed distances. MESH, BOX has a functionality that allows full control
over the locations of the planes. This functionality is activated by defining BIAS entries and using them
on the MESH entry. The BIAS entries specify the locations of the planes.
Problem Description
If the explosive is small and the object far away, it is often necessary to use a non-uniform mesh that is
fine near the explosive and coarse further away. This example problem illustrates the use of nonuniform
meshes created by MESH,BOX.
To model the blast, ideal gas will be considered. The initial radius of the sphere will be R0=0.2 m.
Ideal gas model
Blast Products (r<R0)
Environment (r>R0)
The simulation will be run for 9 ms.
Dytran Modeling
First, consider an Euler mesh without biasing that is defined by
MESH,1,BOX,,,,0,0,7.5,+
+,-5,-0.12,-5,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,30,1,30,,123000,345000,EULER,1,+
By defining three BIAS entries, this MESH entry will be extended to create a nonuniform mesh. After the
extension, the number of elements like 30 and 1 will be overruled by the BIAS definition.
Specific internal energy = 9.E+6 Joule/kg
Density = 10 kg/m3
Gamma = 1.4
Specific internal energy = 3.E+5 Joule/kg
Density = 1 kg/m3
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
134
The locations of planes in x-direction are specified by giving growth factors and number of elements for
a series of subsequent intervals. These interval make up the x-range of [-5, 5] that is specified on the
MESH,BOX. The biasing per interval reads
Here BEGIN and END are, respectively, the begin coordinate and end coordinate of each interval. N is the
number of elements inside the interval and GROWTH is the growth factor between two subsequent
elements within the interval.
In translating this to the BIAS entry, only the begin points are put in the BIAS entry. The end points of an
interval follow from the begin point of the next interval.
For the x-direction the bias definition reads:
BIAS,100,,,,,,,,+
+,-5,0.5 ,14,,,,,,+
+,-2 ,1 ,7,,,,,,+
+,-1 ,0.5 ,10,,,,,,+
+, 0 ,2 ,10,,,,,,+
+, 1 ,1 ,7,,,,,,+
+, 2 ,2 ,14
The OUT file list these planes as:
PLANE X GROWTH ELMSIZE
1 -5.000E+00 1.000E+00 0.000E+00
2 -4.704E+00 9.481E-01 2.962E-01
3 -4.423E+00 9.481E-01 2.808E-01
4 -4.157E+00 9.481E-01 2.662E-01
5 -3.904E+00 9.481E-01 2.524E-01
6 -3.665E+00 9.481E-01 2.393E-01
7 -3.438E+00 9.481E-01 2.269E-01
8 -3.223E+00 9.481E-01 2.151E-01
9 -3.019E+00 9.481E-01 2.039E-01
The third column shows the growth of element size in between planes. This growth is well within the
[0.7,1.3] range. Growth factors outside this range should be avoided. By slightly changing the growth or
N this can easily be achieved. The fourth column lists the element size of the elements that are to the
immediate left of a plane. The first plane has no elements to the left and ELMSIZE = 0.
INTERVAL BEGIN END GROWTH N
1 -5 -2 0.5 14
2 -2 -1 1 7
3 -2 0 0.5 10
4 0 1 2 10
5 1 2 1 7
6 2 5 2 14
135 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
For the y-direction:
For the y-direction, there is no need to specify a bias because the definition on the mesh entry already
contains all information. Defining a bias for the y-direction is
BIAS,200,,,,,,,,+
+,-0.12,,1
For the z-direction, planes are given by
and the bias definition reads
BIAS,300,,,,,,,,+
+,-5, 1 ,6,,,,,,+
+,-4, 0.5,8,,,,,,+
+,-3, 2.0,8,,,,,,+
+,-2, 3.0,20
Using these three BIAS definitions gives the MESH entry
MESH,1,BOX,,,,0,0,7.5,+
+,-5,-0.12,-5,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,30,1,30,,123000,345000,EULER,1,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,100,200,300
Material and initial condition are defined by
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO,19
DMAT 3 2 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,3,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,3,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,-3,0.2
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,10,sie,9e+6
INTERVAL BEGIN END GROWTH N
1 -0.12 0.12 1 1
INTERVAL BEGIN END GROWTH N
1 -5 -4 0.5 6
2 -4 -3 1 8
3 -3 -2 0.5 8
4 -2 5 2 20
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
136
At the bottom of the Euler domain, a wall will be specified. This is done by using a geometric boundary
conditions
WALLDIR,120,HYDRO,,NEGZ
All boundary faces pointing in the negative z-direction will get the WALLET definition.
The remaining boundaries should be transmitting and a FLOWDEF is added:
FLOWDEF,25,,HYDRO
Results
Pressures are shown for cycle numbers 60, 100,160 and 300. The mesh is finest at the blast and coarsens
away from the blast and wall. The cycle 100 result shows the reflection at the wall. The cycle 300 result
show that the lateral boundaries are transmitting.
137 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
138
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 600
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: non-uniform
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,FVUNC
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,thru,end,by,20
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,BULKL,0.1
139 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Nonuniformity with MESH,BOX
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO,19
$
DMAT 3 2 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,3,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,3,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE,4,,0.0,0.0,-3,0.2
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,10,sie,9e+6
$
BIAS,100,,,,,,,,+
+,-5,0.5 ,14,,,,,,+
+,-2 ,1 ,7,,,,,,+
+,-1 ,0.5 ,10,,,,,,+
+, 0 ,2 ,10,,,,,,+
+, 1 ,1 ,7,,,,,,+
+, 2 ,2 ,14
BIAS,200,,,,,,,,+
+,-0.12,,1
BIAS,300,,,,,,,,+
+,-5, 1 ,6,,,,,,+
+,-4, 0.5,8,,,,,,+
+,-3, 2.0,8,,,,,,+
+,-2, 3.0,20
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,0,0,7.5,+
+,-5,-0.12,-5,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,30,1,30,,123000,345000,EULER,1,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,100,200,300
$
FLOWDEF,25,,HYDRO
WALLDIR,120,HYDRO,,NEGZ
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
140
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
Problem Description
Cyclic flow boundaries are useful for turbo machine simulations with rotational symmetry. In this
example, it is used to model the propagation of a water wave moving through a infinitely long channel.
A water wave inside a rectangular box is created by initializing the Euler mesh with a MATINI surface.
Furthermore, a constant initial velocity is put on the water that causes the water to move from left to right.
Since the water wave extends across the whole length of the Euler domain, water will move out of the
Euler domain leading to a fast degradation of the water wave. To prevent this and to keep the water wave
moving, use is made of cyclic flow boundaries. The water will move out at the right and will re-enter the
Euler domain at the left . As a result the water-wave can be maintained and will not significantly degrade.
This problem will be modeled with water and void.
The water properties are
Reference density = 1000 kg/mm3
Bulk modulus K = 2.2e+6 Pa
The bulk modulus has been scaled down to allow for shorter run times. This is acceptable since the
compressibility effects can be ignored here.
The initial shape of the water wave is shown in Figure 3-16.
Figure 3-16 Initial Water Level
141 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
Dytran Model
The water wave will flow inside a rectangular box with an height of 0.053 m, a length of 0.152 m and a
width of 0.0012 m. This gives as definition for the Euler domain:
MESH 6 BOX
+
+ -.001 0.02 0.0000 0.152 0.0012 .053
+
+ 152 1 53
EULER 3+
The initial water wave profile is created by a MATINI and a TICEUL entry:
TICVAL 3 DENSITY 1000 XVEL 10
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC Region -----
TICEUL 4 +
+ SPHERE 1 1 +
+ SURF 2 1 3 2
SPHERE 1 0 0 0 .2
$
$ ------- Shape/Surface Wave_surf -----
MATINI 2 1 INSIDE ON ON
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 2
SET1 2 22489 THRU 22556 22083 THRU 22488
21677+
...
+ 13963 THRU 14368 13557 THRU 13962
The water level profile will move with a velocity of 10 m/s to the right. Without further boundary
definitions the default wall boundary would be used. This would block the water wave and will give
rise to large pressures. Using a transmitting flow boundary will not give any pressure rises and will let
allow the water to flow out, but still the water-wav will degrade. To maintain the water level as water
moves out the Euler domain two cyclic flow boundaries are used:
FLOWCDR,4,MMHYDRO,1,NEGX,5
FLOWCDR,5,MMHYDRO,2,POSX,4
Here both FLOWCDR entries refer to each other. Here FLOWCDR5 imposes a cyclic flow boundary
condition on the right side of the Euler mesh whereas FLOWCDR4 imposes a cyclic flow boundary
condition on the left side. The inflow of FLOWCDR 4 will be taken from the outflow of FLOWCR5.
This allows to maintain the water wave as it exists at the right side of the Euler domain and allows it re-
enters again at the left.
In addition a gravity loading is defined
TLOAD1 1 444 0
GRAV 444 9.8 0 0 -1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
142
To show the periodicity in the water wave propagation time histories will be made. There are several
possibilities for making time histories. One can make a material time history but that would be for all the
water and would not be useful. Another option would be to make time histories of certain elements. But
this is too local. Here it is of interest what happens inside a column of water. Especially the mass and
average material fraction in a column of water is of interest. This output for columns can be created by
using the MATBX entry as follow:
TYPE (ARCMATBX) = TIMEHIS
MATBOUT (ARCMATBX) = FMAT,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,MASS,DENSITY
MATBX (ARCMATBX) = 60
SET 60 = 210,220
STEPS (ARCMATBX) = 0,THRU,END,BY,1
SAVE (ARCMATBX) = 99999
BOX,210,,0.0345,-1,-1,0.002,2,2
BOX,220,,0.1085,-1,-1,0.002,2,2
As result time histories are available for the columns of water between x=0.0345 and x=0.0365 and
between x=0.1085 and x=1.105.
Results
The simulation is run for 30 ms. The water level is shown after 0.6 period, one period, and two periods
(see Figure 3-17). The water level is reasonably maintained. Of course, there is also gravity at work.
143 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
Figure 3-17 Water Level at 9. 15, and 30 ms
9 ms
15 ms
30 ms
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
144
To show the periodicity the time histories for the columns are shown below
Figure 3-18 Matrix
F mat
Mass
145 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
DYTRAN Input files
START
CEND
ENDTIME= 0.03
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: new_ciclic
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: Eyler
TYPE (Euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Euler) = 1
SET 1 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (Euler) = XVEL ZVEL MASS DENSITY PRESSURE VOID FMAT
TIMES (Euler) = 0 THRU END BY 0.003
SAVE (Euler) = 10000
$
TYPE (ARCMATBX) = TIMEHIS
MATBOUT (ARCMATBX) = FMAT,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,MASS,DENSITY
MATBX (ARCMATBX) = 60
SET 60 = 210,220
STEPS (ARCMATBX) = 0,THRU,END,BY,1
SAVE (ARCMATBX) = 99999
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,COSUBCYC,1
PARAM,COSUBMAX,30
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,INISTEP,1.0E-7
PARAM,MINSTEP,1.0E-9
PARAM,VELMAX,10000
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE water-wave.bdf
$ ------- GRAVITATION -----
TLOAD1 1 444 0
GRAV 444 9.8 0 0 -1
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * pshell.2 *
$
PSHELL 2 2 .001
$
$ * Peuler1 *
$
PEULER1 3 MMHYDRO 4
$
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
146
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Water id =1
DMAT 1 1000 1
EOSPOL 1 2e+06
$
$ -------- Material Matrig id =2
MATRIG 2 7850 .33
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$ boxes used in output
BOX,210,,0.0345,-1,-1,0.002,2,2
BOX,220,,0.1085,-1,-1,0.002,2,2
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC InitVal -----
TICVAL 3 DENSITY 1000 XVEL 10
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC Region -----
TICEUL 4 +
+ SPHERE 1 1 +
+ SURF 2 1 3 2
SPHERE 1 0 0 0 .2
$
$ ------- Shape/Surface Wave_surf -----
MATINI 2 1 INSIDE ON ON
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 2
SET1 2 22489 THRU 22556 22083 THRU 22488
21677+
+ THRU 22082 21271 THRU 21676 20865 THRU
21270+
+ 20459 THRU 20864 20053 THRU 20458 19647
THRU+
+ 20052 19241 THRU 19646 18835 THRU 19240
18429+
+ THRU 18834 18023 THRU 18428 17617 THRU
18022+
+ 17211 THRU 17616 16805 THRU 17210 16399
THRU+
+ 16804 15993 THRU 16398 15587 THRU 15992
15181+
+ THRU 15586 14775 THRU 15180 14369 THRU
14774+
+ 13963 THRU 14368 13557 THRU 13962
$
$ ------- Mesh Box: Euler_mesh
$
MESH 6 BOX +
147 Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
+ -.001 0.02 0.0000 0.152 0.0012 .053 +
+ 152 1 53 EULER 3+
$-------$-------$-------$-------$-------$-------$-------$-------$----
---$-------
$
FLOWCDR,4,MMHYDRO,,NEGX,5
FLOWCDR,5,MMHYDRO,,POSX,4
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Waves with Cyclic Flow Boundaries
148
Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Dytran Example Problem Manual
4
Fluid-structure Interaction

Overview 151

Shock Formation 152

Blast Containment in a Luggage Container 158

Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel 165

Slanted Piston 173

Sloshing using ALE Method 179

Flow between Two Containers or Airbags 186

Blastwave Hitting a Bunker 196

Mine Blast 200

Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure 212

Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick
Plates 219

Fuel Tank Filling 227

Water Pouring into a Glass 240

Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe 249

Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses 266

Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh 276
Dytran Example Problem Manual 150

Prestressed Concrete Beam 297

Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam 308

Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction 319

Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions 330

Cohesive Friction 339
151 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Overview
Overview
In this chapter, a number of example problems are presented that show the fluid-structure interaction
capabilities of Dytran.
The user can find in these examples how to model the interaction of fluids and gasses with structural parts
using the general coupling and ALE-Coupling techniques of Dytran.
These examples include the modeling of an explosion inside a structure and a birdstrike on a panel.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shock Formation
152
Shock Formation
Problem Description
Given a column of ideal gas at rest, u
p
= 0 m/sec. A rigid piston at one end of the gas is instantaneously
accelerated to the velocity u
p
= 1180 m/sec that is subsequently maintained
.
The purpose of this example is to model the propagation of the (shock) perturbation inside the gas and to
check results against one-dimensional theoretical data.
Theoretical Background
Relative to one-dimensional dynamics, where the shock perturbation travels in only one direction in a
medium (plane shock front). the following steady-state Hugoniot relations can be applied:
First Hugoniot relation
(4-1)
Second Hugoniot relation
(4-2)
Third Hugoniot relation
(4-3)
where p, e, p, and u, respectively, represent the shocked values of material density, specific internal
energy, pressure, and velocity, c
0
is the sound speed, and u
s
is the speed of the shock front.
Together with the equation of state for the medium (which in this case is treated as an ideal gas),
(4-4)
The four equations define uniquely the values of the four variables of the dynamic, namely p, e, p, and
u
s
(the value of u is known and represents the excitation in the current problem).
density p
0
= 0.001 kg/m
3
specific internal energy e
0
= 2.5 10
6
Joule/kg
pressure p
0
= 1000 N/m
2
ratio of specific heats ¸ = 1.4
u
s
p p
0

p
---------------
\ .
| |
c
0
=
p p
0
– p
0
u
s
u · · =
e e
p
– 0.5 p p
0
+ ( )
p p
0

pp
0
---------------
\ .
| |
=
p ¸ 1 – ( ) p e · · =
153 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shock Formation
Dytran Model
Due to the one-dimensional behavior of the problem, a simple mesh is set up (see Figure 4-1 and
Figure 4-2):
• The piston is modeled as a single Lagrangian solid CHEXA element of 0.02 m x 0.02 m.
• A row of Eulerian cells, each of 0.01 m x 0.01 m x 0.01 m, is used to model the one-dimensional
flow of the gas.
Figure 4-1 Geometrical Problem Layout
To simulate the steady-state shock excitation of the gas from rest to the velocity u = 1180 m/sec, the
piston modeled as RIGID is COUPLED with the Eulerian mesh and a prescribed constant velocity of 1180
m/sec is enforced.
• The RIGID entry of Dytran references a SURFACE entry that defines a surface wrapped around
the part to be made rigid. All grid points on this surface are treated as being part of the rigid
body.
• The COUPLE entry references a SURFACE entry that defines a surface wrapped around
the Lagrangian mesh. This surface acts as a constraint (moving boundary condition) to the
material flow in the Eulerian mesh and at the same time is itself loaded by the pressure in the
Eulerian mesh.
• The TLOAD1 entry is used to enforce a prescribed constant velocity on the rigid body
center of gravity.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shock Formation
154
Figure 4-2 Numerical Problem Layout
Results
The pressure and density profiles of the column of gas are shown in Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-3 Pressure Profile along the Tube at Different Times
155 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shock Formation
Figure 4-4 Density Profile along the Tube at Different Times
Note the steady-state values of the pressure and density behind the shock front
(4-5)
(4-6)
From the Hugoniot Equations (4-1) to (4-3), the theoretical values of these variables can be derived
(4-7)
(4-8)
There is agreement between the theoretical and computed values.
The left vertical part of each graph represents the position of the piston while the right quasi-vertical
part represents the position of the shock front. Note that their relative distance during the dynamic is
growing due to the difference in velocity of the piston (1180 m/sec) and the shock front (2087 m/sec).
The theoretical value of the shock front speed can be derived from the Hugoniot Equations (4-1) to (4-4):
(4-9)
p 3.49e
3
N m
2
=
p 2.25e
3 –
kg m
3
=
p p
0
p
0
u
s
u + 3.46 e
3
N m
2
= =
p p
0
u
s
u
s
u –
-------------- 2.3 e
3 –
kg m
3
= =
u
s
¸ 1 +
4
------------ u
¸ 1 +
4
------------
\ .
| |
2
u
2
p
0
1
p
0
----- ¸ + · + 2087 m sec = =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shock Formation
156
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = SHOCK PROPAGATION (Units = m-kg-N-sec)
ENDSTEP = 80
TIC = 1
TLOAD = 1
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE(GAS) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(GAS) = 99999
ELOUT(GAS) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE
ELEMENTS(GAS) = 1
SET 1 = 1t50
STEPS(GAS) = 1tEndb16
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 1e-06
PARAM,FASTCOUP
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 2 0.0 .01 0.0
GRID 3 0.0 0.0 .01
GRID 4 0.0 .01 .01
.
.
.
.
GRID 209 .015 -.005 -.005
GRID 210 .015 .015 -.005
GRID 211 .015 -.005 .015
GRID 212 .015 .015 .015
$
CHEXA 1 1 1 5 6 2 3 7 +
+ 8 4
CHEXA 2 1 5 9 10 6 7 11 +
+ 12 8
CHEXA 3 1 9 13 14 10 11 15 +
+ 16 12
CHEXA 4 1 13 17 18 14 15 19 +
+ 20 16
.
.
.
.
CHEXA 48 1 189 193 194 190 191 195 +
shock.dat Dytran input file
SHOCK.OUT Dytran output file
SHOCK_GAS_1.ARC Dytran archive file
157 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shock Formation
+ 196 192
CHEXA 49 1 193 197 198 194 195 199 +
+ 200 196
CHEXA 50 1 197 201 202 198 199 203 +
+ 204 200
CHEXA 51 2 205 209 210 206 207 211 +
+ 212 208
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE LOADS, CONSTRAINTS, AND CONTROL BULK DATA
$ ENTRIES
$
$
FORCE 1 1 0 1180. 1. 0.0 0.0
$
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE DEFINED FEFACES OF ELEMENTS
$
$
CFACE 1 1 51 3
CFACE 2 1 51 1
CFACE 3 1 51 2
CFACE 4 1 51 5
CFACE 5 1 51 4
CFACE 6 1 51 6
$
PSOLID 2 2
$
PEULER 1 1 Hydro
$
DMAT 1 .001 1
$
DMATEL 2 1. 1. 0.0
$
EOSGAM 1 1.4
$
TLOAD1 1 1 12
$
TICEL 1 1 DENSITY .001 SIE 2500000.
SET1 1 1 THRU 50
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1
$
COUPLE 1 1 Inside On On
$
RIGID 1 1 1. 0.0 .005 .005 +
+ 1180. 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 10000. 0.0 0.0 10000. 0.0 10000.
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
158
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
Problem Description
The purpose of this example is to demonstrate the application of ALE Euler and ALE coupling to a
practical problem, in this case, an explosion in the baggage hold of an aircraft. The problem consists of
a generic luggage container as would typically be found in a commercial passenger aircraft
(see Figure 4-5).

Figure 4-5 Aircraft Baggage Container (Dimensions in Meters)
The analysis makes use of a symmetry line and therefore half the container and its surrounding
environment is modeled. The Dytran model consists of an ALE Eulerian region for the expanding
explosive gasses, which is coupled to a shell structure, and represents the aluminum container. The
structural and fluid parts of the analysis are connected using ALE coupling.
The explosive event is modeled using the blast wave approach ([Ref. 1.] to [Ref. 3.]); a sphere of high
density, high energy gas is used to represent the detonation products of the explosive. The consequence
of this is that the single material hydrodynamic formulation can be used for the Eulerian region. This
reduces computation times compared to other more complex Eulerian formulations. This approach is
discussed in Chapter 3: Fluid Dynamics in the Blast Wave problem.
Dytran Modeling
The explosive/air region is modeled using 5370 Eulerian elements and the EOSGAM equation of state.
The container is modeled with 1417 CQUAD4 shell elements. The numerical model is shown in
Figure 4-6.
159 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container

Figure 4-6 Lagrangian Shell Element Mesh
The grid points of the Lagrangian and Eulerian elements at the interface are coincident but distinct.
ALE coupling is used to define the interaction between these two surfaces. Each Eulerian grid point
follows the Lagrangian grid point with which it is coincident at time = 0. The remaining Eulerian grid
points (excluding those constrained on the symmetry axis) have their position updated each time step. In
simple terms, each grid point is moved to the midpoint of all its neighbors. The use of the ALE approach,
in this case, is appropriate due to the smooth nature of the deformation that results from the pressure
loading on the structure and is very efficient in terms of CPU usage.
Results
The results of the analysis at an event time of 3 msec are given in Figure 4-7. body 4-7 shows the
deformed Eulerian mesh and the pressure of the expanding gas. This is a good example of the type of
deformation that the ALE coupling can be used for. In this case, the original box-like structure expands,
becoming more rounded as the analysis proceeds. The Dytran User’s Guide states that if ALE coupling
is to be used, then the deformation must be “smooth.” This type of transition from undeformed to
deformed shape is typical of what is meant by “smooth deformation.”
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
160

Figure 4-7 Deformed Pressure Contour Plot of Eulerian Mesh at Time = 3 msec
Figure 4-8 shows the deformed Lagrangian mesh at the same time, 3 msec. Superimposed on the
deformed geometry is a contour of the effective plastic strain in the structure.
Figure 4-8 Deformed Plastic Strain Contour Plot of Lagrangian Mesh at Time = 3 msec
161 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
Files
References
1. Kivity, Y. and Feller, S., “Blast Venting from a Cubicle,” 1986, 22
nd
DoD Explosives Safety
Seminar.
2. Kivity, Y., Florie, C., and Lenselink, H., “The Plastic Response of a Cylindrical Shell Subjected
to an Internal Blast Wave with a Finite Width Shock Front,” 1993, 33
rd
Israel Conference on
Aviation and Aeronautics.
3. Kivity, Y., Florie, C., and Lenselink, H., “Response of Protective Structures to Internal
Explosions with Blast Venting,” 1993, MSC World Users’ Conference.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Container Demo
CHECK = no
ENDSTEP = 4000
ENDTIME = 0.003
SPC = 1
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE(eul) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(eul) = 1
ELOUT(eul) = PRESSURE
ELEMENTS(eul) = 1
SET 1 = 538t5907
TIMES(eul) = 0tEndb0.0005
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 2
$$
TYPE(sh) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(sh) = 9999
ELOUT(sh) = EFFPL2,EFFST2
ELEMENTS(sh) = 2
SET 2 = 1t537,5908t6787
TIMES(sh) = 0tEndb0.0005
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 3
$$
TYPE(strain) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(strain) = 9999
ELOUT(strain) = EFFPL2
container.dat Dytran input file
CONTAINER.OUT Dytran output file
CONTAINER_EUL_XX.ARC
CONTAINER_SH_0.ARC
Dytran archive files
CONTAINER_STRAIN_0.THS Dytran time history file
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
162
ELEMENTS(strain) = 3
SET 3 = 6402,6672,5953,6243,6503
STEPS(strain) = 0tEndb50
$--------------------------------------------------------
BEGIN BULK
$--------------------------------------------------------
SETTING,1,VERSION2
$
PARAM STRNOUT YES
PARAM INISTEP 2e-06
PARAM MINSTEP 1e-06
$
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
$
GRID 1 0.0 .42 .8
GRID 2 .07 .35 .8
.
.
.
GRID 8245 1.921 0.0 .96
GRID 8246 1.921 0.0 .88
$
$
$
CQUAD4 1 801 6501 6502 6506 6505
CQUAD4 2 801 6502 6503 6507 6506
.
.
.
.
CQUAD4 6786 801 8245 8246 7366 7365
CQUAD4 6787 801 8246 6556 6557 7366
$
$
$
CHEXA 538 1 1 2 6 5 681 682 +
+ 683 684
CHEXA 539 1 2 3 7 6 682 685 +
+ 686 683
.
.
.
CHEXA 5906 1 5913 5915 5918 5916 6495 6497 +
+ 6500 6498
CHEXA 5907 1 5915 5869 5872 5918 6497 6451 +
+ 6454 6500
$$--------------------------------------------------------
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE LOADS, CONSTRAINTS, AND CONTROL BULK DATA
$ ENTRIES
$
$
SPC 1 7181 345
SPC 1 7192 345
.
.
.
.
163 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
SPC 1 8226 345
SPC 1 8237 345
$
$--------------------------------------------------------
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE DEFINED FEFACES OF ELEMENTS
$
$
CFACE 1418 8 1 1
CFACE 1419 8 2 1
.
.
.
.
CFACE 2833 8 6786 1
CFACE 2834 8 6787 1
$
$
CFACE 1 7 538 1
CFACE 2 7 538 2
.
.
.
CFACE 1416 7 5905 5
CFACE 1417 7 5906 5
$
$--------------------------------------------------------
$
ALEGRID 1 0.0 1. SPECIAL COMPUTED +
+ 1 THRU 16 18 THRU 20 22 THRU +
+ 24 26 THRU 28 30 THRU 32 38 +
+ THRU 40 42 THRU 44 46 THRU 48 +
.
.
.
+ THRU 679 681 THRU 6500
$
$--------------------------------------------------------
$
PSHELL 801 801 .001
$
PEULER1 1 Hydro 11
$
YLDVM 801 1.2+8 1.+9
$
FAILMPS 801 9
$
$--------------------------------------------------------
$
DMAT 2 1.25 2
$
DMATEP 801 10800. 4.+10 .33 801 801
$
EOSGAM 2 1.408
$
TICEUL 11 +
+ SPHERE 1 2 10 10. +
+ ELEM 1 2 1 1. +
SET1 1 538 THRU 5907
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Containment in a Luggage Container
164
TICVAL 1 DENSITY 1.25 SIE 200000.
TICVAL 10 DENSITY 40. SIE 5625000.
$
SPHERE 1 1.0125 .774 1.6 .109124
$
SURFACE 77 SEG 7
SURFACE 88 SEG 8
$
ALE 1 88 77
$
$
ENDDATA
165 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
Problem Description
Landing and climbing aircraft sometimes encounter difficulties with bird swarms, since an impact of
several birds at high velocity can cause severe damage to the aircraft structure.
Therefore, this problem considers a situation where two birds strike a curved titanium plate at arbitrary
time (see Figure 4-9). Bird 1 hits the plate perpendicularly, while Bird 2 hits the plate with the lower side
at an angle of 25°. The birds are modeled as cylindrical slugs of jelly. The plate is constrained in such a
way that the edges can only move in radial direction.
Figure 4-9 Initial Situation
The properties and initial conditions of the plate and birds are as follows:
Plate
material titanium
density p = 4527 kg/m
3
bulk modulus K = 1.03 10
11
N/m
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.314
yield stress o
ij
= 1.38 10
8
N/m
2
thickness t = 0.0015 m
radius R = 0.25 m
length L = 0.25 m
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
166
Bird 1
Bird 2
Dytran Model
The curved plate is modeled using 33 x 16 (528) Belytschko-Tsay shell elements (CQUAD4). The
boundary conditions applied at the edges of the plate are defined within a cylindrical coordinate system,
where the local z-axis is aligned with the length axis of the plate. The cylindrical system is defined by a
CORD2C entry.
The two birds are modeled in an Eulerian frame of reference, which is built from 33 x 16 x 14 (7392)
CHEXA elements. The birds are modeled as cylinders using the TICEUL entry where the remaining part
of the mesh initially is void. The material is allowed to flow out of the Eulerian mesh by defining an
outflow boundary condition to all free faces of the mesh by means of a FLOWDEF entry. From this
description, it is clear that the user easily can define any number of arbitrarily shaped birds in an Eulerian
mesh with each having its own initial conditions.
The structure and the fluid (birds) are allowed to interact at the fluid-structure interface. For birdstrikes,
the Arbitrary-Lagrange-Euler interaction is the most efficient FSI to use. To define the FSI, an ALE
interface is defined, consisting of a Lagrangian and an Eulerian surface. The structural plate serves as an
interface by defining CFACEs on the elements of the plate. The CFACEs then are used to define a
Lagrangian SURFACE. The Eulerian mesh coincides with the plate and in the plane of coincidence the
faces of the Eulerian mesh are covered with CFACEs that define an Eulerian SURFACE. Both
SURFACEs are defined to be used as the ALE interface. To propagate the interface motion into the
Eulerian mesh, the Eulerian grid points are defined as ALEGRIDs. The type option on the ALEGRID entry
is set to SPECIAL in which case Dytran will automatically use corrections on the Eulerian grid point
motion depending on the boundary condition in which the point is included.
Figure 4-10 shows the model with the fluid (birds) inside the mesh. The birds are shown by plotting the
material fraction (FMAT) for elements.
material jelly
density p = 930 kg/m
3
speed of sound c = 1483 m/sec
mass m = 0.360 kg
velocity v = 150 m/sec
material jelly
density p = 930 kg/m
3
speed of sound c = 1483 m/sec
mass m = 0.285 kg
velocity v = 200 m/sec
167 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
Figure 4-10 Cross Section of the Eulerian Mesh with the
Fluid (Birds) in the Initial Situation
Results
A theoretical check on the results is the peak pressure of the impact. For the maximum pressure of the
impact can be written as
(4-10)
In this way, the maximum pressure of the impact of Bird 1 is
(4-11)
and the maximum pressure of the impact of the lower side of Bird 2,
(where one has to take the angle of 25° into account) is given as:
(4-12)
In the Figure 4-11 and Figure 4-12, both peak pressures are presented in a time-history format. The
maximum pressures are lower than the theoretical values. This is because of two reasons. First, the
Dytran Euler processor is first order and therefore smears out the peak pressures. This gives lower
pressure peaks, but the momentum is the same. Second, the impact causes a dent in the plate and, because
of the interaction, the Eulerian elements near the plate will change in volume, thus causing cavitation in
which case the pressure drops. This second aspect shows stronger for the impact of Bird 1, because the
plate deformation is larger.
P
max
p c AV =
P
max
207 MPa =
P
max
117 MPa =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
168
Figure 4-11 Pressure Time History for the Impact of Bird 1
Figure 4-12 Pressure Time History for the Impact of Bird 2
A picture of the cross section of the deformed Eulerian mesh with the remainders of the birds at Time
Step 500 (0.8345 msec) is shown in Figure 4-13.
169 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
Figure 4-13 Cross Section of the Deformed Eulerian Mesh with the Fluid on Time Step 500
(0.8345 msec)
Figure 4-14 shows the deformed shape of the plate at Time Step 500 with the effective stress at integration
Layer 2 superimposed on it.
Figure 4-14 Effect Stress at Integration Layer 2 of the Plate on Time Step 500
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
170
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Multiple bird strike using Lag-Eul ale coupling
ENDSTEP = 1000
ENDTIME = .002
TIC = 1
SPC = 1
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 1
$$
TYPE(plate) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(plate) = 1
STEPS(plate) = 0tEndb100
ELEMENTS(plate) = 1
SET 1 = 7393t7920
ELOUT(plate) = EFFST01,EFFST02,EFFST03,EFFPL01,EFFPL02,EFFPL03
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 2
$$
TYPE(bird) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(bird) = 1
STEPS(bird) = 0tEndb100
ELEMENTS(bird) = 2
SET 2 = 1t7392
ELOUT(bird) = MASS,DENSITY,PRESSURE,FMAT,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 3
$$
TYPE(pressure) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(pressure) = 10000
ELEMENTS(pressure) = 3
TIMES(pressure) = 0tEndb1e-6
SET 3 = 7105,7119
ELOUT(pressure) = PRESSURE,DENSITY,ENERGY
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 1e-6
PARAM MINSTEP 1e-7
$
$ Model geometry.
$ ---------------
INCLUDE grid_xl.dat
$
$ =====
mbird.dat
grid_xl.dat
Dytran input file
MBIRD.OUT Dytran output file
MBIRD_BIRD_XX.ARC
MBIRD_PLATE_XX.ARC
Dytran archive files
MBIRD_PRESSURE_0.THS Dytran time history file
171 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
$ EULER
$ =====
$
$ Definition of ALE motion.
$ -------------------------
ALEGRID 1 .0 1e20 SPECIAL +
+ 1 THRU 8670
$
$ Flow boundary, property, material and equation of state data.
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
FLOWDEF 1 HYDRO +
+ MATERIAL3 FLOW OUT
$
PEULER1 1 HYDRO 10
$
DMAT 3 930 3
$
EOSPOL 3 2.2e9
$
$ Allocation of material to geometric regions.
$ --------------------------------------------
TICEUL 10 +
+ CYLINDER1 3 1 3 +
+ CYLINDER2 3 2 2 +
+ ELEM 4 1
$
CYLINDER1 -.1381 .125 .26 -.2381 .125 .26 +
+ .035
CYLINDER2 .13 .125 .2252 .17 .125 .2944 +
+ .035
$
SET1 4 1 THRU 7392
$
$ Initial material data.
$ ----------------------
TICVAL 1 XVEL 200
TICVAL 2 XVEL -75 ZVEL -129.9
$
$ ========
$ LAGRANGE
$ ========
$
$ Property, material and yield model.
$ -----------------------------------
PSHELL1 2 2 Bely Gauss 3 .83333 Mid +
+ .0015
$
DMATEP 2 4527 .314 1.03e11 1
$
YLDVM 1 1.38e8
$
$ Boundary constrain.
$ --------------------
CORD2C 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.25 0.0 +
+ 0.0 0.125 0.25
$
SPC3 1 1 23456 +
+ 8671 THRU 8704 8705 THRU 9181 BY 34 +
+ 8738 THRU 9214 BY 34 9215 THRU 9248
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Cylindrical Panel
172
$ ============
$ ALE COUPLING
$ ============
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1
SURFACE 2 SEG 2
$
ALE 1 2 1
$
ENDDATA
173 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Slanted Piston
Slanted Piston
Problem Description
This is a simple coupled Euler/Lagrange problem that uses the general coupling algorithm. A box of gas
of 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm, modeled with Eulerian elements, is intersected by a piston of the same dimension
that is modeled with Lagrangian elements. The piston is initially at rest but will start to accelerate because
of the pressure exerted on it by the gas. Eventually, the piston will leave the box. However, no gas will
leave the box because the piston uncovers wall boundaries as it recedes. In the following figures, two-
dimensional representation of the problem (Figure 4-15) and a three-dimensional representation of the
problem (Figure 4-16) illustrate how the pressure of the gas will accelerate the piston.
Figure 4-15 Two-dimensional Representation of the Problem
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Slanted Piston
174
Figure 4-16 Three-dimensional Problem to be Modeled in Dytran
Desired Results
For this example, the initial conditions are:
The symmetry of the problem can be checked by comparing the velocity profiles of the piston in the three
component directions. These profiles should be identical.
Also, the gas will expand approximately adiabatically and, therefore, if e is the gas internal energy and
V is the volume of the gas, the following result is obtained:
(4-13)
and combining this with the equation of state
(4-14)
(4-15)
Gas Piston
p = 0.1 g/cm
3
p = 7.85 g/cm
3
e = 0.25 10
8
J/kg e = 21.10
9
N/m
2
p = 0.001 Mbar u = 0.3
¸ = 1.4
de pdV – =
p ¸ 1 – ( )e V =
de
e
------ ¸ 1 – ( )
dV
V
------- – =
175 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Slanted Piston
(4-16)
The gas internal energy will be converted into piston kinetic energy, KE, (gas kinetic energy and piston
internal energy are not included), therefore,
(4-17)
Using Equation (4-17), the following result is obtained for the kinetic energy:
(4-18)
The initial volume of gas is one-third covered by the piston. When the piston has completely left the box,
and the process stops.
Dytran Modeling
The gas is modeled using 1000 (10 x 10 x 10) Eulerian elements and the EOSGAM equation of state.
A single Lagrangian element is used to model the piston, and a high elastic modulus restricts
any deformation.
Results
As this is a symmetrical problem, the results can be checked for symmetry in the three component
directions of the basic coordinate system. Also, the decrease in the internal energy of the gas should be
equal to the increase in the kinetic energy of the piston.
The velocity profile of the piston in the x, y, and z directions is shown in Figure 4-17 and confirms the
symmetry of the analysis.
e
e
0
-----
V
0
V
------
\ .
| |
¸ 1 – ( )
=
KE e
0
e – 1
e
e
0
----- – = =
KE
e
0
--------
\ .
| |
1
V
0
V
------
\ .
| |
¸ 1 – ( )
– =
V
0
V
------
1
3
--- =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Slanted Piston
176
Figure 4-17 Velocity Components of Piston
The change in internal energy of the gas and in kinetic energy of the piston is shown in Figure 4-18. The
results confirm that the energy lost by the gas is equal to the energy gained by the piston.
Figure 4-18 Energy Changes
177 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Slanted Piston
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Slanted Piston
ENDTIME = 250
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE(gas) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(gas) = 9999
ELOUT(gas) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,PRESSURE,FMAT
ELEMENTS(gas) = 1
SET 1 = 2t1001
TIMES(gas) = 0tEndb20
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 2
$$
TYPE(piston) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(piston) = 9999
ELOUT(piston) = TXX,TYY,TZZ
ELEMENTS(piston) = 2
SET 2 = 1
TIMES(piston) = 0tEndb5
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 3
$$
TYPE(grd) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(grd) = 9999
GRIDS(grd) = 3
SET 3 = 1t8
GPOUT(grd) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
TIMES(grd) = 0tEndb20
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 4
$$
TYPE(nrg) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(nrg) = 9999
MATS(nrg) = 4
SET 4 = 1,10
MATOUT(nrg) = XMOM,YMOM,ZMOM,EKIN,EINT
TIMES(nrg) = 0tEndb5
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 0.1
PARAM MINSTEP 0.005
$
slp.dat Dytran input file
SLP.OUT Dytran output file
SLP_GAS_0.ARC
SLP_GRD_0.ARC
Dytran archive files
SLP_PISTON_0.THS
SLP_NRG_0.THS
Dytran time history files
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Slanted Piston
178
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 2 0.0 0.0 1.
.
.
GRID 1338 1.633333.7333333.7333333
GRID 1339 1.666667.6666667.6666667
$
CHEXA 1 1 1 5 6 2 3 7 +
+ 8 4
CHEXA 2 10 9 130 131 10 20 141 +
+ 142 21
.
.
.
CHEXA 1001 10 1206 1327 1328 1207 1217 1338 +
+ 1339 1218
$
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE DEFINED FEFACES OF ELEMENTS
$
$
CFACE 1 1 1 3
CFACE 2 1 1 1
CFACE 3 1 1 2
CFACE 4 1 1 5
CFACE 5 1 1 4
CFACE 6 1 1 6
$
PSOLID 1 1
$
PEULER1 10 Hydro 10
$
DMAT 10 .1 1
$
DMATEL 1 7.85 210. .3
$
EOSGAM 1 1.4
$
TICEUL 10 +
+ ELEM 1 10 1 1.
SET1 1 2 THRU 1001
$
TICVAL 1 density .1 sie .025
$
SURFACE 5 SEG 1
$
COUPLE 1 5 Inside On On
ENDDATA
179 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Sloshing using ALE Method
Sloshing using ALE Method
Problem Description
Many spacecraft, such as satellites, contain liquid fuel containers. Sloshing in these partially filled
containers can have a large influence on spacecraft stability and control. An experimental setup to
investigate sloshing phenomena in space is called Sloshsat. This example is a schematic representation
of the liquid motion in the Sloshsat tank.
The tank itself consists of two spherical endcaps with a cylindrical middle part. In this example it is
composed of aluminium. The tank is partially filled with a fluid (water); the rest of the tank is filled with
nitrogen gas. For simplicity only the tank itself is modeled, not the surrounding spacecraft structure. The
tank mass is adjusted so the tank still has a weight representative of the whole satellite. This way, not only
the fluid motion but also the motion of the satellite as a whole can be calculated.
Figure 4-19 (a) Proposed Sloshsat System (b) Tank Dimensions
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sloshing using ALE Method
180
Dytran Model
A full three-dimensional model is set up, with the x-axis pointing along the length of the tank. The tank
itself is modeled using CQUAD4 shell elements. The inside of the tank, that must contain the fluid and
gas, is defined by 736 CHEXA solid elements. To be able to define a coupling surface, additional dummy
shell elements are defined on the surface of the solids.
Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) coupling is used to connect the Euler and Lagrange meshes. Because
the deformation of the tank will be smooth this is allowable. ALE coupling means the nodes on the
coupling surface move with the Lagrange mesh. For this coupling, it is necessary that all nodes of the
Euler coupling surface have a corresponding node on the Lagrange surface. In essence, this means the
mesh on both surfaces must be the same. To ensure the interior Euler nodes also follow the motion of the
tank (so the Euler mesh stays inside) the ALEGRID option is used.
The 736 Euler elements use a multi-material PEULER1 formulation so they can contain both water and
gas. Results have shown major discrepancies in case the gas is not taken into consideration. Different
regions as indicated on the TICEUL specify the fluid and gas location. TICVAL entries give each region
different initial conditions.
The 256 shell elements that make up the tank use the default PSHELL formulation. The elements of the
ALE coupling surface also use PSHELL, but with a thickness set to 9999. These elements will be
converted to surface segments by Dytran automatically.
In order to obtain a faster analysis, a technique known as bulk scaling is used. By reducing the elastic
moduli of the tank and the fluid, Dytran uses a smaller timestep for the problem, reducing computational
costs. The fluid bulk modulus is therefore reduced by a factor of 1000 to 2.2 MPa, the tank modulus of
elasticity is reduced by a factor of 100 to 0.724 GPa.
A TLOAD1 entry with subsequent FORCE descriptions is used to prescribe a velocity profile to the tank.
See Figure 4-21

Figure 4-20 (a) Euler Mesh (b) Surface Mesh
User Subroutine
To obtain results for the center of mass of the Eulerian fluid, a EEXOUT user subroutine was used.
This subroutine can be used to request user-specified output. In this case, the mass and location of each
181 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Sloshing using ALE Method
Euler element are obtained. Knowing this, the location of the center of mass of the fluid as a whole can
be computed.

Figure 4-21 COMFLO and Dytran Calculations of the Liquid Center of Mass Trajectory
Results
The fluid is initially at rest in one end of the tank. The tank is subjected to a constant deceleration to bring
the fluid from one end of the tank to the other. This deceleration along the X-axis is 0.002G, or 0.0196
m/s
2
. A small lateral acceleration is also applied along the Z-axis; the magnitude of this is 0.01 times the
longitudinal acceleration, or 0.00002G. The end time for the simulation is taken as 30 s.
Fluid motion is checked against predictions made with the CFD package COMFLO. Figure 4-21 shows
the X- and Z-coordinate of the water c.o.m. for both calculation methods.
The results can be seen to be in good agreement, especially in the x-direction.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sloshing using ALE Method
182

Figure 4-22 Positions of Liquids in the Tank at Different Times in the Analysis
Files
References
4. Simulation of Liquid Dynamics onboard Sloshsat FLEVO, NLR-TP-99236
sloshsat.dat
sloshsat.bdf
eexout_com.f (user-subroutine)
Dytran input files
SLOSHSAT.OUT
COMEEUL.OUT (refer user-subroutine)
Dytran output files
SLOSHSAT_TANK_0.ARC
SLOSHSAT_WATER_0.ARC
Dytran archive files
SLOSHSAT_MONITOR_0.THS Dytran time history file
183 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Sloshing using ALE Method
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME= 30.01
ENDSTEP=99999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: slosh
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
$ Output result for request: monitor
$
TYPE (monitor) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (monitor) = 1
SET 1 = 14 40 44 83 117 181
GPOUT (monitor) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL XDIS YDIS ZDIS
TIMES (monitor) = 0 THRU END BY 1.
SAVE (monitor) = 10000
$
$ Output result for request: tank
$
TYPE (tank) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (tank) = 2
SET 2 = 1 THRU 256
ELOUT (tank) = EFFPL EFFST
TIMES (tank) = 0 THRU END BY 1.
SAVE (tank) = 100000
$
$ Output result for request: water
$
TYPE (water) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (water) = 3
SET 3 = 1001 THRU 1736
ELOUT (water) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY PRESSURE
TIMES (water) = 0 THRU END BY 1.
SAVE (water) = 100000
$
$ Output to user subroutine
$
ELEXOUT (ceegee)
ELEMENTS (ceegee) = 99
SET 99 = 1001 THRU 1736
TIMES (ceegee) = 0 THRU END BY 1.
SAVE (ceegee) = 10000
$
TYPE (step) = STEPSUM
STEPS (step) = 1 THRU END BY 250
$
TYPE (mat) = MATSUM
STEPS (mat) = 1 THRU END BY 250
$
$------- PARAMETER SECTION ------
$
PARAM,INISTEP,1E-8
PARAM,MINSTEP,1E-9
PARAM,TOLCHK, 1.E-9
PARAM, FMULTI, 1.0
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sloshing using ALE Method
184
PARAM, ROMULTI, 1.E-15
PARAM, VELMAX, 30., NO
PARAM, VELCUT, 1.E-10
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE slosh.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * tank *
$
PSHELL, 1, 2, 0.002
$
$ * dummy *
$
PSHELL, 2, 3, 9999
$ * water *
$
PEULER1, 3, , MMHYDRO, 1
TICEUL, 1, , , , , , , , +AAAA02
+AAAA02, ELEM, 7, 7, 7, 1.0, , , , +AAAA03
+AAAA03, ELEM, 5, 1, 1, 2.0
TICVAL, 7, , DENSITY, 1.29, SIE, 1.94E5
TICVAL, 1, , DENSITY, 1000.
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$ -------- Material water id =1
$
DMAT, 1, 1000, 1
EOSPOL, 1, 2.2E6
$
$ -------- Material air (nitrogen) id =7
$
DMAT, 7, 1.29, 7
EOSGAM, 7, 1.4
$
$ -------- Material aluminium id =2
$
DMATEP, 2, 36.5E3, 7.24E8, 0.33, , , 2,
YLDVM, 2, 3.45E8
$
$
$
$ ======== LOAD CASES ========================
$
$ ------- Velocity BC tankvel -----
TLOAD1,1,6,,2,2
$
$
FORCE,6,1,0,1,1,0,0.01
FORCE,6,2,0,1,1,0,0.01
:
:
FORCE,6,257,0,1,1,0,0.01
FORCE,6,258,0,1,1,0,0.01
$
$
185 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Sloshing using ALE Method
TABLED1, 2, , , , , , , , +XXX01
+XXX01, 0., 0., 30., -0.5886, 30.00001, FREE, ENDT
$ 0.002G accel, 0-30s
$----------- SETS ------------
$
$Setname: alegrid with Set ID: 3 contains Nodes
$
SET1, 3, 1001, THRU, 1885
$
$Setname: euler_init with Set ID: 5 contains Elements
$
SET1,5,1001,THRU,1068,1093,1097,1101,1105,+A000002
+A000002,1109,1113,1117,1121,1185,THRU,1252,1277,+A000003
+A000003,1281,1285,1289,1293,1297,1301,1305,1369,+A000004
+A000004,THRU,1436,1461,1465,1469,1473,1477,1481,+A000005
+A000005,1485,1489,1553,THRU,1620,1645,1649,1653,+A000006
+A000006,1657,1661,1665,1669,1673
$
$
$Setname: shell_surf with Set ID: 6 contains Properties
$
SET1, 6, 1
$
$Setname: euler with Set ID: 7 contains Elements
$
SET1, 7, 1001, THRU, 1736
$
SURFACE, 1, , PROP, 6
SURFACE, 2, , SEG, 2
$
ALE, 1, 1, 2
$
ALEGRID1, 1, 3
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
186
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
Problem Description
Flow between containers or airbags occurs in
• Multi-compartment airbags, including airbags with strips
• Explosive blast wave containment
For simplicity, this problem examines the flow between two rigid, stationary containers, without failure.
The problem and Euler element meshing is shown in Figure 4-23. Both containers consists of a box of
dimensions of 0.1 m by 0.1 m by 0.1 m and one half of a hose. This hose has dimension 0.02 m by 0.02
m by 0.04 m. Both containers are filled with gas. The left container is initialized with density 0.2 kg/m3
and specific energy 400000 J/kg and the container on the right is initialized with a density of 1.9 kg/m3
and with the same specific energy as the left one. This corresponds to a pressure of 0.04136 Mpa in
container 1, and 0.39292 Mpa in container 2.

Figure 4-23 Dytran Model
In the analysis, gas will flow across the hole.
Theoretical Analysis of the 2-Vessel Flow Problem
This part contains the following sections:
A) Data Summary
B) Equations Summary
C) Analytical Estimates on Computed Results
187 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
A) Data Summary
Let us briefly summarize the initial states of the two vessels:

The Euler fluid is modeled by means of an ideal gas equation of state:

Given these data, the following initial values are derived:

The connection between the two vessels has a cross-section area of 4.E-4 m2 and a length of 4.E-2 m.
For the purpose of the analysis, the length of this 'hose' connecting the vessels will be neglected.
B) Equations Summary
During the initial flow developing from V2 into V1, a critical flow will develop. Below is a brief
summary of equations governing critical flow, using the 'upstream' high-pressure data as the reference:
V1 = 1.E-3 m3 volume
p1 = 0.2 kg/m3 density
E1 = 4.E5 J/kg specific internal energyE2
V2 = 1.E-3 m3 volume
p2 = 1.9 kg/m3 density
E2 =4.E5 J/kg specific internal energy
P = (g-1) *p * E
with g = 1.517
P1 = 0.4136E5 N/m2 pressure
c1 = 560.10 m/sec sound speed
M1 = 2.E-4 kg mass
P2 = 3.9292E5 N/m2 pressure
c2 = 560.10 m/sec sound speed
M2 = 1.9E-3 kg mass
Pc = P2 * [2/(g+1)] ** [g/(g-1)] critical pressure
pc = p2 * [2/(g+1)] ** [1/(g-1)] critical density
cc = c2 * sqrt[2/(g+1)] critical sound speed
Tc = T2 * [2/(g+1)] critical temperature
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
188
Using the defined value for g = 1.517, then the critical ratios can be computed as:

We now have sufficient data to analytically estimate the correctness of the calculated transient results.
C) Analytical Estimates on Computed Results
The blowdown transient from the high-pressure volume V2 through the hose into the low-pressure
volume V1 has three stages.
The initial stage is a 'shock-tube' stage, which exists only for a very short duration inside the hose, where
the high and low pressure regions are adjacent and an imaginary wall is assumed to be instantaneously
removed at time t=0. The duration of this stage is very short, typically of duration of half the hose length
divided by the sound speed. Beyond that time, pressure reflections at both larger volumes will cause a
step-wise increase of the flow through the hose, until critical flow conditions are reached. The duration
is estimated as:
tau_st = 0.02 / 500 = 4.E-5 sec, or 40 microsec.
The pressure reflections in each volume have a typical run time of the vessel length divided by the sound
speed, or:
tau_v = 0.1 / 500 = 2.E-4 sec, or 0.2 msec.
Oscillations with this period can be observed in the flowrate plot Figure 4-24b during the first few
millisecs in the transient. Over the first 2 msec some 10 oscillations can be seen, giving the average
oscillation period of 0.2 msec.
Pc / P2 = 0.509
pc / p2 = 0.641
cc / c2 = 0.8914
Tc / T2 = 0.7946
189 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags

Figure 4-24 Function of Time
The second stage is the 'critical flow' stage. This can be considered as a gradual blowdown of the high-
pressure volume, where the flowrate is restricted to the critical flow in the hose. Most high-frequency
oscillations following from the initial shock formation and reflections, have meanwhile been dissipated.
The critical flow is estimated as follows:
dM / dt = rhoc * uc * A,
where:
This would be the theoretical maximum flowrate if the critical flow conditions would exist ideally at
time=0. The actual run in Figure 4-24b shows a max peak of approximate 0.2 kg/sec. This is slightly
lower due to the following effects:
• neglecting energy effects in the flow, and pressure/energy coupling
• neglecting flowrate during the initial 'shock-tube' stage
Both these effects are included in the calculation but are not taken into account in the above
analytical estimate.
A is the hose cross-section,
uc =cc for critical flow the velocity at critical flow is the velocity of sound.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
190
When neglecting the pressure/energy dependency for simplicity's sake, we can also estimate the rate of
pressure drop:
dP / dt = (g-1) * E2 * drho2/dt
Rewriting drho2 / dt as (1/V2) * dM / dt, we obtain:
dP / dt = (1/V2) * (g-1) * E2 * dM / dt = 5.0293E7 N/m2 per second.
This means, the pressure P2 drops at a rate of 5.0293E4 N/m2 per msec. Figure 4-24a shows the pressure
P2 to drop from 4.E5 down to 3.5E5 N/m2 during the first millesec, so this is in good agreement with the
estimated rate of pressure drop. Simultaneously, the lower pressure P1 will rise with the same rate, from
0.4E5 up to 0.9E5 N/m2 during the first millisec, as shown in Figure 4-24a.
The flowrate itself reduces during the critical flow, not so much by a change in the flow velocity but
primarily because the upstream density reduces when the upstream pressure drops. Note that the critical
sound speed, equaling the critical flow velocity, only depends on the gamma value and is dependent on
upstream pressure only as a square-root of (slowly varying) upstream energy.
Estimating the reduction of critical density change then as:
drhoc / dt = 1./[(g-1)*E2] * dP2 / dt, it follows that
drhoc / dt = 1./(2.068E5) * 5.0293E7 = -234.2 kg/[m3.sec]
Since the change in rhoc is directly proportional to the critical flowrate (discounting the small change in
cc), it follows that the flowrate reduces by approximate 0.234 kg/sec. Observation of the flowrate
Figure 4-24b shows that during the first 2 msec, the flowrate drops from approximate -0.2 down to -0.14
kg/sec, which is in good agreement with the estimate.
Let us now estimate when the critical flow stage is completed. This is the case when the downstream
pressure P1 has risen up to the level of critical pressure Pc which, in turn, drops proportional to the drop
in upstream pressure P2. Using slightly rounded numbers for simplicity, we recapitulate:
We can now compute the following equality:
P1(t) = Pc(t), where
P1(t) = P1(0) + dP / dt * tcf
Pc(t) = 0.51 * [ P2(0) - dP / dt * tcf ]
and solve for time tcf in millisec.
It follows that:
tcf = 2.17 msec,
P2 = 4 bar
P1 = 0.4 bar
dP / dt = 0.5 bar/msec
Pc = 0.51 * P2
191 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
which is the time at which the critical flow stage ends. In the flowrate plot of Figure 4-24b, this point in
time can be recognized by the change in slope of the flowrate. When the critical flow ends, then the flow
velocity is no longer a more or less constant value but starts to become dependent on pressure differences
across the hose.
The transient has now reached the 'sub-critical flow' stage. In this stage, the flow solution is no longer
determined mainly by the upstream values, but by both the upstream and downstream values,
requiring e.g., a Riemann solution, to determine pressure and flowrate for the remaining part of the
blowdown transient.
A detailed analytical solution of the subcritical stage will not be presented here, but the following
observations are interesting. Since both density and flow velocity are now reducing in proportion to the
pressure difference, the slope in mass flowrate reduction is now twice as large as during the critical flow
stage. Final pressure reduction is now also seen more clearly to follow a quadratic curve.
The final oscillations in flowrate and pressures are physical rather than numerical in nature. Upon
reaching pressure equality, there is still some fluid motion. This motion causes pressure overshoot and
reverse flow, much like a pendulum. Of course, due to dissipation this oscillatory flow quickly vanishes,
after 6 msec. In reality, dissipation originates from friction and viscous effects, while in the calculation
residual numerical viscosity causes a similar dissipative effect.
Dytran Model
This model could have been modeled as one coupling surface but to illustrate the flow between coupling
surfaces, the two containers will be modeled as two separate coupling surfaces. These two surfaces are
connected by a hole that is located half way down the hose. This hole is modeled as a surface consisting
of either quads or trias that are fully porous. In this case, the hole is modeled by one quad. The elements
in the surface of the hole connect the two coupling surface and are included in the definition of both
coupling surfaces. The first coupling surface consists of:
• The cube on the left
• The left half of the hose
• The surface modeling the hole, this is a square
Taking only the first two surfaces does not give a closed surface. The missing part is exactly the
third surface.
These three objects form a closed surface. The second coupling surface similarly is defined as:
• The cube on the right
• The right half of the hose
• The surface modeling the hole
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
192
In the input deck listed, the container to the left and the left half of the hole make up property set 1. The
container on the right and the other half of the hole make up property set 2. The hole is property set 3. So
property set 3 has to be used by both coupling surfaces as follows:
COUPLE,10,25,OUTSIDE,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,22
COUPLE,20,50,OUTSIDE,,,11,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,23
SURFACE,25,,PROP,1
SET1,1,1,3
SURFACE,50,,PROP,2
SET1,2,2,3
There are two options to create the Euler mesh:
1. MESH with TYPE=BOX
This method should be used when the coupling surface does not deform, and there is no need for
the Euler Domain to adapt itself. When using this method to create the Euler domains, one needs
to ensure that the two Euler domains have at least one element overlapping at the hole. Also, one
needs to ensure that holes are not precisely on the Euler element faces.
2. MESH with TYPE=ADAPT
This method should be used when the coupling surface moves and deforms, and there is a need
for the Euler Domain to adapt itself.
Since the coupling surfaces are stationary in this model, the TYPE=BOX option has been used. To activate
the hole between the coupling surfaces, the following needs to be entered:
• The MESHID must be referenced from the COUPLE entry
• Define a suitable flow model for the hole. This can be either the PORFLCPL entry or the
PORFCPL entry. Note that latter one is only meant for small holes.
In this case, we used a PORFLCPL entry that is suited for large holes. This entry with the corresponding
COUPOR entry reads
COUPOR,2,11,31,PORFLCPL,82,,1.0
PORFLCPL,82,,,BOTH,10
SUBSURF,31,50,ELEM,250
SET1,250,32
Here the SUBSURF consists of the element in property set 3, that is element 32. In defining the coupling
surface, the elements constituting the hole were formatted as a property set but it can also be formatted
in all ways supported by SURFACE.
193 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
Results
The problem has been run with a problem time of 0.01s. Figure 4-24a shows the pressure in both
containers as function of time and Figure 4-24b shows the mass flow rate across the hole as function
of time.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME = 0.01
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: flow
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
TIMES (ALLEULER) = END
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 1
$
TYPE(Container1)=TIMEHIS
SURFACES(Container1)=155
SET 155=25
SURFOUT(Container1)=PRESSURE,MASS,
MFL,MFLR,MFL-POR,MFLR-POR
STEPS(Container1)=0 THRU END BY 6
SAVE(Container1)=9999999
$
TYPE(Container2)=TIMEHIS
SURFACES(Container2)=156
SET 156=50
SURFOUT(Container2)=PRESSURE,MASS,
MFL,MFLR,MFL-POR,MFLR-POR
STEPS(Container2)=0 THRU END BY 6
SAVE(Container2)=9999999
$
TYPE(HOLES) = TIMEHIS
SUBSOUT(HOLES) = MASS,MFLR-POR,MFL-POR,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
DENSITY,MFLR,MFL,PRESSURE
SUBSURFS(HOLES) = 88
SET 88 = 31
STEPS(HOLES) = 0 THRU END BY 5
SAVE(HOLES) = 1000000
$
BEGIN BULK
$ --- Define 24 grid points ---
$
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
194
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material id =0
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$ -------- Material Ideal_Gas id =3
DMAT 3 1.167 3
$ |
$ -> density
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
GRID 57 .140000.0600000.0400000
GRID 58 .140000.0600000.0600000
GRID 61 .140000.0400000.0400000
GRID 68 .140000.0400000.0600000
GRID 71 .120000.0600000.0400000
GRID 72 .120000.0600000.0600000
GRID 78 .120000.0400000.0600000
GRID 84 .120000.0400000.0400000
$
$ --- Define 28 elements
$
$ -------- property set Pset1.1 ---------
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 4 3
CQUAD4 2 1 3 4 8 7
CQUAD4 3 1 1 3 7 11
CQUAD4 4 1 2 1 11 15
CQUAD4 5 1 7 18 20 11
CQUAD4 6 1 21 18 7 8
CQUAD4 7 1 21 8 15 27
CQUAD4 8 1 8 4 2 15
CQUAD4 9 1 20 27 15 11
CQUAD4 24 1 18 21 72 71
CQUAD4 26 1 21 27 78 72
CQUAD4 28 1 27 20 84 78
CQUAD4 30 1 20 18 71 84
$ -------- property set Pset2.2 ---------
CQUAD4 10 2 37 38 40 39
CQUAD4 11 2 38 42 44 40
CQUAD4 12 2 42 46 48 44
CQUAD4 13 2 44 48 39 40
CQUAD4 14 2 46 37 39 48
CQUAD4 15 2 57 58 42 38
CQUAD4 16 2 61 57 38 37
CQUAD4 17 2 37 46 68 61
CQUAD4 18 2 46 42 58 68
CQUAD4 25 2 71 72 58 57
CQUAD4 27 2 72 78 68 58
CQUAD4 29 2 78 84 61 68
CQUAD4 31 2 84 71 57 61
$ -------- property set Pset3.3 ---------
CQUAD4 32 3 72 78 84 71
$ -------- property set flowfaces1 ---------
$ -------- property set flowfaces2 ---------
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
195 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Flow between Two Containers or Airbags
$
$ * Pset1.1 *
$
PSHELL1 1 DUMMY
$
$ * Pset2.2 *
$
PSHELL1 2 DUMMY
$
$ * Pset3.3 *
$
PSHELL1 3 DUMMY
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
196
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Problem Description
The purpose is to demonstrate application of multi-Euler domains to failing coupling surfaces. The
problem simulates a bunker, located on the ground, that is open at the sides and is surrounded by air.
Gas can flow freely through the sides of the bunker. A blast wave is ignited close to the bunker and
expands into the air. When by the impact of the blast wave, the bunker surface fails gas will flow trough
the bunker surface
.
Figure 4-25 Bunker Model
Dytran Modeling
The bunker and the ground consist of cquad4 shell elements. The elements of the bunker are Lagrangian
deformable shells and the ground is modeled as rigid, using a MATRIG. The explosive/air region is
modeled by two Euler meshes. The first domain models the inside of the bunker and the second one
models the outside of the bunker. For the interaction between the bunker and an Euler domain, a unique
coupling surface has to be used, therefore, two coupling surfaces are needed.
The first coupling surface, for modeling the inside of the bunker, consists of the following facets:
• The 180 degrees cylindrical surface and the two open sides of the bunker. The two open sides are
represented by dummy shell elements. These are elements 1 to 2240.
• The top of the ground that lies within the bunker. This is a square and is formed by elements
2241 to 3280.
These facets make up a closed coupling surface, as shown in Figure 4-26:
197 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Figure 4-26 Coupling Surface 1
This coupling surface contains gas inside, and therefore Euler elements outside the coupling surface
should not be processed and so the COVER is OUTSIDE.
The second coupling surface consists of the following facets:
• The 180 degrees cylindrical surface and the two open sides of the bunker. These are elements 1
to 2240. The top of the ground inside the bunker is not part of the second COUPLE.
• The top of the ground that is outside the bunker and 5 dummy surfaces of the ground that are
used to close the coupling surfaces. These are formed by the elements 3413 to 4012, 4095 to
4340, 4505 to 4709, 4894 to 7904.
These facets make up a closed coupling surface, as shown in the Figure 4-27:
Figure 4-27 Coupling Surface 2
This coupling surface is used for simulating the gas outside the coupling surface. So Euler elements
inside the coupling surface should not be processed and the COVER has to be set to INSIDE. The second
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
198
coupling surface uses the second Euler mesh and serves as inner boundary surface for this Euler mesh.
The outside boundary of this mesh is where the Euler domains ends and boundary conditions for this
boundary are provided by a FLOWDEF. The FLOWDEF is chosen as nonreflecting. Waves exit the Euler
domain with only little reflection.
To get an accurate expansion of the blast wave, the diffusion should be kept at a minimum, and therefore
the Roe solver with second-order is used.
Interactive failure will be used for the bunker structure, while porosity will be used for the open sides:
• The bunker elements itself can fail and gas will flow through the failed elements from outside
the bunker into the bunker. All elements of the bunker itself are assigned to a SUBSURF, and
occur in both coupling surfaces. They are able to fail interactively, using the COUP1FL entry.
These parts are formed by elements 1 to 1600. The nodes of the failed elements are constrained
in space by using PARAM, NZEROVEL, YES, to preserve the geometry of the coupling surfaces
from severe distortion.
• Since gas can flow through the two sides without any obstruction, these two areas are modeled
with SUBSURF entries, and are opened by using a PORFLCPL entry. These sides are modeled
with dummy shell elements and consist of elements 1601 to 2400.
The couple cards refer to mesh-number. The first mesh for the Euler elements inside the bunker is created
and initialized by:
PEULER1,301,,2ndOrder,111
MESH,2,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-430.,0.,-1287.,837.,480.,1296.,,,+
+,24,16,30,,,,EULER,301
The value “2ndOrder” activates the Roe solver with second-order accuracy. The property ID is the link
between the TICEUL card 101 and the mesh card. The second Euler mesh for the Euler elements outside
the bunker is created and initialized by:
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-647.,0.,-1293.,1057.,447.,1293.,,,+
+,33,23,37,,,,EULER,201
Euler archive output is generated using:
ELEMENTS (AIR) = 1
SET 1 = ALLEULHYDRO
Results
Figures Figure 4-28 and Figure 4-29 show a fringe plot and an isosurface. Figure 4-29 has been created
by Ensight.
199 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Figure 4-28 Deformed Effective Stress Plot of the Bunker
Figure 4-29 Isosurfaces Created using SIE Variable for the Two Euler Domains
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Mine Blast
200
Mine Blast
Problem Description
This is a simulation of an explosion under a vehicle. The vehicle has triggered a mine that is exploding
underneath the bottom shield. In this example, the actual explosion of the mine will not be modeled.
Instead, the simulation will be started moments after the mine has exploded. This is called the blast wave
approach. At the location of the mine, a high density and high specific energy is assumed in the shape of
a small sphere. During the simulation, this region of high density, energy and therefore also high pressure,
will expand rapidly. The blast wave will interact with the bottom shield and cause an acceleration of parts
of the flexible body. The intent of this simulation is to find the location and the value of the
maximum acceleration.
Dytran Model
An outline of the basic numerical model is shown in the Figure 4-30 below. It is composed of the
following main components:
A. Vehicle Structure
B. Euler Domain 1 - air outside vehicle and compressed air (explosive)
C. Euler Domain 2 - air inside vehicle
D. Ground
E. Fluid Structural Coupling
Figure 4-30 Outline of Basic Numerical Model
201 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Mine Blast
The Vehicle:
Vehicle structure is modeled by QUAD, TRIA shell elements and some BAR elements.
Figure 4-31 Vehicle Structure
Material properties are taken as follows:
Assumed that there will be no failure of the structure. In a part of the structure, there is a hole through
which air and pressure waves can freely flow. This hole will be modeled with dummy shell elements.
Euler Domain 1:
The first Euler domain is the air on the outside of the vehicle. The properties of air at rest are:

Density 7.85E-9 tonne/mm
3
Modulus of elasticity 210000. tonne/mm/s
2
Poison ratio 0.3
Yield stress 250. tonne/mm/s
2
Density 1.29E-12 tonne/mm3
Gamma 1.4
Specific Internal Energy 1.9385E8 tonne-mm2/s2
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Mine Blast
202
In the input deck:
DMAT,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
At the location of the mine, a small region will be modeled with high density and specific internal energy
equivalent to TNT of 7kg when the sphere has a radius of .25 meter:
The input deck will show:
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
The Euler region will be modeled by using the MESH card. The region will have to be large enough to
contain the entire vehicle, including when the vehicle is in motion:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2623.,-1403.,-903.,6100.,2800.,2150.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,201
For the most accurate blastwave simulations, it is advised to use the Second-order Euler solver of Dytran.
This is activated by specifying the second-order option on the Euler property card and specifying the
parameter to use the second-order Range Kutta integration method:
PARAM,RKSCHEME,3
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
To initialize the whole first Euler mesh, a TICEUL card will be defined. To initialize the Euler domain,
other than within the sphere of the explosion, a 2nd large sphere is used. Because it has lower priority,
the Euler elements within the mine blast sphere will still be initialized with high density and energy:
TICEUL,101,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,400,230,4,20.,,,,+
+,SPHERE,501,230,5,1.
SPHERE,501,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
The Euler domain has infinite boundaries. This can be achieved by defining a zero gradient flow
boundary on the outside of the Euler mesh. Use an empty FLOWDEF card:
FLOWDEF,202,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH
Density 107E-12 tonne/mm3
Specific Internal Energy 4.9E12 mm2/s2
203 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Mine Blast
Euler Domain 2:
The second Euler region represents the air inside the vehicle. Also for the second Euler region, a MESH
card is used. The air is at rest again, so the same properties apply:
PEULER1,202,,2ndOrder,102
TICEUL,102,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,502,230,5,5.
SPHERE,502,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
Many of the previous cards will be used to initialize the density and energy (TICVAL) and material
(DMAT/EOSGAM) in this Euler region.
The Ground:
The ground is modeled as rigid body using dummy QUAD elements. It is used to close the Euler
boundary under the vehicle so the blast wave will reflect on this boundary:
PSHELL1,999,,DUMMY
SURFACE,999,,PROP,999
SET1,999,999
$
RIGID,999,999,1.0E10,,0.00,0.00,-800.,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1.E10,,,1.E10,,1.E10
The motion of the ground is constrained by specifying zero velocities:
TLOAD1,1,2000, ,12
FORCE ,2000,999, ,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
MOMENT,2000,999, ,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
Fluid Structure Interaction:
In order to make fluid structure interaction possible, a closed volume needs to be defined. The car model
itself is not closed, so a dummy boundary will be defined to close the volume. This extra surface consists
of three parts:
Part 1 resides on the back,
Part 2 is the top cover, and
Part 3 is the vent on the bottom of the vehicle.
For all these parts, dummy shell elements are defined and hole definitions will be defined.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
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204
Figure 4-32 Dummy Shell Elements Defined to Close the Volume
The input for dummy shell elements:
PSHELL1,900,,DUMMY
PSHELL1,910,,DUMMY
PSHELL1,920,,DUMMY
With this closed volume, the coupling surface can be defined. For each Euler domain, a separate surface
is required. However, in this model, the interaction surface consists of the same elements, except for the
extra ground elements (pid=999) for the outer Euler domain region 1. The surface definition will make
use of the properties of the elements.
The outer surface:
SURFACE,97,,PROP,27
SET1,27,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920,999
The inner surface:
SURFACE,98,,PROP,28
SET1,28,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920
Now the coupling surfaces can be defined. For the outer region, all elements inside the volume are not
active. The covered option will, therefore, be set to INSIDE. Attached to this surface will be the first
Euler MESH:
COUPLE,1,97,INSIDE,ON,ON,11,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
The inner Euler domain is constrained by surface 2. For this volume, the outer Euler elements will
be covered:
COUPLE,2,98,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
205 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
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As discussed before, there are holes in the coupling surface. To this end, a flow definition is required
for one of the coupling surfaces. In this example, the flow cards are referenced from the first coupling
surface. The input to define flow between the regions is:
COUPOR,1,11,1,PORFLCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
SUBSURF,1,97,PROP,301
SET1,301,900
Also, for each of the other two flow surfaces, these set of cards are repeated.
Finally, the flow definition itself prescribes that the Euler region from coupling surface 1 is interacting
with the Euler region from coupling surface 2:
PORFLCPL,84,,,BOTH,2
Miscellaneous:
a. Because this model uses the coupling surface interface, the time step safety factor for Eulerian
elements has to be .6. However, the Lagrangian elements (the quadratic and triangular
elements) determine the time-step, and it is beneficial to use a higher time step safety factor
for the Lagrangian elements:
PARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
b. To show the stress on the structure, the following output request was added:
TYPE (Vehicle) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Vehicle) = 3
SET 3 = {list of the element numbers of the vehicle}
ELOUT (Vehicle) = EFFST
TIMES (Vehicle) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0002
SAVE (Vehicle) = 10000
c. In order to find the location of the maximum acceleration a gridpoint archive output request
will be created. In this case, location and also the approximate value of the acceleration can
be visualized in the postprocessor:
TYPE (Surface) = ARCHIVE
GRIDS (Surface) = 4
SET 4 = {list of the gridpoints of the vehicle}
GPOUT (Surface) = RACC, RVEL
TIMES (Surface) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0002
SAVE (Surface) = 10000
Dytran Example Problem Manual
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206
Results
The Figure 4-33 below shows the location, value, and time of the maximum acceleration.
The stress distribution at this time is also in Figure 4-34.
Figure 4-33 Acceleration Plot

Figure 4-34 Stress Distribution Plot
207 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
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Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.005
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: test (mm/tonne/s/K)
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
$ ========= OUTPUT REQUEST FOR AIR =========
$
TYPE (AIR1) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (AIR1) = 1
SET 1 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (AIR1) = PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,SIE,DENSITY
TIMES (AIR1) = 0,thru,end,by,.0002
SAVE (AIR1) = 20000
$
CPLSURFS(BAGHT1)=300
SET 300 = 97
CPLSOUT(BAGHT1)=PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
TIMES (BAGHT1)= 0,thru,end,by,.0002
TYPE (BAGHT1)=ARCHIVE
SAVE (BAGHT1)=1000000
$
CPLSURFS(BAGHT2)=301
SET 301 = 98
CPLSOUT(BAGHT2)=PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
TIMES (BAGHT2)= 0,thru,end,by,.0002
TYPE (BAGHT2)=ARCHIVE
SAVE (BAGHT2)=1000000
$
$ ========= OUTPUT REQUEST FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS =========
$
TYPE (VEHICLE) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (VEHICLE) = 3
SET 3 = 2, THRU, 105, 129, THRU, 1697, 1702, THRU, 1736,
1758, THRU, 1851, 2460, THRU, 2536
ELOUT (VEHICLE) = EFFST
TIMES (VEHICLE) = 0,thru,end,by,.0002
SAVE (VEHICLE) = 99999
$
TYPE (GP) = ARCHIVE
GRIDS (GP) = 4
GPOUT (GP) = RACC, RVEL
TIMES (GP) = 0,thru,end,by,.0002
SAVE (GP) = 99999
SET 4 = 1,thru,176 189,thru,202 218,thru,225,
253,thru,259 272,thru,285 294,thru,389,
414,thru,421 471,thru,489 500,thru,543,
545,thru,563 575,thru,578 595,thru,643,
776,thru,1137 1149,thru,1284 1301,thru,1308,
1343,thru,1361 1364,thru,1479 1492,thru,1593,
1630,thru,1687 1908 1909 2038 2124,
2227 2304 2343 2448 2526 2702,thru,2727,
2755,thru,2762 2807,thru,2825 2838,thru,2878,
Dytran Example Problem Manual
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208
2907,thru,2910 2944,thru,2962 2969,thru,2972,
2988,thru,3007 3016,thru,3030 3037,thru,3044,
3049,thru,3052 3056,thru,3060 3064,thru,3077,
3087,thru,3090 3094,thru,3097 3101,thru,3104,
3107,thru,3150 3313,thru,3374 3651,thru,3705,
3707,thru,3714 3718,thru,3729
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
$
PARAM,RKSCHEME,3
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
PARAM,INISTEP,.5E-7
PARAM,MINSTEP,1.E-13
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2623.,-1403.,-903.,6100.,2800.,2150.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,201
$
MESH,2,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2621.,-1201.,-251.,5900.,2400.,1250.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,202
$
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
TICEUL,101,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,400,230,4,20.,,,,+
+,SPHERE,501,230,5,1.,
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
SPHERE,501,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
$
PEULER1,202,,2ndOrder,102
TICEUL,102,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,502,230,5,5.
SPHERE,502,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
$
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
$
DMAT,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
EOSGAM,203,1.4
$
FLOWDEF,202,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH
$
COUPLE,1,97,INSIDE,ON,ON,11,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
SURFACE,97,,PROP,27
$
$ Define flow thru the holes
$
COUPOR,1,11,1,PORFLCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
SUBSURF,1,97,PROP,301
SET1,301,900
$
COUPOR,2,11,2,PORFLCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
209 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
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SUBSURF,2,97,PROP,302
SET1,302,910
$
COUPOR,3,11,3,PORFLCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
SUBSURF,3,97,PROP,303
SET1,303,920
$
PORFLCPL,84,,,BOTH,2
$
COUPLE,2,98,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
SURFACE,98,,PROP,28
$
SET1,27,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920,999
$
SET1,28,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * pbar.9988 *
$
PBAR 9988 222 3600.1000000.1000000.2000000.
$
$ * pbar.9989 *
$
PBAR 9989 222 100000. 3.E+8 3.E+8 6.E+8
$
$ * pbar.9990 *
$
PBAR 9990 222 3000. 200000.2500000.3000000.
$
$ * pbar.9993 *
$
PBAR,9993,111,459.96,25066.,55282.,16543.
$
$ * pbar.9996 *
$
PBAR,9996,111,895.52,309450.,55349.,48782.
$
$ * pbar.9999 *
$
PBAR,9999,111,736.,490275.,827555.,2095137.
$
$ * pshell.30 *
$
PSHELL 30 111 3
$
$ * pshell.40 *
$
PSHELL 40 111 4
$
$ * pshell.50 *
$
PSHELL 50 111 5
$
$ * pshell.60 *
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
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210
PSHELL 60 111 6
PSHELL 61 111 6
PSHELL 62 111 6
$ * pshell.80 *
$
PSHELL 80 111 8
$
$ * pshell.110 *
$
PSHELL 110 111 11
$
$ * pshell.120 *
$
PSHELL 120 111 12
$
$ * pshell.135 *
$
PSHELL 135 111 13.5
$
$ * pshell.150 *
$
PSHELL 150 111 15
PSHELL 151 111 15
$
$ * pshell.200 *
$
PSHELL 200 111 20
$
$ * pshell.450 *
$
PSHELL 450 111 45
$
$ dummy elements for coupling surface
$ fail immediately
$ hole
PSHELL1,900,,DUMMY
$ top cover
PSHELL1,910,,DUMMY
$ side cover
PSHELL1,920,,DUMMY
$
$ ground
PSHELL1,999,,DUMMY
SURFACE,999,,PROP,999
SET1,999,999
RIGID,999,999,1.0E10,,0.00,0.00,-800.,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1.E10,,,1.E10,,1.E10
$ constrain the motion of the ground
TLOAD1,1,2000, ,12
FORCE ,2000,999, ,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
MOMENT,2000,999, ,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
$
$ * conm2 *
$
CONM2,5000,1145,,1.5
CONM2,5001,1146,,1.7
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
211 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
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DMATEP,111,7.85e-09,210000.,.3,,,111
YLDVM,111,250E10
$
DMATEP,222,7.85e-09,210000.,.3
$
INCLUDE model.bdf
INCLUDE ground.dat
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
212
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
Problem Description
Bird strike on a box structure is a typical problem in aircraft industries. The box structure simulates the
leading edge of lifting surfaces, e.g. wing, vertical, and horizontal stabilizers. The box can be simplified
to consist of a curve leading edge panel and a front spar. The acceptable design criteria for bird strike is
that the leading edge panel may fail but the front spar strength may not degrade to a certain level.
In this example, two cylindrical panels are put in parallel. Two birds strike the upper panel. One bird
strikes in horizontal direction and the second one vertically. The second bird will perforate the first panel
and impact the second one. The problem is based on the model described in the example Multiple Bird-
strike on a Cylindrical Panelwhere an ALE feature of Dytran is used. Due to the introduction of failure in
the structure (coupling surface), the standard Euler solver will be used. In this example, the emphasis is
given on the modeling technique.
The relative positions of the birds to the upper plate and their initial velocities are shown in Figure 4-35.
The data for analysis are given in Table 4-1.
Figure 4-35 Geometry of the Upper Plate and Position of the Birds Relative to the Plate
213 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
Dytran Modeling
Each curved plate is modeled using 33x16 BLT-shells. The boundary conditions applied at the edges of
the plate are defined within a cylindrical coordinate system, where the local z-axis is aligned with the
length axis of the plate. The cylindrical system is defined using a CORD2C entry. To create a closed
surface, required by COUPLING option, the two plates are connected with dummy quad elements.
The two birds and air are modeled using Multi Material Eulerian (FV) elements, also known as
MMHYDRO. The location of the bird in the Euler domain is defined using TICEUL option. The material
for the birds and air are modeled using EOSPOL and EOSGAM, respectively.
To allow the bird perforating the first plate and impact the second one, several modeling techniques can
be used. One of them is using two Eulerian domains and two coupling surfaces. Both the Eulerian
domains and the coupling surfaces have to be logically different. Each coupling surface associates with
one Eulerian domain. In this model the two coupling surfaces share the same physical space. By
specifying that one domain is covered outside and the other inside, the Eulerian domain represents the
correct physical space.
The two Eulerian domains cannot interact with each other except through coupling surfaces. When
coupling surfaces share the same shell elements, and some or all shells fail, then material can flow from
one Eulerian domain into another one. The interaction between the Eulerian domains is activated using
COUP1INT option and PARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE, FAIL. The rest of the Euler domain is filled with
Air. Please notice that when the effect of air is neglected then the rest of the Eulerian domain should be
filled with void. It will speed up the analysis.
The first domain is associated with a coupling surface that is INSIDE covered. Therefore, it cannot be
adaptive and is defined using MESH,,BOX option. The second domain is adaptive and defined using
Table 4-1 Material Data and Initial Conditions
Plate Ambience Bird 1 Bird 2
Material Titanium Air Jelly Jelly
Density (kg/m3) 4527 1.1848 930 930
Bulk modulus (Pa) 1.03e11 2.2e9 2.2e9
Poisson’s ratio 0.314
Yield stress (Pa) 1.38e8
Gamma 1.4
Thickness (m) 0.0015
Radius (m) 0.25
Length (m) 0.25
Mass (kg) 0.36 0.285
Initial velocity (m/s) 150 200
Fail (equiv. Plas. Strain) 0.1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
214
MESH,,ADAPT. The ADAPT option lets Dytran create and update the Eulerian domain to minimize
memory allocation and consequently lowered CPU time. The default Eulerian boundary condition is set
to that only outflow is allowed using FLOWDEF option. In this case, a bird that reaches the free face
boundary will flow out of the domain. The initial velocity of the birds is defined using TICVAL option.
The finite element model of the upper and lower plates, the Eulerian domains and the initialization of the
birds are shown in Figure 4-36. The dummy quad elements used to create closed coupling surfaces are
not shown in this figure
.
Figure 4-36 Finite Element Model and Finite Volume Domains
Results
In this simulation, the time history of total z-force on the coupling surface is requested as shown in
Figure 4-37. This force is the sum of all z-forces on the nodes that belong to both the upper and the lower
plate. From this figure, it is obvious that there are three large impact forces occurring on the plate. The
first one is when the first bird impacts the upper plate, which is subject to a significant damage. The
second one is when the second bird impacts the upper plate. The last peak is caused by the first bird
impacting the lower plate.
Snapshots of the motion of the two birds and the deformation of the plates are shown in Figure 4-38
at various time steps of the simulation. Figure 4-38a is the initial condition. Figure 4-38b is at the moment
when the first bird penetrates the upper plate and second bird touches the plate. This corresponds with
the first peak in the time history plot shown in Figure 4-37. Figure 4-38c is at the moment when the
second bird penetrates the upper plate. It corresponds with the second peak of the time history plot.
Figure 4-38d is at the moment when the second bird has left the plate and the first bird penetrates the
lower plate. This corresponds with the third peak in the time history plot
215 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
.
Figure 4-37 Time History of the Total Z-force on the Plates
Figure 4-38 Snapshots of Simulation Results Showing the Motion of the Birds and Plates
Files

Ep4d9.dat
Ep4d9.bdf
Dytran input files
Ep4d9_C1_0.THS Dytran time history file
Ep4d9_BIRD_xx.ARC Dytran archive files
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
216
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = Multiple bird strike using Multi-Material-FVSurfer
ENDSTEP = 1200
ENDTIME = .0025
TIC = 1
SPC = 1
$
TYPE(plate) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(plate) = 1
STEPS(plate) = 0,200,400,1200
ELEMENTS(plate) = 1
SET 1 = 7393 THRU 8448
ELOUT(plate) = EFFST01,EFFST03,FAIL
$$
$$ Data for output control Set 2 : the 2 birds
TYPE(bird) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(bird) = 1
STEPS(bird) = 0,200,400,1200
ELEMENTS(bird) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT(bird) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,FMAT3,FMAT5
$
TYPE(C1) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(C1) = 10000
STEPS(C1) = 0tEndb10
CPLSURFS(C1) = 3
SET 3 = 1
CPLSOUT(C1) = XFORCE,YFORCE,ZFORCE,RFORCE
$
type(out)=stepsum
steps(out)=0tendby10
type(mat)=matsum
steps(mat)=0tendb10
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM INISTEP 1e-7
PARAM MINSTEP 1e-8
PARAM,FASTCOUP,INPLANE,FAIL
PARAM,FMULTI,1.0
PARAM,NZEROVEL,YES
PARAM,FAILOUT,NO
param,stepfctl,0.9
$
INCLUDE ep4d9.bdf
$
$ domain 1
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-0.26,-0.015,-0.05,0.50,0.28,0.44,,,+
+,50,28,44,,,,EULER,1
$
$ COUPLING SURFACE 1
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON +A000002
+A000002 +A000002
+A000002 1
$
217 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
SURFACE 1 ELEM 11
SET1 11 7393 THRU 8448 13729 THRU 14048 14577+
+ THRU 15236
$
$ Flow boundary, property, material and equation of state data.
FLOWDEF 1 MMHYDRO +
+ FLOW OUT
$
PEULER1 1 MMHYDRO 11
$
$--------Material Bird ------------------------------------
DMAT 3 930 3
EOSPOL 3 2.2e9
DMAT 5 930 5
EOSPOL 5 2.2e9
$
$ Allocation of material to geometric regions.
TICEUL 11 +
+ CYLINDER1 3 1 3 +
+ CYLINDER2 5 2 2 +
+ SPHERE 4 4 5 1
$
CYLINDER1 .13 .125 .2252 .17 .125 .2944 +
+ .035
CYLINDER2 -.1381 .125 .26 -.2381 .125 .26 +
+ .035
SPHERE,4,,-.1381, .125, .26, 1000
$
$ Initial material data.
TICVAL 1 XVEL -75 ZVEL -129.9
TICVAL 2 XVEL 200
$
$ Property, material and yield model.
PSHELL1 2 2 Blt Gauss 3 .83333 Mid +
+ .0015
DMATEP 2 4527 .314 1.03e11 1 1
YLDVM 1 1.38e8
FAILMPS 1 0.1
$
PSHELL1,3,,DUMMY
PSHELL1,4,,DUMMY
$
$ Boundary constrain.
$ --------------------
CORD2C 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.25 0.0 +
+ 0.0 0.125 0.25
$
$ -------- Material Air id =4
DMAT 4 1.1848 4
EOSGAM,4,1.4
$
$ Domain 2
PEULER1,6,,MMHYDRO,12
TICEUL,12,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,7,4,5,1.0,,,,+
SPHERE,7,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
TICVAL,5,,SIE,2.1388E5,DENSITY,1.1848
$
$===Coupling Surface 2
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Multiple Bird-strike on a Box Structure
218
COUPLE,2,2,OUTSIDE,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
$
SURFACE 2 ELEM 12
SET1 12 7393 THRU 8448 13729 THRU 14048 14577+
+ THRU 15236
MESH,2,ADAPT,0.01,0.01,0.01,,,,+
+,-0.26,-0.015,-0.05,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,6
$
$ coupling interaction
COUP1INT,2,2,1
$
ENDDATA
219 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through
Two Thick Plates
Problem Description
When a metal cone is explosively collapsed onto its axis, a high-velocity rod of molten metal, the jet, is
ejected out of the open end of the cone. The cone, called a liner, is typically made of copper. The jet has
a mass approximately 20 percent of the cone mass, and elongates rapidly due to its high velocity gradient.
This molten rod is followed by the rest of the mass of the collapsed cone, the slug. Typical shaped charges
have liner slope angles of less than 42° ensuring the development of a jet; with jet velocities ranging from
3000 to 8000 m/s. A typical construction of a shaped charge is shown in Figure 4-39.

Figure 4-39 A Typical Construction of a Shaped Charge
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
220
An example simulation of shaped charge formation is carried out to demonstrate the ability of Dytran to
perform such a simulation. A simplified axisymmetric model of explosives and a copper liner is created
in a finite volume Euler mesh. Explosive are detonated starting from a point on the axis of symmetry at
the end of the explosives. The simulation is carried out for 60 us after detonation of the explosives. The
jet is formed and penetrates two thick plates. Please see Figure 4-40 for the model layout
.
Figure 4-40 Dytran Model Setup
Typical shaped charges are axisymmetric. However, aiming at higher velocity, 3-D designs are targeted.
3-D simulation of shaped charge formation would be necessary to avoid excessive experimental work.
Dytran has full abilities to perform such a 3-D simulation.
Dytran Model
The model is simplified as shown in Figure 4-40. The aluminum casting is replaced with a rigid body.
Detonation is assumed to start at a point on the axis at the rear end of the explosives. The liner shape is
slightly simplified as shown in the figure. The retaining ring is assumed rigid and is modeled as a wall
boundary for the Euler Mesh (WALLET). SI units are used in this example.
Euler Mesh and Liner:
A triangular prismatic Finite Volume Euler mesh is used with head angle of 5 degrees as shown in
Figure 4-41. A very fine mesh is used to accurately simulate the behavior of the extremely thin liner. The
liner is placed in this Euler mesh. Symmetry conditions (closed boundary, default Euler boundary
condition) are imposed on the two rectangular faces of the prism to create an axisymmetric behavior.
221 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
Figure 4-41 Euler Mesh
The liner material pressure – density relationship is modeled with EOSPOL model. The liner is made of
copper and the constants are taken as follows:

Material yield strength is modeled with a Johnson-Cook yield model. The constants are taken as follows:
a1 1.43E11 N/m
2
a2 0.839E11 N/m
2
a3 2.16E9 N/m
2
b1 0.0
b2 0.0
b3 0.0
A 1.2E8 N/m
2
B 1.43E9 N/m
2
C 0.0
n 0.5
m 1.0
1.0
T
melt
1356.0 K
T
room
293.0 K
C
v
399.0 J/kg
c
·
0
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
222
Other liner material properties of liner are as follows:

In the input deck:
DMAT 701 8960. 711 712 713 714
EOSPOL, 711, 1.43+11, 0.839+11, 2.16+9
SHREL,712,0.477E11
$ Johnson-Cook
$ A B n C m EPS0 Cv
YLDJC,713, 1.2E8, 1.43E9, 0.5, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 399.0,+
$ TMELT TROOM
+, 1356.0, 293.0
$
PMINC,714,-2.5E10
It is very easy to define the shape and position of the liner by using the method of geometrical regions
when creating the initial conditions of the liner material.
CYLINDER, 1,, -0.5391, -0.56, 0., 2.0, 0.4147, 0.,+
+,0.2958
CYLINDER, 2,, -0.5391, -0.56, 0., 2.0, 0.4147, 0.,+
+,0.2939
CYLINDER, 3,, 0.2, 2.0406, 0., 0.2047, 2.0406, 0.,+
+,2.0019
TICVAL,2,,DENSITY,8960.
Casting and Retaining Ring:
The casting is assumed to be rigid. It is modeled by the default Eulerian boundary condition (closed
boundary). The retaining ring is also assumed to be rigid and is modeled by a wallet.
Plates:
Two thick plates are placed in this Euler mesh. Plate material is defined as steel:
DMAT 801 7830. 811 812 813 814
EOSPOL, 811, 1.64E+11
SHREL,812,0.818E11
YLDVM,813,1.4E9
PMINC,814,-3.8E9
The shapes and positions of the plates are defined by using the method of geometrical regions.
CYLINDER, 4,, 0.22, 2.0406, 0., 0.223, 2.0406, 0.,+
+,2.05
CYLINDER, 5,, 0.27, 2.0406, 0., 0.273, 2.0406, 0.,+
+,2.05
Density 8960 kg/m
3
Constant shear model 0.477E11 N/m
2
Constant spallation model -2.5E10 N/m
2
223 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
TICVAL,3,,DENSITY,7830.
Explosive:
The explosive is modeled by ignition and growth equation of state. The explosive is placed in this
Euler mesh.
EOSIG,100,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,99,,MCOMPB,SI
The explosive material is taken from the database that is build into Dytran.
To initialize the whole Euler mesh, a TICEUL option will be defined.
TICEUL 1 +
+ ELEM 1 100 1 1. +
+ CYLINDER1 701 2 2. +
+ CYLINDER2 3. +
+ CYLINDER3 701 2 4. +
+ CYLINDER4 801 3 5. +
+ CYLINDER5 801 3 6.
$
SET1 1 1 THRU 15342
TICVAL,1,,DENSITY,1630.,SIE,4.29E6
Results
The figure below shows the initial position of the copper liner and two thick plates at 0us, snap shots of
liner collapse, jet formation and plates penetrated at 10 us, 20 us, 30 us, 40 us, 50 us and 60 us.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
224
Figure 4-42 Initial Position of the Copper Liner and Two Thick Plates, Snap Shots of Liner
Collapse, Jet Formation and Plates Penetrated (Courtesy – Postprocessing by
CEI Ensight)
Figure 4-43 shows the velocity field of explosive gases, liner, and jet at 20 us. A jet velocity of about
6000 m/s is achieved.
Figure 4-43 Velocity Field of Explosive Gases, Liner, and Jet
225 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
TITLE = SHAPED CHARGES TEST (m/kg/s/K)
CHECK = NO
ENDTIME = 6.E-5
TIC = 1
$$
$$
TYPE(EULER1) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS(EULER1) = 11
SET 11 = 1,THRU,15342
ELOUT(EULER1) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,EFFSTS,EFFPLS,
TXX, TYY, TZZ, TXY, TYZ, TZX,
PRESSURE, SIE,
FMAT100,FMAT701,DENSITY100,DENSITY701,
FMAT801,DENSITY801,FMAT,DENSITY
SAVE(EULER1) = 999999
TIMES(EULER1) = 0.0, THRU, END, BY, 2.E-6
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-11
PARAM,MINSTEP,1.E-13
PARAM,GEOCHECK,ON
PARAM,VELMAX,20.0E+03
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$
INCLUDE model.bdf
INCLUDE wall.dat
$
$
PEULER1, 1 ,, MMSTREN, 1
$
$ EXPLOSIVE
$
DMAT 100 1630. 100 101 102
EOSIG,100,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,99,,MCOMPB,SI
SHREL,101,3.E9
YLDVM,102,2.E8
$
$
$ COPPER
$
DMAT 701 8960. 711 712 713 714
EOSPOL, 711, 1.43+11, 0.839+11, 2.16+9
SHREL,712,0.477E11
$ Johnson-Cook
$ A B n C m EPS0 Cv
YLDJC,713, 1.2E8, 1.43E9, 0.5, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 399.0,+
$ TMELT TROOM
+, 1356.0, 293.0
$
PMINC,714,-2.5E10
$
$ STEEL
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates
226
$
DMAT 801 7830. 811 812 813 814
EOSPOL, 811, 1.64E+11
SHREL,812,0.818E11
YLDVM,813,1.4E9
PMINC,814,-3.8E9
$
TICEUL 1 +
+ ELEM 1 100 1 1. +
+ CYLINDER1 701 2 2. +
+ CYLINDER2 3. +
+ CYLINDER3 701 2 4. +
+ CYLINDER4 801 3 5. +
+ CYLINDER5 801 3 6.
$
SET1 1 1 THRU 15342
CYLINDER, 1,, -0.5391, -0.56, 0., 2.0, 0.4147, 0.,+
+,0.2958
CYLINDER, 2,, -0.5391, -0.56, 0., 2.0, 0.4147, 0.,+
+,0.2939
CYLINDER, 3,, 0.2, 2.0406, 0., 0.2047, 2.0406, 0.,+
+,2.0019
CYLINDER, 4,, 0.22, 2.0406, 0., 0.223, 2.0406, 0.,+
+,2.05
CYLINDER, 5,, 0.27, 2.0406, 0., 0.273, 2.0406, 0.,+
+,2.05
$
TICVAL,1,,DENSITY,1630.,SIE,4.29E6
TICVAL,2,,DENSITY,8960.
TICVAL,3,,DENSITY,7830.
$
$ DUMMY QUAD TO MODEL THE WALLET
$
PSHELL1,2,,,,,,,,+
+,9999.
WALLET,1,2
$
$
ENDDATA
227 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling
Fuel Tank Filling
Problem Description
The process of filling up an automobile fuel tank must be easy and comfortable for the customer. Effects
like the gasoline pump prematurely switching off or the back splashing of fuel must be avoided.
Furthermore, the legal requirements must be met. The space available for the whole system is constantly
being minimized, leading to additional difficulties in fulfilling the above criteria. Usually costly and
time-consuming experiments are necessary for this optimization. Numerical simulation is a desirable tool
to avoid excessive experimental work.
The purpose is to demonstrate application of Multiple Adaptive Euler Domains for Multiple Material to
fuel tank filling process. The problem simulates a fuel tank that contains a filling pipe and a vent pipe.
Tank is full with fuel up to 80 mm from the bottom. The rest is full with air. In the simulation, the fuel is
made to flow into the tank through the inlet of the filling pipe. The air and the fuel escape out of the tank
through the outlet of the vent pipe.
Dytran Model
Tank and pipes are modeled as rigid bodies. The fuel/air region is modeled by three Euler meshes. The
first domain models the inside of the tank, the second domain models the inside of the filling pipe, and
the third domain models the inside of vent pipe. For the interaction between the structure and Euler
domains, three coupling surfaces are needed.
• Units
Length = mm, Mass = kg and Time = second
• Tank and Pipes
Figure 4-44 shows the structure mesh. All elements are defined as dummy shell elements. A
surface is created and defined as a rigid body. The tank is fixed in position by defining zero
velocity in all directions and zero rotation in all directions.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fuel Tank Filling
228
Figure 4-44 Tank and Piping Structure Mesh
• Euler domain 1
The first Euler domain has the fuel and air inside of the tank.
The properties of fuel are:
This is a reduced bulk modulus (1/100) to increase the time step and reduce CPU time.
In the input deck:
DMAT 2 8.5E-7 2
EOSPOL 2 20000
The air properties are:
In the input deck:
DMAT 1 1.29E-9 1
EOSGAM 1 1.4
TICVAL,21,,DENSITY,1.29E-9,SIE,1.938E11
The Euler region is modeled by using the MESH card. The ADAPT option is used:
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,100
$
MESH,1,ADAPT,8.,8.,8.,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,1
Density 8.5E-7 kg/ mm
3
Bulk modulus 2.0E+4 KPa
Density 1.29E-9 kg/ mm
3
Gamma 1.4
Specific internal energy 1.938E11 mm2/s2
229 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling
To initialize the whole first Euler mesh, a TICEUL option is defined. Tank is full with fuel up to
80 mms from the bottom. The rest is full with air. Initial air pressure is set to 100 KPa. Fuel
hydrostatic pressure is defined starting from 100 KPa at the surface and increasing going down.
The four layers with different pressures are defined:
TICEUL,100,,,,,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,31,1,21,1.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,32,2,22,2.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,33,2,23,3.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,34,2,24,4.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,35,2,25,5.0
$
CYLINDER,31,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,20000.
CYLINDER,32,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10020.
CYLINDER,33,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10040.
CYLINDER,34,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10060.
CYLINDER,35,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10080.
$
TICVAL,22,,DENSITY,8.54254E-7,SIE,0
TICVAL,23,,DENSITY,8.5426E-7,SIE,0
TICVAL,24,,DENSITY,8.54268E-7,SIE,0
TICVAL,25,,DENSITY,8.54275E-7,SIE,0
• Euler domain 2
The second Euler region represents the fuel and air inside the filling pipe. For smooth start of the
simulation, the part near the inlet of the filling pipe is initially filled with fuel. The rest is full
with air. For the second Euler region a MESH option is used:
PEULER1,2,,MMHYDRO,200
$
MESH,2,ADAPT,8.,8.,8.,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,2
TICEUL,200,,,,,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,51,2,41,1.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,52,1,21,2.0
$
CYLINDER,51,,-150.,150.,-10000.,250.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10260.
CYLINDER,52,,-150.,150.,-10000.,250.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10205.
$
TICVAL,41,,DENSITY,8.5425E-7,SIE,0
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fuel Tank Filling
230
• Euler domain 3
The third Euler region represents the fuel and air inside the vent pipe. The vent pipe is initially
full with air. For the third Euler region, a MESH option is used:
PEULER1,3,,MMHYDRO,300
$
MESH,3,ADAPT,8.,8.,8.,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,3
TICEUL,300,,,,,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,51,1,21,1.0
• Fluid structure interaction
For each Euler domain, a separate surface is required. The surface definition makes use of the
properties of the elements.
1) Tank surface:
SURFACE,101,,PROP,101
SET1,101,7,8,12,THRU,16
The surface has been closed to constitute valid coupling surface (Figure 4-45).

Figure 4-45 Coupling Surface of Euler Domain 1
The Euler domain 1 is constrained by surface 101. All elements outside the volume are not
active. The covered option is, therefore, set to OUTSIDE. Attached to this surface is the first
Euler MESH:
COUPLE,1,101,OUTSIDE,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
2) Filling pipe surface:
SURFACE,201,,PROP,201
SET1,201,4,THRU,8
The surface has been closed to constitute valid coupling surface (Figure 4-46).
231 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling

Figure 4-46 Coupling Surface of Euler Domain 2 (filling pipe)
The Euler domain 2 is constrained by surface 201. For this volume, the outer Euler elements
are covered:
COUPLE,2,201,OUTSIDE,,,22,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
Surface 101 and surface 201 share some elements (with property number 7, 8). A hole is
modeled as a sub-surface consisting of quads (with property number 8) that are fully porous. The
elements in this subsurface connect the two coupling surface and are included in the definition of
both coupling surfaces.
A flow definition is required for one of the coupling surfaces. The flow card is referenced from
the second coupling surface. The input to define flow between the two regions:
COUPOR,2,22,2,PORFLCPL,2,,1.0
PORFLCPL,2,,,BOTH,1
SUBSURF,2,201,PROP,250
SET1,250,8
3) Vent pipe surface:
SURFACE,301,,PROP,301
SET1,301,9,THRU,14
The surface has been closed to constitute valid coupling surface (Figure 4-47).
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fuel Tank Filling
232
Figure 4-47 Coupling Surface of Euler Domain 3 (vent pipe)
The Euler domain 3 is constrained by surface 301. For this volume, the outer Euler elements
are covered:
COUPLE,3,301,OUTSIDE,,,33,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,3
Surface 101 and surface 301 share some elements (with property number 12, 13, 14). A hole is
modeled as a sub-surface consisting of quads (with property number 14) that are fully porous.
The elements in this sub-surface connect the two coupling surface and are included in the
definition of both coupling surfaces.
A flow definition is required for one of the coupling surfaces. The flow card is referenced from
the third coupling surface. The input to define flow between the two regions:
COUPOR,3,33,3,PORFLCPL,3,,1.0
PORFLCPL,3,,,BOTH,1
SUBSURF,3,301,PROP,350
SET1,350,14
• Inlet and outlet
Two flow boundaries are defined to the coupling surface (pipe ends, see Figure 4-48). The first
is to define fuel flow into the tank at a predefined flow rate (velocity × area). The second is to
allow air (or fuel) to escape out of the tank. Pressure at the second boundary is defined as 1.0 at
(100 KPa).
233 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling
Figure 4-48 Flow Boundaries
1) Inlet
The flow card of inlet is referenced from the second coupling surface. As input, the velocity is
defined such that the flow rate keeps 2.0 liter/second over 2 seconds. Since the area of the inlet
hole is 1256 mm
2
, the velocity is 1592 mm/s.
COUPOR,21,22,21,PORFLOW,21,,1.0
PORFLOW,21,,XVEL,-1592.,DENSITY,8.5425E-7,FLOW,IN,+
+,YVEL,0.,ZVEL,0.,MATERIAL,2,,,+
+,SIE,0
SUBSURF,21,201,PROP,251
SET1,251,
4
2) Outlet
The flow card of outlet is referenced from the third coupling surface.
COUPOR,31,33,31,PORFLOW,31,,1.0
PORFLOW,31,,MATERIAL,1,DENSITY,1.29e-9,SIE,1.938e+11,+
+,PRESSURE,100.
SUBSURF,31,301,PROP,351
SET1,351,
9
Note: 1. In the case of material flow into a multi-material Euler mesh, the density and
specific energy have to be set.
2. Prescribing both pressure and velocity may lead to the instabilities.
Note: a) Since tank flow is in general subsonic, a prescribed pressure condition to the flow
condition is necessary. The boundary condition without the prescribed pressure
actually assumes that flow is supersonic.
b) When material flows out of a multi-material Euler mesh, it is assumed that each
of the materials present in the outflow Euler element contributes to the out flow of
mass. The materials are transported in proportion to their relative volume fractions.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fuel Tank Filling
234
• Miscellaneous
a) Fast coupling is to used:
PARAM,FASTCOUP
b) Gravity is applied to the whole model:
TLOAD1 1 444 0
GRAV 444 -9800 1
c) Since the tank is stationary and rigid, large subcycling intervals are used to offer
significant CPU savings:
PARAM,COSUBMAX,1000
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
d) To show the behavior of fuel and air, the following output request was added:
TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 1
SET 1 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (euler) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,PRESSURE,
FMAT1,DENSITY1,MASS1,SIE1,
FMAT2,DENSITY2,MASS2,SIE2,
FMAT ,DENSITY ,MASS ,SIE
TIMES (euler) = 0 THRU END BY 10E-3
SAVE (euler) = 10000
e) In order to output results of the flow boundaries, a history request is created:
TYPE (SUB) = TIMEHIS
SUBSURFS (SUB) = 3
SET 3 = 21, 31
SUBSOUT (SUB) = PRESSURE,AREA,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
STEPS (SUB) = 0 THRU END BY 100
SAVE (SUB) = 100000
Results
Figure 4-49 show isosurfaces of the fuel and air. The images are created with CEI.Ensight.
Figure 4-50 show time history curves of the velocities on the flow boundaries. XVEL-SUB21 is the
X-Velocity of the inlet and XVEL-SUB31 is the X-Velocity of the outlet. The outflow velocity is much
higher, because the outlet vent is small. At 1.45 seconds fuel starts to vent out.
235 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling
Figure 4-49 Isosurfaces of FMAT
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fuel Tank Filling
236
Figure 4-50 Velocities on the Flow Boundaries
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
$ UNIT: mm/Kg/s/K
START
TIME=99999
CEND
ENDTIME=2000E-3
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: tank_filling
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: euler
TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 1
SET 1 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (euler) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,PRESSURE,
FMAT1,DENSITY1,MASS1,SIE1,
FMAT2,DENSITY2,MASS2,SIE2,
FMAT ,DENSITY ,MASS ,SIE
TIMES (euler) = 0 THRU END BY 10E-3
SAVE (euler) = 10000
$ Output result for request: Euler Boundary
TYPE (SUB) = TIMEHIS
SUBSURFS (SUB) = 3
SET 3 = 21, 31
SUBSOUT (SUB) = PRESSURE,AREA,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL
STEPS (SUB) = 0 THRU END BY 100
SAVE (SUB) = 100000
$
TYPE (Shells) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Shells) = 8
SET 8 = ALLDUMQUAD
ELOUT (Shells) = ZUSER
TIMES (Shells) = 0 THRU END BY 10.E-3
SAVE (Shells) = 100000
$
237 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,FASTCOUP,
PARAM,INISTEP,1E-7
PARAM,MINSTEP,1E-8
PARAM,COSUBMAX,1000
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE tank.bdf
$
$1111111222222223333333344444444555555556666666677777777
TLOAD1 1 444 0
GRAV 444 -9800 1
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * Shell_1 *
$
PSHELL1 4 DUMMY
PSHELL1 5 DUMMY
PSHELL1 6 DUMMY
PSHELL1 7 DUMMY
PSHELL1 8 DUMMY
PSHELL1 9 DUMMY
PSHELL1 10 DUMMY
PSHELL1 11 DUMMY
PSHELL1 12 DUMMY
PSHELL1 13 DUMMY
PSHELL1 14 DUMMY
PSHELL1 15 DUMMY
PSHELL1 16 DUMMY
$
$
$ -------- Material air_mat id =1
$
DMAT 1 1.29E-9 1
EOSGAM 1 1.4
$
$ -------- Material oil_mat id =2
$
DMAT 2 8.5E-7 2
EOSPOL 2 20000
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
RIGID,1,1,10.
SURFACE,1,,PROP,1
SET1,1,5,THRU,8,10,THRU,16
$---------Tload1-tank----------------
TLOAD1,1,1,,12
FORCE,1,1,,0.,1.0,1.0,1.0
MOMENT,1,1,,0.,1.0,1.0,1.0
$
$-----------------------------Domain 1------------------------------
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,100
$
MESH,1,ADAPT,8.,8.,8.,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,1
$
COUPLE,1,101,OUTSIDE,,,,,,+
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fuel Tank Filling
238
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
$
SURFACE,101,,PROP,101
SET1,101,7,8,12,THRU,16
$
$---------Euler initial condition---------------
TICEUL,100,,,,,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,31,1,21,1.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,32,2,22,2.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,33,2,23,3.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,34,2,24,4.0,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,35,2,25,5.0
$
CYLINDER,31,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,20000.
CYLINDER,32,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10020.
CYLINDER,33,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10040.
CYLINDER,34,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10060.
CYLINDER,35,,-350.,150.,-10000.,50.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10080.
$
TICVAL,21,,DENSITY,1.29E-9,SIE,1.938E11
TICVAL,22,,DENSITY,8.54254E-7,SIE,0
TICVAL,23,,DENSITY,8.5426E-7,SIE,0
TICVAL,24,,DENSITY,8.54268E-7,SIE,0
TICVAL,25,,DENSITY,8.54275E-7,SIE,0
$
$-----------------------------Domain 2------------------------------
PEULER1,2,,MMHYDRO,200
$
MESH,2,ADAPT,8.,8.,8.,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,2
$
COUPLE,2,201,OUTSIDE,,,22,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
$
SURFACE,201,,PROP,201
SET1,201,4,THRU,8
$
COUPOR,2,22,2,PORFLCPL,2,,1.0
PORFLCPL,2,,,BOTH,1
SUBSURF,2,201,PROP,250
SET1,250,8
$
COUPOR,21,22,21,PORFLOW,21,,1.0
PORFLOW,21,,XVEL,-1592.,DENSITY,8.5425E-7,FLOW,IN,+
+,YVEL,0.,ZVEL,0.,MATERIAL,2,,,+
+,SIE,0
SUBSURF,21,201,PROP,251
SET1,251,4
$
$---------Euler initial condition---------------
TICEUL,200,,,,,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,51,2,41,1.0,,,,+
239 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fuel Tank Filling
+,CYLINDER,52,1,21,2.0
$
CYLINDER,51,,-150.,150.,-10000.,250.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10260.
CYLINDER,52,,-150.,150.,-10000.,250.,150.,-10000.,+
+,10205.
$
TICVAL,41,,DENSITY,8.5425E-7,SIE,0
$-----------------------------Domain 3------------------------------
PEULER1,3,,MMHYDRO,300
$
MESH,3,ADAPT,8.,8.,8.,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,3
$
COUPLE,3,301,OUTSIDE,,,33,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,3
$
SURFACE,301,,PROP,301
SET1,301,9,THRU,14
$
COUPOR,3,33,3,PORFLCPL,3,,1.0
PORFLCPL,3,,,BOTH,1
SUBSURF,3,301,PROP,350
SET1,350,14
$
COUPOR,31,33,31,PORFLOW,31,,1.0
PORFLOW,31,,MATERIAL,1,DENSITY,1.29e-9,SIE,1.938e+11,+
+,PRESSURE,100.
SUBSURF,31,301,PROP,351
SET1,351,9
$
$---------Euler initial condition---------------
TICEUL,300,,,,,,,,+
+,CYLINDER,51,1,21,1.0
$
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Pouring into a Glass
240
Water Pouring into a Glass
Problem Description
This problem demonstrates the use of multiple Euler domains that can interact with each other when
porosity is defined to the coupling surfaces associated with them. This problem simulates the water
pouring into a glass. A bottle that is partially filled with water is rotated allowing water to flow out into
a glass. The Euler domains in this model handle multiple hydrodynamic materials (air and water).
Dytran Modeling
The bottle and the glass are modeled with cquad4 elements. The elements of the bottle and the glass are
modeled as rigid using MATRIG material model. The bottle is partially filled with water and air. The C.G
of the bottle is constrained in global X, Y, Z translations, and X, Y rotations. An enforced rotation about
global Z direction is defined. The glass is fixed in space in all directions and is initialized with air. A
gravitational force defined in the negative Y direction applies to the entire model.
The material properties used in the model are listed below.
Glass and Bottle:
Density: 0.9E-6 kg/mm
3
Young's Modulus: 1.4 GPa
Poisson's Ratio: 0.4
Water:
Density: 1E-6 kg/mm
3
Bulk Modulus: 2.2 GPa
241 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Water Pouring into a Glass
Air:
Density: 1.28E-9 kg/mm
3
Gas Constant: 1.4
The bulk stiffness scaling technique is used to speed up the calculation. By reducing the water bulk
modulus by a factor of 1000, Dytran uses a larger time-step for the problem reducing computational cost.
There are three coupling surfaces associated with three Euler domains in the model. The first coupling
surface is shown in Figure 4-51. This coupling surfaces is used to simulate fluid outside the bottle and
glass so Euler elements inside the coupling surface should not be processed and the COVER in the
COUPLE definition is set to INSIDE.
The couple card refers to a mesh number. The first mesh for the Euler elements is created and
initialized by
PEULER1,2,,MMHYDRO,13
MSEH,10,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-63,-250,-65,147,300,130,,,+
+,21,42,19,,,,EULER,2
Figure 4-51 Coupling Surface 1
The second coupling surface is shown in Figure 4-52. This coupling surface is used to model the fluid
inside the bottle. So all elements outside the coupling surface should not be processed and the COVER in
the COUPLE definition is set to OUTSIDE.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Pouring into a Glass
242
The couple card refers to a mesh number. The second Euler domain is an adaptive Euler domain created
and initialized by
PEULER1,3,,MMHYDRO,12
MSEH,11,ADAPT,7,7,7,,,,+
+, , , , , , ,,,+
+, , ,,,,,EULER,3,+
+,NONE
Figure 4-52 Coupling Surface 2
The third coupling surface and its Euler domain are shown in Figure 4-53. This coupling surface is used
to model the fluid inside the glass. So all elements outside the coupling surface should not be processed
and the COVER in the COUPLE definition is set to OUTSIDE.
The couple card refers to a mesh number. The third Euler domain is an adaptive Euler domain created
and initialized by
PEULER1,2,,MMHYDRO,13
MESH,12,ADAPT,7,7,7,,,,+
+, , , , , , ,,,+
+, , ,,,,,EULER,2,+
+,NONE
243 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Water Pouring into a Glass
Figure 4-53 Coupling Surface 3
Coupling Surface 1 interacts with Coupling surface 2 through porosity defined to the bottle top through
COUPOR/PORFLCPL/SUBSURF entries below. The elements of the coupling surface that define
porosity are defined in the SET1 entry below.
PORFLCPL,95,,,BOTH,9
COUPOR,15,30,46,PORFLCPL,95,,1.0
SUBSURF,46,1,ELEM,59
SET1,59,12,THRU,63,317,THRU,368,501,+
+,THRU,552,685,THRU,736
Coupling Surface 3 interacts with Coupling surface 1 through porosity defined to the glass top through
COUPOR/PORFLCPL/SUBSURF entries below. The elements of the coupling surface that define
porosity are defined in the SET1 entry below.
PORFLCPL, 96,,,BOTH,8
COUPOR,16,31,47,PORFLCPL,96,,1.0
SUBSURF,47,3,ELEM,60
SET1,60,3358,THRU,3490
The Euler element output is requested using ALLMULTIEULHYDRO. Also since adaptive Euler mesh
is used, SAVE=1 is used as shown below.
TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 12
SET 12 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (euler) = DENSITY PRESSURE SIE FMAT2 FMAT3
TIMES (euler) = 0.0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (euler) = 1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Pouring into a Glass
244
Results
The simulations results at 0, 1.0 and 2.0 seconds are shown in the below figures. FMAT of water was
used to create the isosurface
.
Figure 4-54 Isosurface of FMAT at 0.0s
Figure 4-55 Isosurface of FMAT at 1.0s
245 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Water Pouring into a Glass
Figure 4-56 Isosurface of FMAT at 2.0s
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=2000
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: water pouring in to a glass
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
TYPE(detail) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS(detail) = 2
SET 2 = ALLSHQUAD
TIMES(detail) = 0.0,THRU,END,BY,10
ELOUT(detail) = MASS
SAVE(detail) = 1000
$
$TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 12
SET 12 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (euler) = DENSITY SIE PRESSURE FMAT FVUNC FMATPLT ,
VOLUME XVEL YVEL ZVEL XMOM YMOM ZMOM TEMPTURE FMAT2 FMAT3
TIMES (euler) = 0.0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (euler) = 1
$
TYPE (restat) = RESTART
TIMES (restat) = 0 THRU END BY 2000
SAVE (restat) = 1
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-3
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Pouring into a Glass
246
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE water_pouring1.bdf
INCLUDE glass.dat
$ ------- GRAVITATION -----
TLOAD1 1 444 0
GRAV 444 -0.0098 1
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * prop.1 *
$
PSHELL 1 1 1.5
$
$ * outer_euler *
$
PEULER1 2 MMHYDRO 13
$
$ * inner_euler *
$
PEULER1 3 MMHYDRO 12
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material DMATEP.1 id =1
MATRIG 1 9e-07 1.4 .4
$
$ -------- Material air id =2
DMAT 21.28e-09 2
EOSGAM 2 1.4
$
$ -------- Material water id =3
DMAT 3 1e-06 3
$
$ Due to bulk scaling bulk modulus is reduced by a factor of 1000.
$ This results in larger time step and lower computational cost.
$
EOSPOL 3 2.2e-03
$EOSPOL 3 2.2
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC air_ini -----
TICVAL 5 DENSITY1.28e-09 SIE 194000
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC water_ini -----
TICVAL 6 DENSITY 1e-06
$
$ ------- General Coupling: couple_bottle_glass -----
$
COUPLE 8 1 INSIDE ON ON 30 STANDARD+A000001
+A000001 +A000002
+A000002 10
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 1
SET1 1 2325 THRU 2704 1744 THRU 2324 1163+A000003
+A000003 THRU 1743 582 THRU 1162 1 THRU 581+
+ 3000 THRU 3576
247 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Water Pouring into a Glass
$
$ ------- General Coupling: couple_bottle-----
$
COUPLE 9 2 OUTSIDE ON ON STANDARD+A000004
+A000004 +A000005
+A000005 11
$
SURFACE 2 ELEM 2
SET1 2 2526 THRU 2704 1945 THRU 2525 1364+A000006
+A000006 THRU 1944 783 THRU 1363 202 THRU 782+A000007
+A000007 1 THRU 201
$
$ ------- General Coupling: couple_glass -----
$
COUPLE 10 3 OUTSIDE ON ON 31 STANDARD+
+A000004 +
+A000005 12
$
SURFACE 3 ELEM 3
SET1 3 3000 THRU 3576
$
$ ------- Mesh Box: outer_box_euler_mesh_for_bottle_glass
$
MESH 10 BOX +A000008
+A000008 -63 -250 -65 147 300 130 +A000009
+A000009 21 42 19 EULER 2
$
$ ------- Mesh Adap: inner_adapt_euler_mesh_for_bottle
$
MESH 11 ADAPT 7 7 7 +A000010
+A000010 +A000011
+A000011 EULER 3+A000012
+A000012 NONE
$
$ ------- Mesh Adap: inner_adapt_euler_mesh_for_glass
$
MESH 12 ADAPT 7 7 7 +A000010
+A000010 +A000011
+A000011 EULER 2+A000012
+A000012 NONE
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC inner_reg_def -----
TICEUL 12 +A000013
+A000013 SPHERE 3 2 5 1 +A000014
+A000014 BOX 4 3 6 2
SPHERE 3 0 0 0 1000
BOX 4 -80 -145 -60 270 133 120
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC outter_reg_def -----
TICEUL 13 +A000016
+A000016 SPHERE 2 2 5 1
SPHERE 2 0 0 0 1000
$
$ ------- Rigid Body Object rbo -----
$ ---- No reference node is used.
$ ---- enforced rotational velocity of the C.G of the bottle
TLOAD1 1 16 12
FORCE 16 MR1 1 0 0 0
TLOAD1 1 1016 12 6
MOMENT 1016 MR1 1 0 0 1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Water Pouring into a Glass
248
$
$ ------- Rigid Body Object rbo1 -----
$ ---- No reference node is used.
$ ---- fix the glass in space in all directions
TLOAD1 1 1 12
FORCE 1 MR4 1 0 0 0
TLOAD1 1 1001 12
MOMENT 1001 MR4 1 0 0 0
$ ================ TABLES =================
$
$ ------- TABLE 6: rotational_table -------
TABLED1 6 +A000017
+A000017 0 .0379 40 .0379 40.0001 0 2000 0+A000018
+A000018 ENDT
$
$
$ Porosity of the botte top
$
PORFLCPL,95,,,BOTH,9
COUPOR,15,30,46,PORFLCPL,95,,1.0
SUBSURF 46 1 ELEM 59
SET1 59 12 THRU 63 317 THRU 368 501+
+ THRU 552 685 THRU 736
$
$ Porosity for the glass top
$
PORFLCPL,96,,,BOTH,8
COUPOR,16,31,47,PORFLCPL,96,,1.0
SUBSURF 47 3 ELEM 60
SET1 60 3358 THRU 3490
$
ENDDATA
249 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
Problem Description
This problem demonstrates a viscous fluid flow through a pipe with a prescribed inlet flow and with
prescribed pressure at the end of the pipe.
The pipe is modeled by two approaches, see Figure 4-57.
• Model 1: Rectangular Euler mesh with coupling surface
• Model 2: A general Euler mesh. The boundary of the Euler mesh forms the pipe.
Figure 4-57 Model Setup
Fluid properties are:
1. Reference density: 9.53E-5 lbf/inch
3
2. EOSTAIT with A0=0, A1=2E+5, G=1
3. Initial pressure 0 psi
4. Dynamic viscosity of 0.001 lb.s/inch
2
The pipe has a diameter of 0.844 inch and a length of 17.1 inches. At the inflow boundary, a constant
velocity of 200 inch/s is prescribed. The inflow material has a density of 9.76E-5 lbf/inch
3
. At the outflow
boundary, a pressure of 0 psi is used.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
250
Theoretical Analysis
To obtain a good representation of the viscous boundary layer, there should be at least a few elements
across its thickness. To estimate this size, the Reynolds number is computed. This is given by

This means that the size of the boundary layer is in the order of Inch=0.2 inch.
Therefore, it is acceptable to use about 10 elements across the diameter. If the Reynolds number had been
larger, then more elements would have been needed to capture the viscous boundary layer. note that in
flow with high Reynolds numbers, it is not always necessary to capture the viscous boundary layer.
Model 1 will be meshed with 11*11*80 Euler elements. Model 2 will be meshed by 2900 Euler elements.
The flow rate is coupled to the pressure difference across the pipe by Poiseuille's law: ,
while the volumetric flow rate itself is defined by . Hence substitution yields
Here denoted dynamic viscosity, r the radius, l the length, u the inflow velocity. The shear stress is
given by
The resulting axial wall force exerted by the fluid on the pipe is:
Dytran Model
Model 1:
The pipe is modeled as a coupling surface and the viscous fluid by a block Eulerian mesh. In addition,
the pipe surface is modeled as rigid:
RIGID 1 12 1.
SURFACE 12 ELEM 3
TLOAD1 1 1 12
FORCE 1 1 0. 1 1 1
MOMENT 1 1 0. 1 1 1
$
The viscous fluid is modeled as Eulerian material using EOSTAIT.
DMAT 19.53e-05 1
EOSTAIT 1 0 200000 19.529e-5 .001
Re
densi t y*di amet er*vel oci t y
dydnami c vi s i t y cos –
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.52*10
5 –
*0.44*200
0.001
-------------------------------------------------- 16 = = =
1
Re
----------- di amet er
0.84
4
---------- =
o AP o
tr
4
8ul
--------- AP =
o utr
2
=
AP
8ul
tr
4
--------- o
8ul
r
2
--------- u
8*0.001*17.1
0.422*0.422
--------------------------------- 200 153.6psi = = = =
v
t
yz
t
zx
rAP
2l
----------
0.422*153.6
2*1.71
------------------------------ 1.896psi = = = =
F tr
2
AP 85.93l bf = =
251 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
and the Euler mesh is created by MESH:
MESH 9 BOX
+A000004
+A000004 -.45 -.45 -.05 .9 .9 17.2
+A000005
+A000005 11 11 80 EULER 2
$
Initialization of Eulerian element is done via TICEUL and TICVAL
TICVAL 10 DENSITY9.53e-05
$
$ ------- TICEL BC Simple -----
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC Region -----
TICEUL 13
+A000006
+A000006 SPHERE 12 1 10 1
SPHERE 12 0 0 0 20
$
To couple the Eulerian material to the pipe, the COUPLE option is used:
$
COUPLE 8 1 OUTSIDE ON ON 8
STANDARD+A000001
+A000001
+A000002
+A000002 9
$
SURFACE 1 SUB 1 SUB 2 SUB 3
$
$ General Coupling Subsurface: SUB1
$
SUBSURF 1 1 ELEM 3
SET1 3 1 THRU 456
$
SUBSURF 2 1 ELEM 4
SET1 4 457 THR 514
$
$
SUBSURF 3 1 ELEM 5
SET1 5 515 THRU 572
Since the Eulerian material is inside the pipe, the COVER field on the COUPLE option is OUTSIDE.
Boundary conditions are imposed by the PORFLOW entry
$
COUPOR 1 8 2 PORFLOW 1CONSTANT 1
$
PORFLOW 1 METHODVELOCITY FLOW IN DENSITY9.76e-
05+A000003
+A000003 XVEL 0 YVEL 0 ZVEL -200MATERIAL 1
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
252
SUBSURF 2 1 ELEM 4
SET1 4 457 THRU 514
Note that COUPOR is referenced from the COUPLE option
$ General Coupling Subsurface: SUB3
$
COUPOR 2 8 3 PORFLOW 2CONSTANT 1
$
PORFLOW 2 METHODVELOCITY FLOW OUTPRESSURE 0.
+A000009
+A000009MATERIAL 1
$
SUBSURF 3 1 ELEM 5
SET1 5 515 THRU 572
The time histories of inflow pressure and velocity show significant oscillations. They occur because the
fluid inside the pipe is initially at rest and is subjected to a step-change of inflowing material. To avoid
oscillatory transients, the inflow can be made time dependent. Inflow starts at zero and grows linearly
until it reaches the stationary target value. The time at which the switch from linear to constant takes place
should be sufficiently large to enable flow to settle down. This time is generally given by
. This is the time it takes for acoustic waves to travel four times the length of the
pipe. This yields the PORFLOWT model:
COUPOR 1 8 2PORFLOWT 1CONSTANT 1
$
PORFLOWT 1 IN +
+ TABLE 100 +
+ 1CONSTANT 9.76e-5CONSTANT 0.0
TABLED1 100 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0015 200 1.0 200.0
Model 2:
Euler elements are defined by CHEXAs, and boundary conditions are imposed by use of FLOW.
This model has also been run with a time depended flow model by replacing the inflow FLOW by a
FLOWT model:
FLOWT 7 3 IN +
+ TABLE 100 +
+ 1CONSTANT 9.76e-5
TABLED1 100 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0015 200 1.0 200.0
Results
Results and comparisons to theory are shown for the standard HYDRO solver, MMHYDRO solver, and
the Roe solver. Also shown is that by using time dependent flow models oscillations in pressure and
velocity are significantly reduced. As a result, the steady state flow condition is reached within a much
shorter problem time. See example on the following page.
4*
Lengt h
soundspeed
--------------------------------- 0.0015 =
253 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
254
255 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
256
257 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
258
259 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
260
Figure 4-58 Model 1 with Time Dependent Flow and HYDRO Solver
Inflow and Outflow Results
Figure 4-59 Model 2 with Time Dependent Flow and HYDRO Solver Inflow and Outflow
Results
261 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe

Figure 4-60 Model 1 with Time Dependent Flow Model: Axial Force
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Model 1
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.02
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: Cyl
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: elem
TYPE (elem) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elem) = 1
Table 4-2 Force on the Pipe, TYX is extrapolated to the Wall
Pressure Diff TYZ Z-Force
THEORY 153.6 1.896 85.93
HYDRO 159.2 (+3.6%) 1.98 (+4.4%) N.A.
HYDRO (FSI) 151.1 (-1.6%) 1.84 (-3.0%) 83.38 (-3.0%)
MMHYDRO 159.1 (+3.6%) 1.98 (+4.4%) N.A.
MMHYDRO (FSI) 151.1 (-1.6%) 1.84 (-3.0%) 83.38 (-3.0%)
HYDRO – ROE 170.2 (+10.8%) 1.91 (+0.7%) N.A.
HYDRO (FSI) – ROE 165.9 (+8.0%) 1.887 (-1.3%) 85.46 (-0.5%)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
262
SET 1 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (elem) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY SIE PRESSURE Q TXY TYZ TZX
TIMES (elem) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (elem) = 10000
$ Output result for request: ths
TYPE (ths) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTS (ths) = 2
SET 2 = 633,637,10192,10196
ELOUT (ths) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY SIE PRESSURE TZX TYZ
TIMES (ths) = 0 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (ths) = 10000
$
TYPE (Coup) = TIMEHIS
RIGIDS(Coup) = 3
SET 3 = 1
RBOUT (Coup) = XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE
TIMES (Coup) = 0 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (Coup) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-7
PARAM,FASTCOUP,INPLANE
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$
$ --- Define 574 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .422000 .00000 .00000
..
..
GRID 641 .319874-.177903 .00000
$
$ --- Define 572 elements
$
$ -------- property set pipe ---------
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 27 26
..
..
CQUAD4 572 1 617 618 641 616
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * pipe *
$
PSHELL1 1 DUMMY
$
$ * Peuler *
$
PEULER1 2 HYDRO 13
$
$
RIGID 1 12 1.
SURFACE 12 ELEM 3
TLOAD1 1 1 12
263 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
FORCE 1 1 0. 1 1 1
MOMENT 1 1 0. 1 1 1
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material euler id =1
DMAT 19.53e-05 1
EOSTAIT 1 0 200000 19.529e-5 .001
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- General Coupling: Couple -----
$
COUPLE 8 1 OUTSIDE ON ON 8
STANDARD+A000001
+A000001
+A000002
+A000002 9
$
SURFACE 1 SUB 1 SUB 2 SUB 3
$
$ General Coupling Subsurface: SUB1
$
SUBSURF 1 1 ELEM 3
SET1 3 1 THRU 456
$
$ General Coupling Subsurface: SUB2
$
COUPOR 1 8 2 PORFLOW 1CONSTANT 1
$
PORFLOW 1 METHODVELOCITY FLOW IN DENSITY9.76e-
05+A000003
+A000003 XVEL 0 YVEL 0 ZVEL -200MATERIAL 1
$
SUBSURF 2 1 ELEM 4
SET1 4 457 THRU 514
$
$ General Coupling Subsurface: SUB3
$
COUPOR 2 8 3 PORFLOW 2CONSTANT 1
$
PORFLOW 2 METHODVELOCITY FLOW OUTPRESSURE 0.
+A000009
+A000009MATERIAL 1
$
SUBSURF 3 1 ELEM 5
SET1 5 515 THRU 572
$
$ ------- Mesh Box: MESH1
$
MESH 9 BOX
+A000004
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
264
+A000004 -.45 -.45 -.05 .9 .9 17.2
+A000005
+A000005 11 11 80 EULER 2
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC INIT -----
TICVAL 10 DENSITY9.53e-05
$
$ ------- TICEL BC Simple -----
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC Region -----
TICEUL 13
+A000006
+A000006 SPHERE 12 1 10 1
SPHERE 12 0 0 0 20
$
$
ENDDATA
Model2
START
CEND
ENDTIME=2.E-2
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: cyls
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: elem
TYPE (elem) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elem) = 1
SET 1 = 1 THRU 2900
ELOUT (elem) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY PRESSURE TYZ TZX
TIMES (elem) = 0 THRU END BY 0.01 , 0.005
SAVE (elem) = 10000
$ Output result for request: ths
TYPE (ths) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTS (ths) = 2
SET 2 = 1 47 2843 2889
ELOUT (ths) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY SIE PRESSURE
TIMES (ths) = 0 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (ths) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-7
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE cyls.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * PEUL *
$
265 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Fluid Flow through a Straight Pipe
PEULER 1 1 HYDRO
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material eul id =1
DMAT 19.53e-05 1
EOSTAIT 1 0 200000 19.529e-5 0.001
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- Flow BC INFLOW -----
TLOAD1 1 7 4
FLOW 7 3MATERIAL 1 XVEL 0 YVEL
0+A000001
+A000001 ZVEL -200 DENSITY9.76e-05
CFACE 1 3 1 1
..
..
CFACE 58 3 58 1
$
$ ------- Flow BC OUTFLOW -----
TLOAD1 1 10 4
FLOW 10 4 FLOW OUTMATERIAL 1PRESSURE
0+A000002
+A000002 DENSITY9.53e-05
CFACE 59 4 2900 4
..
..
CFACE 116 4 2843 4
$
$ ------- TICEL BC TIC -----
SET1 5 1 THRU 523 2790 THRU 2900
2209+A000003
+A000003 THRU 2789 1628 THRU 2208 1047 THRU
1627+A000004
+A000004 524 THRU 576 577 THRU 1046
TICEL 1 5 DENSITY9.53e-05
$
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
266
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
In blast wave analyses, the distance between the structure and the blast is often large resulting in
excessive CPU time for the blast wave to reach the structure. In addition, the simulation may have to be
repeated several times for different structures or for different positions of the structure. To reduce the
CPU time, the simulation is split up in two parts. In the first simulation, the structure is omitted. In the
subsequent runs, the result can be imported into a simulation which includes the structure. The blast wave
will almost immediately hit the structure at the start of the run, without using a lot of cpu time. In addition,
importing the Euler archive also allows mapping the fine mesh to a coarser mesh. This can also save
much time.
Importing an Euler Archive is done by means of the File Management Section (FMS) entry EULINIT,
which is similar to the SOLINIT entry for Prestress Analysis. An import archive should include several
required variables and can also include several cycles. On the EULINIT entry, the user specifies which
cycles need to be imported.
This example demonstrates the method of importing the results of an Euler archive in a blast wave
analysis. Three simulations will be shown. The first run simulates the propagation of a blast wave only.
In the two follow up runs, the structure is added and the simulation is started at the time when the blast
wave starts to hit the structure. The first follow up run uses the same Euler mesh and the second run uses
a coarser mesh.
Problem Description
A blast wave hits a box shaped shell structure. A 2-D model is used with an Euler mesh of 10 x 10 m and
an element thickness of 0.24 m. The shock front is located at the center of the model and it has an initial
radius of R
0
= 1 m at time t = 0 seconds.
The initial conditions are:
Explosive Properties (r < R
0
)
Specific Internal Energy = 9.E+5 Joule/kg
Density = 1 kg/m
3
Environment (r > R
0
)
Specific Internal Energy = 3.E+5 J/kg
Density = 1 kg/m
3
Dytran Model
Three models will be used. The first two models will use an Euler mesh that is created by
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.12,0.0,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,40,1,40,,,,EULER,1
267 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
The Euler mesh of the third model is created by
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.12,0.0,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,30,1,30,,,,EULER,1
The models are summarized as follows:
1. An initial run without structure
2. A second run using results from the first run by means of the EULER import functionality. The
structure is included.
3. The same as model 2 but now the results of the initial run (without structure) will be imported and
mapped onto a coarser mesh.
General Setup
The following entries apply to all three models.
The solver, material and initialization are given as
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
DMAT, 100, 1, 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
PARAM, BULKL,0.1
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,5.0,0.0,5.0,10000
SPHERE,4,,5.0,0.0,5.0,1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,1,sie,9e+5
PARAM,MICRO,30
Non-reflecting boundary conditions will be applied
FLOWDEF,24,,MMHYDRO
To speed up the coupling surface computation the following PARAM’s are added
PARAM, COSUBMAX,100
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
Specific Setup for Model 1
The first model is stopped when the blast wave front reaches the model boundary. This occurs after about
100 cycles. In the output request the variables
DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,FMAT,MASS
have to be included to assure a full continuation in the follow up run.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
268
Specific Setup for Model 2 and Model 3
For the follow up runs the input file of model 1 is used with the following additions:
To import the Euler archive GAS2_ALLEULER_0.ARC that was created by the initial model 1 run,
an EULINIT entry is added to the File Management Section
START
EULINIT,GAS2_ALLEULER_0.ARC,60
CEND
As a result Cycle 60 will be imported.
The follow-up runs are only run for one additional cycle to check if the import of the result variables is
done correctly.
ENDSTEP = 61
The structure which is hit by the blast wave is modeled with dummy CQUAD4 elements.
GRID 1 7.50001-5.49900 7.4999
-
-
CQUAD4 5 2 4 8 6 3
CQUAD4 6 2 3 6 5 1
To enable interaction between blast wave and structure, a closed coupling surface is needed. This
coupling surface serves as a transmitter of data between the Euler solver and the Lagrange solver. The
shell element of the structure will be taken for that
COUPLE,100,200,INSIDE,ON,ON
SURFACE,200,,PROP,2
PSHELL1 2 DUMMY
SET1,2,2
Results
Model 1: Only the Blast wave and No Structure
The following three figures show the pressure distribution at cycles 3, 60, and 100.
269 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
270
The pressure profiles along the X-axis across the center of the model is shown in the following picture.

271 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
Model 2: Follow-up Run with Structure and Using the Same Mesh
The pressure distribution at cycle 60 (the first cycle in this run) is shown in the following picture.
The pressure profile along the X-axis across the center point of the model is shown in the
following picture.

Dytran Example Problem Manual
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
272
Model 3: Follow Run-up with Structure and Using a Coarser Mesh
The pressure distribution at cycle 60 (the first cycle in this run) is shown in the following picture
.
The pressure profile along the X-axis across the center point of the model is shown in the
following picture.
273 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
$---Blast wave analysis------------------
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 100
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Blast Wave Analysis
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT,MASS
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,THRU,END,BY,3
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
TYPE (ARCMAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (ARCMAT) = 15
SET 15 = 100
MATOUT (ARCMAT) = EKIN,MASS,ZMOM,XMOM,YMOM
STEPS (ARCMAT) = 0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (ARCMAT) = 99999
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,BULKL,0.1
PARAM,COSUBMAX,100
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
$
DMAT, 100, 1, 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,5.0,0.0,5.0,10000
SPHERE,4,,5.0,0.0,5.0,1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,1,sie,9e+5
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.12,0.0,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,40,1,40,,,,EULER,1
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
274
FLOWDEF,24,,MMHYDRO
$
$
ENDDATA
$----Follow up run 2---------------------------------------------------------
-
START
EULINIT,GAS2_ALLEULER_0.ARC,60
CEND
ENDSTEP = 61
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Blast Wave Analysis
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT,MASS
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,THRU,END,BY,3
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
TYPE (ARCMAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (ARCMAT) = 15
SET 15 = 100
MATOUT (ARCMAT) = EKIN,MASS,ZMOM,XMOM,YMOM
STEPS (ARCMAT) = 0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (ARCMAT) = 99999
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,BULKL,0.1
PARAM,COSUBMAX,100
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,MICRO,30
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
$
$
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 1 2
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
275 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Using Euler Archive Import in Blast Wave Analyses
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,5.0,0.0,5.0,10000
SPHERE,4,,5.0,0.0,5.0,1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,1,sie,9e+5
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0,-0.12,0.0,10,0.24,10,,,+
+,30,1,30,,,,EULER,1
$
$
COUPLE,100,200,INSIDE,ON,ON
$
SURFACE,200,,PROP,2
$
PSHELL1 2 DUMMY
SET1,2,2
$
$
GRID 1 7.50001-5.49900 7.4999
GRID 2 8.99999-5.49900 7.4999
GRID 3 7.50001 5.49900 7.4999
GRID 4 8.99999 5.49900 7.4999
GRID 5 7.50001-5.49900 2.0001
GRID 6 7.50001 5.49900 2.0001
GRID 7 8.99999-5.49900 2.0001
GRID 8 8.99999 5.49900 2.0001
$
$ --- Define 6 elements
$
CQUAD4 1 2 1 2 4 3
CQUAD4 2 2 5 6 8 7
CQUAD4 3 2 5 7 2 1
CQUAD4 4 2 2 7 8 4
CQUAD4 5 2 4 8 6 3
CQUAD4 6 2 3 6 5 1
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
276
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
The effect of a blast wave on a structure will be simulated using the graded mesh technique. To get
accurate results for the initial expansion of the blast wave, small mesh-sizes are needed. This is especially
true if EOSJWL or EOSIG are used. These Equations of states simulate the actual detonation of the
explosive in detail, but they do require a small mesh size in the vicinity of the explosive. This means that
this approach is only efficient if the target is close. If the distance between the explosive and target is
large, then the simulation takes a lot of CPU time. Moreover, after the initial expansion, the blast wave
becomes larger in radius and less steep as it propagates; thus making the finer elements in the mesh less
effective to predict the physics of problem. To run the simulation more efficiently, part of the fine mesh
can be replaced by a coarser mesh. The initial stage of the expansion takes place in a small fine mesh.
This mesh is then glued to a larger mesh with coarser elements by using the graded mesh capability.
Problem Description
The effect of a detonation on the environment can be simulated by assuming that the detonated material
can be idealized by a sphere of hot gas with a homogenous density and specific internal energy. This
approach is suited for problems in which the processes inside the explosive material are not investigated.
The technique is called the “Blast Wave” approach.
In this example, the propagation of the blast wave will be simulated starting from the initial shock front
radius R
0
= 1 m at the time t = 0 second until it reaches a radius of about R = 10 R
0
. During the expansion
the blast wave will hit a box structure at a distance of 8.475 m from the center point of the explosion.
Both the gas in the sphere and the surrounding environment behave as an ideal gas (Gamma = 1.4).
The initial conditions are:
Explosive properties (r < R
0
)
Specific internal energy = 9.E+5 Joule/kg
Density = 1 kg/m
3
Environment (r > R
0
)
Specific internal energy = 3.E+5 J/kg
Density = 1 kg/m
3
The material of the structure (box) is steel:
Density = 7800 kg/m
3
Young’s modulus = 2.1E+11 Pa
Poison’s ratio = 0.3
Yield Stress = 2.E+8 Pa
277 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
Dytran Model
For the purpose of illustrating the graded mesh technique, a 2-D mesh will be used. A coarse and a fine
mesh are created and then glued/connected together. The connecting process requires that one mesh fits
nicely into the other. Connecting a coarse mesh with a fine mesh results in a number of nodes that are
only part of the fine mesh but not part of the coarse mesh. These free “hanging” nodes are allowed in the
model. In Figure 4-61, the node directly below the top right marked node is a hanging node. For meshes
created by MESH, BOX, the only requirement for connecting coarse and fine meshes is that the eight
corner points of the smaller MESH-box coincide with nodes of the largest mesh.

Figure 4-61 Coarse mesh with Fine Mesh and the Target
The coarse and fine meshes are given by:
Finer mesh covering a small region for the initialization of the blast sphere (18, 1, 18):
(-1.5 < X < 3.75 ; -0.18 < Y < 0.18 ; 5 < Z < 10)
Coarse mesh covering the entire model (48, 1, 30):
(-4.5 < X < 13.5 ; -0.18 < Y < 0.18 ; 0 < Z < 15)
By gluing these meshes, a new mesh will be created that is shown in Figure 4-61. Four locations have
been marked. For gluing to work, both meshes need to have a grid point at each of these four locations.
The four grid points of the coarse mesh do not need to be exactly on top of the grid points of the fine
mesh. A tolerance is used to “equivalence” these grid points in the Dytran solver.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
278
The two meshes are defined as follows:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-4.5,-0.18,0.0,18,0.36,15,,,+
+,48,1,30,,,,EULER,1
MESH,2,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1.5,-0.18,5,5.25,0.36,5,,,+
+,18,1,18,,,,EULER,1
To activate the Graded Mesh method the following parameter is added to the input file:
PARAM,GRADED-MESH
All coarse elements that are completely covered by fine elements will be made inactive. In addition,
special faces will be made that connect elements of the fine mesh to elements of the coarse mesh.
The multi-material Euler solver will be used.
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
The initialization is given by
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+, SPHERE, 3, 100, 8, 4.0,,,,+
+, SPHERE, 4,100, 9, 6.0
SPHERE, 3,, 0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE, 4, 1.125, 0.0, 7.5,1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,1,sie,9e+5
$
DMAT, 100, 1, 2
EOSGAM, 2, 1.4
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
When the blast wave reaches the boundary of the Euler mesh no reflections should occur. Reflections can
be avoided by defining a zero gradient flow boundary on the outside of the Euler mesh. This is defined
by means of a FLOWDEF entry:
FLOWDEF,1,,MMHYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
The target structure as shown in Figure 4-61 is modeled by QUAD shell elements.
PSHELL1, 5, 5, GAUSS,,,,,,+
+, .003
$
DYMAT24, 5, 7800, 2.1e+11, .3,,,,,+
+, 2e+08
To hold the structure stationary, constraints are given to the four corner points of the back side of the box:
SPC1, 1, 123456, 11, 12, 101, 102
279 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
To enable interaction of the blast wave with the structure, a coupling surface needs to be defined. Since
the structure itself is closed (box), all the elements can serve as the coupling surface.
COUPLE,200,300,INSIDE,ON,ON,
SURFACE,300,,PROP,5
SET1, 5,5
PARAM,FASTCOUP
To get optimal performance, a set of switches is added to redo the coupling surface computation only
after significant movement of the structure.
PARAM,COSUBMAX,30
PARAM,COSUBCYC,30
Results
To assess the accuracy of the graded mesh simulation, results of the fine mesh will also be examined.
The figure below shows the pressure distribution at the beginning of the analysis.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
280
For comparison, the result with a fine mesh is shown in the following picture
The pressure distribution at the time when the blast wave is crossing the interface between the coarse and
fine mesh is shown in the following picture
.
281 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
For comparison, the results for the fine mesh are shown below.
The result at the time that the blast wave hits the structure is shown in the figure below.

Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
282
For comparison, the result for the case with a fine mesh is shown in the figure below.

The figure below shows the pressure profiles along the model at different times. It also shows that the
pressure profiles propagate smoothly from the fine to the coarse mesh (at X = -1.5 and X = 3.75).
283 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
For comparison, the results with the fine mesh are shown in the following figure.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
284
The figure below compares the time history of the deflection of the structure at a point in the center area
for the two cases
.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 660
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Blast wave Graded Mesh
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMATPLT
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,THRU,END,BY,20
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
TYPE (BOX) = ARCHIVE
CPLSURFS (BOX) = 3
SET 3 = 300
CPLSOUT (BOX) = PRESSURE,XVEL
STEPS (BOX) = 0,THRU,END,BY,20
SAVE (BOX) = 10000
$
TYPE (LAG) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (LAG) = 4
285 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
SET 4 = ALLSHQUAD
ELOUT (LAG) = EFFST-MID,EFFPL-MID
STEPS (LAG) = 0,THRU,END,BY,20
SAVE (LAG) = 10000
$
TYPE (ARCMAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (ARCMAT) = 15
SET 15 = 100
MATOUT (ARCMAT) = EKIN,MASS,ZMOM,XMOM,YMOM
STEPS (ARCMAT) = 0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (ARCMAT) = 99999
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ ============ Euler ==================================
$
PARAM,BULKL,0.1
PARAM,COSUBMAX,100
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
$
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,MICRO,30
$
PARAM,GRADED-MESH
PARAM,FLOW-METHOD,FACET
$
$ --- Material definitions ---
$
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
DMAT,100,1,2
$
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
$ --- Initial conditions ---
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,4,100,9,6.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,0,10000
SPHERE,4,,1.125,0.0,7.5,1
TICVAL,8,,density,1,sie,3e+5
TICVAL,9,,density,1,sie,9e+5
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-4.5,-0.18,0.0,18,0.36,15,,,+
+,48,1,30,,,,EULER,1
$
MESH,2,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-1.5,-0.18,5,5.25,0.36,5,,,+
+,18,1,18,,,,EULER,1
$
$ --- Boundary conditions ---------
$
FLOWDEF,1,,MMHYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Wave with a Graded Mesh
286
$
COUPLE,200,300,INSIDE,ON,ON,
SURFACE,300,,PROP,5
SET1,5,5
$
$=========== Structure ================
$
$ --- Material properties ---
$
PSHELL1, 5, 5,,GAUSS,,,,,+
+,.003$
DYMAT24, 5, 7800, 2.1e+11 ,.3,,,,,+
+, 2e+08
$
$ --- Boundary condition ---
$
SPC1, 1, 123456, 11, 12, 101, 102
$
$ --- Define 1012 grid points ---
$
GRID 11 11.8500-.190000 0.90000
GRID 12 11.8500 .190000 0.90000
GRID 13 11.8500-.190000 1.28889
-
-
-
CQUAD4 1018 5 145 146 606 605
CQUAD4 1019 5 146 147 607 606
CQUAD4 1020 5 147 148 608 607
$
ENDDATA
287 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic
Boundary Conditions
A weak explosion is ignited in the ocean. Initially the bubble, formed due to chemical explosion,
expands. During this expansion water is pushed away towards the boundaries. This will result in higher
pressure levels in the water until the equilibrium state, where the pressure inside the bubble and water
pressure outside the bubble are the same. During the equilibrium, the bubble expansion stops and then
reverses itself because the displaced water, now moves back again resulting in severe compression of the
bubble. Due to momentum of the water the compression causes a large pressure build up in the bubble.
The bubble pressure becomes so large that a second blast wave is ignited. During the entire expansion
and contraction event, the bubble does not reach the water surface.
The explosion will be modeled by a blast wave approach. The initial conditions of the hot gas inside the
initial region of the blast wave are:
Specific energy = 3.E+5 J/kg
Density = 100kg/m
3
The water properties are:
Reference density = 1000 kg/mm
3
Bulk modulus K = 2.2e+9 Pa
Dytran Model
The ocean will be modeled by a container of water. The top of the container is two meters below the
surface and the bottom is 13 meters below the surface. The water will be initialized by a hydrostatic
pressure profile. Using a wall as boundary would give undesirable reflections. A transmitting boundary
condition allows water to flow out of the mesh but prevents the inflow of water back into the container.
Therefore, a special boundary condition is defined on the side walls of the container that enables back
flow of water into the container. This special boundary condition prescribes a hydrostatic pressure profile
on the boundary of the container. The density of material flowing back is computed from the hydrostatic
pressures.
A container of water can be modeled by a block of Euler elements. On the boundary of the block of
elements, a hydrostatic pressure profile is imposed.
This approach suffices in general. But, if the effect of the blast wave on a structure is to be studied in
more detail, it may be necessary to allow for water to enter the structure in case of ruptures. In this case,
multiple Euler domains with coupling surfaces have to be used. This means that the block of Euler is
wrapped with a structural surface that is fully porous. The porosity model will be of the hydrostatic type.
This structural surface has to consist of dummy shell elements and is used as coupling surface for the
Euler domain.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
288
Therefore, there are two models to consider:
1. The general approach using a flow definition to impose a boundary condition.
2. A coupling surface with a porosity model.
General Setup
First, the entries are discussed that apply to both models
.
Figure 4-62 Models
The Euler mesh is created by using a MESH,BOX entry:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-5.5,-0.12,0,11,0.24,11,,,+
+,41,1,41,,,,EULER,1
and the multi-material Euler solver will be used:
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
Two materials representing air and water are defined as:
DMAT 4 1.e3 1
$
EOSPOL 1 2.2e9
$
DMAT 3 2 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
289 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
The initial conditions will be defined by using geometric regions:
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,BOX,1,4,6,2.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0
BOX,1,,-100,-100,0.0,200,200,20.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,4.652,0.25
TICVAL,6,,SIE,0.,DENSITY,1000.0
TICVAL,8,,density,100,sie,3e+5
PARAM,MICRO,30
Figure 4-62a shows the initial conditions. The two elements that are colored red are initialized as gas, the
other elements are water. The blast is ignited at a depth of 13 m-4.6 m = 8.4 m.
Gravity is applied on water and air regions as follow:
TLOAD1,1,444,,0
GRAV,444,,9.8,,,-1
Because of the gravity, a hydrostatic pressure profile will develop. To effectively simulate a blast wave
in water, the hydrostatic pressure profile should be present at cycle 1. To do this, the HYDSTAT option
will be used.
HYDSTAT,123,4,,,0,0,13.00,104000
The water level will be at a height of 13 meters. The HYDSTAT functionality changes the density
initialization as specified by the previous TICVAL entry such that the element pressure equals the
hydrostatic pressure. Figure 4-63 shows the pressure at cycle 1. At the center, several elements with large
pressure have been hidden to make the hydrostatic pressure initialization visible.

Figure 4-63 Pressure at Cycle 1: Hydrostatic Pressure Profile
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
290
There are two methods to set up the model:
Model 1
The boundary condition will be given by
FLOWDEF,25,,MMHYDRO,,,,,,,,
,HYDSTAT,23
The boundary conditions will be taken from HYDSTAT entry 123.
FLOWDEF will also work on the front and back faces, but this will not make any contributions to the
elements, since there is no transport over these front and back faces.
Model 2
The water and fluid are enclosed by a coupling surface as shown in Figure 4-62b.
COUPLE,100,200,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,120
COUPOR,1,120,,PORHYDST,75
PORHYDST 75
SURFACE,200,,PROP,2
PSHELL1 2 DUMMY
SET1,2,2
$
GRID 1 -5.49990-5.49990 10.9999
GRID 2 5.49990-5.49990 10.9999
GRID 3 -5.49990 5.49990 10.9999
GRID 4 5.49990 5.49990 10.9999
GRID 5 -5.49990-5.49990 0.0001
GRID 6 -5.49990 5.49990 0.0001
GRID 7 5.49990-5.49990 0.0001
GRID 8 5.49990 5.49990 0.0001
$
$ --- Define 6 elements
$ -------- property set pdum ---------
CQUAD4 1 2 1 2 4 3
CQUAD4 2 2 5 6 8 7
CQUAD4 3 2 5 7 2 1
CQUAD4 4 2 2 7 8 4
CQUAD4 5 2 4 8 6 3
CQUAD4 6 2 3 6 5 1
The boundary conditions are:
COUPOR,1,120,,PORHYDST,75
PORHYDST 75
For the boundary condition, the HYDSTAT will be taken that is referenced by the COUPLE entry.
291 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
Results
Both models yield almost identical results as shown in Figure 4-64. Detailed results are only shown for
Model 1.Figure 4-64 also shows that after 0.2 seconds, a considerable amount of mass has left the
domain. When the bubble starts to collapse (from 0.2 to 0.4 seconds), the water flows back into the
domain through the hydrostatic boundary.
Figure 4-64 Total Mass of Water in the Container for Model 1 (Red) and Model 2 (Blue)
Figure 4-65 shows the bubble rise and collapse. After 0.23 sec the expansions stops and the bubble is
compressed. Also it starts to rise.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
292

Figure 4-65 Bubble Rise and Collapse
After 0.44 seconds, the bubble has collapsed. Due to the momentum of the water, the gas has been
severely compressed and a second blast occurs results in the subsequent phase.
293 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
Dytran Input files
Model 1
START
CEND
ENDTIME = 0.5
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: undex-2d
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT4,MASS4,DENSITY4,FMATPLT4,
FMATPLT,FMAT100,FLUXVOL,
FVUNC FMAT100,MASS100,DENSITY100,SIE100,SIE4,HMAT
TIMES(ALLEULER) = 0,1E-8,thru,end,by,0.01
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
TYPE (ARCMAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (ARCMAT) = 15
SET 15 = 4
MATOUT (ARCMAT) = EKIN,MASS,ZMOM,XMOM,YMOM
STEPS (ARCMAT) = 0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (ARCMAT) = 99999
$
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,BULKL,0.1
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
PARAM,FMULTI,1.0
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
DMAT 4 1.e3 1
$
EOSPOL 1 2.2e9
$
DMAT 3 2 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
294
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,BOX,1,4,6,2.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0
BOX,1,,-100,-100,0.0,200,200,20.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,4.652,0.25
TICVAL,6,,SIE,0.,DENSITY,1000.0
TICVAL,8,,density,100,sie,3e+5
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-5.5,-0.12,0,11,0.24,11,,,+
+,41,1,41,,,,EULER,1
$
TLOAD1,1,444,,0
GRAV,444,,9.8,,,-1
$
$
HYDSTAT,123,4,,,0,0,13.00,104000
$
FLOWDEF,25,,MMHYDRO,,,,,,+
+,HYDSTAT,123
$
ENDDATA
Model 2
START
CEND
ENDSTEP = 5000
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: undex-2d
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE (ALLEULER) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (ALLEULER) = 2
SET 2 = ALLMULTIEULHYDRO
ELOUT (ALLEULER) = DENSITY,SIE,PRESSURE,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,
FMAT4,MASS4,DENSITY4,FMATPLT4,
FMATPLT,FMAT100,HMAT,
FVUNC FMAT100,MASS100,DENSITY100,SIE100,SIE4
STEPS(ALLEULER) = 0,1,thru,end,by,100
SAVE (ALLEULER) = 10000
$
TYPE (ARCMAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (ARCMAT) = 15
SET 15 = 4
MATOUT (ARCMAT) = EKIN,MASS,ZMOM,XMOM,YMOM
STEPS (ARCMAT) = 0,THRU,END,BY,10
SAVE (ARCMAT) = 99999
$
TYPE (SHELL) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (SHELL) = 4
SET 4 = 1,THRU,6
ELOUT (SHELL) = ZUSER
STEPS(SHELL) = 0,1
SAVE (SHELL) = 10000
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
295 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-8
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,BULKL,0.1
PARAM,COSUBMAX,100
PARAM,COSUBCYC,100
$ ------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PARAM,MICRO,30
PARAM,FMULTI,1.0
PEULER1,1,,MMHYDRO,19
$
DMAT 4 1.e3 1
$
EOSPOL 1 2.2e9
$
DMAT 3 2 2
EOSGAM,2,1.4
$
DMAT 100 100 2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,BOX,1,4,6,2.0,,,,+
+,SPHERE,3,100,8,4.0
BOX,1,,-100,-100,0.0,200,200,20.0
SPHERE,3,,0.0,0.0,4.652,0.25
TICVAL,6,,SIE,0.,DENSITY,1000.0
TICVAL,8,,density,100,sie,3e+5
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-5.5,-0.12,0,11,0.24,11,,,+
+,41,1,41,,,,EULER,1
$
TLOAD1,1,444,,0
GRAV,444,,9.8,,,-1
$
$
HYDSTAT,1,4,,,0,0,13.00,104000
$
COUPLE,100,200,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,120
COUPOR,1,120,,PORHYDST,75
PORHYDST 75
SURFACE,200,,PROP,2
$
PSHELL1 2 DUMMY
SET1,2,2
$
GRID 1 -5.49990-5.49990 10.9999
GRID 2 5.49990-5.49990 10.9999
GRID 3 -5.49990 5.49990 10.9999
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Bubble Collapse with Hydrostatic Boundary Conditions
296
GRID 4 5.49990 5.49990 10.9999
GRID 5 -5.49990-5.49990 0.0001
GRID 6 -5.49990 5.49990 0.0001
GRID 7 5.49990-5.49990 0.0001
GRID 8 5.49990 5.49990 0.0001
$
$ --- Define 6 elements
$
$ -------- property set pdum ---------
CQUAD4 1 2 1 2 4 3
CQUAD4 2 2 5 6 8 7
CQUAD4 3 2 5 7 2 1
CQUAD4 4 2 2 7 8 4
CQUAD4 5 2 4 8 6 3
CQUAD4 6 2 3 6 5 1
ENDDATA
297 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Prestressed Concrete Beam
Prestressed Concrete Beam
Problem Description
This problem demonstrates how to prestress a concrete beam prior to transient loading condition.
Prestressed concrete is an architectural and structural member providing great strength. Generally,
concrete has a big advantage in compression, but is naturally weak in tension. In typical reinforced
concrete, the concrete’s great compressive strength is combined with the high tensile strength of steel to
create a structural member that is strong in both compression and tension. The concept in prestress
concrete is that compressive stresses induced by high strength steel tendons in the concrete structure prior
to actual loading will offset and balance the tensile stresses that are subjected to the member
during service.
Analysis Scheme
The example consists of two jobs: Prestress and Transient. The analysis scheme is explained by a flow
chart as Figures Figure 4-66 and Figure 4-67.
Figure 4-66 Analysis Scheme of Prestressed Beam
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Prestressed Concrete Beam
298
Figure 4-67 Analysis Models and Behavior at Each Step
299 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Prestressed Concrete Beam
Dytran Model
There are two different material properties defined for concrete and the tendon. The details of two
materials and applied loads are explained below.
Each input deck will show:
DMATEL,2,2400,21.e+9,0.2,,
PSOLID,2,2
MAT1,1,200e+9,,0.3,7850.
PBEAM,1,1,.00139,0.1,0.1
TLOAD1,1,3,,2
FORCE,3,21,0,1,1.2e-1,,
(a) Prestress Model
PRESTRESS entry in File Management Section (FMS) shows that this job is the prestress one.
PRESTRESS
SOLUOUT entry in File Management Section (FMS) specifies an output file to which the solution data
is written at the end of a prestress analysis. Output file of this example is GDIL.SOL.
SOLUOUT=GDIL.SOL
PARAM, VDAMP is for control on the global damping in the dynamic.
PARAM,VDAMP,0.001
A dynamic relaxation is defined to dampen the solution and to prevent high frequency oscillations. For
this purpose, NASINIT entry is used. Relaxation phase lasts 0.1 second.
NASINIT,100,yes,.1,0.001
Concrete: Cross area: 40000 mm
2
Young’s modulus = 21 GPa
Density = 2400 kg/m
3
Length = 2 m
Tendon: Cross area: 1390 mm
2
(Using ten 15.2mm class 2 relaxation
standard strands)
Young’s modulus = 200 GPa
Density = 7850 kg/m
3
Length = 2 m
Applied velocity = 0.12 m/seconds
End time of simulation = 0.1 second
Final applied displacement = 0.12×0.1 = 0.012 m (equivalent to 1670 kN as force)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Prestressed Concrete Beam
300
To connect the tendon and concrete, RBE2 is used as below.
RBE2, 1, 2,23,1002
...
(b) Transient Model
The transient analysis starts with START entry. The results from the prestress analysis which are stored
in GDIL.SOL are used as a pre-condition for transient run by using the SOLINIT entry.
START
SOLINIT=GDIL.SOL
PARAM, VDAMP is for control on the global damping in the dynamic.
PARAM,VDAMP,0.001
The RBE2 definition at the end is now changed by defining additional restraint in the z-direction for
ensuring a common behavior for tendon and concrete.
RBE2,20,21,123, 626
Results
Analytical results are used to match the simulation results. If there is no local deformation at the end, the
theoretical results can be obtained by following scheme.
(Equilibrium: no external loading)
(Compatibility: total deformation is the same as the sum of deformations of each
element)
where
is the force on the concrete beam
is the force on the tendon
is the deformation of the concrete beam
is the deformation of the tendon
P
c
P
t
+ 0 =
o
c
o
t
0.012 = =
P
c
P
t
o
c
o
t
P
c
E
c
A
c
L
c
------------ o
c
=
P
t
E
t
A
t
L
t
---------- o
c
=
301 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Prestressed Concrete Beam
where
Substituting the and into Equilibrium and Compatibility equations, the compressive stresses in
concrete can be obtained.
where
Substituting the material properties of tendon and concrete in the equation above, the computed concrete
stress is 3.14 × 10
7
. This value is the same as the xx-stress result in Figure 4-68b. The value of
Figure 4-68a is little different from the theoretical value due to the local deformation at the end where the
loading is applied and stress is concentrated.
Other results with local deformation allowed at each step are shown in Figure 4-69.
is Young’s modulus of the concrete beam
is Young’s modulus of the tendon
is the cross area of the concrete beam
is the cross area of the tendon
is the original length of the concrete beam
is the original length of the tendon
is the compression Stress of the concrete beam
E
c
E
t
A
c
A
t
L
c
L
t
P
c
P
t
o
c
E
c
L
c
-----
E
t
A
t
L
t
----------
E
c
A
c
L
c
------------
E
t
A
t
L
t
---------- +
------------------------------ 0.012 · · =
o
c
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Prestressed Concrete Beam
302

Figure 4-68 Two Results of xx-stress at the Beam
303 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Prestressed Concrete Beam
Figure 4-69 Results at Each Step
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Prestressed Concrete Beam
304
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Prestress Job Input
PRESTRESS
$BULKOUT=GRID.DAT
NASTDISP=ZERO
SOLUOUT=GDIL.SOL
TIME=100000
MEMORY-SIZE=50000000,40000000
CEND
ENDTIME=0.1
ENDSTEP=10000000
TITLE= Jobname is: pre
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: DISP
TYPE (DISP) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (DISP) = 1
SET 1 = 1 6 11 16 21 626
GPOUT (DISP) = XPOS XVEL XFORCE XDIS
TIMES (DISP) = 0 THRU END BY 1e-5
SAVE (DISP) = 10000
$ Output result for request: LAG
TYPE (LAG) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (LAG) = 2
SET 2 = ALLLAGSOLID
ELOUT (LAG) = TXX EFFSTS PRESSURE
TIMES (LAG) = 0 THRU END BY 0.01
SAVE (LAG) = 10000
$ Output result for request: STRESS
TYPE (STRESS) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (STRESS) = 3
SET 3 = ALLELEM1D
ELOUT (STRESS) = xFORCE
TIMES (STRESS) = 0 THRU END BY 0.01
SAVE (STRESS) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,0.0001
PARAM,VDAMP,0.001
PARAM,INITNAS,PATRAN
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-8
PARAM,MINSTEP,1e-8
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$
INCLUDE pre.bdf
NASINIT,100,yes,0.1,0.001
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * GID *
$
PBEAM,1,1,.00139,0.1,0.1
$
$ * Conc *
$
305 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Prestressed Concrete Beam
PSOLID,2,2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Barzel id =1
MAT1,1,200e+9,,0.3,7850.
$
$ -------- Material DEBESH id =2
DMATEL,2,2400,21.e+9,0.2,,,,
$
$ ------- Velocity BC VELO -----
TLOAD1,1,3,,2
FORCE,3,21,0,1,1.2e-1,,
$
RBE2, 1, 2,23,1002
RBE2, 2, 3,23,1003
RBE2, 3, 4,23,1004
RBE2, 4, 5,23,1005
RBE2, 5, 6,23,1006
RBE2, 6, 7,23,1007
RBE2, 7, 8,23,1008
RBE2, 8, 9,23,1009
RBE2, 9,10,23,1010
RBE2,10,11,23,1011
RBE2,11,12,23,1012
RBE2,12,13,23,1013
RBE2,13,14,23,1014
RBE2,14,15,23,1015
RBE2,15,16,23,1016
RBE2,16,17,23,1017
RBE2,17,18,23,1018
RBE2,18,19,23,1019
RBE2,19,20,23,1020
RBE2,20,21,23, 626
$
ENDDATA
Transient Job Input
START
SOLINIT=GDIL.SOL
TIME=100000
MEMORY-SIZE=50000000,40000000
CEND
ENDTIME=0.1
ENDSTEP=10000
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: tra
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: DISP
TYPE (DISP) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (DISP) = 1
SET 1 = 1 6 11 16 21 626 153 258 468 573
GPOUT (DISP) = XPOS XVEL XFORCE XDIS
TIMES (DISP) = 0 THRU END BY 1e-4
SAVE (DISP) = 10000
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Prestressed Concrete Beam
306
$ Output result for request: LAG
TYPE (LAG) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (LAG) = 2
SET 2 = ALLLAGSOLID
ELOUT (LAG) = TXX EFFSTS PRESSURE
TIMES (LAG) = 0 THRU END BY 1.e-3
SAVE (LAG) = 10000
$ Output result for request: STRESS
TYPE (STRESS) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (STRESS) = 3
SET 3 = ALLELEM1D
ELOUT (STRESS) = xFORCE
TIMES (STRESS) = 0 THRU END BY 1.e-3
SAVE (STRESS) = 10000
$ Output result for request: DISP
TYPE (LOCAL) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTs (LOCAL) = 4
SET 4 = 111 THRU 411 BY 20
ELOUT (LOCAL) = TXX EFFSTS PRESSURE
TIMES (LOCAL) = 0 THRU END BY 1e-4
SAVE (LOCAL) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-8
$=================================damping======
PARAM,VDAMP,0.01
$==================================
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE pre.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * GID *
$
PBEAM,1,1,0.00139,.1,.1
$
$ * Conc *
$
PSOLID,2,2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$ -------- Material Barzel id =1
MAT1,1,200e+9,,0.3,7850.
$
$ -------- Material DEBESH id =2
DMATEL,2,2400,21.e+9,0.2,,
$
RBE2, 1, 2,23,1002
RBE2, 2, 3,23,1003
RBE2, 3, 4,23,1004
RBE2, 4, 5,23,1005
RBE2, 5, 6,23,1006
RBE2, 6, 7,23,1007
RBE2, 7, 8,23,1008
RBE2, 8, 9,23,1009
RBE2, 9,10,23,1010
RBE2,10,11,23,1011
307 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Prestressed Concrete Beam
RBE2,11,12,23,1012
RBE2,12,13,23,1013
RBE2,13,14,23,1014
RBE2,14,15,23,1015
RBE2,15,16,23,1016
RBE2,16,17,23,1017
RBE2,17,18,23,1018
RBE2,18,19,23,1019
RBE2,19,20,23,1020
RBE2,20,21,123, 626
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
308
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
Problem Description
This problem is a continuation of the Prestressed Concrete Beam example and demonstrates how to apply
a blast load on the beam. To model the explosive, blast technique is used where the Eulerian elements
inside the explosive region are given high density and internal energy values. In this analysis, the
explosive properties are defined by ideal gas model.
Analysis Scheme
The example consists of two jobs: Prestress and Transient. The analysis scheme is explained by a flow
chart as shown in Figure 4-70. The additional steps to prestress run are highlighted in bold italics.
Figure 4-70 Analysis Scheme of Blast Simulation on Prestressed Beam
309 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
Dytran Model
The material properties of concrete and tendon and the applied load in tendon are the same as Prestressed
Concrete Beam example. The material models of explosive and air are explained below. In this
simulation the explosive is defined as a compressed hot gas with the same as air.
Figure 4-71 Simulation Model
Both prestressed and transient runs include the following Euler definitions:
DMAT* 5 1.2 5
EOSGAM 5 1.4
TICVAL,18,,DENSITY,1.592+4,SIE,4.765E6
TICVAL,19,,DENSITY,1.2,SIE,1.94E+05
TICEUL,20,,,,,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,4,5,19,1,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,17,5,18,5,,,
SPHERE,4,,0,0,0,5000
SPHERE,17,,1,0,1.,0.1
Explosive (sphere shape with 0.1 radious: Explosive center distance from the bear: 1 m
Total mass = 500 kg
Density = 1.592 x 10
4
kg/m
3
Specific internal energy = 4.765 x 10
6
J/kg
Air: Density = 1.2 kg/m
3
Specific internal energy = 1.94 x 10
5
J/kg
¸
¸ 1.4 =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
310
Prestress Model
The Prestress model is identical with the Prestress Concrete Beam example except the definition of
Eulerian parts. The Eulerian part is explained in Transient model.
Transient Model
The Lagrangian part is the same as the Prestress Concrete Beam example. Here, the explanation of
Eulerian parts is added.
To decrease simulation time, Euler elements and coupling are active only for 0.001 seconds after they
become activated in 0.006 seconds. In Prestressed Concrete Beam example, the vibration from the
Prestress Run is diminished after 0.006 seconds.
ACTIVE,1,ELEMENT,EULHYDRO,,,,,,+
+,TABLE,100
ACTIVE,2,INTERACT,COUPLE,,,,,,+
+,TABLE,100
TABLED1,100,,,,,,,,+
+,0,-1,0.006,-1,0.006,1,0.007,1,+
+,0.007,-1,.5,-1
To couple the Euler material to the concrete beam, the COUPLE entry is used
COUPLE 61 2 INSIDE ON ON
+A000012
+A000012
+A000013
+A000013 63
The Euler mesh is generated by MESH entry.
MESH 63 BOX
+A000020
+A000020 -1 -2 -1 4 4 4
+A000021
+A000021 41 41 41 EULER 5
311 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
Results
Figure 4-72 Blast on Concrete Beam at Various Steps
Figure 4-73 Displacement and Effective Stress at the Center of the Beam
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
312
Figure 4-74 Deformation of Prestressed Concrete Beam
313 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Prestress Job Input
PRESTRESS
NASTDISP=ZERO
SOLUOUT=GDIL.SOL
TIME=100000
MEMORY-SIZE=50000000,40000000
CEND
ENDTIME=0.1
ENDSTEP=10000000
TITLE= Jobname is: pre
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: DISP
TYPE (DISP) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (DISP) = 1
SET 1 = 1 6 11 16 21 626
GPOUT (DISP) = XPOS XVEL XFORCE XDIS
TIMES (DISP) = 0 THRU END BY 1e-5
SAVE (DISP) = 10000
$ Output result for request: LAG
TYPE (LAG) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (LAG) = 2
SET 2 = ALLLAGSOLID
ELOUT (LAG) = TXX EFFSTS PRESSURE
TIMES (LAG) = 0 THRU END BY 0.01
SAVE (LAG) = 10000
$ Output result for request: STRESS
TYPE (STRESS) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (STRESS) = 3
SET 3 = ALLELEM1D
ELOUT (STRESS) = xFORCE
TIMES (STRESS) = 0 THRU END BY 0.01
SAVE (STRESS) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,0.0001
PARAM,VDAMP,0.001
PARAM,INITNAS,PATRAN
PARAM,FASTCOUP,INPLANE,FAIL
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-8
PARAM,MINSTEP,1e-8
$PARAM,LIMITER,ROE
$PARAM,RKSCHEME,3
$PARAM,INITFILE,V1
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$flow out of all faces of outer euler
FLOWDEF,1,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH,MATERIAL,5
ACTIVE,1,ELEMENT,EULHYDRO,,,,,,+
+,TABLE,100
ACTIVE,2,INTERACT,COUPLE,,,,,,+
+,TABLE,100
TABLED1,100,,,,,,,,+
+, 0, -1, 11, -1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
314
$
PARAM,FAILOUT,NO
PARAM,NZEROVEL,YES
INCLUDE pre.bdf
NASINIT,100,yes,0.1,0.001
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * GID *
$
PBEAM,1,1,.00139,0.1,0.1
$
$ * Conc *
$
PSOLID,2,2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Barzel id =1
MAT1,1,200e+9,,0.3,7850.
$
$ -------- Material DEBESH id =2
DMATEL,2,2400,21.e+9,0.2,,,,
$
$
$ ------- Velocity BC VELO -----
TLOAD1,1,3,,2
FORCE,3,21,0,1,1.2e-1,,
$
RBE2, 1, 2,23,1002
RBE2, 2, 3,23,1003
RBE2, 3, 4,23,1004
RBE2, 4, 5,23,1005
RBE2, 5, 6,23,1006
RBE2, 6, 7,23,1007
RBE2, 7, 8,23,1008
RBE2, 8, 9,23,1009
RBE2, 9,10,23,1010
RBE2,10,11,23,1011
RBE2,11,12,23,1012
RBE2,12,13,23,1013
RBE2,13,14,23,1014
RBE2,14,15,23,1015
RBE2,15,16,23,1016
RBE2,16,17,23,1017
RBE2,17,18,23,1018
RBE2,18,19,23,1019
RBE2,19,20,23,1020
RBE2,20,21,23, 626
$
$
PEULER1 5 HYDRO 20
$
$
DMAT* 5 1.186 5
EOSGAM 5 1.4
$
$
315 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC initblast -----
TICVAL,18,,DENSITY,1.61e+1,SIE,3.88E+05
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC air_steady -----
TICVAL,19,,DENSITY,1.2,SIE,1.94E+05
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC out_euler -----
TICEUL,20,,,,,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,4,5,19,1,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,17,5,18,5,,,
SPHERE,4,,0,0,0,5000
SPHERE,17,,1,0,1.,0.1
$
COUPLE 61 2 INSIDE ON ON +A000012
+A000012 +A000013
+A000013 63
$
SURFACE 2 SEG 100
$
MESH 63 BOX +A000020
+A000020 -1 -2 -1 4 4 4 +A000021
+A000021 41 41 41 EULER 5
$
CFACE1,1011,100,101,102,122
$
...
$
ENDDATA
Transient Job Input
START
SOLINIT=GDIL.SOL
TIME=100000
MEMORY-SIZE=50000000,40000000
CEND
ENDTIME=0.03
ENDSTEP=1000000
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: tra
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: DISP
TYPE (DISP) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (DISP) = 1
SET 1 = 1 6 11 16 21 626 111 THRU 342 BY 21
GPOUT (DISP) = XPOS XVEL XFORCE XDIS ZPOS
TIMES (DISP) = 0 THRU END BY 0.00001
SAVE (DISP) = 10000
$ Output result for request: LAG
TYPE (LAG) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (LAG) = 2
SET 2 = ALLLAGSOLID
ELOUT (LAG) = TXX EFFSTS PRESSURE
TIMES (LAG) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
316
SAVE (LAG) = 10000
$ Output result for request: STRESS
TYPE (STRESS) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (STRESS) = 3
SET 3 = ALLELEM1D
ELOUT (STRESS) = xFORCE
TIMES (STRESS) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (STRESS) = 10000
$ Output result for request: DISP
TYPE (LOCAL) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTs (LOCAL) = 4
SET 4 = 111 THRU 411 BY 20
ELOUT (LOCAL) = TXX EFFSTS
TIMES (LOCAL) = 0 THRU END BY 0.00001
SAVE (LOCAL) = 10000
$
TYPE (AIR) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (AIR) = 5
SET 5 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (AIR) = DENSITY SIE PRESSURE FMAT FVUNC FMATPLT ,
VOLUME XVEL YVEL ZVEL
TIMES (AIR) = 0.006 THRU 0.007 BY 0.00001
SAVE (AIR) = 10000
$ Output result for request: LAG1
TYPE (LAG1) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (LAG1) = 7
SET 7 = ALLLAGSOLID
ELOUT (LAG1) = EFFSTS
TIMES (LAG1) = 0.006 THRU 0.007 BY 0.00001
SAVE (LAG1) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,FASTCOUP,INPLANE,FAIL
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-8
PARAM,MINSTEP,1e-8
PARAM,LIMITER,ROE
PARAM,RKSCHEME,3
PARAM,VDAMP,0.01
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$flow out of all faces of outer euler
FLOWDEF,1,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH
ACTIVE,1,ELEMENT,EULHYDRO,,,,,,+
+,TABLE,100
ACTIVE,2,INTERACT,COUPLE,,,,,,+
+,TABLE,100
TABLED1,100,,,,,,,,+
+,0,-1,0.006,-1,0.006,1,0.007,1,+
+,0.007,-1,.5,-1
$
PARAM,FAILOUT,NO
PARAM,NZEROVEL,YES
INCLUDE pre.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * GID *
$
PBEAM,1,1,.00139,0.1,0.1
317 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
$
$ * Conc *
$
PSOLID,2,2
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Barzel id =1
MAT1,1,200e+9,,0.3,7850.
$
$ -------- Material DEBESH id =2
DMATEL,2,2400,21.e+9,0.2,,,,
$
RBE2, 1, 2,23,1002
RBE2, 2, 3,23,1003
RBE2, 3, 4,23,1004
RBE2, 4, 5,23,1005
RBE2, 5, 6,23,1006
RBE2, 6, 7,23,1007
RBE2, 7, 8,23,1008
RBE2, 8, 9,23,1009
RBE2, 9,10,23,1010
RBE2,10,11,23,1011
RBE2,11,12,23,1012
RBE2,12,13,23,1013
RBE2,13,14,23,1014
RBE2,14,15,23,1015
RBE2,15,16,23,1016
RBE2,16,17,23,1017
RBE2,17,18,23,1018
RBE2,18,19,23,1019
RBE2,19,20,23,1020
RBE2,20,21,123, 626
$
$
PEULER1 5 HYDRO 20
$
$
DMAT* 5 1.2 5
EOSGAM 5 1.4
$
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC initblast -----
TICVAL,18,,DENSITY,1.592+4,SIE,4.765E6
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC air_steady -----
TICVAL,19,,DENSITY,1.2,SIE,1.94E+05
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC out_euler -----
TICEUL,20,,,,,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,4,5,19,1,,,,+
+ ,SPHERE,17,5,18,5,,,
SPHERE,4,,0,0,0,5000
SPHERE,17,,1,0,1.,0.1
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Blast Simulation on Prestressed Concrete Beam
318
COUPLE 61 2 INSIDE ON ON +A000012
+A000012 +A000013
+A000013 63
$
SURFACE 2 SEG 100
$
MESH 63 BOX +A000020
+A000020 -1 -2 -1 4 4 4 +A000021
+A000021 41 41 41 EULER 5
$
$
CFACE1,1011,100,101,102,122
...
$
ENDDATA
319 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
To illustrate the use of skin friction, the flow of gas around a 2-D cylinder will be simulated. For
information on boundary layers and the Reynolds number, see the Dytran User’s Guide, Chapter 3:
Constraints and Loading, Viscosity and Skin Friction in Euler. By default shear stresses at walls are
derived from the difference between tangential Euler element velocity and wall velocity. If the
characteristic element size is larger than the boundary layer then the wall shear stress is underestimated.
An estimate of the size of this layer can be obtained using the Reynolds number as described in chapter
3. If the boundary layer is too small it is preferred to base the shear stress on the skin friction coefficient
as given by:
Here, is the local shear stress, and u are, respectively, the element density and the relative tangential
velocity in the Euler element adjacent to the wall.
Problem Description
For this example flow conditions are chosen such that the Reynolds number is about 144444. For such
a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is much smaller than the size of an Euler element and
therefore skin friction is required to get a realistic shear stress at the surface of the cylinder.
Friction coefficients have to be taken from literature, experiment or fine tuning. Here the Friction
coefficient will be taken from literature. At the Reynolds number of 144444 a realistic value for the drag
coefficient is about 1.2. The drag coefficient is defined as:
where is the 2-D drag force, the main stream velocity and is the diameter of the cylinder. It is not
possible to specify the drag coefficient directly in Dytran. Instead, the skin friction can be specified. To
determine the skin friction coefficient, a few trial runs are made to adjust the until the drag force
approximately reaches . After a few runs, it is found out that using results in
which is approximate enough for the purpose of this example.
The shedding of the vortices becomes visible when the flow has reached steady state. Vortices are then
alternatively shed from the top and bottom half of the cylinder. This gives rise to a periodically varying
force operating in a direction perpendicular to the flow direction. The flow direction is taken as .
C
f
t
w
1
2
--- pu
2
------------- =
t
w
p
C
D
C
D
D
1
2
--- pU
2
d
------------------ =
D U d
C
f
C
D
1.2 = C
f
0.095 =
C
D
1.30 =
+ x
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
320
Dytran Model
For this example, a 2-D model is used with an Euler Mesh of 0.8 x 0.8 m and element thickness of 0.01 m.
The number of elements in X and Y directions is 90. The diameter of the cylinder is 0.1 m. The cylinder
is modeled as a rigid coupling surface that can’t move.
The initial conditions in the Euler region are:
Density = 1.3 kg/m3
Specific Internal Energy = 2.E+5 J/kg
The boundary conditions at the borders of the Euler mesh are as follows:
• At the left side, an Inflow boundary with the following data:
• Density = 1.3 kg/m3, Specific Internal Energy = 2.E+5 J/kg, X-Velocity = 20 m/s Y-Velocity = 0
and Z-Velocity =0
• At the right side, a transmitting Outflow boundary
• At the top and the bottom side, no boundaries are defined which means that these sides are
modeled as walls.
321 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
The material properties of Air are as follows:
Density = 1.3 kg/m3
Dynamic Viscosity = 18.E-6 Pa s
Gamma value = 1.4
-------- Material GAS id =2
DMAT 2 1.3 2 2
EOSGAM 2 1.4 18.E-6
PMINC 2 0.
The initial values for the Euler region are as follows:
$ ------- TICVAL BC init -----
TICVAL 28 DENSITY 1.3 SIE 200000.
$
The coupling surface is similar to a wall and for coupling surface segments shear stresses can be
computed using a skin friction coefficient. The skin friction factor of 0.095 is specified on the
COUPLE option as:
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON
STANDARD+
+
+
+ .095
The flow boundary conditions are:
$ ------- Flow BC flowin -----
TLOAD1 1 29 4
FLOW 29 1 FLOW INMATERIAL 2 DENSITY 1.3+
+ SIE 200000. XVEL 20.
$ ------- Flow BC flowout -----
TLOAD1 1 32 4
FLOW 32 2 FLOW OUT
Results
The figures below show the velocity plots at two different times around 0.5 second. In these plots, the
shedding of vortices is visible.
C
f
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
322

Similar plots at the time of about 1 second.
323 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
The Time History plots of the FORCE is shown in the following picture
The X-force slowly increases. A representative value is 0.34. This given a of
The Y-Force oscillates due to the alternate shedding of vortices. The time period of this oscillation is
0.021 s. To compare this with experiment the Strouhal number given by
is computed. Here n is the frequency of the vortex shedding, d the diameter, U the main flow velocity and
T the time period of the vortex shedding. For this simulation the value is 0.23. This is close to the value
of 0.21 found in literature.
C
D
C
D
D
1
2
--- pU
2
A
------------------
0.34 0.01
0.5 1.3 20 20 0.1 · · · ·
------------------------------------------------------
34
26
------ 1.3 = = = =
St
nd
U
------
d
TU
-------- = =
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
324
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=1.0
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: skin
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: EUL
TYPE (EUL) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (EUL) = 1
SET 1 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (EUL) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY SIE PRESSURE,
TXX TYY TXY EFFSTS
TIMES (EUL) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (EUL) = 10000
$ Output result for request: COUP
TYPE (COUP) = ARCHIVE
CPLSURFS (COUP) = 2
SET 2 = 1
CPLSOUT (COUP) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY PRESSURE,
TXX TYY TXY EFFSTS
TIMES (COUP) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (COUP) = 10000
$
$ Output result for request: COUPTHS
TYPE (COUPTHS) = TIMEHIS
CPLSURFS (COUPTHS) = 3
SET 3 = 1
CPLSOUT (COUPTHS) = XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE RFORCE
TIMES (COUPTHS) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (COUPTHS) = 10000
$
TYPE (PROF) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (PROF) = 4
SET 4 = 4231 THRU 4320
ELOUT (PROF) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY PRESSURE,
TXX TYY TXY EFFSTS
TIMES (PROF) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (PROF) = 10000
$
TYPE (MAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (MAT) = 5
SET 5 = 2
MATOUT (MAT) = MASS, EKIN, EINT
TIMES (MAT) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (MAT) = 10000
$
$ Output result for request: COUP THS
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,EULTRAN,IMPULSE
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,BULKL,0.2
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-7
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
325 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
INCLUDE skin.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * p1 *
$
PSHELL 1 1 .001
$
$ * peul *
$
PEULER1 2 HYDRO 31
$
$ * p2 *
$
PSHELL1 3 DUMMY
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material matrig id =1
MATRIG 1 7800 2.1e+11 .3
$
$ -------- Material GAS id =2
DMAT 2 1.3 2 2
EOSGAM 2 1.4 18.E-6
PMINC 2 0.
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- General Coupling: coup -----
$
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON STANDARD+
+ +
+ .095
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 2
SET1 2 1 THRU 180
$
$ ------- Rigid Body Object MR1 -----
$ ---- Reference Node for Rigid body is 122
TLOAD1 1 20 12
FORCE 20 MR1 0 1 1 1
TLOAD1 1 1020 12
MOMENT 1020 MR1 0 1 1 1
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC init -----
TICVAL 28 DENSITY 1.3 SIE 200000.
$
$ ------- Flow BC flowin -----
TLOAD1 1 29 4
FLOW 29 1 FLOW INMATERIAL 2 DENSITY 1.3+
+ SIE 200000. XVEL 20.
CFACE 1 1 181 3
CFACE 2 1 271 3
CFACE 3 1 361 3
CFACE 4 1 451 3
CFACE 5 1 541 3
CFACE 6 1 631 3
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
326
CFACE 7 1 721 3
CFACE 8 1 811 3
CFACE 9 1 901 3
CFACE 10 1 991 3
CFACE 11 1 1081 3
CFACE 12 1 1171 3
CFACE 13 1 1261 3
CFACE 14 1 1351 3
CFACE 15 1 1441 3
CFACE 16 1 1531 3
CFACE 17 1 1621 3
CFACE 18 1 1711 3
CFACE 19 1 1801 3
CFACE 20 1 1891 3
CFACE 21 1 1981 3
CFACE 22 1 2071 3
CFACE 23 1 2161 3
CFACE 24 1 2251 3
CFACE 25 1 2341 3
CFACE 26 1 2431 3
CFACE 27 1 2521 3
CFACE 28 1 2611 3
CFACE 29 1 2701 3
CFACE 30 1 2791 3
CFACE 31 1 2881 3
CFACE 32 1 2971 3
CFACE 33 1 3061 3
CFACE 34 1 3151 3
CFACE 35 1 3241 3
CFACE 36 1 3331 3
CFACE 37 1 3421 3
CFACE 38 1 3511 3
CFACE 39 1 3601 3
CFACE 40 1 3691 3
CFACE 41 1 3781 3
CFACE 42 1 3871 3
CFACE 43 1 3961 3
CFACE 44 1 4051 3
CFACE 45 1 4141 3
CFACE 46 1 4231 3
CFACE 47 1 4321 3
CFACE 48 1 4411 3
CFACE 49 1 4501 3
CFACE 50 1 4591 3
CFACE 51 1 4681 3
CFACE 52 1 4771 3
CFACE 53 1 4861 3
CFACE 54 1 4951 3
CFACE 55 1 5041 3
CFACE 56 1 5131 3
CFACE 57 1 5221 3
CFACE 58 1 5311 3
CFACE 59 1 5401 3
CFACE 60 1 5491 3
CFACE 61 1 5581 3
CFACE 62 1 5671 3
CFACE 63 1 5761 3
CFACE 64 1 5851 3
CFACE 65 1 5941 3
CFACE 66 1 6031 3
327 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
CFACE 67 1 6121 3
CFACE 68 1 6211 3
CFACE 69 1 6301 3
CFACE 70 1 6391 3
CFACE 71 1 6481 3
CFACE 72 1 6571 3
CFACE 73 1 6661 3
CFACE 74 1 6751 3
CFACE 75 1 6841 3
CFACE 76 1 6931 3
CFACE 77 1 7021 3
CFACE 78 1 7111 3
CFACE 79 1 7201 3
CFACE 80 1 7291 3
CFACE 81 1 7381 3
CFACE 82 1 7471 3
CFACE 83 1 7561 3
CFACE 84 1 7651 3
CFACE 85 1 7741 3
CFACE 86 1 7831 3
CFACE 87 1 7921 3
CFACE 88 1 8011 3
CFACE 89 1 8101 3
CFACE 90 1 8191 3
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC reg -----
TICEUL 31 +
+ SPHERE 2 2 28 5
SPHERE 2 0 0 0 10
$
$ ------- Flow BC flowout -----
TLOAD1 1 32 4
FLOW 32 2 FLOW OUT
$
CFACE 91 2 270 6
CFACE 92 2 360 6
CFACE 93 2 450 6
CFACE 94 2 540 6
CFACE 95 2 630 6
CFACE 96 2 720 6
CFACE 97 2 810 6
CFACE 98 2 900 6
CFACE 99 2 990 6
CFACE 100 2 1080 6
CFACE 101 2 1170 6
CFACE 102 2 1260 6
CFACE 103 2 1350 6
CFACE 104 2 1440 6
CFACE 105 2 1530 6
CFACE 106 2 1620 6
CFACE 107 2 1710 6
CFACE 108 2 1800 6
CFACE 109 2 1890 6
CFACE 110 2 1980 6
CFACE 111 2 2070 6
CFACE 112 2 2160 6
CFACE 113 2 2250 6
CFACE 114 2 2340 6
CFACE 115 2 2430 6
CFACE 116 2 2520 6
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
328
CFACE 117 2 2610 6
CFACE 118 2 2700 6
CFACE 119 2 2790 6
CFACE 120 2 2880 6
CFACE 121 2 2970 6
CFACE 122 2 3060 6
CFACE 123 2 3150 6
CFACE 124 2 3240 6
CFACE 125 2 3330 6
CFACE 126 2 3420 6
CFACE 127 2 3510 6
CFACE 128 2 3600 6
CFACE 129 2 3690 6
CFACE 130 2 3780 6
CFACE 131 2 3870 6
CFACE 132 2 3960 6
CFACE 133 2 4050 6
CFACE 134 2 4140 6
CFACE 135 2 4230 6
CFACE 136 2 4320 6
CFACE 137 2 4410 6
CFACE 138 2 4500 6
CFACE 139 2 4590 6
CFACE 140 2 4680 6
CFACE 141 2 4770 6
CFACE 142 2 4860 6
CFACE 143 2 4950 6
CFACE 144 2 5040 6
CFACE 145 2 5130 6
CFACE 146 2 5220 6
CFACE 147 2 5310 6
CFACE 148 2 5400 6
CFACE 149 2 5490 6
CFACE 150 2 5580 6
CFACE 151 2 5670 6
CFACE 152 2 5760 6
CFACE 153 2 5850 6
CFACE 154 2 5940 6
CFACE 155 2 6030 6
CFACE 156 2 6120 6
CFACE 157 2 6210 6
CFACE 158 2 6300 6
CFACE 159 2 6390 6
CFACE 160 2 6480 6
CFACE 161 2 6570 6
CFACE 162 2 6660 6
CFACE 163 2 6750 6
CFACE 164 2 6840 6
CFACE 165 2 6930 6
CFACE 166 2 7020 6
CFACE 167 2 7110 6
CFACE 168 2 7200 6
CFACE 169 2 7290 6
CFACE 170 2 7380 6
CFACE 171 2 7470 6
CFACE 172 2 7560 6
CFACE 173 2 7650 6
CFACE 174 2 7740 6
CFACE 175 2 7830 6
CFACE 176 2 7920 6
329 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Vortex Shedding with Skin Friction
CFACE 177 2 8010 6
CFACE 178 2 8100 6
CFACE 179 2 8190 6
CFACE 180 2 8280 6
$
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
330
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
Problem Description
For many applications, the Euler modeling can be simplified by using the MESH Generator entry.
However this method has some shortcomings with regard to the definition of the boundary conditions at
the boundaries of the Euler meshes.
In the past if flow boundaries were required one had to create CFACES with Patran. Since CFACES only
support CHEXA’s, the only way to define flow boundaries for MESH,BOX was to define a PORFLOW entry
and a COUPLE entry. Geometric Euler Boundary Condition entries allow to directly prescribing boundary
conditions on the boundaries of the Euler domain. This functionality also supports Euler domains
consisting of CHEXA’s. Running the simulation with different mesh-sizes is much easier, since the
creation of CHEXA’s and CFACES by Patran can be avoided.
The geometric boundary entries are FLOWDIR, WALLDIR, FLOWSQ, and FLOWTSQ. The first two allow
the assignment of a boundary condition to all Eulerian boundary faces pointing in a certain direction.
FLOWDIR allows a general flow boundary condition, whereas WALLDIR applies a WALLET boundary
condition. The FLOWSQ and FLOWTSQ assign flow and time dependent flow conditions to all parts of
Eulerian boundary faces that are within a given square.
Geometric boundary condition can only apply to the boundary of the domain. Internal WALLETs cannot
be defined by geometric boundary conditions.
FLOW, FLOWDIR, and FLOWDEF can be used in one input deck. If a face is referred to by multiple
boundary conditions, then the FLOWSQ overrules all others, If it not present, FLOWDIR and WALLDIR
overrule the FLOW, WALLET, FLOWDEF definitions for the face under consideration. Also the example
Modeling Blast Wave using 1-D Spherical Symmetry Method in Chapter 3 illustrates the use of FLOWDIR.
This example illustrates use of Geometric Euler Boundary condition in the Vortex shedding with skin
friction calculation.
For a description of the problem, refer to Example Problem 4.17.
Dytran Model
For this example, a 2-D model is used with an Euler Mesh of 0.8 x 0.8 m and element thickness of 0.01 m.
The number of elements in X and Y directions is 90.
The diameter of the cylinder is 0.1 m.
The cylinder is modeled as a rigid coupling surface that can’t move.
The initial conditions in the Euler region are:
Specific internal energy = 2.E+5 J/kg
Density = 1.3 kg/m3
331 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
The boundary conditions at the borders of the Euler mesh are as follows:
• At the left side, an Inflow boundary with the following data:
• At the right side, a transmitting Outflow boundary.
• At the top and the bottom side, no boundaries are defined which means that these sides are
modeled as walls.
The material properties of Air are as follows:
Density = 1.3 kg/m3
Dynamic Viscosity = 18.E-6 Pa s
Gamma value = 1.4
$ -------- Material GAS id =2
DMAT 2 1.3 2 2
EOSGAM 2 1.4 18.E-6
PMINC 2 0.
$
Specific internal energy = 2.E+5 J/kg
Density = 1.3 kg/m3
X-Velocity = 20 m/s
Y-Velocity = 0
Z-Velocity = 0
FLOW: IN
XVEL = 20 m/s
YVEL = 0 m/s
SIE = 2.E+5 J/kg
DENSITY= 1.3 kg/m3
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
332
The Euler Mesh and the initial values for the Euler region are as follows:
$
MESH 22 BOX +
+ -.40 -.40 0.0 .80 .80 .01 +
+ 90 90 1 EULER 2
$
$$ ------- TICEUL BC reg -----
TICEUL 31 +
+ SPHERE 2 2 28 5
SPHERE 2 0 0 0 10
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC init -----
TICVAL 28 DENSITY 1.3 SIE 200000.
$
The coupling surface is similar to a wall and for coupling surface segments shear stresses can be
computed using a skin friction coefficient.
The skin friction factor of 0.095 is specified on the COUPLE option as:
$ ------- General Coupling: coup -----
$
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON STANDARD+
+ +
+ 22 .095
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 2
SET1 2 1 THRU 180
$
The Geometric boundary conditions are defined as followed:
The inflow boundary condition has to be put on all Euler boundary faces that point in the negative x-
direction. So one has to go over all Euler boundary faces. Compute the normal and if it points in the
negative x direction than the face gets the inflow boundary condition. The following geometric boundary
condition just does this.
FLOWDIR, 7, HYDRO, 22, NEGX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,IN,MATERIAL,2,DENSITY,1.3,SIE,200000.,+
+, XVEL, 20.
Here NEGX means in the negative x-direction. Other allowed values on this field are POSX, NEGY, POSY,
NEGZ, and POSZ.
The area of boundary faces pointing in the negative x-direction is 0.01*0.8 = 0.008. This can be checked
with the OUT file that gives as message
PRESCRIBED FLOW BOUNDARY – FLOWDR7
------------------------
333 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
ALL FACES IN THE NEGATIVE X DIRECTION
TOTAL AREA BOUNDARY FACES: 8.0000E-03
The OUTFLOW boundary condition has to be put on all boundary faces that point in the positive
x-direction. This is done by
FLOWDIR, 8, HYDRO, 22, POSX,,,,,+
+, FLOW, OUT
The boundary faces pointing in the negative and positive y-direction are assigned a WALLET
condition by:
WALLDIR, 5, HYDRO, 22, NEGY
WALLDIR, 6, HYDRO, 22, POSY
To illustrate the use of FLOWSQ entry, the FLOWDIR entry used to define the inflow could be
replaced by:
FLOWSQ,6,MMHYDRO,,,,,,,+
+,-0.4,,-0.4,0.4,0,0.1,,,+
+, FLOW,IN,MATERIAL,2,DENSITY,1.3,SIE,200000.,+
+, XVEL, 20.
This specifies a flow condition for the square (x=-0.4, y=-0.4 to y=0.4 and z=0 to 0.01).
The FLOWSQ condition is imposed by going over all boundary faces. Compute the intersection of each
Euler face with the square and assign to any non empty intersection the condition. Also, here the total
area assigned to the boundary condition is written out in the OUT file.
Results
The figures below show the velocity plots at time around 0.25 and 0.50 seconds. For comparison, at the
right side the reference result plots from the Example Problem 4.17 have been added.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
334
Results at the time around 0.495 seconds.
Results at the time around 0.500 seconds.
New model with Mesh and Geometric BC Old model with Grids and Chexa’s
New model with Mesh and Geometric BC Old model with Grids and Chexa’s
335 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
The Time History plots of the FORCE and the Mass are shown in the following pictures:
New model with Mesh and Geometric BC Old model with Grids and Chexa’s
New model with Mesh and Geometric BC Old model with Grids and Chexa’s
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
336
The figures above show that this new modeling method gives exactly the same results as those of the old
traditional method.
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.5
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: skin
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
$
$ Output result for request: EUL
TYPE (EUL) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (EUL) = 1
SET 1 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (EUL) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY SIE PRESSURE,
TXX TYY TXY EFFSTS
TIMES (EUL) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (EUL) = 10000
$ Output result for request: COUP
TYPE (COUP) = ARCHIVE
CPLSURFS (COUP) = 2
SET 2 = 1
CPLSOUT (COUP) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY PRESSURE,
TXX TYY TXY EFFSTS
TIMES (COUP) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (COUP) = 10000
$
$ Output result for request: COUPTHS
TYPE (COUPTHS) = TIMEHIS
CPLSURFS (COUPTHS) = 3
SET 3 = 1
CPLSOUT (COUPTHS) = XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE RFORCE
New model with Mesh and Geometric BC Old model with Grids and Chexa’s
337 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
TIMES (COUPTHS) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (COUPTHS) = 10000
$
$
TYPE (MAT) = TIMEHIS
MATS (MAT) = 5
SET 5 = 2
MATOUT (MAT) = MASS, EKIN, EINT
TIMES (MAT) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (MAT) = 10000
$
$
$ Output result for request: COUP THS
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,EULTRAN,IMPULSE
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,BULKL,0.2
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-7
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE skin.bdf
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * p1 *
$
PSHELL 1 1 .001
$
$ * peul *
$
PEULER1 2 HYDRO 31
$
$ * p2 *
$
PSHELL1 3 DUMMY
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material matrig id =1
MATRIG 1 7800 2.1e+11 .3
$
$ -------- Material GAS id =2
DMAT 2 1.3 2 2
EOSGAM 2 1.4 18.E-6
PMINC 2 0.
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- General Coupling: coup -----
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Geometric Eulerian Boundary Conditions
338
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON STANDARD+
+ +
+ 22 .095
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 2
SET1 2 1 THRU 180
$
$ ------- Rigid Body Object MR1 -----
$ ---- Reference Node for Rigid body is 122
TLOAD1 1 20 12
FORCE 20 MR1 0 1 1 1
TLOAD1 1 1020 12
MOMENT 1020 MR1 0 1 1 1
$
MESH 22 BOX +
+ -.40 -.40 0.0 .80 .80 .01 +
+ 90 90 1 EULER 2
$
$$ ------- TICEUL BC reg -----
TICEUL 31 +
+ SPHERE 2 2 28 5
SPHERE 2 0 0 0 10
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC init -----
TICVAL 28 DENSITY 1.3 SIE 200000.
$
$--Geometric Boundary Condition---------
$
WALLDIR,5,HYDRO,22,NEGY
WALLDIR,6,HYDRO,22,POSY
FLOWDIR,7,HYDRO,22,NEGX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,IN,MATERIAL,2,DENSITY,1.3,SIE,200000.,+
+,XVEL,20.
FLOWDIR,8,HYDRO,22,POSX,,,,,+
+,FLOW,OUT
$
ENDDATA
339 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Cohesive Friction
Cohesive Friction
Problem Description
Wet soil that is in contact with a tire can stick to it and show cohesive behavior. The friction model at the
coupling surface modeling the tire should predict this viscous behavior. This example illustrates the use
of the cohesive friction model. A rigid wedge is pulled out of wet soil. Initially the wedge is 80%
immerged in the soil. The simulation will be run for 80 ms.
Dytran Modeling
The soil is modeled by:
$ -------- Material Soil id =2
DMAT 2 1500 2 2 2 2
EOSPOL 2 2e+07
SHREL 2 1e+07
YLDMC 2 6.0e+07 2e+05 1.46
PMINC 2 -5e+8
The elements are defined by MESH,BOX:
MESH 2 BOX +
+ -.2 -0.0101 0.0 0.4 0.0202 0.2 +
+ 160 8 80 EULER 1
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Cohesive Friction
340
and are initialized by
PEULER1 1 MMSTREN 6
TICVAL 4 DENSITY 1500
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC PEuler_reg -----
TICEUL 6 +
+ CYLINDER 5 1 +
+ CYLINDER 3 2 4 2
CYLINDER 5 0 0 -2 0 0 2+
+ 1
CYLINDER 3 0 0 -1 0 0 0.1+
+ 1
Here the multi-material solver will be used.
The wedge is defined by:
MATRIG 1 100 +
+ +
+ 0.00
GRID 1 .020000 -.03000 .120000
GRID 2 -.020000 -.03000 .120000
GRID 3 .000000 -.03000 .020000
GRID 4 -.020000 .03000 .120000
GRID 5 .000000 .03000 .020000
GRID 9 .020000 .03000 .120000
$
$ --- Define 5 elements
$
$ -------- property set dum ---------
CTRIA3 1 2 1 2 3
CQUAD4 2 2 4 5 3 2
CTRIA3 3 2 5 4 9
CQUAD4 4 2 1 3 5 9
CQUAD4 5 2 1 9 4 2
The interaction between wedge and Euler material is implemented by the COUPLE entry:
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON STANDARD+
+ 0.8 0.8 +
+ 2
$
Here a Coulomb friction model is used.
341 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Cohesive Friction
The COUPLE entry requires a surface that is wrapped around the structure. Since the structure consists
of shell element, the wedge elements themselves can be used to define the wrapping surface.
SURFACE 1 ELEM 6
SET1 6 1 THRU 5
The motion of the wedge is given by:
$ ---- No reference node is used.
TLOAD1 1 7 12 1
FORCE 7 MR1 1 0 0 2.0
TLOAD1 1 1007 12
MOMENT 1007 MR1 1 0 0 0
$
tabled1,1,,,,,,,,+
+,0,0,0.2,1,endt
and is shown in the figure below.
To extend the Coulomb friction model to account for cohesive conditions:
PARAM,COHESION,8e+10,8e+5,2.0
is added. This allows soil to stick to some extend to the wedge that is pulled up. The 8e+10 is the
maximum tensile stress. The 8e+5 and 2.0 describe a viscous-like friction law. This law specifies a
friction stress that is linear in the relative tangential velocity between material and wedge. Under
compressive conditions the Coulomb friction model will be used as specified on the COUPLE entry. Only
for tensile conditions will the model be used as specified on the COHESION entry.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Cohesive Friction
342
Results
The pictures below show FMATPLT results for respectively 0 ms, 40 ms and 80 ms. The soils sticks to
the wedge.
343 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Cohesive Friction
Dytran Input Deck
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.1
ENDSTEP=9999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: Wedge1910
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: Coupling
TYPE (Coupling) = ARCHIVE
CPLSURFS (Coupling) = 1
SET 1 = 1
CPLSOUT (Coupling) = PRESSURE TYY TZZ TXY TYZ TZX EFFSTS SXX
TIMES (Coupling) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (Coupling) = 10000
$ Output result for request: Coupling_vel
TYPE (Coupling_vel) = TIMEHIS
CPLSURFS (Coupling_vel) = 2
SET 2 = 1
CPLSOUT (Coupling_vel) = XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE RFORCE
STEPS (Coupling_vel) = 0 THRU END BY 1
SAVE (Coupling_vel) = 10000
$ Output result for request: Pen
TYPE (Pen) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Pen) = 3
SET 3 = 1 THRU 5
ELOUT (Pen) = EXUSER1
TIMES (Pen) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (Pen) = 10000
$ Output result for request: Pen_vel
TYPE (Pen_vel) = TIMEHIS
RIGIDS (Pen_vel) = 4
SET 4 = mr1
RBOUT (Pen_vel) = ZCG ZVEL ZACC ZFORCE
STEPS (Pen_vel) = 0 THRU END BY 1
SAVE (Pen_vel) = 10000
$ Output result for request: Soil
TYPE (Soil) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (Soil) = 5
SET 5 = ALLMULTIEULSTRENGTH
ELOUT (Soil) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL DENSITY PRESSURE FMAT2 FMATPLT,
TXX TYY TZZ TXY TYZ TZX EFFSTS VOID FVUNC
TIMES (Soil) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (Soil) = 10000
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,BULKL,1.0
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-6
PARAM,VELMAX,5.0,NO
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Cohesive Friction
344
$
$
PARAM,COHESION,8e+10,8e+5,2.0
$ --- Define 18 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .020000 -.03000 .120000
GRID 2 -.020000 -.03000 .120000
GRID 3 .000000 -.03000 .020000
GRID 4 -.020000 .03000 .120000
GRID 5 .000000 .03000 .020000
GRID 9 .020000 .03000 .120000
$
$ --- Define 5 elements
$
$ -------- property set dum ---------
CTRIA3 1 2 1 2 3
CQUAD4 2 2 4 5 3 2
CTRIA3 3 2 5 4 9
CQUAD4 4 2 1 3 5 9
CQUAD4 5 2 1 9 4 2
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * PEul_MMStren *
$
PEULER1 1 MMSTREN 6
$
$ * Pen *
$
PSHELL 2 1 .001
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Pen_rigid id =1
MATRIG 1 100 +
+ +
+ 0.00
$
$ -------- Material Soil id =2
DMAT 2 1500 2 2 2 2
EOSPOL 2 2e+07
SHREL 2 1e+07
YLDMC 2 6.0e+07 2e+05 1.46
PMINC 2 -5e+8
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$
$
$ ------- General Coupling: Coup_pen -----
$
COUPLE 1 1 INSIDE ON ON STANDARD+
+ 0.8 0.8 +
+ 2
345 Chapter 4: Fluid-structural Interaction
Cohesive Friction
$
SURFACE 1 ELEM 6
SET1 6 1 THRU 5
$
$ ------- Mesh Box: Mesh_box
$
MESH 2 BOX +
+ -.2 -0.0101 0.0 0.4 0.0202 0.2 +
+ 160 8 80 EULER 1
$
$ ------- TICVAL BC Soil_init -----
TICVAL 4 DENSITY 1500
$
$ ------- TICEUL BC PEuler_reg -----
TICEUL 6 +
+ CYLINDER 5 1 +
+ CYLINDER 3 2 4 2
CYLINDER 5 0 0 -2 0 0 2+
+ 1
CYLINDER 3 0 0 -1 0 0 0.1+
+ 1
$
$ ------- Rigid Body Object RBO_Pen -----
$ ---- No reference node is used.
TLOAD1 1 7 12 1
FORCE 7 MR1 1 0 0 2.0
TLOAD1 1 1007 12
MOMENT 1007 MR1 1 0 0 0
$
tabled1,1,,,,,,,,+
+,0,0,0.2,1,endt
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Cohesive Friction
346
Chapter 5: Forming
Dytran Example Problem Manual
5
Forming

Overview 348

Square Cup Deep Drawing 349

Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup 360

Three-point Bending Test 368

Sleeve Section Stamping 378
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Overview
348
Overview
In this special chapter, a number of example problems are presented that highlight the capabilities of
Dytran in the area of sheet-metal forming.
The user can find in these examples guidelines how to model sheet-metal forming problems, how to use
the special anisotropic material model for sheet-metal forming, how to model contact between dies and
sheet and how to apply loads and constraints. All examples show a correlation with experiments.
349 Chapter 5: Forming
Square Cup Deep Drawing
Square Cup Deep Drawing
Problem Description
This case, considers a typical metal-forming example, that of a plate of anisotropic sheet metal being
drawn through a square hole by means of a punch. This particular example has experimental results as it
was provided as a verification problem for participants of the 1993 NUMISHEET Conference (see
[Ref. 1.]) held in Japan. The analysis involved results obtained at single punch depth (20 mm punch
travel) for an aluminum alloy plate. The material is seen to be planarly anisotropic, i.e., the material
behavior is different in all directions in the plane of the sheet metal as well as in the out of plane direction.
The state-of-the-art material model in Dytran, developed originally by Dr. Raymond Krieg of the
University of Tennessee (see [Ref. 2.]), is capable of capturing such behavior of the sheet metal, which
can be vital for the modeling of the actual behavior exhibits by sheet metal.
The data obtained from the NUMISHEET Conference were as follows:
Aluminum Alloy
• Thickness = 0.81 mm
• Young’s modulus = 71 GPa
• Poisson’s ratio = 0.33
• Density = 2700 kg/m
3
• Yield stress = 135.3 MPa
• Stress = 576.79 * (0.01658 + c
p
)
0.3593
MPa
• Lankford parameters: R
0
= 0.71, R
45
= 0.58, R
9
0 = 0.70
• Friction coefficient = 0.162
Size of the plate modeled was 0.15 x 0.15 (in meters).
No strain-rate dependency effects were included in the material data, so the metal sheet was analyzed
without these effects.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Square Cup Deep Drawing
350
The dimensions of the plate, die, punch, and clamp are all given in Figure 5-1
.
Figure 5-1 Dimensions of Plate, Die, Punch, and Clamp (in Millimeters)
351 Chapter 5: Forming
Square Cup Deep Drawing
Dytran Model
The essential components in this finite element model are:
• the sheet metal
• the punch
• the die
• the clamp
The Dytran model of the above components is given in Figure 5-2, followed by descriptions of
each component:
Figure 5-2 Dytran Model (Exploded View)
The Sheet Metal
The Dytran material model for sheet metals is a highly sophisticated model and includes full anisotropic
behavior, strain-rate effects, and customized output options that are dependent on material choice. Since
not all of the materials can be derived from the simplified set given by the NUMISHEET organization
most participants in the conference used an isotropic material model. In reality, the process is definitely
anisotropic and effect due to these differences can be seen in the transverse direction. For materials
displaying in-plane anisotropic behavior, the effect would be even more noticeable. The parameters on
the SHEETMAT (refer to the Dytran Reference Manual, [Ref. 3.) entry specify planar anisotropic
behavior and are as follows (for the aluminum sheet):
• SHEETMAT elastic material properties entry.
• Isotropic behavior was assumed in the elastic range:
E
xx
= 71.0 GPa
u = 0.33
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Square Cup Deep Drawing
352
The material “rolling” direction equals the global x-direction so the material vector
XMAT,YMAT,ZMAT = {1,0,0}.
• Planar anisotropic yielding and isotropic hardening were assumed in the plastic range:
A = Stress constant = 0.0 MPa
B = Hardening modulus = 576.79 MPa
C = Strain offset = 0.01658
n = Exponent for power-law hardening = 0.3593
• Lankford parameters:
R
0
= 0.71
R
45
= 0.58
R
90
= 0.70
• Material output
If sufficient material data is u supplied, the user can specify the Forming Limit Parameter as
output. This is an extremely useful variable for metal-forming engineers and is normally difficult
to calculate from normal output.
For this reason, Dytran automatically calculates this parameters for each integration layer
allowing the user to make contour plots that will immediately reveal where the so-called
“forming-limit” has been exceeded. To enable users to get a feel for this parameter, material data
based on [4] were specified in this case:
C
1
= 0.24421, C
2
= –0.195, C
3
= 0.857187, C
4
= 3.43924, C
5
= –11.9292
D
2
= –0.41688, D
8
= –1.5667, D
4
= –4.8485, D
5
= –6.0606
Note: The strain ratio R
O
is found by carrying tensile test in the corresponding “rolling”
direction, O, of the metal sheet and is equal to the ratio of strain in the in-plane
“cross rolling” direction to the out-of-plane direction. As such, it is an indication of
the orthotropic behavior in the transverse direction.
353 Chapter 5: Forming
Square Cup Deep Drawing
Punch, Die, and Clamp
These three components provide the constraints and driving displacement for the analysis and are
modeled as rigid bodies. DUMMY formulation quadrilateral elements are used to define the three
geometric shapes; CFACEs are defined on each quadrilateral; these CFACEs are referred to from a
SURFACE entry; this SURFACE entry is then referred to from a RIGID entry defining the rigid body
properties for each of the three bodies. Contact is then specified with the metal sheet using the friction
coefficient values provided. The three CONTACT entry specify the following:
• Contact between the punch and the sheet
• Contact between the die and sheet
• Contact between the clamp and sheet
Lastly, the punch is given a scaled downward velocity providing the driving displacement for
the analysis.
Results
The results requested by the NUMISHEET organization were as follows:
• Strain distributions along line OB on the die side of the metal sheet as shown in Figure 5-3
through Figure 5-6. The strain measures requested were:
– In-plane major principal strain
– In-plane minor principal strain
– Out-of-plane thickness strain
• A contour plot of the thickness strain plotted upon the deformed shape of the sheet metal.
• The amount of “draw-in” DX, DY, and DD measured from the undeformed shape edges to the
edges after deformation along the three lines OA, OB, and OC.
Some example plots are given in Figure 5-3 through Figure 5-6. Note that the last result listed above is
not included as it involves three simple values indicating the degree of draw-in. Dytran gave a solution
well within the spread of experimental values. Figure 5-7 shows a contour plot of the forming
limit parameter.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Square Cup Deep Drawing
354
Figure 5-3 Contour Plot of Thickness Strain Superimposed on the Deformed Shape
(Aluminum Plate at a Punch Depth of 15 mm)
Figure 5-4 Major Principal Strain Distribution along Line OB (Aluminum Plate at a
Punch Depth of 15 mm)
355 Chapter 5: Forming
Square Cup Deep Drawing

Figure 5-5 Minor Principal Strain Distribution along Line OB (Aluminum Plate at a Punch
Depth of 15 mm)
Figure 5-6 Thickness-strain Distribution along Line OB (Aluminum Plate at a Punch Depth
of 15 mm)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Square Cup Deep Drawing
356
Figure 5-7 Contour Plot of the Forming Limit Parameter
(Aluminum Plate at a Punch Depth of 20 mm)
Files
References
1. Makinouchi, A., Nakamachi, E., Onate, E., and Wagoner, R. H., “Numerical Simulation of 3-D
Sheet Metal Forming Processes, Verification of Simulation with Experiment,” NUMISHEET ‘93
2nd International Conference.
2. Krieg, Prof. Raymond Dl, “Constitutive Model for Sheet Metal Forming,” Part 2, Engineering
Science and Mechanics, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
3. Dytran Reference Manual, Version 2004, MSC.Software Corporation.
sq_cup_alual.dat
sq_cup_alual_xl.dat
Dytran input file
SQ_CUP_ALUAL.OUT Dytran output file
SQ_CUP_ALUAL_PLATE_0.ARC
SQ_CUP_ALUAL_PLATE_0.ARC
Dytran archive file
SQ_CUP_ALUAL_WALL_0.THS Dytran time history file
alual_plate_15_mm.ext Dytran translated results file for the aluminium alloy metal sheet
corresponding to a punch travel of 15 mm
alual_15_experiment_##.ext Experimental data obtained for the aluminium alloy
corresponding to a punch travel of 15 mm from NUMISHEET
’93 participants
357 Chapter 5: Forming
Square Cup Deep Drawing
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
$TITLE = Deep Drawing of a Square Cup
$
CHECK = NO
TLOAD= 1
$
ENDSTEP = 4700
$
$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR MATERIAL SUMMS
$
TYPE(MYMAT) = MATSUM
STEPS(MYMAT) = 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR MATRIG SUMMS
$
TYPE(MRMAT) = MRSUM
STEPS(MRMAT) = 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR THE CYCLE SUMMS
$
TYPE(MYCYC) = STEPSUM
STEPS(MYCYC) = 0 THRU END BY 250
$
$ Archive of Sheet Metal Output
$ Note : Integration Layer 01 corresponds to the die side of the sheet
$STEPS(PLATE) = 0,THRU,END,BY,470,3418
TYPE(PLATE) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(PLATE) = 100000
ELEMENTS(PLATE) = 60
SET 60 = 1t1600
ELOUT(PLATE) = THICK,EPSMX01,EPSMN01,EZZ01,FLP01
$
$Archive of Rigid Body Output
$Note : The dummy user variable ZUSER is used so as to obtain the grid
$ point displacements. This enables the user to visualise the
$ motion and position of the Rigid Bodies.
$STEPS(RIGID) = 0,THRU,END,BY,470,3418
TYPE(RIGID) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(RIGID) = 100000
ELEMENTS(RIGID) = 63
SET 63 = 2001t4468
ELOUT(RIGID) = ZUSER
$$
$$ Time history of specific (i.e. highly strained) elements in the cup
$$ wall in order to determine the strain path in a FLD plot.
$$
TYPE(wall) = TIMEHIS
SAVE(wall) = 999999
ELEMENTS(wall) = 1
SET 1 = 468,492,509
ELOUT(wall) = THICK,EPSMX01,EPSMN01,EZZ01,FLP01
STEPS(wall) = 0,THRU,END,BY,47,3418
$
BEGIN BULK
$$ Parameters :
$ (i) Initial Time-step
PARAM,INISTEP,2.0-7
$ (ii) Update of shell thicknesses
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Square Cup Deep Drawing
358
PARAM,SHTHICK,YES
$ (iii) Hourglass Coefficient
PARAM,HGCOEFF,0.05
$THIS SECTION CONTAINS BULK DATA
$Geometry Data is input from a seperate file.
$INCLUDE sq_cup_alual_xl.dat
$$ Element formulation is Belytschko-Lin-Tsay for the blank
$ which thickness amounts to 0.81 mm
$PSHELL1 1 1 BLT Gauss Mid +
+ .81
$$ Bely element formulations for MATRIG bodies (i.e. punch, binder and$ die)
$PSHELL1 61 2 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 62 3 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 63 4 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
$$ Punch
$MATRIG 2 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$
$ Binder
$
MATRIG 3 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$
$ Die
$MATRIG 4 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$$ The steel blank is modelled with the Sheetmat yield model,
$ in which the strain rate effect is assumed to be negligible.
$ Mass-Scaling by a factor 100 (additional to speed-up of punch).
$$ Material Properties :
$$ Young’s modulus E = 71.0 GPa, Nu = 0.33, Density = 2.700E-6 kg/mm**3
$$ Planar Anisotropic Material Specification :
$$ Power Law Stress Constant, a = 0.0 Pa
$ Hardening Modulus, b = 576.79e3 kg/(mm*s**2)
$ Hardening exponent, n = 0.3593
$ Strain offset, c = 0.01658
$ Lankford Parameter : R(0) = 0.71, R(45) = 0.58, R(90) = 0.70
$$ The coefficients of the Forming Limit Diagram correspond to engineering
values !!
$SHEETMAT1 2.7E-4 7.1E7 +
+ 0.33 ISO 1.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 0.0 576.79E3.01658 .3593 +
+ PLANANI .71 .58 .70 +
+ ISO +
+ .24421 -.195 .857187 3.43924 -11.9292 +
+ -.41688 -1.5667 -4.8485 -6.0606
$$ Prescribed Binder Force:
$$ The effect of binder force is examined. Take F=19.6 kN.
$TLOAD1 1 9999 13
FORCE 9999 MR3 -19.6E6 1.
$$ Prescribed motions:
$$ (i) The punch velocity is prescribed as a constant downward value
$ of 1000 mm/s (in Z-dir.).
$TLOAD1 1 99 12
359 Chapter 5: Forming
Square Cup Deep Drawing
FORCE 99 MR2 -1000. 1.
$
$ (ii) Rotational velocities of MATRIG 2, 3 and 4 (i.e. punch, binder
$ and die) are equal to zero along X-, Y- and Z-axes
TLOAD1 1 999 12
MOMENT 999 MR2 0. 1. 1. 1.
MOMENT 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
MOMENT 999 MR4 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iii) Die has a translational restraint in X-, Y- and Z-direction!
FORCE 999 MR4 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iv) Punch and Binder have only a translational restraint in
$ X- and Y-direction!
FORCE 999 MR2 0. 1. 1.
FORCE 999 MR3 0. 1. 1.
$$ Geometry description of blank(1), punch(2), binder(3) and die(4) in$ order
to model the contact. These surfaces refer to sets of segments$ defined using
the CFACE entries for set number 1, 61, 62 and 63,$ respectively. Surface 1:
blank
$ 2: punch
$ 3: binder
$ 4: die
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1
SURFACE 2 SEG 61
SURFACE 3 SEG 62
SURFACE 4 SEG 63
$$ Contact specification for which the blank is in all cases the slave:
$$ The thickness of the blank is taken into account in the contact$ problem by
using THICK = 1.0
$$ (i) Contact between Blank and Punch
CONTACT 1 SURF SURF 1 2 .162 .162 0.0 +
+ Top Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 .04 On On 1.+20
$ (ii) Contact between Blank and Binder
CONTACT 2 SURF SURF 1 3 .162 .162 0.0 +
+ Top Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 .04 On On 1.+20
$ (iii) Contact between Blank and Die
CONTACT 3 SURF SURF 1 4 .162 .162 0.0 +
+ Bottom Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 .04 On On 1.+20
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
360
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
Problem Description
Cylindrical cup-drawing tests are generally the best means of studying the effect of process conditions
on drawing behavior. Simulation by using Dytran can help the stamping engineer to determine optimum
process conditions. For example, analysis can determine that a cylindrical cup is most successfully drawn
under variable (instead of constant) blank-holder force conditions.
The present problem is a cylindrical cup, which is punched out of 70/30 brass sheet material while the
sheet is clamped by a blank holder against a die. The results obtained by using Dytran can be compared
with experimental results presented in [Ref.4.].
Drawing Process Data:
70/30 Brass Material Properties
Blank 100 mm
Blank thickness 0.7 mm
Punch radius 50.0 mm
Punch corner radius 13.0 mm
Die inner radius 51.25 mm
Die corner radius 5 mm
Total punch stroke 40 mm
Punch velocity 1000 mm/s
Blank-holder inner radius 56.25 mm
Blank-holder force 80 kN
Assumed friction coefficient 0.18/0.04
Young’s modulus E = 100 000 N/mm
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.33
Density t = 8.413 10
6
kg/mm
3
Lankford parameter R
0
= R
45
= R
90
= 0.85
Hardening modulus b = 895 N/mm
2
Strain offset c = 2.94 10
-4
Strain hardening exponent n = 0.42
361 Chapter 5: Forming
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
Dytran Model
Symmetry allows a one-quarter model to be constructed although a mesh for the whole geometry is
shown in Figure 5-8. It is well known that the mesh size of the blank is determined by the radii of the
tools. The element side length recommended is at most half the smallest corner radius over which the
blank is sliding. Consequently, the blank can be modeled with 348 shell elements (CQUAD4).
Figure 5-8 Dytran Model (Exploded View)
The blank holder is considered as a flat plate. The punch, die, and blank holder are modeled as rigid
bodies using the material definition MATRIG entry. All surfaces including the blank are covered with
CFACEs. In the three contact operations (i.e. blank punch, blank holder, blank die), the surface of the
blank is chosen to be the slave surface because of its mesh fineness. The coefficient of friction between
the blank and punch is 0.18, and that between the die and the blank holder is 0.04. The latter value implies
a higher degree of lubrication between the surfaces.
Since springback is not considered in this example, the entire analysis is carried out in a single step
representing the actual drawing stage. The applied force on the blank holder is 80 kN and is kept
constant during the drawing stage. This is realized by using the FORCE entry and setting the TYPE field
of the TLOAD1 entry equal to 13. The G field in the FORCE entry refers to the property number of
the MATRIG.
Since all tools are not allowed to have a rotational velocity, the MOMENT entry is used in conjunction
with setting the SCALE factor for the moment to zero in all three directions. Similarly, the translational
velocities of the tools are kept zero in X- and Y-direction by using the FORCE entry. Because of the
velocity prescription, the TYPE field of the TLOAD1 entry is equal to 12.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
362
In order to permit larger stable time steps, the mass density is increased two orders of magnitude. The
punch is moving with a mean velocity of 1 m/s to a depth of 40 mm according to a kind of sine function
against time.
Similar to the Example Problem (describing Square Cup Deep Drawing), the material behavior of this
blank is represented by the SHEETMAT material model. Therefore, no further description on this model
will be given in this section.
During the drawing process, the membrane behavior of the blank must be modeled accurately. Thickness
changes due to membrane stretching are accounted for by putting the parameter SCHTHICK equals YES
into the Bulk Data Section.
Results
The deformed shape predicted at the end of the stamping process is shown in Figure 5-9.
Figure 5-9 Final Shape of the Cup at 40 mm Punch Stroke
In a drawing process such as this problem, the magnitude of blank-holder force and accompanying
friction dictates the extent of metal flow into the die cavity. This is reflected by the magnitude of drawing
force as a function of punch stroke. Therefore, a convenient way to validate the FE calculations is to
compare the drawing force measured in tests with Dytran results (Figure 5-10). Some oscillating behavior
can be observed that is likely to be dependent on process time and coarseness of the mesh used. The
experimental results were taken from [Ref. 4.].
The distribution of radial and circumferential strain is shown in Figure 5-9. It can be clearly seen that the
flat bottom of the cup is biaxially stretched while drawing prevails in the wall and flange region.
363 Chapter 5: Forming
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
Figure 5-10 Dytran and Experimental Punch Force
Figure 5-11 Dytran and Experimental Radial and Circumferential Strain Distribution
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
364
Files
Reference (Continued)
4. Saran, M., Schedin, El, Samuelsson, Al, Melander, A., and Gustafsson, C. “Numerical and
Experimental Investigations of Deep Drawing of Metal Sheets”. ASME J. Vol. 112, 272-277
(1990).
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
$TITLE = Cylindrical Cup Deep Drawing
$TIME 99999
CEND
CHECK = NO
ENDSTEP = 9868
SPC = 1
TLOAD = 1
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR MATERIAL SUMMS
$TYPE (MYMAT) = MATSUM
STEPS (MYMAT) = 0 THRU END BY 1000
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR THE MATRIG SUMMS
$TYPE (MYMR) = MRSUM
STEPS (MYMR) = 0 THRU END BY 1000
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR THE CYCLE SUMMS
$TYPE (MYCYC) = STEPSUM
STEPS (MYCYC) = 0 THRU END BY 250
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE (blank) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (blank) = 999999
ELEMENTS(blank) = 1
SET 1 = 1t348
ELOUT (blank) = THICK,EPSMX03,EPSMN03,EZZ03
STEPS (blank) = 0,THRU,END,BY,1000,6323
$$
cyl_cup.dat
cyl_cup_xl.dat
Dytran input file
CYL_CUP.OUT Dytran output file
CYL_CUP_BLANK_0.ARC
CYL_CUP_RIGID_0.ARC
Dytran archive file
CYL_CUP_CONTACT_0.THS
CYL_CUP_PUNCH_MOT_0.THS
Dytran time history file
cyl_cup_blank_0_6323 Dytran translated results file corresponding to punch travel of
30mm
experiment_cir.ext Experimental data obtained from [Ref. 4.] for circumferential
strains corresponding to punch travel of 30 mm
experiment_rad.ext Experimental data obtained from [Ref.4.] for the radial strains
corresponding to punch travel of 30 mm
365 Chapter 5: Forming
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
$$ Data for Output Control Set 2
$$
TYPE (rigid) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (rigid) = 999999
ELEMENTS(rigid) = 2
SET 2 = 1000t3035
STEPS (rigid) = 0,THRU,END,BY,1000,6323
ELOUT (rigid) = ZUSER
$
$ Time history of the Contact 1 (i.e. Punch)
$
CONTS (contact) = 3
SET 3 = 1
TYPE (contact) = TIMEHIS
CONTOUT (contact) = YFORCE
SAVE (contact) = 99999
STEPS (contact) = 0,THRU,END,BY,100,6323
$
$ Time history of the Punch Motion (midpoint)
$
TYPE (punch_mot) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (punch_mot) = 99999
GRIDS (punch_mot) = 4
SET 4 = 1010
GPOUT (punch_mot) = YDIS
STEPS (punch_mot) = 0,THRU,END,BY,100,6323
$
BEGIN BULK
$
PARAM INISTEP 3e-07
PARAM SHTHICK YES
$
$ MODEL GEOMETRY
$ ==============
INCLUDE cyl_cup_xl.dat
$
$ Element formulation is Belytschko-Lin-Tsay for the blank
$ which thickness amounts to 0.70 mm
$
PSHELL1 1 1 BLT Gauss Mid +
+ .70
$
$ Bely element formulations for MATRIG bodies (i.e. punch, die
$ and blankholder)
$
PSHELL1 1111 2 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 1112 2 Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 2222 3 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 3333 4 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
$
$ Punch
$ =====
MATRIG 2 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 5.0 +
1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
366
$ Die
$ ===
MATRIG 3 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 -20. +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$
$ Blankholder
$ ===========
MATRIG 4 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$
$ The BR brass blank is modelled with the Sheetmat material model,
$ in which the strain rate effect is assumed to be negligible.
$ Mass-scaling is applied by a factor of 100.
$
$ Material Properties :
$
$ Youngs modulus E = 100.0 GPa, Nu = 0.33, Density=8.413e-6 Kg/mm3
$
$ Transversely Isotropic Material Specification :
$
$ Power Law Stress Constant, a = 0.0 Pa
$ Hardening Modulus, b = 895.0E+3 kg/(mm*s**2)
$ Hardening exponent, n = .42
$ Strain offset, c = 2.94E-4
$ Lankford Parameter : R(0) = 0.85, R(45) = 0.85, R(90) = 0.85
+$
$ NOTE : c is chosen such that the initial yield stress is 29 MPa.
$
SHEETMAT1 8.413E-41.0E8 +
+ 0.33 ISO 1.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 0.0 895.E3 2.94E-4 0.42 +
+ NORMANI 0.85 0.85 0.85 +
+ NORMANI
$
$ -----------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Prescribed Binder Force:
$
$ The total binder force is 80 kN which implies 20 kN to
$ the quarter of the model.
$
TLOAD1 1 9999 13
FORCE 9999 MR4 -2.0E7 1.
$
$ Prescribed motions:
$
$ (i) The punch velocity is described by a sine function such that
$ both the velocity and acceleration are equal to zero at the
$ start and end of the stroke. The maximum downward velocity
$ amounts of 2000 mm/s (in Y-dir.)
TLOAD1 1 99 12 55
FORCE 99 MR2 -1000. 1.
TABLED1 55 +
+ .000E+00.000E+00.833E-03.856E-02.167E-02.341E-01.250E-02.761E-01+
+ .333E-02.134E+00.417E-02.207E+00.500E-02.293E+00.583E-02.391E+00+
.
.
$
367 Chapter 5: Forming
Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Cup
$ (ii) Rotational velocities of MATRIG 2, 3 and 4 (i.e. punch, die
$ and binder) are equal to zero along X-, Y- and Z-axes
TLOAD1 1 999 12
MOMENT 999 MR2 0. 1. 1. 1.
MOMENT 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
MOMENT 999 MR4 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iii) Die has a translational restraint in X-, Y- and Z-direction!
FORCE 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iv) Punch and Blankholder have a translational restraint
$ in X- and Z-direction!
FORCE 999 MR2 0. 1. 1.
FORCE 999 MR4 0. 1. 1.
$
$ Geometry description of blank(1), punch(2), die(3)
$ and binder(4) in order to model the contact.
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1
SURFACE 2 SEG 1000
SURFACE 3 SEG 2000
SURFACE 4 SEG 3000
$$ Contact specification for which the blank is in all cases the slave:
$$ The thickness of the blank is taken into account in the contact $ problem
by using THICK = 1.0
$$ (i) Contact between Blank and Punch
CONTACT 1 SURF SURF 1 2 .18 .18 0.0 +
+ Both Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 1.+20 On On 1.+20
$
$ (ii) Contact between Blank and Die
CONTACT 2 SURF SURF 1 3 .04 .04 0.0 +
+ Both Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 1.+20 On On 1.+20
$
$ (iii) Contact between Blank and Blankholder
CONTACT 3 SURF SURF 1 4 .04 .04 0.0 +
+ Both Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 1.+20 On On 1.+20
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-point Bending Test
368
Three-point Bending Test
Problem Description
This example is one of the benchmark problems examined in the TEAM-Virtual Manufacturing project
and established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
The test setup is shown schematically in Figure 5-12. The test set-up consists of two outer rolls, a punch,
and a blank initially located between the punch and both outer rolls. In the test, both outer rolls are
moving upwards and are punching the blank around the fixed punch. Both the punch and the outer rolls
have cylindrical shapes. Two materials were considered in the experimental program. In the present
problem, the final shape upon springback is only sought for aluminum.

Figure 5-12 Three-point Bending Test Setup
Forming Process Data:

Total punch displacement 92 mm
Total time for punch displacement 285 sec
Punch closure rate 0.3228 mm/sec
Assumed friction coefficient 0.05
369 Chapter 5: Forming
Three-point Bending Test
Aluminum 6111-T4 Material Properties
The values for a, b, c, and n could be easily derived from the workhardening data delivered in tabulated
form. Experimental data were also obtained for two and four times the above closure rate. In view of the
quasi-static nature of this process, it is demonstrated that the explicit dynamics based Dytran can predict
the final shape after springback rather accurately.
Dytran Model
Due to the symmetry of the geometry and loading conditions, only a one-quarter model is constructed.
The mesh of the blank is regular and consists of 200 shell elements (CQUAD4). In order to cover both
yielding and springback correctly, five through-the-thickness integration points are defined. The punch
and outer roll are modeled as rigid bodies using the material definition MATRIG entry. The surfaces of
punch and roll are built up of segments indirectly defined by the property number of the shell elements.
In the two contact operations (i.e. blank-punch, blank-roll), the surface of the blank is chosen to be the
slave surface because of its mesh fineness.
Young’s modulus E = 69248 N/mm
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.33
Density p = 2.7 * 10
-6
kg/mm
3
Lankford parameter R
0
= R
45
= R
90
= 0.64
Proportional limit stress a = 158.5 N/mm
2
Hardening modulus b = 350.48 N/mm
2
Strain offset c = 0.0
Strain hardening exponent n = 0.4434
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-point Bending Test
370
Figure 5-13 Dytran Model
Since symmetry enables a one-quarter model to be constructed, single-point constraints are applied on
grid points along the X- and Y-axis of symmetry. All tools are not allowed to have a rotational velocity
whereas the punch is only allowed to have a translation velocity in Z-direction. To model these
constraints, the FORCE and MOMENT entries can be employed by defining the corresponding enforced
zero-motions. Because of the velocity prescription, the TYPE field of the TLOAD1 entry is equal to 12.
The explicit dynamics based procedure of Dytran uses very small time steps dictated by the shortest
natural period of the mesh. In conjunction with the quasi-static nature of this problem (taking at least
more than 70 sec testing time), it would be computationally very expensive to model the real
process velocity.
Instead, we have modeled the process by using an increased punch velocity and some mass scaling. These
are well known, speed-up techniques which are widely accepted in explicit dynamics methods. However,
the user should be aware of possible inertia effects produced in the simulation but not visible in the test
itself. Due to kinematic constraints on the tools, most sheet-metal forming simulations are not very
sensitive for inertia effects when using artificial speed-up techniques. Because there are no blank holders
in this problem, there is a risk that the blank slaps around the punch at the moment the punch impacts the
blank with too high a velocity. Trial runs were carried out at different closure rates and show that inertia
effects start to dominate at simulation rates higher than 1000 times the (fastest) testing rate.
The possibility of significant inertia effects also decreases by using a velocity which is described by a
kind of sine function such that both the velocity and acceleration are equal to zero at the beginning and
end of the punch stroke. In conjunction with a four-fold increase in mass scaling, the mean velocity can
now be increased up to 322.8 mm/s without inertia effects affecting the results in an unacceptable way.
Similar to the Example Problem (describing Square Cup Deep Drawing,) the material blank is
represented by the SHEETMAT material model. Therefore, no further description on this model will be
given in this section. Note that the parameter SHTHICK equals YES is put in the Bulk Data Section to take
shell thickness changes due to membrane stretching into account.
371 Chapter 5: Forming
Three-point Bending Test
The approach of modeling a springback analysis is described in Example Problem (Sleeve Section
Stamping) and therefore should be read in advance. For the sake of brevity, the springback analysis is
carried out in two sequential steps. The first run is needed to assess the global damping parameter
VDAMP. This parameter is used in the succeeding run to obtain the steady state of the blank
after springback.
Results
Figure 5-14 shows deformed shapes predicted at various stages of the forming process up to end of stroke
(Step 1). The position of an edge grid point is plotted against time to evaluate the natural period
Figure 5-15. In conjunction with DLTH obtained from the .OUT file, the parameter VDAMP can be
determined, and finally applied for the succeeding run (Step 2).
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-point Bending Test
372
Figure 5-14 Deformed Configurations at various Stages throughout the Forming Process
373 Chapter 5: Forming
Three-point Bending Test

Figure 5-15 Position of Grid Point Number 255
The springback angle o is required as benchmark output and is compared with experimental results. In
algebraic form:
in which XDIM_# denotes the X-dimension of grid point number #, and given by
Substitution of displacements/positions predicted by Dytran in the above equation will give us a
springback angle of 37.71 degrees. The mean experimental value is 41.88 degrees with a standard
deviation of 5.86 degrees. The deformed shape after springback is shown in Figure 5-16.
Note: The forming stage ending at 0.285 sec is succeeded by an undamped free vibration analysis
(Step 1) and a springback analysis in which the structure is critically damped (Step 2).
o 2 * arc
XDIM_255-XDIM_225
ZDIS_255-ZDIS_225
----------------------------------------------------------
\ .
| |
tan =
XDIM_# = XDIS_# + XPOS_#
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-point Bending Test
374

Figure 5-16 Springback after Forming Process
Files
3pbt_undmp.dat (undamped)
3pbt_dmp.dat (damped)
exvdmp.f (user-subroutine)
3pbt_xl.dat
Dytran input file
3PBT_UNDAMP.OUT (undamped)
3PBT_DMP.OUT (damped)
Dytran output file
3PBT_UNDAMP_BLANK_0.ARC
3PBT_UNDAMP_PUNCH_0.ARC
3PBT_UNDAMP_ROLL_0.ARC
Dytran archive file (undamped)
3PBT_DMP_BLANK_0.ARC
3PBT_DMP_PUNCH_0.ARC
3PBT_DMP_ROLL_0.ARC
Dytran archive file (damped)
3PBT_UNDAMP_GRID_MOT_0.THS (Undamped)
3PBT_DMP_GRID_MOT_0.THS (damped)
Dytran time history file
375 Chapter 5: Forming
Three-point Bending Test
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
$$USERCODE=exvdmp.f( used for the damped problem )
$TITLE = 3-Point Bending Test on Al6111-T4
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Global system damping is applied:( used for the damped problem )
$ The user-subroutine exvdmp.f is employed in which the parameter
$ VDAMP is switched on at the end of the forming stage. VDAMP
$ corresponds with the critical damping coefficient :
$VDAMP = omega * timestep = 2*pi*4.9665E-7/0.02343= 1.33186E-4
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------
TIME 99999
CEND
CHECK = NO
ENDSTEP = 744000
SPC = 1
TLOAD = 1
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR MATERIAL SUMMS
$TYPE (MYMAT) = MATSUM
STEPS (MYMAT) = 0 THRU END BY 5000
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR THE CYCLE SUMMS
$TYPE (MYCYC) = STEPSUM
STEPS (MYCYC) = 0 THRU END BY 2500
$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR THE MATRIG-RBE2 SUMMS
$TYPE (MYMR) = MRSUM
STEPS (MYMR) = 0 THRU END BY 5000
$$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$TYPE (blank) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (blank) = 999999
ELEMENTS(blank) = 1
SET 1 = 1t200
ELOUT (blank) = ZUSER
STEPS (blank) = 0,THRU,744000,BY,74400,573739
$$$$ Data for Output Control Set 2
$$TYPE (punch) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (punch) = 999999
ELEMENTS(punch) = 2
SET 2 = 601t780
STEPS (punch) = 0,THRU,744000,BY,74400,573739
ELOUT (punch) = ZUSER
$$$$ Data for Output Control Set 3
TYPE (roll) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (roll) = 999999
ELEMENTS(roll) = 3
SET 3 = 781t1050
TIMES (roll) = 0
ELOUT (roll) = ZUSER
$
$------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Case Control which refers to User-subroutine( used for the damped
$ problem)
$
$ELEXOUT (userout)
$ELEMENTS(userout) = 4
$SET 4 = 1
$STEPS (userout) = 0tendb1
$
$------------------------------------------------------------
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Three-point Bending Test
376
$ Time history of the Position of Grid #255
$
TYPE (grid_mot) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (grid_mot) = 99999
GRIDS (grid_mot) = 5
SET 5 = 255
STEPS (grid_mot) = 0,THRU,744000,BY,744,573739
GPOUT (grid_mot) = XDIS
$$
$
BEGIN BULK
$
PARAM INISTEP 2e-7
PARAM SHTHICK YES
$PARAM VDAMP 1.3319-4( used for the damped problem )
$
$ MODEL GEOMETRY
$ ==============
INCLUDE 3pbt_xl.dat
$
$ Five integration points through the thickness of the blank.
PSHELL1 1 1 BLT Gauss 5 Mid +
+ .91
$
$ Bely element formulations for MATRIG bodies (i.e. punch and roll)
PSHELL1 1111 2 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 2222 3 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
$
$ Punch
$ =====
MATRIG 2 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2
$
$ Roll
$ ====
MATRIG 3 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+2 0.0 0.0 1.+2 0.0 1.+2
$
$ Geometry description of blank(1), punch(2) and roll(3) in
$ order to model the contact.
SURFACE 1 PROP 100
SURFACE 2 PROP 200
SURFACE 3 PROP 300
$
SET1 100 1
SET1 200 1111
SET1 300 2222
$
$ Contact specification for which the blank (i.e. surface 1) is
$ in all cases the slave.
$ (i) Contact between Blank and Punch
CONTACT 1 SURF SURF 1 2 .05 .05 0.0 +
+ Both Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 0.285 On On 1.+20
$
$ (ii) Contact between Blank and Roll
CONTACT 2 SURF SURF 1 3 .05 .05 0.0 +
377 Chapter 5: Forming
Three-point Bending Test
+ Both Full 1.0 +
+ 0.0 .1 Distance1.+20 1.1 .1 Factor 2. +
+ 0.0 0.285 On On 1.+20
$
$ The aluminium blank is modelled with the Sheetmat material model.
$ Strain rate effect is assumed to be negligible in this example.
$ Mass-scaling is applied by a factor of 4 x density.
$
$ Material Properties of the aluminium 6111-T4 alloy:
$
$ Youngs modulus E = 69.248 GPa, Nu = 0.33, Density = 2.7E-6 Kg/mm3
$
$ Transversely Isotropic Material Specification :
$ (i.e. normal anisotropy assumed)
$
$ Power Law Stress Constant, a = 158.5E+3 Kg/mm*s2
$ Hardening Modulus, b = 350.48E+3 Kg/mm*s2
$ Strain offset, c= 0.0
$ Hardening exponent, n = 0.4434
$ Lankford Parameters : R(0) = R(45) = R(90) = 0.64
$
SHEETMAT1 1.08E-5 6.9248E7 +
+ 0.33 ISO 1.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 158.5E3 350.48E30.0 0.4434 +
+ NORMANI 0.64 0.64 0.64 +
+ NORMANI
$$ Prescribed motions:
$ (i) The punch velocity is described by a sine function such that
$ both the velocity and acceleration are equal to zero at the
$ start and end of the stroke. The maximum downward velocity
$ amounts to 645.6 mm/s (in Z-dir.) and mean velocity is 322.8 mm/s
TLOAD1 1 99 12 55
FORCE 99 MR2 -322.8 1.
TABLED1 55 +
+ .000E+000.000E+0.594E-020.856E-2.119E-010.341E-1.178E-010.761E-1+
+ .237E-010.134E+0.297E-010.207E+0.356E-010.293E+0.416E-010.391E+0+
.
.
.
$
$ (ii) Rotational velocities of MATRIG 2 and 3 (i.e. punch and roll)
$ are equal to zero around X-, Y- and Z-axes
TLOAD1 1 999 12
MOMENT 999 MR2 0. 1. 1. 1.
MOMENT 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iii) Roll has a translational restraint in X-, Y- and Z-direction!
FORCE 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iv) Punch has a translational restraint in X- and Y-direction!
FORCE 999 MR2 0. 1. 1.
$ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sleeve Section Stamping
378
Sleeve Section Stamping
Problem Description
This example is one of the benchmark problems examined in the TEAM Virtual Manufacturing project,
established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and reported in [Ref. 5.].
The test setup is shown schematically in Figure 5-17. Both punch and die are double-curved surfaces, and
there is lack of symmetry. The objective is to predict the deformed shape of the sheet after springback
and to compare this with experimental results.
Figure 5-17 Schematic Diagram of Sleeve Section Stamping Test Setup
Forming Process Data:
Minimum top die total punch displacement (just touching) 17.34 mm
Maximum nominal top die total displacement 17.66 mm
Nominal die separation at closure 2.03 mm
Nominal closure time 0.7 s
Nominal closure rate 25 mm/s
Assumed friction coefficient 0.3
379 Chapter 5: Forming
Sleeve Section Stamping
Aluminum 6111-T4 Material Properties
Workhardening data are provided in tabulated form.
Dytran Model
Due to lack of symmetry, the whole model is constructed. The mesh is delivered by the organizing
committee of the TEAM project and contains two solid elements through the thickness (Figure 5-18).
Solid elements (CHEXA8) are used because the punch stroke leads to some overclosure of the die.
Therefore, thickness changes as a result of pressure imposed by the punch must be modeled accurately.
This cannot be realized by using shell elements because of their incompressibility in thickness direction.
Figure 5-18 Dytran Model
The punch and die are modeled as rigid bodies using the material definition MATRIG entry. The blank
surface is covered with CFACEs whereas the surfaces of punch and die are built up of segments indirectly
defined by the property number of the specific shell elements. Due to a very fine mesh in the corner
region of the die (i.e., mesh of blank is even coarser), the contact operation is taken to be single surface.
Since the slave surface (commonly the blank) is only checked for penetration of the master surface
(die/punch) in master-slave contact, the single-surface contact works correctly regardless of the higher
mesh density of the die in the corner region.
A combination of kinematic of kinematic boundary conditions is defined for which both translational and
rotational velocity of the RIGIDs are restrained. For example, since all tools are not allowed to have a
Young’s modulus E = 181302 N/mm
2
Poisson’s ratio u = 0.16
Density p = 7.916 * 10
-6
kg/mm
3
Proportional limit stress o
0
= 637.76 N/mm
2
0.2% yield stress o
0.2
= 892.00 N/mm
2
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sleeve Section Stamping
380
rotational velocity, the MOMENT entry is used in conjunction with setting the SCALE factor for the
moment to zero in all three directions. Because of the velocity prescription, the TYPE field of the TLOAD1
entry is equal to 12.
The analysis is carried out with a 100-fold mass density. The punch velocity is chosen to be described by
a sine function such that both the velocity and acceleration are equal to zero at the start and end of the
stroke. The mean velocity can now be increased up to 2.5 m/s without inertia effects affecting the
stress/strain results of the blank in an unacceptable way.
The material behavior of this blank satisfies the von Mises yield model in combination with isotropic
hardening. The workhardening curve is described in accordance with a table of true stress versus true
plastic strain data.
To treat springback in this example, Dytran offers the so-called Dynamic Relaxation method that uses the
global system damping parameter (VDAMP). The theory is discussed in the Dytran User’s Guide. The
springback analysis is performed in two steps.
Step 1: In order to assess VDAMP, the first run is meant to capture undamped free vibrations upon
instantaneous removal of the tools at the end of the stroke. Removal of the tools can be realized
by setting the ENDTIME field in the CONTACT entry to the time that corresponds to the end of
the forming stage. On the basis of the Dytran User’s Guide, the parameter VDAMP can be given
in the following algebraic form:
in which T denotes the natural period of free vibration and is the time increment needed for
the free vibration analysis. The latter represents DLTH in .OUT file and can be found to be almost
constant throughout the free vibration analysis. The period T can be determined by plotting a
relevant grid point displacement/position versus time.
Step 2: In the second final run, the free vibration mode is damped out by defining the parameter VDAMP
assessed in Step 1. The user-subroutine exvdmp.f (Three-point Bending Test) is used to
activate this parameter only for solid elements at the end of the forming analysis. To call this
user subroutine, the ELEXOUT entry is required in Case Control of the input file. The File
Management Section contains the USERCODE entry.
Figure 5-19 shows deformed shapes predicted at various stages of the stamping process up to full die
closure (Step 1). As stated above, the position of an edge grid point is plotted against time to evaluate the
natural period (Figure 5-20). In conjunction with DLTH obtained from the .OUT file, the parameter
VDAMP can be determined and finally applied to the succeeding run (Step 2) in an appropriate way as
described above.
VDAMP
2 * t * o
t
T
------------------------- =
o
t
381 Chapter 5: Forming
Sleeve Section Stamping
Figure 5-19 Deformed Configurations at various Stages throughout the Stamping Process
Figure 5-20 Position of Grid Point Number 10
Note: The forming stage ending at 0.7E – 2 sec is succeeded by an undamped free vibration
analysis (Step 1) and a springback analysis in which the structure is critically damped
(Step 2)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sleeve Section Stamping
382
Chord length and depth of the deformed shape of the sheet after springback, as well as the total applied
load at full die closure are considered to be major benchmark output results. In algebraic form:
Chord Length = XDIM_10 – XDIM_1060
Depth = ZDIM_535 – (ZDIM_12 + zdim_1062)/2
Total Force = ZFORCE_MATRIG_2
in which XDIM_# and ZDIM_# denote the X- and Z-dimension of grid point number #, calculated by using
XDIM_# = XCIS_# + XPOS_#
Substitution of displacements/positions predicted by Dytran in the above equation will provide the results
shown in the following table. The deformed shape after springback is shown in Figure 5-21.
Figure 5-21 Springback after Forming Process
The original mesh delivered for the blank contains only two elements through the thickness and therefore,
can be expected to do a relatively poor job of representing pure bending deformation. Refined mesh
would provide better correlation with experiment ([Ref. 5.]). This would also increase the cost of the
analysis and consequently, is beyond the scope of this Dytran Example Problem Manual.
Comparison between Dytran and Experimental Results
Dytran Experiment
Chord Length [mm] 62.54 61.58
Depth [mm] 13.77 14.38
Total Force [kN] 84.90 40 - 225
383 Chapter 5: Forming
Sleeve Section Stamping
Files
Reference
5. Slagter, W. “Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes using Dytran.”
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
$$USERCODE=exvdmp.f( used for the damped problem )
$TITLE = Sleeve Section Stamping
$$-------------------------------------------------------------------
$ Note : Global system damping is applied:( used for the damped problem )
$ The user-subroutine exvdmp.f is employed in which the
$ parameter VDAMP is switched on at the end of the formingstage. VDAMP
corresponds with the critical damping$ coefficient:
$VDAMP = omega * timestep = 2*pi*1.324E-6/5.6E-3 = = 1.5E-3
$-------------------------------------------------------------------
$
TIME 99999
CEND
CHECK = NO
ENDTIME = 0.025
SPC = 1
TLOAD = 1
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR MATERIAL SUMMS
$TYPE (MYMAT) = MATSUM
STEPS (MYMAT) = 0 THRU END BY 1000
$$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR RIGID SUMMS
$
TYPE (MRMAT) = MRSUM
STEPS (MRMAT) = 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
$ CHANGE THE OUTPUT FREQUENCY FOR THE CYCLE SUMMS
$
sleeve_undmp.dat (undamped)
sleeve_dmp.dat (damped)
exvdmp.f (user-subroutine)
sleeve_xl.dat
Dytran input file
SLEEVE_UNDAMP.OUT (undamped)
SLEEVE_DMP.OUT (damped)
Dytran output file
SLEEVE_UNDAMP_BLANK_0.ARC
SLEEVE_UNDAMP_PUNCH_0.ARC
SLEEVE_UNDAMP_DIE_0.ARC
Dytran archive file (undamped)
SLEEVE_DMP_BLANK_0.ARC
SLEEVE_DMP_PUNCH_0.ARC
SLEEVE_DMP_DIE_0.ARC
Dytran archive file (damped)
SLEEVE_UNDAMP_CONTACT_0.THS
SLEEVE_UNDAMP_GRID_MOT_0.THS
Dytran time history file (undamped)
SLEEVE_DMP_CONTACT_0.THS
SLEEVE_DMP_GRID_MOT_0.THS
Dytran time history file (damped)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sleeve Section Stamping
384
TYPE (MYCYC) = STEPSUM
STEPS (MYCYC) = 0 THRU END BY 250
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 1
$$
TYPE (blank) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (blank) = 999999
ELEMENTS(blank) = 1
SET 1 = 1t600
ELOUT (blank) = EFFSTS,EFFPLS
TIMES (blank) = 0,0.003,0.004,0.007,0.025
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 2
$$
TYPE (punch) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (punch) = 999999
ELEMENTS(punch) = 2
SET 2 = 12000t12419
TIMES (punch) = 0,0.003,0.004,0.007,0.025
ELOUT (punch) = ZUSER
$$
$$ Data for Output Control Set 3
$$
TYPE (die) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (die) = 999999
ELEMENTS(die) = 3
SET 3 = 13000t13559
TIMES (die) = 0
ELOUT (die) = ZUSER
$
$ Time history of the MATRIG #2 (i.e. Punch)
$
RIGIDS (contact) = 4
SET 4 = MR2
TYPE (contact) = TIMEHIS
RBOUT (contact) = ZFORCE
SAVE (contact) = 99999
TIMES (contact) = 0tendb0.000025,0.007
$$ Time history of the Position of Grid #10 (at YZ-plane)
$TYPE (grid_mot) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (grid_mot) = 99999
GRIDS (grid_mot) = 5
SET 5 = 10
TIMES (grid_mot) = 0tendb0.000025
GPOUT (grid_mot) = ZPOS
$$-------------------------------------------------------------------
$ Case Control which refers to User-subroutine( used for the damped problem )
$$ELEXOUT (userout)
$ELEMENTS(userout) = 6
$SET 6 = 1
$STEPS (userout) = 0tendb1
$
$-------------------------------------------------------------------
$
BEGIN BULK
$
PARAM INISTEP 1e-07
$PARAM VDAMP 0.0015 ( used for the damped problem )
PARAM GEOCHECKON
$
385 Chapter 5: Forming
Sleeve Section Stamping
$ MODEL GEOMETRY
$ ==============
INCLUDE sleeve_xl.dat
$
$ Lagrangian solid elements for blank.
$ Two elements through the thickness of the blank.
PSOLID 1 1
$
$ Bely element formulations for MATRIG bodies (i.e. punch and die)
PSHELL1 1111 2 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
PSHELL1 2222 3 Bely Gauss Mid +
+ 1.-20
$
$ Punch
$ =====
MATRIG 2 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+20 0.0 0.0 1.+20 0.0 1.+20
$
$ Die
$ ===
MATRIG 3 210.e9 0.3 1. 0.0 0.0 0.0 +
+ 1.+20 0.0 0.0 1.+20 0.0 1.+20
$
$ Geometry description of blank, punch and die in single surface
$ contact.
SET1 11 1111
SET1 22 2222
$
SURFACE 1 SEG 1 PROP 11 PROP 22
$
CONTACT 1 SURF 1 .30 .30 0.0 +
+ V4 0.0 0.0 +
+ +
+ 0.007
$
$ Material Properties of 301 Half-Hard Stainless Steel:
$ Mass-scaling is applied by a factor of 100 (original density=7.916e-6)
$
DYMAT24 1 7.916-4 1.813+8 .16 55 PLAST +
+ +
+ 1.0 0.0
$
HGSUPPR 1 SOLID 1 FBS
$
TABLED1 55 +
+ .000E+00.638E+06.229E-03.840E+06.485E-03.869E+06.672E-03.906E+06+
+ .338E-02.986E+06.548E-02.102E+07.812E-02.103E+07.102E-01.104E+07+
+ .139E-01.105E+07.241E-01.108E+07.329E-01.110E+07.415E-01.113E+07+
+ .562E-01.116E+07.856E-01.124E+07.100E+00.128E+07.195E+00.150E+07+
+ ENDT
$
$ Prescribed motions:
$ (i) The punch velocity is described by a sine function such that
$ both the velocity and acceleration are equal to zero at the
$ start and end of the stroke. The maximum downward velocity
$ amounts of 5000 mm/s (in Z-dir.) and mean velocity is 2.5e3 mm/s.
TLOAD1 1 99 12 66
FORCE 99 MR2 -2500. 1.
TABLED1 66 +
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sleeve Section Stamping
386
+ .000E+00 .000E+0.146E-03 .856E-2.292E-03 .341E-1.438E-03 .761E-1+
+ .583E-03 .134E+0.729E-03 .207E+0.875E-03 .293E+0.102E-02 .391E+0+
.
.
.
.
$
$ (ii) Rotational velocities of MATRIG 2 and 3 (i.e. punch and
$ die) are equal to zero around X-, Y- and Z-axes
TLOAD1 1 999 12
MOMENT 999 MR2 0. 1. 1. 1.
MOMENT 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iii) Die has a translational restraint in X-, Y- and Z-direction!
FORCE 999 MR3 0. 1. 1. 1.
$
$ (iv) Punch has a translational restraint in X- and Y-direction!
FORCE 999 MR2 0. 1. 1.
$
ENDDATA
Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Dytran Example Problem Manual
6
Occupant Safety

Overview 388

Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG) 389

Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag 397

Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
411

Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv) 450

Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy 466

Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing 496
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Overview
388
Overview
In this chapter, a number of example problems are presented that highlight the capabilities of Dytran in
the area of Occupant Safety.
In these examples, the user can find the guidelines to model Occupant Safety problems that include air
bags and occupant dummies.
In the area of air bag modeling, the constant pressure method and full gas dynamics approach are shown.
The examples include the use of rigid ellipsoid dummies as well as the use to the enhanced HYBRIDIII
rigid body dummy. The following example problems are described in this chapter.
389 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
Problem Description
This problem demonstrates the interaction between a passenger-side, unfolded air bag and a rigid body.
The air bag is inflated by means of a uniform pressure law (GBAG) and impacts a spherical ellipsoid
during the inflation.
Dytran uses a closed surface to define the gas bag. The surface must be built from faces connected to the
finite elements. The elements can be either membranes, shells, solids, dummy shells, or a combination
of those elements.
To model the flat rectangular air bag, two parallel planes are defined by using triangular constant
strain membrane elements. The surface is closed by coupling the nodes located on the four edges of the
two planes.
The inflator is located on the center of the back plane and is modeled by membrane elements with a SPC
constraint to keep its shape rigid and in place (see Figure 6-1).
Figure 6-1 Air Bag Model
The material behavior of the air bag fabric is modeled with a linear elastic isotropic material model with
the following properties:

The following input entries are required when modeling a gas bag:
density 600 kg/m
3
Young’s modulus 6 10
7
N/mm
2
Poisson’s ratio 0.3
SURFACE Defines the element faces that are part of the gas bag. The surface must be closed.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
390
The rigid ellipsoid is modeled by defining a 0.1 m radius sphere with a mass of 0.5 kg. The sphere is
located .15 m above the air bags at the center (see Figure 6-2).
Figure 6-2 Initial Position of the Rigid Ellipsoid
The contact surface between the rigid ellipsoid and the air bag is defined by using the CONTREL entry.
This option is used to define the grid points on the Lagrangian (air bag) surface that can come into contact
with the rigid ellipsoid.
Results
As shown in the animation plots (see Figure 6-3), the air bag is inflated from time 0 sec and will hit the
rigid ellipsoid at 20 msec. From that moment, the rigid ellipsoid is loaded by the air bag and will be
pushed away from the air bag.
After 45 msec, there is no contact anymore between rigid ellipsoid and the air bag, and the rigid ellipsoid
will move away from the air bag at a constant speed.
GBAG Defines the gas bag properties such as:
• Mass inflow rate
• Trigger time
• Area and discharge coefficient of holes
• Area and discharge coefficient of porous fabric
• Volumetric porosity
• Initial state of the gas inside
• Material properties of the gas inside
391 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
Figure 6-3 Inflation of the Air Bag
The time history of pressure, volume, and mass of the gas inside the air bag is plotted in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4 Time Histories of Pressure, Mass, and Temperature of Gas inside the Air Bag
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
392
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Abbreviated Input file
$ file: demo1.dat
$ ---------------
$
$ - inflation of a flat, unfolded demo passenger-side airbag
$ - uniform pressure assumption
$ - contact with a rigid elllipsoid
$
START
CEND
CHECK=NO
ENDSTEP=100000
ENDTIME=125.E-3
TITLE=INFLATION OF DEMO PASSENGER-BAG WITH UNIFORM PRESSURE MODEL
TIC=1
SPC=1
TLOAD=1
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output of the gbag variables:
$
GBAGS (GB) = 5
SET 5 = 1
GBOUT (GB) = VOLUME,PRESSURE,FLGAS,TGAS,TEMP,MASS
TIMES (GB) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-3
TYPE (GB) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (GB) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the membrane elements:
$
ELEMENTS(AIRBAG) = 996
SET 996 = ALLMEMTRIA
ELOUT (AIRBAG) = THICK,SMDFER
TIMES (AIRBAG) = 0. THRU END BY 20.E-3
TYPE (AIRBAG) = ARCHIVE
demo1.dat
demo1_bag.dat (property input file)
demo1_gbag.dat (gas bag and mass flow input
definition)
demo1_ellips_contact.dat (contact input
definition)
xl_demo1.dat (geometry file)
Dytran input file
DEMO1.OUT Dytran output file
DEMO1_AIRBAG_0.ARC
DEMO1_ELLIPS_0.ARC
Dytran archive file
DEMO1_GB_0.THS
DEMO1_TELLIPS_0.THS
Dytran time history files
393 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
SAVE (AIRBAG) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the ellipsoid:
$
RELS (ELLIPS) = 600
$ nb: setc,600 defined in demo1_ellips_contact.dat
RELOUT (ELLIPS) = GEOMETRY
TIMES (ELLIPS) = 0. THRU END BY 20.E-3
TYPE (ELLIPS) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (ELLIPS) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define more output for the ellipsoid:
$
RELS (TELLIPS) = 600
$ nb: setc,600 defined in demo1_ellips_contact.dat
RELOUT (TELLIPS) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,XAVEL,YAVEL,ZAVEL
TIMES (TELLIPS) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-3
TYPE (TELLIPS) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (TELLIPS) = 1000000
$
BEGIN BULK
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Initial timestep & minimum timestep
$
PARAM,INISTEP,0.7E-05
PARAM,MINSTEP,.5E-8
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the airbag
$
INCLUDE demo1_bag.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the gbag ( uniform pressure parameters )
$
INCLUDE demo1_gbag.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the rigid ellipsoid and the contact with it
$
INCLUDE demo1_ellips_contact.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Rest is defined with xl
$
INCLUDE xl_demo1.dat
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
ENDDATA
Properties Input Definition
$ file: demo1_bag.dat
$ -------------------
$BEGIN BULK
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the membrane properties & material
$ During modelling we took care of the folding lines, and four
$ holes at the back of the airbag
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
394
$ The use of the folding lines will be clear in demo2 (folding)
$ The use of the holes will be clear in demo3 (porosity with euler)
$$ Every part of the airbag has his own PID
$ The use of this will be clear in demo2 (folding)
$$ The model with the PID’s looks like this:
$$ front:
$$ y
$ ^
$ |
$ ---------------------------------------------------------------
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | 504 | 503 | 603 | 604 |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ |---------------------------------------------------------------|
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | 502 | 501 | 601 | 602 |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ |---------------------------------------------------------------|--> x
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | 552 | 551 | 651 | 652 |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ |---------------------------------------------------------------|
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | 554 | 553 | 653 | 654 |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ | | | | |
$ ---------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ back:
$
$ y
$ ^
$ |
$ ---------------------------------------------------------------
$ | | \ 512 /| \ 612 /| |
$ | | \ / | \ / | |
$ | | --- | --- | |
$ | 513 | 511 |510| 509 | 609 |610| 611 | 613 |
$ | | --- | --- | |
$ | | / \ | / \ | |
$ | | / 508 \ | / 608 \ | |
$ |---------------------------------------------------------------|
$ | | | | | |
$ | | | | | |
$ | | | | | |
395 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
$ | 507 | 506 | 505 | 606 | 607 |
$ | | | | | |
$ | | | | | |
$ | | | | | |
$ |---------------------------------------------------------------|--> x
$ | | | | | | |
$ | | | | | | |
$ | | | | | |
$ | 557 | 556 | 655 | 555 | 656 | 657 |
$ | | | | | | |
$ | | | | | | |
$ | | | | | |
$ |---------------------------------------------------------------|
$ | | \ 558 /| \ 658 /| |
$ | | \ / | \ / | |
$ | | --- | --- | |
$ | 563 | 561 |560| 559 | 659 |660| 661 | 663 |
$ | | --- | --- | |
$ | | / \ | / \ | |
$ | | / 562 \ | / 662 \ | |
$ ---------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ PID = 505 ---> inflator (see xl-pictures)
$$ PID = 510,560,610,660 ---> holes
$$ First quarter
$PSHELL1,501,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
..
.
PSHELL1,513,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$Second quarter (PID first + 50)
$
PSHELL1,551,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
.
.
.
PSHELL1,563,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ Third quarter (PID first + 100)
$
PSHELL1,601,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
.
.
.
PSHELL1,613,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ fourth quarter (PID first + 150)
$
PSHELL1,651,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
.
.
.
PSHELL1,663,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Flat Unfolded Air Bag Inflation (GBAG)
396
+,5.E-4
$
$ Define the inflator as membranes with a SPC to keep it at its
$ place.
$
PSHELL1,505,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ definition of material, elastic with:
$ - density = 600 kg/m**3
$ - young’s = 6.E7 N/m**2
$ - poisson = 0.3
$
DMATEL,1,600.,6.E7,0.3
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Define the closed gbag-surface
$
$ surface 25 : - airbag + inflator
$
$ nb. pid=605 does not exist, since the inflator is completely
$ modeled by pid=505
$
SURFACE,25,,PROP,199
SET1,199,501,THRU,513
SET1,199,551,THRU,563
SET1,199,601,THRU,604,606,THRU,613
SET1,199,651,THRU,663
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
ENDDATA
397 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
Problem Description
As an example for occupant modeling, this problem demonstrates the interaction between an inflated air
bag and a rigid ellipsoid dummy model, which behavior is simulated by the Crash Victim Simulation
(CVS) program ATB, which has been integrated into Dytran.
This example problem will not describe how to model an inflated air bag, but will focus on the simulation
of a rigid dummy by ATB and its interaction with structural parts like an air bag. It will also not describe
the advanced technique of positioning of an ATB dummy through Dytran.
Dytran Model
The model consists of a flat, folded passenger-side air bag, which is inflated (using full gas dynamics)
and interacts with an accelerated (Hybrid III-like) ATB dummy.
The rigid ATB dummy model consists of 15 rigid ellipsoids, which are connected by 14 rigid body joints.
Characteristics and initial position of the dummy are completely defined in the ATB input file.
Each ATB segment contact ellipsoid must be defined in the Dytran input file with the RELEX entry. The
names of these ellipsoids are the same as the segment names as defined in the ATB input file on the
B.2 entries.
For contact purposes, 15 rigid bodies were created, which were rigidly connected to the ATB ellipsoids
using RCONREL entries. In this case, the shape of the rigid bodies coincide with the ATB ellipsoids, but
their shapes can be arbitrary. These rigid bodies are only used as contact surfaces in the contact
definitions between the air bag and other car parts.
Two additional rigid bodies, created to model elbows, are rigidly connected with the upper arms. Besides
contact with the air bag, contact is defined between other rigid car parts (not shown in Figure 6-5) and
the ATB dummy, except for head and neck.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
398
Figure 6-5 Air-bag Model and ATB Dummy
The specification of GEOMETRY on the RELOUT entry causes Dytran to cover the ATB ellipsoids with
unique dummy shell elements. Primarily, the created dummy geometry is used for the visualization of the
ellipsoids. It can also be used to create the above-mentioned rigid bodies. To obtain the shape of the ATB
segments, a short separate Dytran pre-run with the positioned ATB dummy is necessary. The rigid bodies
in this example problem (except for the elbows) have been created this way.
Results
Figure 6-6 shows air bag and ATB dummy halfway (at 0.05 seconds) and at the end of the simulation (at
0.1 seconds).
399 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag

Figure 6-6 Deformed Geometry of Air Bag and ATB Dummy
Figure 6-7 is a time history of the velocity of the head and lower torso of the dummy. As can be seen from
this graph, the entire dummy is equally accelerated at the start of the simulation. The deceleration of the
lower torso is caused by contact of the dummy feet and legs with some rigid car parts, which were not
shown in the previous figures. The head is decelerated by the unfolding air bag.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
400
.
Figure 6-7 Time History of the Forward Velocity of Head and Lower Torso
To verify the ATB coupling with Dytran, an analogous simulation using MADYMO has been
done.Figure 6-8 shows the resultant Head acceleration both from ATB and MADYMO coupling.
Deviations between the results are mainly due to differences between the joint models in ATB and
MADYMO dummy.
Figure 6-8 Comparison of the Resultant Head Acceleration with MADYMO
401 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
Files
Abbreviated Dytran Input File
Abbreviated Main Input File
$
$ - inflation of a flat, unfolded demo passenger-side airbag
$ - inflated by uniformi pressure
$ - contact with a rigid elllipsoid
$
$
MEMORY-SIZE=4000000,2000000
START
CEND
CHECK=NO
ENDSTEP=100000
ENDTIME=.1
TITLE=DEMO PASSENGER-BAG WITH ATB DUMMY
TIC=1
SPC=1
TLOAD=1
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output of the gbag variables:
$
$ - data asked for: GBAG,1
$ - ask for: volume,pressure,flgas,tgas,temp,mass (see manual)
$ - ask for output every 1 msec
$ - create file for time-history plots
$ - write 1000000 times to the same file, which will be named:
$
$ DEMO2_GB_0.ARC
$
demo4.dat
demo4_bag.dat (airbag property definition)
demo4_bag_contact.dat (definition of airbag
contacts)
demo4_euler.dat (Eulerian definition for gas
dynamics of airbag)
demo4_euler_coupling.dat (definition of coupling)
demo4_gbag.dat (definition of gas bag parameters)
demo4_car.dat (definition of rigid car parts)
demo4_atb.dat (definition of ATB interactions)
xl_demo4.dat (geometry file)
atb_demo4.ain (ATB input file with dummy definition)
Dytran input file
DEMO4.OUT Dytran output file
DEMo4_EUL_0.ARC
DEMO4_AIRBAG_0.ARC
DEMO4_DUMQ_0.ARC
DEMO4_DUMT_0.ARC
DEMO4_ELLIPS_0.ARC
Dytran archive file
DEMO4_GB_0.THS
DEMO4_TELLIPS_0.THS
Dytran time history files
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
402
GBAGS (GB) = 5
SET 5 = 1
GBOUT (GB) = VOLUME,PRESSURE,FLGAS,TGAS,TEMP,MASS
TIMES (GB) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-3
TYPE (GB) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (GB) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the euler elements:
$
$ - data asked for: all euler elements
$ - ask for: pressure,density,fmat,xvel,yvel,zvel,sie (see manual)
$ - ask for output every 4 msec
$ - create file for plots of contours
$ - write 1000000 times to the same file, which will be named:
$
$ DEMO4_EUL_0.ARC
$
ELEMENTS(EUL) = 995
SET 995 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT(EUL) = PRESSURE,DENSITY,FMAT,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,SIE
TIMES(EUL) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-2
TYPE(EUL) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(EUL) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the membrane elements:
$
$ - data asked for: all membrane elements
$ - ask for: thick,smdfer (see manual)
$ - ask for output every 4 msec
$ - create file for plots of deformed geometry and contours
$ - write 1000000 times to the same file, which will be named:
$
$ DEMO4_AIRBAG_0.ARC
$
ELEMENTS(AIRBAG) = 996
SET 996 = ALLMEMTRIA
ELOUT(AIRBAG) = THICK,SMDFER,EXUSER1
TIMES(AIRBAG) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-2
TYPE(AIRBAG) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(AIRBAG) = 1000000
$
$ELEMENTS(USEROUT) = 1001
$SET 1001 = 1,THRU,654,657,THRU,1460,1463,THRU,2266,2269,
$ THRU,3072,3075,THRU,3514
$ELEXOUT(USEROUT)
$STEPS(USEROUT) = 0 THRU END BY 1
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the dummy shell elements:
$
$ - data asked for: all dummy shell elements
$ - ask for: zuser (see manual)
$ - ask for output every 4 msec
$ - create file for plots of deformed geometry and contours
$ - write 1000000 times to the same file, which will be named:
$
$ DEMO4_DUMQ_0.ARC
$ DEMO4_DUMT_0.ARC
403 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
$
ELEMENTS(DUMQ) = 997
SET 997 = ALLDUMQUAD
ELOUT(DUMQ) = ZUSER
TIMES(DUMQ) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-2
TYPE(DUMQ) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(DUMQ) = 1000000
$
ELEMENTS(DUMT) = 998
SET 998 = ALLDUMTRIA
ELOUT(DUMT) = ZUSER
TIMES(DUMT) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-2
TYPE(DUMT) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(DUMT) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the ellipsoids:
$
$ - data asked for all rigid ellipsoids
$ - ask for: geometry (see manual)
$ - ask for output every 4 msec
$ - create file for plots of displaced geometry
$ - write 1000000 times to the same file, which will be named:
$
$ DEMO4_ELLIPS_0.ARC
$
RELS (ELLIPS) = 600
$ nb: setc,600 defined in demo4_ellips_contact.dat
RELOUT (ELLIPS) = GEOMETRY
TIMES (ELLIPS) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-2
TYPE (ELLIPS) = ARCHIVE
SAVE (ELLIPS) = 1000000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define more output for the ellipsoid:
$
$ - data asked for rigid ellipsoid with name SPHERE
$ - ask for: xvel,yvel,zvel,xavel,yavel,zavel (see manual)
$ - ask for output every 4 msec
$ - create file for time-history plots
$ - write 1000000 times to the same file, which will be named:
$
$ DEMO4_TELLIPS_0.ARC
$
RELS (TELLIPS) = 600
$ nb: setc,600 defined in demo4_ellips_contact.dat
RELOUT (TELLIPS) = XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,XAVEL,YAVEL,ZAVEL
TIMES (TELLIPS) = 0. THRU END BY 1.E-3
TYPE (TELLIPS) = TIMEHIS
SAVE (TELLIPS) = 1000000
$
BEGIN BULK
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Deactivate Euler & Euler-coupling with an offset in time
$ This allows the user to use a trigger-time in the massflow-tables
$
$ACTIVE,1,ELEMENT,EULHYDRO,,,,,,+
$+,TABLE,9999
$ACTIVE,1,INTERACT,COUPLE,,,,,,+
$+,TABLE,9999
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
404
$TABLED1,9999,,,,,,,,+
$+,0.0,0.0,1.0,0.0
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the switch from coupling to gasbag, start checking
$ after 100 msecs
$
GBAGCOU,1,10,1,100.0E-3
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Initial timestep & minimum timestep
$
PARAM,INISTEP,0.7E-05
PARAM,MINSTEP,.5E-8
$
$ Make the contact default version V2 for this problem
PARAM,CONTACT,VERSION,V2
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Apply gravity to the model
GRAV,2, ,-9.81,0.,0.,1.
$
TLOAD1 1 2 0 0
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Nodal velocity damping for the membrane elements is activated
$ after some time, to take care of hysteresis in material when
$ it comes in tension.
$ When more advanced material models become available this will
$ not be necessary any more.
$
$VISCDMP,,,,,,,,,+
$+,,,,,,,,,+
$+,60.E-3,,,0.05
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the airbag & the contacts for unfolding
$
INCLUDE demo4_bag.dat
INCLUDE demo4_bag_contact.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the euler
$
INCLUDE demo4_euler.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the euler_coupling
$
INCLUDE demo4_euler_coupling.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the gasbag parameters
$
INCLUDE demo4_gbag.dat
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define parts of the car the contact with it
$
INCLUDE demo4_car.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define atb-related stuff
405 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
$
INCLUDE demo4_atb.dat
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Rest is defined with xl
$
INCLUDE xl_demo4.dat
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
ENDDATA
Abbreviated Input File with ATB-related Definitions
$ file:demo4_atb.dat
BEGIN BULK
$-------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define a setc containing all the atb ellipsoids
$ ---> used for visualization
$
SETC,600,LT,CT,UT,N,H
SETC,600,RUL,RLL,RF,LUL,LLL
SETC,600,LF,RUA,RLA,LUA,LLA
$-------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define ellipsoids that are used for dummy in ATB
$
RELEX,LT,ATB
.
.
.
RELEX,LLA,ATB
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define contact of all the membrane grid-points at the front with
$ a subset of the atb ellipsoids.
$ The grid-point list can easily be retrieved from grouping with
$ xl and listing the group.
$ The points with SPC will be overruled by the SPC
CONTACT,801,SURF,SURF,25,801,,,,+
+,,TOP,,,,,,,+
+,0.,,,,,0.4,,,+
+,,,,,0.
.
.
.
$
$ Define contact with spheres at the ellbow & shoulder
$
CONTACT,857,SURF,SURF,25,857,,,,+
+,,TOP,,,,,,,+
+,0.,,,,,0.4,,,+
+,,,,,0.
$
CONTACT,859,SURF,SURF,25,859,,,,+
+,,TOP,,,,,,,+
+,0.,,,,,0.4,,,+
+,,,,,0.
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define the rigid surfaces connected to atb-ellipsoids
$
$ lotorso pid=801
$ spine pid=802
.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
406
.
.
.
$ footrig pid=817
$ kneerig pid=818
$
$ spheres at ellbow & shoulder on left side pid=857
$ spheres at ellbow & shoulder on right side pid=859
$
PSHELL1,801,,DUMMY
PSHELL1,802,,DUMMY
.
.
.
PSHELL1,817,,DUMMY
$PSHELL1,818,,DUMMY
$
PSHELL1,857,,DUMMY
PSHELL1,859,,DUMMY
$
SURFACE,801,,PROP,801
SET1,801,801
.
.
.
SURFACE,817,,PROP,817
SET1,817,817
$
SURFACE,857,,PROP,857
SET1,857,857
SURFACE,859,,PROP,859
SET1,859,859
$
$ Give them all a “contact-mass” of 2. kg
$
RIGID,801,801,2.0
.
.
.
RIGID,817,817,2.0
$
RIGID,857,857,2.0
RIGID,859,859,2.0
$
$ connect the rigids to the atb ellipsoids
$
RCONREL,1,801,RIGID,401
SETC,801,LT
SET1,401,801
.
.
RCONREL,6,806,RIGID,406
SETC,806,H
SET1,406,806
$
$ also connect the spheres for ellbow & shoulder to uparml
$
RCONREL,7,807,RIGID,407
SETC,807,LUA
SET1,407,807,857
407 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
RCONREL,8,808,RIGID,408
SETC,808,LLA
SET1,408,808
RCONREL,9,809,RIGID,409
$
$ also connect the spheres for ellbow & shoulder to uparmr
$
SETC,809,RUA
SET1,409,809,859
.
.
.
RCONREL,17,817,RIGID,417
SETC,817,RF
SET1,417,817
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ Define contact of all the rigid surfaces connected to the
$ ellipsoids with the car-parts
$
SURFACE,890,,PROP,890
$ HEAD,NECK,KNEES AND SHOULDER ARE ROMOVED
SET1,890,801,802,803,807
SET1,890,808,809,810,811,812,813
SET1,890,815,816,817
SET1,890,857,859
$
CONTACT,890,SURF,SURF,890,2000,,,,+
+,,TOP,,,,,,,+
+,0.,,,,,0.4,,,+
+,,,,,0.
$
$ENDDATA
Abbreviated ATB Input File
$ file:atb_demo4.ain
$ -------------------
$
$ ATB-input-file, containing definition and initial position of the dummy
$
$ For the exact format of this file, see the ATB User’s Guide
$
$
OCT. 27 1994 0 0 0.0 CARD A1A
DEMO4: ACCELERATED DUMMY HITS AIRBAG (UNITS: SI) CARD A1B
DR TREEP, MSC BV, HOLLAND CARD A1C
$
$ Units of length,force and time, gravity vector,gravitational constant:
$
M N SEC 0.0 0.0 0.00 9.81 CARD A3
$
$ Initial , maximum and minimum integration step (resp. on field 4, 5 and 6) :
$
4 999 0.002 0.0005 0.001 .000063 CARD A4
$
$ ATB-output specification:
$
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0CARD A5
$
$Definition of the 15 segments and 14 joints:
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
408
$
15 14 MADYMO DEMO4 DUMMY CARD B.1
$ Definition of the 15 segments:
$ Name, plot-symbol, weight (not mass!), principal moments of inertia
LT 1115.37 .1297 .0817 .1393 0.115 0.165 0.115 .019 .000 .034 CARD B.2
CT 226.389 .0140 .0159 .0186 0.110 0.150 0.110 -.009 .000 -.006 CARD B.2
.
.
.
LUA E21.778 .0161 .0156 .01 0.047 0.042 0.141 .000 .000-.0085 CARD B.2
LLA F21.092 .0311 .0301 .01 0.040 0.040 0.235 .000 .000 -.018 CARD B.2
$
$ Definition of the 14 joints:
$
$ Joint j connects segment j=1 and the lower segment number in 3rd field:
P M 1 0-0.026 0.000 0.079-0.033 0.000-0.072 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 180. 0.00 -5.00 180. 0 0 0
.
.
.
$
$ Ankles are made rigud, by locking them and supplying huge forces to unlock:
$
RA S 7 -4 0.00 0.00 -0.17 -.084 0.00 0.048 0-99999999999 CARD B.3
0.00-90.00 180. 0.00 -100. 180. 0 0 0
.
LE Z 14 1 0.000 0.000-0.139 0.000 0.000 0.167 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 180. 0.00 70.00 180. 0 0 0
$
$ Spring characteristics of the joints:
$
.4067 0.000 0.000 1.000 5.0000 .5640 0.000 0.000 1.000 5.0000CARD B4A
.4067 0.000 0.000 1.000 35.0000 .5640 0.000 0.000 1.000 35.0000CARD B4B
.
.
.
.8896 0.000 0.000 0.700 122.5000 .0000 0.000 0.000 0.700 80.0000CARD B4M
.8896 0.000 0.000 0.700 65.3000 .0000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.0000CARD B4N
$
$ Viscous charateristics of the joints
$
.03016 0.000 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B5A
.00302 0.000 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B5B
.
.
.
.00115 1.037 30. 0. 0.0. 0. CARD B5M
.00115 1.671 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B5N
$
$ Convergence test parameters:
$
.01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .01CARD B6A
.
.
.
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .0 .00CARD B6O
DUMMY VEHICLE CARD C1
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 0.010 0CARD C2A
0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD C3A
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 CARD D1
409 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
$
$ Definition of some ATB contact planes:
$
1 SEAT DR CARD D2A
0.365 0.25 0.262 CARD D2B
-0.015 0.25 0.145 CARD D2C
-0.015 -0.25 0.145 CARD D2D
2 SEAT BACK DR CARD D2A
-0.040 0.25 0.149 CARD D2B
-0.305 0.25 0.689 CARD D2C
-0.305 -0.25 0.689 CARD D2D
3 FLOOR CARD D2A
0.89 0.35 0.017 CARD D2B
-1.0 0.35 0.017 CARD D2C
-1.0 -1.05 0.017 CARD D2D
CARD D7
$
$ Force definitions, used to apply time-dependent forward acceleration:
$
$ The neagtive value for NFVNT on cards D.9 force ATB to define the force$
coordinate sysytem with respect to the global reference system, instead of
the local reference system of the segment. This option was added to ATB$ to
define a time dependent gravity field in a fixed global direction.
$
$ Segement number, function-number, local point of application and direction:
$ 1 -1 0. 0. 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0CARD D9
2 -2 0. 0. 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0CARD D9
.
.
.
14 -9 0. 0. 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0CARD D9
15 -10 0. 0. 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0CARD D9
$
$ Fuction definitions,used to define time-dependent force on each segment:
$ (Dependent on mass of segment !)
$
1 DECEL FORCE LT CARD E1
0. -1.E-1 0. 0. 0. CARD E2
24 CARD E4A
0.00000 0.00000 0.00300 35.28135 0.00790 1646.46279CARD E4B
0.01400 834.99185 0.01810 1528.85831 0.02530 1434.77472CARD E4B
0.02850 882.03364 0.03450 1658.22324 0.03930 705.62691CARD E4B
0.04660 2963.63303 0.05000 1999.27625 0.05430 2105.12029CARD E4B
0.06500 3704.54128 0.06900 2493.21509 0.07400 3669.25994CARD E4B
0.07710 2822.50765 0.08390 3963.27115 0.08850 340.32926CARD E4B
0.09090 2493.21509 0.09740 -446.89704 0.10300 305.77166CARD E4B
0.11050 -764.42915 0.11500 0.00000 1.16000 0.00000CARD E4B
.
.
.
10 DECEL FORCE RLA/LLA CARD E1
0. -1.E-1 0. 0. 0. CARD E2
24 CARD E4A
0.00000 0.00000 0.00300 6.45015 0.00790 301.00714CARD E4B
0.01400 152.65362 0.01810 279.50663 0.02530 262.30622CARD E4B
0.02850 161.25382 0.03450 303.15719 0.03930 129.00306CARD E4B
0.04660 541.81284 0.05000 365.50866 0.05430 384.85912CARD E4B
0.06500 677.26606 0.06900 455.81081 0.07400 670.81590CARD E4B
0.07710 516.01223 0.08390 724.56718 0.08850 427.86014CARD E4B
0.09090 455.81081 0.09740 -81.70194 0.10300 55.90133CARD E4B
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Rigid Ellipsoid Dummy Hitting a Passenger Air Bag
410
0.11050 -139.75331 0.11500 0.00000 1.16000 0.00000CARD E4B
$
$ Definition of contact forces between segments and ATB-planes:
$
11 FORCE DEFLECTION CARD E.1
0. -0.11 0. 0. 0. CARD E2
4 CARD E4A
0. 0. 0.02 1500. 0.06 9500.CARD E4B
0.11 14500. CARD E4B
.
.
.
16 FORCE DEFLECTION CARD E.1
0. -0.10 0. 0. 0. CARD E2
2 CARD E4A
0. 0. 0.10 2000. CARD E4B
9999
$
$ Contact definition between segments and ATB-planes and
$ between segments and segements
$ CARD E.1
1 2 2 CARD F1A
1 17 1 1 11 0 0 0 14 0 CARD F1B
2 17 1 1 12 0 0 0 14 -1 CARD F1B
.
.
.
6 6 13 13 16 0 0 0 15 CARD F3B
9 9 15 15 16 0 0 0 15 CARD F3B
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CARD F.4
$
$ Initialisation of dummy:
$
$ The 9th field forces an initial equilibrium by substraction of initial
$ joint-forces. Care should be taken using this added option !
$
0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 1 1 CARD G1A
$ Initial coordinates and velocity of reference segment in inertial
reference:
$
.027711637 0.000 .24136108 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G2A
$
$ Initial rotation and angular velocity of the segments in local reference:
$
0.0-22.918312 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G3A
0.0-22.918312 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G3B
.
.
.
0.0-22.918312 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G3N
0.0-74.484513 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G3O
$
$ ATB timehistory output specification:
$
CARD H1A
.
.
.
CARD H11
411 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III
Dummy (50%)
Problem Description
The analysis presented in this example problem is a validation of the integrated ATB occupant model
against a sled test. The sled test is described in [Ref. 1.].
The model setup is shown in Figure 6-9. It shows the digitized Hybrid III dummy, the planes representing
the sled and the belt elements. Not shown are the contact ellipsoids of the ATB dummy.
Figure 6-9 Model Setup
The calculation and the modeling techniques can be subdivided into:
Occupant kinematics ATB
Sled model ATB rigid planes
Occupant/sled interaction ATB contact
Occupant positioning MD Patran
Lap & shoulder belts Dytran
Belt pretensioning Dytran
Occupant/belt interaction Dytran contact
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
412
This example problem will show:
• How to use GEBOD to get the basic setup of a 50% HYBRID III.
• How to create an ATB input file for a sled test, using the output from GEBOD as the
starting point.
• How to create FEM entities to visualize and position the ATB dummy, by using:
• Shell elements coated on the ATB contact ellipsoids
• Beams representing the local coordinate system of the ATB segments
• Beams representing the local coordinate system of the ATB joints
• How to attach Dytran finite elements to ATB segments, by creating:
• A FEM representation of the ATB planes
• An geometric representation of the ATB contact ellipsoids
• An accurate geometric representation of the dummy
• How to position the dummy with MD Patran.
• Integrating the dummy into other FEM models using MD Patran.
• How to define lap and shoulder belts and how to prestress the belts.
• How to apply an acceleration field to the dummy.
• Comparison of the results with the experiment.
Usage of GEBOD to get the Basic Setup of a 50% HYBRID III
The Generator of Body Data (GEBOD) program is supplied on the Dytran installation tape. Like ATB,
this program is developed and maintained by Wright Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the
GEBOD program is to automatically generate data sets for human and dummy rigid body dynamics
modeling. The data generated is a partial input file for the ATB program. The input entries for ATB are
described in [Ref. 3.].
The data set of the HYBRID III dummy in ATB corresponds with the definition of the HYBRID III as
given in [Ref.2.].
#gebod
PROGRAM GEBOD
GEBOD GENERATES BODY DESCRIPTION DATA
SUITABLE FOR INPUT TO THE ATB MODEL
PLEASE ENTER A DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBJECT (<60 CHARS.)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM - HYBRID III
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE OUTPUT FILE FOR THE TABLE FORM AND RESULTS ?
USE THE FILE EXTENSION ".ATB".
EXAMPLE.TAB
EXAMPLE PROBLEM - HYBRID III
1) CHILD (2-19 YEARS)
413 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
2) ADULT HUMAN FEMALE
3) ADULT HUMAN MALE
4) USER-SUPPLIED BODY DIMENSIONS
5) SITTING HYBRID III DUMMY (50%)
6) SITTING HYBRID III DUMMY (50%)
7) HYBRID II DUMMY (50%)
ENTER NUMBER CORRESPONDING TO DESIRED SUBJECT TYPE 5
SELECT UNITS FOR OUTPUT
1) ENGLISH
2) METRIC
1
IS ATB MODEL FORMATTED OUTPUT DESIRED (Y/N) ?
Y
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE OUTPUT FILE TO CONTAIN THE ATB INPUT DATA ?
USE THE FILE EXTENSION “.AIN”.
EXAMPLE.AIN
IS IT DESIRED TO PRODUCE ANOTHER BODY DESCRIPTION DATA SET (Y/N) ?
N
STOP FROM BRESULTS
This session generates the file EXAMPLE.AIN as shown in Appendix A: File EXAMPLE.AIN as generated
by GEBOD. The Metric system is using leg-m-s for the mass-length-time units, while the English system
is using slug-in-s.
Completion of the ATB Input File
This file needs some more input entries to create a complete input file. The complete input file as used
for the calculation is given in Appendix B: Complete ATB Input File for Sled Test Calculation. The file
shown contains comments to clarify the meaning of the input cards. The input file used for the calculation
doesn’t contain the comment lines.
Most important additions to the input file are the input entries:
• Entries defining an extra vehicle, named SLED
• D.2 entries defining the planes:
• BACK SEAT
• BOTTOM SEAT
• FLOOR
• TOEBOARD
• FIRE WALL
• G.2 entry defining the initial position of the Lower Torso
• G.3 entries giving the dummy an initial sitting position, such that it is sitting correctly in the sled.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
414
How to Create FEM Entities for ATB Dummy
It is possible to ask for a Bulk Data file written out by Dytran containing the following:
• Shell elements coated on the ATB contact ellipsoids
• Beams representing the local coordinate system of the ATB segments
• Beams representing the local coordinate system of the ATB joints
The input entities needed are:
• ATBJNT
• ATBSEG
• PARAM, ATBSEGCREATE
An input file to create the FEM representation for the lower torso segments LT and the middle torso MT
is as follows:
$ SI Units: kg - meter - seconds
$ ------------------------------
$
$ file: create_fem_lt_mt.dat
$ ==========================
$
$ -----------------------------------------------------------------------
$ This example shows how to create an fem representation of the atb
$ segments LT & MT and the joint P that connects the two.
$ -----------------------------------------------------------------------
$
CHECK=YES
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-3
$
BEGIN BULK
$
$ Define the segment contact ellipsoids
$ -> card B.2
$
RELEX,LT,ATB
RELEX,MT,ATB
RELEX,UT,ATB
RELEX,N,ATB
RELEX,H,ATB
RELEX,RUL,ATB
RELEX,RLL,ATB
RELEX,RF,ATB
RELEX,LUL,ATB
RELEX,LLL,ATB
RELEX,LF,ATB
RELEX,RUA,ATB
RELEX,RLA,ATB
RELEX,LUA,ATB
RELEX,LLA,ATB
RELEX,RHD,ATB
RELEX,LHD,ATB
$
$ Tell DYTRAN to create the ATBSEGs & ATBJNTs with length of the
$ bars/beams equal to: segment coordinate systems -> LENGTH=.025 m
415 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
$ joint coordinate systems -> LENGTH=.05 m
$
PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE,YES,LT+MT,.025,.05
$
$ atbseg 1 : name = LT
$ will be covered with 72 (NUMELM) shell elements with:
$ - Gridpoint ids start at 11000 (GSTART)
$ - element ids start at 11000 (ESTART)
$ - material id is 20001 (MID )
$ - property id is 20201 (PIDCOV)
$
$ if PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE has been specified, beam elements
$ representing the local coordinate system will be generated
$ with:
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20001 (G0 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20002 (G1 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20003 (G2 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20004 (G3 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local x-axis = 20001 (EID1 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local y-axis = 20002 (EID2 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local z-axis = 20003 (EID3 )
$ - Property id of cbar elements = 20001 (PIDCG)
$ - Material id of cbar elements = 20001 (MID )
$
$ if PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE has not been specified the position and
$ orientation of the ATB segments as spcified on the G.2 and G.3
$ entries in the ATB input file will be overruled by the definitions
$ given here. The local coordinate system is defined by:
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20001 (G0 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20002 (G1 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20003 (G2 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20004 (G3 )
$
$ ATBSEG ID NAME COVER NUMELM GSTART ESTART MID PIDCOV +
$ + G0 G1 G2 G3 EID1 EID2 EID3 PIDCG
$
ATBSEG ,1 ,LT ,YES ,72 ,11000 ,11000 ,20001 ,20201 ,+
+ ,20001 ,20002 ,20003 ,20004 ,20001 ,20002 ,20003 ,20001
$
ATBSEG,2,MT,YES,72 ,11250,11250,20002,20202,+
+,20005,20006,20007,20008,20004,20005,20006,20002
$
$
$ atbjnt 1 with name P connects atb segments 1 (LT) with 2 (MT)
$ (see card B.3 in ATB input deck)
$ if PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE has been specified, beam elements
$ representing the joint coordinate systems will be generated
$ with:
$ -> coordinate system connected to atb segment 1 (LT)
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20201 (G0 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20202 (G1 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20203 (G2 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20204 (G3 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local x-axis = 20201 (EID1 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local y-axis = 20202 (EID2 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local z-axis = 20203 (EID3 )
$ - Property id of cbar elements = 20001 (PIDCG-LT)
$ - Material id of cbar elements = 20001 (MID -LT)
$ where: PIDCG-LT is the PIDCG as specified on ATBSEG,,LT
$ MID -LT is the MID as specified on ATBSEG,,LT
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
416
$
$ -> coordinate system connected to atb segment 2 (MT)
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20205 (G4 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20206 (G5 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20207 (G6 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20208 (G7 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local x-axis = 20204 (EID4 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local y-axis = 20205 (EID5 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local z-axis = 20206 (EID6 )
$ - Property id of cbar elements = 20002 (PIDCG-MT)
$ - Material id of cbar elements = 20002 (MID -MT)
$ where: PIDCG-MT is the PIDCG as specified on ATBSEG,,MT
$ MID -MT is the MID as specified on ATBSEG,,MT
$
$
$ ATBJNT ID NAME +
$ + G0 G1 G2 G3 EID1 EID2 EID3 +
$ + G4 G5 G6 G7 EID4 EID5 EID6
$
ATBJNT ,1 ,P ,,,,,,,+
+ ,20201 ,20202 ,20203 ,20204 ,20201 ,20202 ,20203 ,,+
+ ,20205 ,20206 ,20207 ,20208 ,20204 ,20205 ,20206
$
ENDDATA
Running this input file with the command:
dytran jid=create_fem_lt_mt atb=run
will generate a Bulk Data file named: CREATE_FEM_LT+MT_ATBSEGAT. Figure 6-10 shows a plot of the
FEM entries written to the Bulk Data file. It can be seen that both the ellipsoids are covered with shell
elements. The smaller bars represent the local coordinate systems for the segments LT and MT,
respectively. The larger bars represent the joint coordinate system s for the joint P connecting the two
segments together. In this particular case, the joint coordinate systems are coincident.
Figure 6-10 FEM Entities generated by Dytran for LT and MT
417 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Appendix C: File Create_fem_dummy.dat gives the input file to generate FEM entities for the
complete dummy.
Figure 6-11 shows a plot of the generated entities.

Figure 6-11 FEM Entities generated by Dytran for Hybrid III Dummy
Attaching Dytran Finite Element to ATB Segments
It is possible to attach Dytran finite elements to ATB segments by means of the RCONREL entry. For
example, to attach elements to ATB segment 1 (LT), give the elements the rigid material (MATRIG)
20001. Then insert the following input entries in the input file:
RCONREL,1,20001,RIGID,20001
SETC,20001,LT
SET1,20001,MR20001
The finite elements that are generated in How to Create FEM Entities for ATB Dummy all have a MATRIG;
therefore, these elements are easily attached to the corresponding ATB segment.
To visualize the sled, some shell elements were defined within Patran. These shell elements are attached
to the ATB segment named SLED by giving these shell elements a rigid material and using a correct
RCONREL entry. Similarly, the shell elements generated by digitizing an actual HYBRID III dummy
were connected to the corresponding ATB segments. The resulting model is as depicted in Figure 6-9.
The digitized dummy contains some elements that are dummy shell elements. Dummy shell elements are
shell elements without structural behavior (strength). These dummy shell elements have the purpose to
create a closed surface between the different rigid parts of the dummy and to maintain a realistic shape
during the motion of the dummy. These dummy shell elements themselves are not attached to any ATB
segment. The grid points on one side are attached to one ATB segment while the grid points on the other
side are attached to the other ATB segment. Figure 6-12 shows the motion of the digitized dummy during
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
418
a crash analyses, where the effect of the dummy shell elements is most clear for the neck, elbow, middle
torso, and upper legs.
Figure 6-12 Motion of the Digitized Dummy during Crash
Positioning the Dummy with Patran
In order to position the dummy with Patran, the ATBSEG entry has been introduced in Dytran. The
ATBSEG entry references four grid points that span a coordinate system. This coordinate system becomes
the local coordinate system of the referenced ATB segment. The local coordinate system as given on an
ATBSEG entry in the Dytran input file will overrule the definitions in the ATB input file.
For the HYBRID III dummy, the ATBSEG entries are:
ATBSEG,1,LT,,,,,,,+
+,20001,20002,20003,20004
$
ATBSEG,2,MT,,,,,,,+
+,20005,20006,20007,20008
$
ATBSEG,3,UT,,,,,,,+
+,20009,20010,20011,20012
$
ATBSEG,4,N ,,,,,,,+
+,20013,20014,20015,20016
$
ATBSEG,5,H ,,,,,,,+
+,20017,20018,20019,20020
$
ATBSEG,6,RUL,,,,,,,+
+,20021,20022,20023,20024
$
ATBSEG,7,RLL,,,,,,,+
+,20025,20026,20027,20028
$
ATBSEG,8,RF,,,,,,,+
+,20029,20030,20031,20032
$
419 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
ATBSEG,9,LUL,,,,,,,+
+,20033,20034,20035,20036
$
ATBSEG,10,LLL,,,,,,,+
+,20037,20038,20039,20040
$
ATBSEG,11,LF,,,,,,,+
+,20041,20042,20043,20044
$
ATBSEG,12,RUA,,,,,,,+
+,20045,20046,20047,20048
$
ATBSEG,13,RLA,,,,,,,+
+,20049,20050,20051,20052
$
ATBSEG,14,LUA,,,,,,,+
+,20053,20054,20055,20056
$
ATBSEG,15,LLA,,,,,,,+
+,20057,20058,20059,20060
$
ATBSEG,16,RHD,,,,,,,+
+,20061,20062,20063,20064
$
ATBSEG,17,LHD,,,,,,,+
+,20065,20066,20067,20068
$
The locations of grid points 20001 to 20068 are defining the position and orientation of the dummy.
In order to easily position the dummy, the dummy positioner functionality inside the Dytran preference
for Patran can be used. To start positioning, do the following within Patran (see also the Dytran-Patran
Preference Interface Guide.
1. Start the dummy positioner:
Analyses
Action: Special Features
Object: Dummy Positioner
Apply
2. Read in the dummy data set:
Import Dummy
Select hybridIII-50p.bdf
Apply
3. Create the groups of the dummy:
Build Dummy
Define Dummy Prefix Name
OK
4. Position the dummy:
Manipulate Dummy
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
420
Translation of the Dummy:
Action: Transform
Object: Full Dummy
5. Define Translation Vector:
Select the Dummy for Manipulation
Apply
6. Rotation of a part of the dummy:
Apply
7. Write out the new positional dummy:
Export Dummy
Select Original Dummy Name
Select Output Dummy’s File Name
OK
Integrating the Dummy into other FEM Models
The dummy model as delivered is using the following numbers
:The dummy date file hybridIII-50p.bdf as described above is set up such that the dummy can be
easily integrated into an existing FEM model. The numbering of the grids in the dummy data set is
consistent with the grid numbering in the ATBSEG entries and, whenever the grids of the dummy data set
are renumbered, the grid numbering in the ATBSEG entries must be changed also in the same manner.
Action: Transform
Object: Part Dummy
Method: Rotate
Parts Select group
Power User Tools Choose axis
Relation Parameters Define axis and angle
Entity Minimum Maximum
Grids 20001 24138
Elements 20001 24299
Material IDs 20001 20017
Property IDs 20001 20404
421 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Defining Lap and Shoulder Belts
The belts are defined by means of CROD elements, referencing a PBELT property. The mass per unit
length is defined and the load/unloading curves are defined on the PBELT entry. The load/unload curves
are in force per unit strain.The initial position of the grid points is allowed to be a little bit inside or
outside the contact surface. If the contact version BELT1 is chosen, the grids of the belt are automatically
positioned on top of the master surface. The contact entries are:
$ file: belt_contacts.dat
$ -----------------------
$BEGIN BULK
$ ==========================================================
$belt with the dummy
$All gridpoints within a distance of 2.54 mm will be repositioned
$$ belt gridpoints
SET1,20100,70000t70058
$
SURFACE,20401,,PROP,20401
SET1,20401,20101,20303,20103,20302,20104,20301
CONTACT,101,GRID,SURF,20100,20401,1.0,1.0,1.0,+
+,BELT1,TOP,,,,,,SLAVE,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,2.54E-03
$
$ Check for contact with the digitized upper-legs:
$ Upper legs (dummy shells)
$
SURFACE,20402,,PROP,20402
SET1,20402,20304,20307
CONTACT,102,GRID,SURF,20100,20402,1.0,1.0,1.0,+
+,BELT1,TOP,,,,,,SLAVE,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,2.54E-03
$
$ ==========================================================
$
ENDDATA
The first 10 msecs of the calculation are being used to prestress the belt. In the experiment, the belt was
pulled snug. This is simulated by introducing a small prestress strain during the first 5 msecs, and
releasing the prestress strain during the following 5 msecs.
The end points of the belts are connected to the sled by means of an RCONREL entry.
The complete input for the belt elements is:
$$ file: sled.dat
$ --------------
$PBELT,20100,101,101,.1860205,0.1,0.1,,201
$
$ Load/unload curve
$
TABLED1,101,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,.065,1779.288,.25,11120.55,XSMALL,ENDVAL,+
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
422
+,XLARGE,EXTRAP
$
$
$ prestress table:
$ -> first position the belt by giving a small prestress strain
$ -> simulate pulling the belt snug, by releasing the prestress
$
TABLED1,201,,,,,,,,+
+,.0,.0,25.E-3,0.02,50.E-3,0.0
$
$ Rconrel entry to connect the belt to the sled ellipsoid
$
RCONREL,2,70001,GRID,70001
SETC,70001,SLED
SET1,70001,70000,70001,70004,70005
$
Applying an Acceleration Field to the Dummy
Standard ATB is not able to apply an acceleration field to the segments. This capability has been
introduced into the version integrated into Dytran by means of the ATBACC entry. To apply an
acceleration pulse to the complete dummy, the following Bulk Data entries are specified.
$$ file: acc_low.dat
$ =================
$BEGIN BULK
$Apply an x-acceleration to the dummy
$
TLOAD1,1,201,,,202
$
$Offset with time to:
$- allow the belt to prestress itself
$
TABLED1,202,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0E+00, 0.0,1.0E-02, 5.0,2.0E-02,12.0,3.0E-02,17.0,+
+,4.0E-02,22.0,5.0E-02,23.7,6.0E-02,23.0,7.0E-02,19.0,+
+,8.0E-02,15.0,9.0E-02,12.5,1.0E-01, 7.5,1.1E-01, 1.0,+
+,1.2E-01, 0.0,1.3E-01, 0.0,XOFFSET,50.0E-3
$
$ Table is acceleration in G
$ Use SCALE to convert it into m/s2 : 1 G = 9.8 m/s2
$
ATBACC,201,,9.8,1.0,0.0,0.0,,,+
+,LT,MT,UT,N,H,RUL,RLL,RF,+
+,LUL,LLL,LF,RUA,RLA,LUA,LLA,RHD,+
+,LHD
$
ENDDATA
423 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Comparison of the Results with Experiment
An animation of the simulation is available as an mpg file: Sledtest.mpg
Figure 6-13 shows the comparison with experimental data. The acceleration of the head, chest, and lower
torso is requested in the ATB input file on Cards A.5 and Cards H.1. The acceleration curves are output
in Dytran time history format because the following parameter was set:
PARAM,ATB-H-OUTPUT,YES
Dytran generates a file name: SLEDTEST_ATB_H1.THS containing the accelerations in time. The
accelerations are output in g.

Figure 6-13 Acceleration Time Histories for Low Severity Level
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
424
Appendix A: File EXAMPLE.AIN as generated by GEBOD
17 16 SITTING HYBRID III CARD B.1
LT 544.4602.45751.29691.2080 5.000 7.185 4.800-1.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00-37.32 180.0
MT 4 4.8900.06120.05930.0205 4.775 6.500 4.000 1.000 0.000-1.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 4.16 180.0
UT 339.2162.62032.05171.7336 4.825 6.500 7.785 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 4.99 180.0
N 2 2.6680.02540.02570.0084 1.675 1.675 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 0.00 180.0
H 1 9.9210.14080.21280.1956 4.250 2.875 4.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00-26.58 180.0
RUL 613.7130.60920.59340.1068 2.950 3.050 7.285 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 4.13 180.0
RLL 7 7.2370.67080.67450.0397 2.165 2.050 9.750 0.000 0.000 2.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 -1.90 180.0
RF 8 2.7560.00670.05240.0491 4.900 1.675 1.675 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.96 -9.57 158.2
LUL 913.7130.60920.59340.1068 2.950 3.050 7.285 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 4.13 180.0
LLL 0 7.2370.67080.67450.0397 2.165 2.050 9.750 0.000 0.000 2.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 -1.90 180.0
LF 1 2.7560.00670.05240.0491 4.900 1.675 1.675 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
-0.96 -9.57-158.2
RUA 2 4.5970.10240.09970.0109 1.900 1.800 6.000 0.000 0.000-1.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 -1.31 180.0
RLA 3 3.8000.11910.11280.0069 1.775 1.775 5.800 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 -1.31 180.0
LUA 4 4.5970.10240.09970.0109 1.900 1.800 6.000 0.000 0.000-1.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 -1.31 180.0
LLA 5 3.8000.11910.11280.0069 1.775 1.775 5.800 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
0.00 -1.31 180.0
RHD 6 1.2900.01140.00930.0036 1.000 1.870 3.650 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
-5.35 30.75 173.5
LHD 7 1.2900.01140.00930.0036 1.000 1.870 3.650 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 CARD B.2
5.35 30.75-173.5
P M 1 0 -2.15 0.00 -1.66 -0.35 0.00 2.56 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
W N 2 0 -0.35 0.00 -2.56 -0.89 0.00 5.85 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
NP O 3 0 0.00 0.00 -5.96 0.00 0.00 2.76 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
HP P 4 0 0.00 0.00 -2.84 -0.55 0.00 2.00 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
RH Q 1 0 -0.11 3.15 1.24 0.00 0.00 -9.96 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
RK R 6 1 0.00 0.00 6.56 -0.20 0.00 -6.74 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 55.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
RA S 7 -8 -0.20 0.00 9.65 -2.12 0.00 -1.54 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
90.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00-10.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
LH T 1 0 -0.11 -3.15 1.24 0.00 0.00 -9.96 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
LK U 9 1 0.00 0.00 6.56 -0.20 0.00 -6.74 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 55.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
LA V 10 -8 -0.20 0.00 9.65 -2.12 0.00 -1.54 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
90.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00-10.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
RS W 3 0 -0.88 7.38 -2.66 0.00 0.00 -5.43 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
RE X 12 -8 0.00 0.00 4.94 0.00 0.00 -3.67 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
90.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 62.50 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
LS Y 3 0 -0.88 -7.38 -2.66 0.00 0.00 -5.43 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
LE Z 14 -8 0.00 0.00 4.94 0.00 0.00 -3.67 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
90.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 62.50 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
RW 13 -8 0.00 0.00 6.07 -0.30 0.00 -2.13 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
90.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
425 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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LW 15 -8 0.00 0.00 6.07 -0.30 0.00 -2.13 0 0.0 0.0 CARD B.3
90.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
-45.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 34.38 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00CARD B.4
-45.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 34.38 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00CARD B.4
-46.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 15.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00CARD B.4
-47.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 15.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00CARD B.4
-43.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 7.50 75.00 75.00 1.00 55.00CARD B.4
0.00 2.32 0.00 1.00 48.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00CARD B.4
1.00 10.00 10.00 1.00 27.00 0.00 6.69 0.00 1.00 30.00CARD B.4
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
-44.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 7.50 75.00 75.00 1.00 55.00CARD B.4
0.00 2.32 0.00 1.00 48.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00CARD B.4
1.00 10.00 10.00 1.00 27.00 0.00 6.69 0.00 1.00 30.00CARD B.4
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
-41.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00100.00100.00 1.00 125.00CARD B.4
0.00 20.00 20.00 1.00 52.00 0.00 4.65 0.00 1.00 65.30CARD B.4
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00
-42.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00100.00100.00 1.00 125.00CARD B.4
0.00 20.00 20.00 1.00 52.00 0.00 4.65 0.00 1.00 65.30CARD B.4
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 4.32 0.14 1.00 55.50CARD B.4
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 4.32 0.14 1.00 55.50CARD B.4
0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.200 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
1.200 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.350 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.192 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
1.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
1.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
1.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
1.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.100 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.100 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.100 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.100 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.100 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.100 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.500 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.01CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
426
0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD B.6
1 HEAD SURFACE CARD E.1
0.00 0.71 -0.80 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
2.57 -175.98 4495.67 -8953.11 6029.59 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
0.71 358.00 0.75 3580.00 0.80 35800.00CARD E.4
2 BACK OF SHOULDER CARD E.1
0.00 1.62 -1.70 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
0.01 -26.59 380.91 -678.22 456.53 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.62 48.30 1.65 483.00 1.70 4830.00CARD E.4
3 CHEST CARD E.1
0.00 1.31 -1.40 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
0.55 5.46 73.49 -15.01 0.00 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.31 158.60 1.35 1586.00 1.40 15860.00CARD E.4
4 ANTERIOR PELVIS CARD E.1
0.00 2.02 -2.10 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.14 1.58 24.39 -29.33 13.76 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
2.02 89.70 2.05 897.00 2.10 8970.00CARD E.4
5 POSTERIOR PELVIS CARD E.1
0.00 1.96 -2.10 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.76 35.10 40.04 -12.49 0.00 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.96 127.80 2.03 1278.00 2.10 12780.00CARD E.4
6 UPPER ARM CARD E.1
0.00 0.89 -1.00 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
1.54 -30.63 627.09 -1197.70 917.23 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
0.89 203.10 0.95 2031.00 1.00 20310.00CARD E.4
7 FOREARM CARD E.1
0.00 1.31 -1.40 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-2.40 107.37 -313.36 504.61 -196.37 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.31 156.20 1.35 1562.00 1.40 15620.00CARD E.4
8 HAND CARD E.1
0.00 0.38 -0.45 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.04 -31.04 2384.47 -10193.90 19172.50 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
0.38 139.40 0.41 1394.00 0.45 13940.00CARD E.4
9 UPPER LEG CARD E.1
0.00 1.31 -1.40 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.28 14.19 81.94 -122.62 98.73 -29.09CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.31 61.60 1.35 616.00 1.40 6160.00CARD E.4
10 KNEE CARD E.1
0.00 0.54 -0.58 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.04 2.22 867.34 -401.61 0.00 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
0.54 187.80 0.56 1878.00 0.58 18780.00CARD E.4
11 FRONT OF LOWER LEG CARD E.1
0.00 1.78 -1.90 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.74 26.79 3.92 29.05 0.00 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.78 223.60 1.84 2236.00 1.90 22360.00CARD E.4
12 BACK OF LOWER LEG CARD E.1
0.00 1.66 -1.75 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.08 29.42 -2.08 0.00 0.00 0.00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
1.66 43.20 1.70 432.00 1.75 4320.00CARD E.4
13 FOOT CARD E.1
0.00 0.83 -0.95 0.00 0.00 CARD E.2
-0.68 82.75 -704.17 3367.10 -5570.69 3188.30CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
0.83 121.20 0.89 1212.00 0.95 12120.00CARD E.4
999 CARD E.1
41 RIGHT SHOULDER JOINT CARD E.7
427 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)

-4 8 CARD E.7
151.000 0.000 87900.000 0.000
75.000 0.000 13700.000 0.000
0.000 0.000 -312.000 11800.000
66.000 0.000 7780.000 3010000.000
68.000 0.000 22200.000 376000.000
89.000 0.000 22000.000 0.000
111.000 0.000 2470.000 17600.000
153.000 0.000 13000.000 0.000
42 LEFT SHOULDER JOINT CARD E.7

-4 8 CARD E.7
151.000 0.000 87900.000 0.000
153.000 0.000 13000.000 0.000
111.000 0.000 2470.000 17600.000
89.000 0.000 22000.000 0.000
68.000 0.000 22200.000 376000.000
66.000 0.000 7780.000 3010000.000
0.000 0.000 -312.000 11800.000
75.000 0.000 13700.000 0.000
43 SEATED RIGHT HIP CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
0.000 7.000 22.000 52.000 112.000 232.000CARD E.7
472.000 952.000 1910.000 3830.000 7670.000 15400.000CARD E.7
30700.000 61400.000 123000.000 246000.000 492000.000 983000.000CARD E.7
1970000.000
0.000 17.000 51.000 119.000 255.000 527.000CARD E.7
1070.000 2160.000 4340.000 8690.000 17400.000 34900.000CARD E.7
69700.000 139000.000 279000.000 557000.000 1110000.000 2230000.000CARD E.7
4460000.000
0.000 8.000 17.000 28.000 50.000 94.000CARD E.7
182.000 358.000 710.000 1410.000 2820.000 5640.000CARD E.7
11300.000 22500.000 45100.000 90100.000 180000.000 360000.000CARD E.7
721000.000
0.000 7.000 13.000 18.000 23.000 33.000CARD E.7
53.000 93.000 173.000 333.000 653.000 1290.000CARD E.7
2570.000 5130.000 10300.000 20500.000 41000.000 81900.000CARD E.7
164000.000
44 SEATED LEFT HIP CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
0.000 7.000 22.000 52.000 112.000 232.000CARD E.7
472.000 952.000 1910.000 3830.000 7670.000 15400.000CARD E.7
30700.000 61400.000 123000.000 246000.000 492000.000 983000.000CARD E.7
1970000.000
0.000 7.000 13.000 18.000 23.000 33.000CARD E.7
53.000 93.000 173.000 333.000 653.000 1290.000CARD E.7
2570.000 5130.000 10300.000 20500.000 41000.000 81900.000CARD E.7
164000.000
0.000 8.000 17.000 28.000 50.000 94.000CARD E.7
182.000 358.000 710.000 1410.000 2820.000 5640.000CARD E.7
11300.000 22500.000 45100.000 90100.000 180000.000 360000.000CARD E.7
721000.000
0.000 17.000 51.000 119.000 255.000 527.000CARD E.7
1070.000 2160.000 4340.000 8690.000 17400.000 34900.000CARD E.7
69700.000 139000.000 279000.000 557000.000 1110000.000 2230000.000CARD E.7
4460000.000
45 SEATED LUMBAR SPINE CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
0.000 4600.000 9200.000 13800.000 18400.000 23000.000CARD E.7
27600.000 32200.000 36800.000 41400.000 50600.000 69000.000CARD E.7
105800.000 179400.000 326600.000 621000.000 1209800.000 2387400.000CARD E.7
4742600.000
0.000 6800.000 13600.000 20400.000 27200.000 34000.000CARD E.7
40800.000 47600.000 54400.000 61200.000 74800.000 102000.000CARD E.7
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
428
156400.000 265200.000 482800.000 918000.000 1788400.000 3529200.000CARD E.7
7010800.000
0.000 3000.000 6000.000 9000.000 12000.000 15000.000CARD E.7
18000.000 21000.000 24000.000 27000.000 33000.000 45000.000CARD E.7
69000.000 117000.000 213000.000 405000.000 789000.000 1557000.000CARD E.7
3093000.000
0.000 6800.000 13600.000 20400.000 27200.000 34000.000CARD E.7
40800.000 47600.000 54400.000 61200.000 74800.000 102000.000CARD E.7
156400.000 265200.000 482800.000 918000.000 1788400.000 3529200.000CARD E.7
7010800.000
46 NECK PIVOT CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
0.000 700.000 1400.000 2100.000 2800.000 3500.000CARD E.7
4200.000 4900.000 5600.000 6300.000 7000.000 7700.000CARD E.7
8400.000 9800.000 12600.000 18200.000 29400.000 51800.000CARD E.7
96600.000
0.000 600.000 1200.000 1800.000 2400.000 3000.000CARD E.7
3600.000 4200.000 4800.000 5400.000 6000.000 6600.000CARD E.7
7200.000 8400.000 10800.000 15600.000 25200.000 44400.000CARD E.7
82800.000
0.000 300.000 600.000 900.000 1200.000 1500.000CARD E.7
1800.000 2100.000 2400.000 2700.000 3000.000 3300.000CARD E.7
3600.000 4200.000 5400.000 7800.000 12600.000 22200.000CARD E.7
41400.000
0.000 600.000 1200.000 1800.000 2400.000 3000.000CARD E.7
3600.000 4200.000 4800.000 5400.000 6000.000 6600.000CARD E.7
7200.000 8400.000 10800.000 15600.000 25200.000 44400.000CARD E.7
82800.000
47 HEAD PIVOT CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
0.000 490.000 980.000 1680.000 2380.000 3080.000CARD E.7
3780.000 4480.000 5180.000 5880.000 6580.000 7280.000CARD E.7
7980.000 9380.000 12180.000 17780.000 28980.000 51380.000CARD E.7
96180.000
0.000 600.000 1200.000 1800.000 2400.000 3000.000CARD E.7
3600.000 4200.000 4800.000 5400.000 6000.000 6600.000CARD E.7
7200.000 8400.000 10800.000 15600.000 25200.000 44400.000CARD E.7
82800.000
0.000 250.000 500.000 800.000 1100.000 1400.000CARD E.7
1700.000 2000.000 2300.000 2600.000 2900.000 3200.000CARD E.7
3500.000 4100.000 5300.000 7700.000 12500.000 22100.000CARD E.7
41300.000
0.000 600.000 1200.000 1800.000 2400.000 3000.000CARD E.7
3600.000 4200.000 4800.000 5400.000 6000.000 6600.000CARD E.7
7200.000 8400.000 10800.000 15600.000 25200.000 44400.000CARD E.7
82800.000
999 CARD E.7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0CARD F.4
Appendix B: Complete ATB Input File for Sled Test Calculation
$ =========================
$ file: run50_commented.ain
$ =========================
$---------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ Model of a Sitting, 50 % Hybrid III
$
$ The model contains comment lines, that start with a $
$ The atb code is not able to handle these kind of comment lines, so they need
$ to be stripped out. This can be done easily by the following fortran code:
$
$ program atb_clean
$*
429 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
$* clean up comments in an atb input file
$*
$* 1) compile and link
$* f77 -o atb_clean.exe atb_clean.f
$* 2) clean up the input file with :
$* atb_clean.exe < run50_commented.ain > run50.ain
$*
$ character*(80) line
$ 1 continue
$ read(*,’(a)’,end=9900) line
$ if (line(1:1).ne.’$’) then
$ write(*,’(a)’) line
$ endif
$ goto 1
$ 9900 continue
$ end
$
$---------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ Date & Restarts - Format (3A4,2I4,F8.0)
$
$234A234A234I234I234F2345678
FEB. 13.1995 0 0 0.0 CARD A1A
$---------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Comment - Format (20A4 / 20A4)
$
SITTING HYBRID III DUMMY (50%) GENERATED WITH GEBOD CARD A1B
FORD SLED TEST 112 MS ; 23.7 G PEAK ACCELERATION CARD A1C
$---------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Units & Gravity definition - Format (3A4, 4F12.0)
$
$ The influence of gravity is assumed to be negligible
$
$234A234A234F23456789012F23456789012F23456789012F23456789012
M. N. SEC. 0.0 0.0 9.8 9.8 CARD A3
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Integrator variables - Format (2I4, 4F8.0)
$
$234I234F2345678F2345678F2345678F2345678
6 55 0.003 .000125 .001 .000125 CARD A4
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Output and program control features - Format (36I2)
$
$10203040506070809101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536
0 0-1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1CARD A5
$------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Number of segments & joints + name - Format (2I6, 8X, 5A4)
$
$23456I23456A2345678A234A234A234A234A234
18 17 SITTING HYBRID III CARD B.1
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Definition of the segments - Format (A4, 1X, A1, 10F6.0, I4)
$ Format (12X, 3F6.0)
$
$234XAF23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456I234
$1
LT 5197.78 .2777 .1465 .1365 .127 .182 .122 -.025 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00 35.00 180.0
$2
MT 4 21.75 .0069 .0067 .0023 .121 .165 .102 .025 .000 -.025 1 CARD B.2
.00 .00 180.0
$3
UT 3174.45 .2961 .2318 .1959 .123 .165 .198 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
430
.00 4.99 180.0
$4
N 2 11.87 .0029 .0029 .0009 .043 .043 .076 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00 .00 180.0
$5
H 1 44.13 .0159 .0240 .0221 .108 .073 .102 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00-26.58 180.0
$6
RUL 6 61.00 .0688 .0670 .0121 .075 .077 .185 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00 4.13 180.0
$7
RLL 7 32.19 .0758 .0762 .0045 .055 .052 .248 .000 .000 .051 1 CARD B.2
.00 -1.90 180.0
$8
RF 8 12.26 .0008 .0059 .0055 .124 .043 .043 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
-2.69 -9.23-158.0
$9
LUL 9 61.00 .0688 .0670 .0121 .075 .077 .185 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00 4.13 180.0
$10
LLL 0 32.19 .0758 .0762 .0045 .055 .052 .248 .000 .000 .051 1 CARD B.2
.00 -1.90 180.0
$11
LF 1 12.26 .0008 .0059 .0055 .124 .043 .043 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
2.69 -9.23 158.0
$12
RUA 2 20.45 .0116 .0113 .0012 .048 .046 .152 .000 .000 -.025 1 CARD B.2
.00 -1.31 180.0
$13
RLA 3 16.90 .0135 .0127 .0008 .045 .045 .147 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00 -1.31 180.0
$14
LUA 4 20.45 .0116 .0113 .0012 .048 .046 .152 .000 .000 -.025 1 CARD B.2
.00 -1.31 180.0
$15
LLA 5 16.90 .0135 .0127 .0008 .045 .045 .147 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
.00 -1.31 180.0
$16
RHD 6 5.74 .0013 .0011 .0004 .025 .047 .093 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
-2.35-31.09-175.6
$17
LHD 7 5.74 .0013 .0011 .0004 .025 .047 .093 .000 .000 .000 1 CARD B.2
2.35-31.09 175.6
$
$ a segment connected to a vehicle -> used for connecting MSC/DYTRAN FEM model
$
$234XAF23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456I234
$18
SLED 8 1.000 .0100 .0100 .0100 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD B.2
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Definition of Joints - Format (A4, 1X, A1, 2I4, 6F6.0, I4, 2F6.0 )
$ Format (14X, 9F6.0, 6I2)
$
$234XAI234I234F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456I234F23456F23456
$2345678901234F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456I2I2I2I2I2
$I2
$1: LT-MT
P M 1 0 -.05 .00 -.04 -.01 .00 .07 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$2: MT-UT
W N 2 0 -.01 .00 -.07 -.02 .00 .15 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$3: UT-N
NP O 3 0 .00 .00 -.15 .00 .00 .07 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$4: N-H
HP P 4 0 .00 .00 -.07 -.01 .00 .05 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
431 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$5: LT-RUL
RH Q 1 0 .00 .08 .03 .00 .00 -.25 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$6: RUL-RLL
RK R 6 1 .00 .00 .17 -.01 .00 -.17 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 .00 .00 .00 55.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$7: RF-RLL
RA S 7 -8 -.01 .00 .25 -.05 .00 -.04 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
90.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00 .00 .00-10.00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$8: LT-LUL
LH T 1 0 .00 -.08 .03 .00 .00 -.25 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$9: LUL-LLL
LK U 9 1 .00 .00 .17 -.01 .00 -.17 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 .00 .00 .00 55.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$10: LLL-LF
LA V 10 -8 -.01 .00 .25 -.05 .00 -.04 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
90.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00 .00 .00-10.00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$11: UT-RUA
RS W 3 0 -.02 .19 -.07 .00 .00 -.14 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$12: RUA-RLA
RE X 12 -8 .00 .00 .13 .00 .00 -.09 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
90.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 62.50 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$13: UT-LUA
LS Y 3 0 -.02 -.19 -.07 .00 .00 -.14 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
.00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$14: LUA-LLA
LE Z 14 -8 .00 .00 .13 .00 .00 -.09 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
90.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 62.50 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$15: RLA-RHD
RW 13 -8 .00 .00 .15 -.01 .00 -.05 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
90.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 15.00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
$16: LLA-LHD
LW 15 -8 .00 .00 .15 -.01 .00 -.05 0 .00 .00 CARD B.3
90.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00 .00 .00 15.00 .00 0 0 0 0 0 0
NJ1 1 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.0 CARD B.3
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Joints spring characteristics - Format (2( 4F6.0, F12.0) )
$ Format (2( 4F6.0, F12.0) )
$
$23456F23456F23456F23456F23456789012$23456F23456F23456F23456F23456789012
$
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 3.88 .00 .00 1.00 .00CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 3.88 .00 .00 1.00 .00CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 1.69 .00 .00 1.00 .00CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 1.69 .00 .00 1.00 .00CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .85 8.47 8.47 1.00 55.00CARD B.4
.00 .26 .00 1.00 48.90 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .00CARD B.4
.11 1.13 1.13 1.00 27.00 .00 .76 .00 1.00 30.00CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .85 8.47 8.47 1.00 55.00CARD B.4
.00 .26 .00 1.00 48.90 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .00CARD B.4
.11 1.13 1.13 1.00 27.00 .00 .76 .00 1.00 30.00CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 11.30 11.30 1.00 125.00CARD B.4
.00 2.26 2.26 1.00 52.00 .00 .53 .00 1.00 65.30CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 11.30 11.30 1.00 125.00CARD B.4
.00 2.26 2.26 1.00 52.00 .00 .53 .00 1.00 65.30CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 90.00 .00
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .49 .02 1.00 55.50CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .49 .02 1.00 55.50CARD B.4
.00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
432
0.00 NJ1
$----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Joints viscous characteristics - Format (5F6.0, 18X , 2F6.0)
$ Format (5F6.0, 18X , 2F6.0)
$
$23456F23456F23456F23456F23456X23456789012345678F23456F23456
$
.136 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.136 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.040 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.022 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.113 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.113 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.113 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.113 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.011 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.011 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.011 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.011 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.011 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.011 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.056 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
.000 0. 30. 0. 0. 0. 0. CARD B.5
0.00 NJ1
$----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Convergence tests settings - Format (12F6.0)
$
$23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456
$
.01 .01 .012.5E-42.5E-4 .01 .10 .10 .102.5E-32.5E-3 .01CARD B6A
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6B
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6C
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6D
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6E
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6F
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6G
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6H
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6I
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6J
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6K
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6L
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6M
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6N
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6O
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6P
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00CARD B6Q
.01 .01 .01 .00 .00 .00 .10 .10 .10 .00 .00 .00 SLED
$----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Description of the crash vehicle deceleration - Format (20A4)
$
ZERO ACCELERATION FOR SLED - WE APPLY ACCELERATION ON DYMMY CARD C1
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
433 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
$ - Angles of decelaration pulse vector from the inertial coordinate system
$ - Initial velocity of the prescribed motion segment
$ - Shape of the decelartion pulse
$
$ Format (8F6.0, I6, 2F6.0, I6)
$
$.....ANGLES.....|-VIPS|VTIME|--------X0-------|NATAB|-AT0-|-ATD-|-MSEG-
$23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456F23456I23456F23456F23456I23456
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2 .000.01000 18CARD C2A
0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD C2B
$
$ - The x,y, and z components (g’s) of the linear deceleration of the
$ vehicle origin at time T(I)
$
$ - The angular accelerations (deg/sec**2) about the local x,y and z axes
$ of the vehicle at time T(I)
$
$ Cards C.4 -> Format (10X, 6F10.0)
$
$234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890
$XXXXXXXX|-Xlinear-|-Ylinear-|-Zlinear-|-Xangulr-|-Yangulr-|-Zangulr-|
0.000E+00 0.000E+00
1.000E-02 0.0
$
ZERO ACCELERATION FOR VEHICLE - WE APPLY ACCELERATION ON DYMMY CARD C1
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2 .000.01000 0CARD C2A
0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD C2B
0.000E+00 0.000E+00
1.000E-02 0.0
$---------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Number of: - planes describing contact panels NPL
$ - belts used to restrain the crash victim NBLT
$ - airbags used to restrain the crash victim NBAG
$ - contact ellipsoids or hyper-ellipsoids on Cards D.5 NELP
$ - constraints on Cards D.6 NQ
$ - spring-dampers on Cards D.8 NSD
$ - harness-belt systems on Cards F.8 NHRNSS
$ - wind force and drag coefficient functions on Cards E.6 NWINDF
$ - joint restoring force functions on cards E.7 NJNTF
$ - force and/or torque functions on Cards D.9 NFORCE
$
$ Format (10I6)
$
$23456I23456I23456I23456I23456I23456I23456I23456I23456I23456
$-NPL-|-NBLT|-NBAG|-NELP|-NQ--|-NSD-|NHRNS|NWIND|NJNTF|NFORCE
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 CARD D.1
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Contact planes
$
$ Cards D.2 -> a) FORMAT (I4, 4X, 5A4)
$ b) FORMAT (3F12.0)
$
1 BACK SEAT CARD D2A
$23456789012$23456789012$23456789012
-3.09131 -.27140 -.57808
-3.36387 -.27140 -1.1516
-3.09131 .27140 -.57808
2 BOTTOM SEAT CARD D2A
$23456789012$23456789012$23456789012
-3.09131 -.27140 -.57808
-3.09131 .27140 -.57808
-2.66830 -.27140 -.57808
3 FLOOR
$23456789012$23456789012$23456789012
-2.45313 -.27140 -.4251959
-2.45313 .27140 -.4251959
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
434
-2.21513 -.27140 -.4251959
4 TOE BOARD
$23456789012$23456789012$23456789012
-2.21513 -.27140 -.4251959
-2.21513 .27140 -.4251959
-2.02641 -.27140 -.7561072
5 FIRE WALL
$23456789012$23456789012$23456789012
-2.02641 -.27140 -.7561072
-2.02641 .27140 -.7561072
-2.02641 -.27140 -1.137110
$------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Contact (hyper)-ellipsoids
$
$ Cards D.5
$
$------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Symmetry options => ALLWAYS REQUIRED
$ => supply blank card for normal 3D motion
$
$ Card D.7 - Format (18I4)
$
CARD D7
$------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ CARDs E.1 - E.5 ; Functions referred to by:
$
$ - Card F.1.b : Segment-Segment planes contact
$ - Card F.2.b : Belt-Ellipsoid contact
$ - Card F.3.b : Segment-Segment ellipsoid contact
$ - Card F.4.b : Globalgraphic joint
$ - Card F.8.c : Harness-Belt system
$ - Card F.8.d1 : Harness-Belt system
$ - Card D.8 : Spring-dampers
$ - Card D.9 : Force or Torque applied to a segment
$
$
$ CARD E.6 ; Functions referred to by:
$ - Card F.7.b : Windforce
$
$
1 HEAD SURFACE CARD E.1
.00 .02 -.02 .00 .00 CARD E.2
.11432E+02 -.30820E+05 .30998E+08 -.24304E+10 .64440E+11 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.02 9.09 .02 90.93 .02 909.32CARD E.4
2 BACK OF SHOULDER CARD E.1
.00 .04 -.04 .00 .00 CARD E.2
.44484E-01 -.46568E+04 .26264E+07 -.18411E+09 .48790E+10 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.04 1.23 .04 12.27 .04 122.68CARD E.4
3 CHEST CARD E.1
.00 .03 -.04 .00 .00 CARD E.2
.24466E+01 .95623E+03 .50671E+06 -.40746E+07 .00000E+00 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.03 4.03 .03 40.28 .04 402.84CARD E.4
4 ANTERIOR PELVIS CARD E.1
.00 .05 -.05 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.62278E+00 .27671E+03 .16817E+06 -.79618E+07 .14706E+09 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.05 2.28 .05 22.78 .05 227.84CARD E.4
5 POSTERIOR PELVIS CARD E.1
.00 .05 -.05 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.33808E+01 .61472E+04 .27608E+06 -.33905E+07 .00000E+00 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.05 3.25 .05 32.46 .05 324.61CARD E.4
435 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
6 UPPER ARM CARD E.1
.00 .02 -.03 .00 .00 CARD E.2
.68505E+01 -.53643E+04 .43238E+07 -.32512E+09 .98026E+10 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.02 5.16 .02 51.59 .03 515.87CARD E.4
7 FOREARM CARD E.1
.00 .03 -.04 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.10676E+02 .18804E+05 -.21606E+07 .13698E+09 -.20987E+10 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.03 3.97 .03 39.67 .04 396.75CARD E.4
8 HAND CARD E.1
.00 .01 -.01 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.17794E+00 -.54361E+04 .16441E+08 -.27672E+10 .20490E+12 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.01 3.54 .01 35.41 .01 354.08CARD E.4
9 UPPER LEG CARD E.1
.00 .03 -.04 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.12456E+01 .24851E+04 .56498E+06 -.33286E+08 .10552E+10 -.12240E+11CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.03 1.56 .03 15.65 .04 156.46CARD E.4
10 KNEE CARD E.1
.00 .01 -.01 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.17794E+00 .38880E+03 .59803E+07 -.10902E+09 .00000E+00 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.01 4.77 .01 47.70 .01 477.01CARD E.4
11 FRONT OF LOWER LEG CARD E.1
.00 .05 -.05 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.32918E+01 .46918E+04 .27028E+05 .78858E+07 .00000E+00 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.05 5.68 .05 56.79 .05 567.94CARD E.4
12 BACK OF LOWER LEG CARD E.1
.00 .04 -.04 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.35587E+00 .51524E+04 -.14342E+05 .00000E+00 .00000E+00 .00000E+00CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.04 1.10 .04 10.97 .04 109.73CARD E.4
13 FOOT CARD E.1
.00 .02 -.02 .00 .00 CARD E.2
-.30249E+01 .14492E+05 -.48553E+07 .91402E+09 -.59535E+11 .13415E+13CARD E.3
3 CARD E.4
.02 3.08 .02 30.78 .02 307.85CARD E.4
14 CONTACT STIFFNESS CARD E.1
0.0 -.1016 0.0 0.0 1.0 CARD E2
2 CARD E4A
0.0 0.0 2.54E-02 17792.9
15 FRICTION FUNC 1 CARD E1
0.0 0.0 0.62 0.0 1.0 CARD E2
16 FRICTION FUNC 2 CARD E1
0.0 0.0 1.00 0.0 1.0 CARD E2
9999 CARD E.1
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Joint restoring force functions : Cards E.7A - E.7D
$
$ Referred to by Card F.5 : specifies what function is used by what joint
$
41 RIGHT SHOULDER JOINT CARD E.7

-4 8 CARD E.7
151.000 .000 9931.734 .000
75.000 .000 1547.949 .000
.000 .000 -35.253 1333.270
66.000 .000 879.054 340096.906
68.000 .000 2508.356 42483.871
89.000 .000 2485.758 .000
111.000 .000 279.083 1988.606
153.000 .000 1468.857 .000
42 LEFT SHOULDER JOINT CARD E.7

Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
436
-4 8 CARD E.7
151.000 .000 9931.734 .000
153.000 .000 1468.857 .000
111.000 .000 279.083 1988.606
89.000 .000 2485.758 .000
68.000 .000 2508.356 42483.871
66.000 .000 879.054 340096.906
.000 .000 -35.253 1333.270
75.000 .000 1547.949 .000
43 SEATED RIGHT HIP CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
.000 .791 2.486 5.875 12.655 26.213CARD E.7
53.331 107.566 215.809 432.748 866.626 1740.031CARD E.7
3468.762 6937.523 13897.650 27795.301 55590.590 111068.203CARD E.7
222588.406
.000 1.921 5.762 13.446 28.812 59.545CARD E.7
120.898 244.056 490.372 981.875 1966.009 3943.316CARD E.7
7875.332 15705.470 31523.930 62934.879 125417.797 251965.500CARD E.7
503931.000
.000 .904 1.921 3.164 5.649 10.621CARD E.7
20.564 40.450 80.222 159.314 318.629 637.258CARD E.7
1276.776 2542.253 5095.805 10180.310 20338.020 40676.039CARD E.7
81465.063
.000 .791 1.469 2.034 2.599 3.729CARD E.7
5.988 10.508 19.547 37.625 73.782 145.756CARD E.7
290.382 579.634 1163.787 2316.275 4632.551 9253.801CARD E.7
18530.199
44 SEATED LEFT HIP CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
.000 .791 2.486 5.875 12.655 26.213CARD E.7
53.331 107.566 215.809 432.748 866.626 1740.031CARD E.7
3468.762 6937.523 13897.650 27795.301 55590.590 111068.203CARD E.7
222588.406
.000 .791 1.469 2.034 2.599 3.729CARD E.7
5.988 10.508 19.547 37.625 73.782 145.756CARD E.7
290.382 579.634 1163.787 2316.275 4632.551 9253.801CARD E.7
18530.199
.000 .904 1.921 3.164 5.649 10.621CARD E.7
20.564 40.450 80.222 159.314 318.629 637.258CARD E.7
1276.776 2542.253 5095.805 10180.310 20338.020 40676.039CARD E.7
81465.063
.000 1.921 5.762 13.446 28.812 59.545CARD E.7
120.898 244.056 490.372 981.875 1966.009 3943.316CARD E.7
7875.332 15705.470 31523.930 62934.879 125417.797 251965.500CARD E.7
503931.000
45 SEATED LUMBAR SPINE CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
.000 519.750 1039.499 1559.248 2078.998 2598.747CARD E.7
3118.497 3638.246 4157.996 4677.746 5717.242 7796.242CARD E.7
11954.240 20270.230 36902.211 70166.188 136694.094 269749.906CARD E.7
535861.688
.000 768.325 1536.651 2304.976 3073.301 3841.626CARD E.7
4609.953 5378.277 6146.602 6914.926 8451.578 11524.880CARD E.7
17671.480 29964.680 54551.090 103723.898 202069.594 398760.813CARD E.7
792143.313
.000 338.967 677.934 1016.901 1355.868 1694.835CARD E.7
2033.802 2372.769 2711.736 3050.703 3728.637 5084.504CARD E.7
7796.242 13219.710 24066.660 45760.551 89148.313 175923.906CARD E.7
349475.000
.000 768.325 1536.651 2304.976 3073.301 3841.626CARD E.7
4609.953 5378.277 6146.602 6914.926 8451.578 11524.880CARD E.7
17671.480 29964.680 54551.090 103723.898 202069.594 398760.813CARD E.7
792143.313
46 NECK PIVOT CARD E.7

437 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
19 4 CARD E.7
.000 79.092 158.185 237.277 316.369 395.461CARD E.7
474.554 553.646 632.739 711.831 790.923 870.015CARD E.7
949.108 1107.292 1423.662 2056.400 3321.877 5852.832CARD E.7
10914.740
.000 67.793 135.587 203.380 271.174 338.967CARD E.7
406.760 474.554 542.347 610.141 677.934 745.728CARD E.7
813.521 949.108 1220.281 1762.628 2847.323 5016.711CARD E.7
9355.488
.000 33.897 67.793 101.690 135.587 169.484CARD E.7
203.380 237.277 271.174 305.070 338.967 372.864CARD E.7
406.760 474.554 610.141 881.314 1423.662 2508.356CARD E.7
4677.746
.000 67.793 135.587 203.380 271.174 338.967CARD E.7
406.760 474.554 542.347 610.141 677.934 745.728CARD E.7
813.521 949.108 1220.281 1762.628 2847.323 5016.711CARD E.7
9355.488
47 HEAD PIVOT CARD E.7

19 4 CARD E.7
.000 55.365 110.729 189.822 268.914 348.006CARD E.7
427.098 506.191 585.283 664.375 743.468 822.560CARD E.7
901.652 1059.837 1376.206 2008.945 3274.421 5805.375CARD E.7
10867.280
.000 67.793 135.587 203.380 271.174 338.967CARD E.7
406.760 474.554 542.347 610.141 677.934 745.728CARD E.7
813.521 949.108 1220.281 1762.628 2847.323 5016.711CARD E.7
9355.488
.000 28.247 56.495 90.391 124.288 158.185CARD E.7
192.081 225.978 259.875 293.771 327.668 361.565CARD E.7
395.461 463.255 598.842 870.015 1412.363 2497.057CARD E.7
4666.445
.000 67.793 135.587 203.380 271.174 338.967CARD E.7
406.760 474.554 542.347 610.141 677.934 745.728CARD E.7
813.521 949.108 1220.281 1762.628 2847.323 5016.711CARD E.7
9355.488
$
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$$ Allowed Contacts
$$ Plane-segment contact (if NPL on Card D.1 > 0)
$
$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234
5 1 2 2 2 CARD F1A
$-NJ-NS1-NS2-NS3-NF1-NF2-NF3-NF4-NF5-NX
$
$ NJ = plane
$ NS1 = segment to which plane is connected
$ NS2 = segment that checks for contact
$ NS3 =
$ NF1 = function number of force deflection curve
$ NF5 = function number of friction curve
$ NX = ege option for contact
$
$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234$234
$ Back-seat with Lower Torso
$ Middle Torso
$ Upper Torso
$ neck
$ head
1 18 1 1 14 0 0 0 15 1
1 18 2 2 14 0 0 0 15 1
1 18 3 3 14 0 0 0 15 1
1 18 4 4 14 0 0 0 15 1
1 18 5 5 14 0 0 0 15 1
$ Bottom-seat with Lower Torso
2 18 1 1 14 0 0 0 15 1
$ Floor with Right Foot
$ Left Foot
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
438
3 18 8 8 14 0 0 0 16 1
3 18 11 11 14 0 0 0 16 1
$ Toe-board with Right Foot
$ Left Foot
4 18 8 8 14 0 0 0 16 1
4 18 11 11 14 0 0 0 16 1
$ Fire-wall with Right Foot
$ Left Foot
5 18 8 8 14 0 0 0 16 1
5 18 11 11 14 0 0 0 16 1
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card F.3.a: segment-segment contact - Format (18I4)
$ ********************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ ********************
$ ==> blank card will specify that no segment-segment forces are to
$ be computed by the program
$
$ 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18|
$234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234
CARD F3A
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card F.4.a: Globalgraphic joints - Format (18I4)
$ ***************************************************
$ ***** is allways required if NJNT is nonzero on card B.1 ******
$ ***************************************************
$ ==> IGLOB=1 for globalgraphic joint,
$ blank or zero if otherwise
$
$ 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18|
$234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0CARD F.4
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card F.5.a: What joint is using what joint-restoring function - Format (18I4)
$ ****************************************************************
$ ***** is allways required if NJNT>0 (card B.1) and NJNTF>0 (Card D.1) ******
$ ****************************************************************
$
$ 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18|
$234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234I234
45 45 46 47 43 0 0 44 0 0 41 0 42 0 0 0 0 0CARD F.5
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card F.8: Harness-belt systems.
$
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card G.1.a: - Plot info - Format (3F10.0, 6I4)
$ - call to EQUILB or not
$ - segment linear and angular velocities supplied or not
$ - MSC-update: NSJF=0 -> use initial joint forces
$ 1 -> subtract initial joint forces
$
$ *******************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ *******************
$
$234567890F234567890F234567890I234I234I234I234I234I234
1 CARD G1
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card G.2: Initial position/velocity of reference segments - Format (6F10.0)
$ *******************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ *******************
439 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
$
$234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890
-2.98508 0.00 -.710202 CARD G2
0.00 0.0 0.00 SLED
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card G.3: Initial position/velocity of other segments - Format (6F10.0, 4I3)
$ *******************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ *******************
$
$234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890F234567890I234I234I234
$ LT
0.0000 21.9970 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 1.
$ MT
0.0000 22.0130 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 2.
$ UT
0.0000 22.0320 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 3.
$ N
0.0000 -4.4170 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 4.
$ H
0.0000 -4.4170 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 8.
$ RUL
0.0000 106.1720 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 9.
$ RLL
0.0000 49.6150 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 10
$ RF
0.0000 57.7190 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 11
$ LUL
0.0000 106.1720 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 12
$ LLL
0.0000 49.6150 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 13.
$ LF
0.0000 57.7190 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 14.
$ RUA
0.0000 53.4650 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 15.
$ RLA
00.000 90.1750 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 16.
$ LUA
0.0000 53.4650 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 17.
$ LLA
00.000 90.1750 0.0000 3 2 1 CARD 18
$ RHD
0.0 90.614 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G3P
$ LHD
0.0 90.614 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CARD G3Q
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 SLED
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card H.1: Linear acceleration time history output
$ *******************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ *******************
$
$ Card H.1.a: Format (I6, 2I3, 3F12.6)
$ Card H.1.b: Format (I9, I3, 3F12.6 )
$
$23456I23I23F23456789012F23456789012F23456789012
$23456789I23F23456789012F23456789012F23456789012
$ Lower Torso
3 0 -1 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H1
$ Upper Torso
0 -3 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H1
$ Head
0 -5 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H1
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card H.2: Relative velocity time history output
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
440
$ *******************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ *******************
$
$ Card H.2.a: Format (I6, 2I3, 3F12.6)
$ Card H.2.b: Format (I9, 2I3, 3F12.6)
$
$23456I23I23F23456789012F23456789012F23456789012
$ Lower Torso
3 0 -1 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H2
$ Upper Torso
0 -3 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H2
$ Head
0 -5 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H2
$-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
$ Card H.3: Relative displacement time history output
$ *******************
$ ***** is allways required ******
$ *******************
$
$ Card H.3.a: Format (I6, 2I3, 3F12.6)
$ Card H.3.b: Format (I9, 2I3, 3F12.6)
$
$23456I23I23F23456789012F23456789012F23456789012
$ Lower Torso
3 0 -1 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H2
$ Upper Torso
0 -3 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H2
$ Head
0 -5 0.000 0.000 0.000 CARD H2
3 16 1 16 3 16 5 CARD H4
CARD H5
CARD H6
2 3 4 CARD H7
CARD H8
2 4 3 4 4 CARD H9
0 CARD H10A
3 2 CARD H11
Appendix C: File Create_fem_dummy.dat
$ SI Units: kg - meter - seconds
$ ------------------------------
$
$ file: create_fem_dummy.dat
$ ==========================
$
$ -----------------------------------------------------------------------
$ This example shows how to create the necessary bulk data entries for
$ easy positioning.
$ -----------------------------------------------------------------------
$
CHECK=YES
PARAM,INISTEP,1.E-3
$
BEGIN BULK
$
$ Define the segment contact ellipsoids
$ -> card B.2
$
RELEX,LT,ATB
RELEX,MT,ATB
RELEX,UT,ATB
RELEX,N,ATB
RELEX,H,ATB
441 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
RELEX,RUL,ATB
RELEX,RLL,ATB
RELEX,RF,ATB
RELEX,LUL,ATB
RELEX,LLL,ATB
RELEX,LF,ATB
RELEX,RUA,ATB
RELEX,RLA,ATB
RELEX,LUA,ATB
RELEX,LLA,ATB
RELEX,RHD,ATB
RELEX,LHD,ATB
$
$ Tell DYTRAN to create the ATBSEGs & ATBJNTs with length of the
$ bars/beams equal to: segment coordinate systems -> LENGTH=.025 m
$ joint coordinate systems -> LENGTH=.05 m
$
PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE,YES,HYBRID-III,.025,.05
$
$ atbseg 1 : name = LT
$ will be covered with 72 (NUMELM) shell elements with:
$ - Gridpoint ids start at 11000 (GSTART)
$ - element ids start at 11000 (ESTART)
$ - material id is 20001 (MID )
$ - property id is 20201 (PIDCOV)
$
$ if PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE has been specified, beam elements$
representing the local coordinate system will be generated with:
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20001 (G0 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20002 (G1 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20003 (G2 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20004 (G3 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local x-axis = 20001 (EID1 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local y-axis = 20002 (EID2 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local z-axis = 20003 (EID3 )
$ - Property id of cbar elements = 20001 (PIDCG)
$ - Material id of cbar elements = 20001 (MID )
$
$ if PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE has not been specified the position and
$ orientation of the ATB segments as spcified on the G.2 and G.3
$ entries in the ATB input file will be overruled by the definitions
$ given here. The local coordinate system is defined by:
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20001 (G0 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20002 (G1 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20003 (G2 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20004 (G3 )
$
$ ATBSEG ID NAME COVER NUMELM GSTART ESTART MID PIDCOV +
$ + G0 G1 G2 G3 EID1 EID2 EID3 PIDCG
$
ATBSEG ,1 ,LT ,YES ,72 ,11000 ,11000 ,20001 ,20201 ,+
+ ,20001 ,20002 ,20003 ,20004 ,20001 ,20002 ,20003 ,20001
$
$ similar explanation for all the other atbsegs
$
ATBSEG,2,MT,YES,72 ,11250,11250,20002,20202,+
+,20005,20006,20007,20008,20004,20005,20006,20002
$
ATBSEG,3,UT,YES,72 ,11500,11500,20003,20203,+
+,20009,20010,20011,20012,20007,20008,20009,20003
$
ATBSEG,4,N ,YES,72 ,11750,11750,20004,20204,+
+,20013,20014,20015,20016,20010,20011,20012,20004
$
ATBSEG,5,H ,YES,72 ,12000,12000,20005,20205,+
+,20017,20018,20019,20020,20013,20014,20015,20005
$
ATBSEG,6,RUL,YES,72 ,12250,12250,20006,20206,+
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
442
+,20021,20022,20023,20024,20016,20017,20018,20006
$
ATBSEG,7,RLL,YES,72 ,12500,12500,20007,20207,+
+,20025,20026,20027,20028,20019,20020,20021,20007
$
ATBSEG,8,RF,YES,72 ,12750,12750,20008,20208,+
+,20029,20030,20031,20032,20022,20023,20024,20008
$
ATBSEG,9,LUL,YES,72 ,13000,13000,20009,20209,+
+,20033,20034,20035,20036,20025,20026,20027,20009
$
ATBSEG,10,LLL,YES,72 ,13250,13250,20010,20210,+
+,20037,20038,20039,20040,20028,20029,20030,20010
$
ATBSEG,11,LF,YES,72 ,13500,13500,20011,20211,+
+,20041,20042,20043,20044,20031,20032,20033,20011
$
ATBSEG,12,RUA,YES,72 ,13750,13750,20012,20212,+
+,20045,20046,20047,20048,20034,20035,20036,20012
$
ATBSEG,13,RLA,YES,72 ,14000,14000,20013,20213,+
+,20049,20050,20051,20052,20037,20038,20039,20013
$
ATBSEG,14,LUA,YES,72 ,14250,14250,20014,20214,+
+,20053,20054,20055,20056,20040,20041,20042,20014
$
ATBSEG,15,LLA,YES,72 ,14500,14500,20015,20215,+
+,20057,20058,20059,20060,20043,20044,20045,20015
$
ATBSEG,16,RHD,YES,72 ,14750,14750,20016,20216,+
+,20061,20062,20063,20064,20046,20047,20048,20016
$
ATBSEG,17,LHD,YES,72 ,15000,15000,20017,20217,+
+,20065,20066,20067,20068,20049,20050,20051,20017
$
$ atbjnt 1 with name P connects atb segments 1 (LT) with 2 (MT)(see card B.3 in ATB
input deck)if PARAM,ATBSEGCREATE has been specified, beam elements$
representing the joint coordinate systems will be generated with:
$ -> coordinate system connected to atb segment 1 (LT)
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20201 (G0 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20202 (G1 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20203 (G2 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20204 (G3 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local x-axis = 20201 (EID1 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local y-axis = 20202 (EID2 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local z-axis = 20203 (EID3 )
$ - Property id of cbar elements = 20001 (PIDCG-LT)
$ - Material id of cbar elements = 20001 (MID -LT)
$ where: PIDCG-LT is the PIDCG as specified on ATBSEG,,LT
$ MID -LT is the MID as specified on ATBSEG,,LT
$
$ -> coordinate system connected to atb segment 2 (MT)
$ - Grid id of grid located at the origin = 20205 (G4 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local x-axis = 20206 (G5 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local y-axis = 20207 (G6 )
$ - Grid id of grid located on local z-axis = 20208 (G7 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local x-axis = 20204 (EID4 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local y-axis = 20205 (EID5 )
$ - Cbar id of element representing local z-axis = 20206 (EID6 )
$ - Property id of cbar elements = 20002 (PIDCG-MT)
$ - Material id of cbar elements = 20002 (MID -MT)
$ where: PIDCG-MT is the PIDCG as specified on ATBSEG,,MT
$ MID -MT is the MID as specified on ATBSEG,,MT
$
$
$ ATBJNT ID NAME +
$ + G0 G1 G2 G3 EID1 EID2 EID3 +
$ + G4 G5 G6 G7 EID4 EID5 EID6
443 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
$
ATBJNT ,1 ,P ,,,,,,,+
+ ,20201 ,20202 ,20203 ,20204 ,20201 ,20202 ,20203 ,,+
+ ,20205 ,20206 ,20207 ,20208 ,20204 ,20205 ,20206
$
ATBJNT,2,W,,,,,,,+
+,20209,20210,20211,20212,20207,20208,20209,,+
+,20213,20214,20215,20216,20210,20211,20212
$
ATBJNT,3,NP,,,,,,,+
+,20217,20218,20219,20220,20213,20214,20215,,+
+,20221,20222,20223,20224,20216,20217,20218
$
ATBJNT,4,HP,,,,,,,+
+,20225,20226,20227,20228,20219,20220,20221,,+
+,20229,20230,20231,20232,20222,20223,20224
$
ATBJNT,5,RH,,,,,,,+
+,20233,20234,20235,20236,20225,20226,20227,,+
+,20237,20238,20239,20240,20228,20229,20230
$
ATBJNT,6,RK,,,,,,,+
+,20241,20242,20243,20244,20231,20232,20233,,+
+,20245,20246,20247,20248,20234,20235,20236
$
ATBJNT,7,RA,,,,,,,+
+,20249,20250,20251,20252,20237,20238,20239,,+
+,20253,20254,20255,20256,20240,20241,20242
$
ATBJNT,8,LH,,,,,,,+
+,20257,20258,20259,20260,20243,20244,20245,,+
+,20261,20262,20263,20264,20246,20247,20248
$
ATBJNT,9,LK,,,,,,,+
+,20265,20266,20267,20268,20249,20250,20251,,+
+,20269,20270,20271,20272,20252,20253,20254
$
ATBJNT,10,LA,,,,,,,+
+,20273,20274,20275,20276,20255,20256,20257,,+
+,20277,20278,20279,20280,20258,20259,20260
$
ATBJNT,11,RS,,,,,,,+
+,20281,20282,20283,20284,20261,20262,20263,,+
+,20285,20286,20287,20288,20264,20265,20266
$
ATBJNT,12,RE,,,,,,,+
+,20289,20290,20291,20292,20267,20268,20269,,+
+,20293,20294,20295,20296,20270,20271,20272
$
ATBJNT,13,LS,,,,,,,+
+,20297,20298,20299,20300,20273,20274,20275,,+
+,20301,20302,20303,20304,20276,20277,20278
$
ATBJNT,14,LE,,,,,,,+
+,20305,20306,20307,20308,20279,20280,20281,,+
+,20309,20310,20311,20312,20282,20283,20284
$
ATBJNT,15,RW,,,,,,,+
+,20313,20314,20315,20316,20285,20286,20287,,+
+,20317,20318,20319,20320,20288,20289,20290
$
ATBJNT,16,LW,,,,,,,+
+,20321,20322,20323,20324,20291,20292,20293,,+
+,20325,20326,20327,20328,20294,20295,20296
$
$ ----------------------------------------------------------------
$
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
444
Appendix D: Properties and Materials of Hybrid III Dummy
Bar elements representing ATB segment and joint coordinate systems.
Digitized segments
Covered ATB ellipsoids
Name ATB-name pid mid
lower torso LT(1) 1 1
middle torso MT(2) 2 2
upper torso UT(3) 3 3
neck N(4) 4 4
head H(5) 5 5
right upper leg RUL(6) 6 6
right lower leg RLL(7) 7 7
right foot RF(8) 8 8
left upper leg LUL(9) 9 9
left lower leg LLL(10) 10 10
left foot LF(11) 11 11
right upper arm RUA(12) 12 12
right lower arm RLA(13) 13 13
left upper arm LUA(14) 14 14
left lower arm LLA(15) 15 15
right hand RHD(16) 16 16
left hand LHD(17) 17 17
Name pid mid
lower torso 101 1
middle torso 2 Modeled as dummy shells
upper torso 103 3
neck 104 4
head 105 5
right-upper leg 106 6 Leg itself is modeled as dummy shells
right-lower leg 107 7
right foot 108 8
left-upper leg 109 9 Leg itself is modeled as dummy shells
445 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Digitized dummy shells (mid = 0)
left-lower leg 110 10
left foot 111 11
right-upper arm 112 12
right-lower arm 113 13
left-upper arm 114 14
left-lower arm 115 15
right hand 116 16
left hand 117 17
Name ATB-name pid mid
lower torso LT(1) 201 1
middle torso MT(2) 202 2
upper torso UT(3) 203 3
neck N(4) 204 4
head H(5) 205 5
right-upper leg RUL(6) 206 6
right-lower leg RLL(7) 207 7
right foot RF(8) 208 8
left-upper leg LUL(9) 209 9
left-lower leg LLL(10) 210 10
left foot LF(11) 211 11
right-upper arm RUA(12) 212 12
right-lower arm RLA(13) 213 13
left-upper arm LUA(14) 214 14
left-lower arm LLA(15) 215 15
right hand RHD(16) 216 16
left hand LHD(17) 217 17
Name pid CONNECTING
upper neck 301 head neck
lower neck 302 neck upper torso
middle torso 303 upper torso lower torso
Name pid mid
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
446
Bar elements inside torso
These bars are used to generate an overlap in the contact surface where the legs and arms connect to the
torso. In these regions there are sharp corners, and the belt might slip through. By using bar elements
inside the torso, this problem is solved.
right-upper leg 304 lower torso front of right-upper leg
right knee 305 front of right upper leg right-lower leg
right ankle 306 right lower leg right foot
left-upper leg 307 lower torso front of left-upper leg
left knee 308 front of left upper leg left-lower leg
left ankle 309 left lower leg left foot
right shoulder 310 upper torso right-upper arm
right elbow 311 right upper arm right-lower arm
right wrist 312 right lower arm right hand
shoulder 313 upper torso left-upper arm
left elbow 314 left upper arm left-lower arm
left wrist 315 left lower arm left hand
Name pid mid
right shoulder 401 3 mid of upper torso
right leg 402 1 mid of lower torso
left leg 403 1 mid of lower torso
left shoulder 404 3 mid of upper torso
Name pid CONNECTING
447 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Appendix E: Groups created by Session File for Positioning
within MD Patran
Complete Dummy
Ankle
Knee
Group Name Contents
H3ALL All FEM entities defining the dummy
H3F–ATB Covered ATB ellipsoids (shell elements)
H3F–DIGIT Digitized HIII surface (shell element)
H3F–JOINTS CBARS+grids representing the joint coordinate systems
H3F–SEGMENT–COORD CBARS+grids representing the segment coordinate systems
H3F–GRIDS –ATB Covered ATB ellipsoids (grids only)
H3F–GRIDS–DIGIT Digitized HIII surface (grids only)
H3F–OVERLAP–BARS Bar elements inside torso
Group Name Contents
H3ROT–ANKLE–BLW–LEFT Elements of left foot
H3ROT–ANKLE–BLW–RIGHT Elements of right foot
H3ROT–ANKLE–BLW–SYMM Elements of left+right feet
H3ROT–ANKLE–ABV–LEFT Elements of complete dummy except left foot and dummy
shells connecting lower left leg to left foot
H3ROT–ANKLE–ABV–RIGHT Elements of complete dummy except right foot and dummy
shells connecting lower right leg to right foot
H3ROT–ANKLE–ABV–SYMM Elements of complete dummy except left+right foot and
dummy shells connecting lower left leg to left tool and
dummy shells connecting lower right leg to right foot
Group Name Contents
H3ROT–KNEE–BLW–LEFT All items in this group use the same logic as is used for Ankle
H3ROT–KNEE–BLW–RIGHT
H3ROT–KNEE–BLW–SYMM
H3ROT–KNEE–ABV–LEFT
H3ROT–KNEE–ABV–RIGHT
H3ROT–KNEE–ABV–SYMM
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
448
Hip
Lumbar Spine
Thoracic Spine
Upper Neck
Lower Neck
Wrist
Group Name
H3ROT–HIP–BLW–LEFT
H3ROT–HIP–BLW–RIGHT
H3ROT–HIP–BLW–SYMM
H3ROT–HIP–ABV–LEFT
H3ROT–HIP–ABV–RIGHT
H3ROT–HIP–ABV–SYMM
Group Name
H3ROT–LSPINE–BLW
H3ROT–LSPINE–ABV
Group Name
H3ROT–TSPINE–BLW
H3ROT–TSPINE–ABV
Group Name
H3ROT–UPNECK–ABV
H3ROT–UPNECK–BLW
Group Name
H3ROT–LWNECK–ABV
H3ROT–LWNECK–BLW
Group Name
H3ROT–WRIST–BLW–LEFT
H3ROT–WRIST–BLW–RIGHT
H3ROT–WRIST–BLW–SYMM
H3ROT–WRIST–ABV–LEFT
449 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Sled Test Verification of the Enhanced Hybrid III Dummy (50%)
Elbow
Shoulder
References
1. Prasad, P, “CoR:<n=5>-<n=1>.\tmparative Evaluation of the Dynamic Responses of the Hybrid
II and Hybrid III Dummies” SAE paper 902318 (Also published in 2).
2. Backaitis, Stanley H., and Mertz, Harold J. eds., “Hybrid III: The First Human-Like Crash Test
Dummy”. SAE PT-44
3. Obergefell, Louise A., Gardner, Thomas R., Kaleps, Ints, and Fleck, John T., Articulated Total
Body Model Enhancements, Volume 2: User’s Guide. January 1988.
H3ROT–WRIST–ABV–RIGHT
H3ROT–WRIST–ABV–SYMM
Group Name
H3ROT–ELBOW–BLW–LEFT
H3ROT–ELBOW–BLW–RIGHT
H3ROT–ELBOW–BLW–SYMM
H3ROT–ELBOW–ABV–LEFT
H3ROT–ELBOW–ABV–RIGHT
H3ROT–ELBOW–ABV–SYMM
Group Name
H3ROT–SHOULD–BLW–LEFT
H3ROT–SHOULD–BLW–RIGHT
H3ROT–SHOULD–BLW–SYMM
H3ROT–SHOULD–ABV–LEFT
H3ROT–SHOULD–ABV–RIGHT
H3ROT–SHOULD–ABV–SYMM
Group Name
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv)
450
Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv)
Problem Description
A folded side curtain air bag consists of an inflator, a horizontal distribution tube, and five vertical
compartments. The five compartments are connected to the distribution tube with five holes. The purpose
of this model is to predict the sequence of filling of the five vertical compartments.
Figure 6-14 Side Curtain Air Bag (folded pattern)
Figure 6-15 Side Curtain Air Bag (deployed pattern)
The properties of the bag membrane are as follows:

Young's Modulus 2.6e8 N/m
2
Poison’s Ratio .3
451 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Air properties:
Initial conditions of air inside the bags:
Conditions environment:
Properties of the gas from the inflator:
Damp Factor .1
Membrane Thickness .0007 m
Density 1.527 kg/m
3
Gamma 1.517
Gas Constant R 226.45 m
2
/sec
2
*K
Density 1.527 kg/m
3
Specific Internal Energy 1.2815e5 m
2
/sec
2
Pressure 101325.2222e2 N/m
2
Pressure 101325. N/m^2
Gamma 111.557
Gas Constant R 243. m
2
/sec
2
*K
Temperature 400. K (assumed constant)
Mass Flow Rate:
Dytran Example Problem Manual
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452
Figure 6-16 Mass Flow Rate Curve
Dytran Model
The Distribution Tube and the Vertical Compartments:
For the distribution tube and for each vertical compartment, a separate coupling surface is defined. At
locations where the holes are located, a subsurface is defined with dummy triangular shell elements.
These dummy shell elements do not carry any stiffness and are only needed to obtain a closed surface
and to define the flow connections between the distribution tube and each of the vertical compartments.
The distribution tube is supported with two flanges that are fixed in space using a SPC.
The coupling surface for the distribution tube is defined as:
COUPLE,1,25,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,9,11,AIRBAG,+
+,10,,,,,,,,+
+,22
SURFACE,25,,PROP,125
SET1,125,3,10,14,200,201,301,302,+
+,303,304,305
The property IDs 301 through 305 represent the holes to the compartments.
The coupling surface for the first compartment is defined with:
COUPLE,2,35,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,12,AIRBAG,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,23
SURFACE,35,,PROP,135
SET1,135,4,15,301
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As can be seen in the coupling surface definitions, the dummy shell elements with PID=301 are common
to the distribution tube and the first compartment. To allow gas flow between the distribution tube and
the first compartment, these elements must be defined as a hole, using:
COUPOR,1,9,301,PORFLCPL,3001,CONSTANT,1.0
PORFLCPL,3001,,,,2
The external pressure on the coupling surface of the distribution tube is defined as:
COUOPT,1,11,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
Similar COUPLE, COUPOR, and COUOPT options are defined for each vertical compartment.
The vertical compartments are not connected to each other and there are no external holes.
The Inflator:
The inflator is defined by an inflow boundary condition on a subsurface of the distribution tube:
SUBSURF,1001,25,PROP,1001
SET1,1001,200
COUINFL,1,10,1001,INFLATR1,85,CONSTANT,0.7
INFLATR1,85,1,,350.,1.557,,243.
TABLED1,1,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.001,3.0,0.015,0.0
The inflator is assumed rigid and is rigidly constrained in all six directions:
PSHELL,200,1,.00035
MATRIG,1,783.
TLOAD1,1,1,,12
FORCE,1,MR1,,1.0,0.0,0.0,0.0
MOMENT,1,MR1,,1.0,0.0,0.0,0.0
The Eulerian Domains:
The Eulerian domain for the distribution tube is defined by:
MESH,22,ADAPT,0.009,0.009,0.009,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
The Eulerian domain is defined with the “adaptive” mesh functionality. This results in a fully automatic
generation of the Euler domain, and the Euler domain will adapt itself according to the deploying
coupling surface.
A separate MESH option is defined for each vertical compartment.
The element size for the vertical compartments is 11.0 mm, while the element size for the distribution
tube is 9.0 mm. The distribution tube requires a smaller Euler element size to get an accurate calculation
of the gas flow.
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454
As the entire bag model is filled with the same inflator gas, only one property for the gas is required. All
MESH options refer to the same Eulerian property:
PEULER1,300,,HYDRO,19
The gas itself is represented by the Gamma Law equation of state:
DMAT,3,1.527,3
EOSGAM,3,1.517,226.45
The gas inside the tube and the compartments is initialized with one set of options, using a very large
sphere that contains to complete side-curtain airbag:
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,1,3,5,1.0
SPHERE,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.527,SIE,1.2815E5
Note that the pressure is not initialized directly, but indirectly using the density and the specific internal
energy. By using the Gamma Law equation of state, the pressure is calculated by Dytran and is equal to
101325.0 Pascal. This initial pressure is equal to the external pressure defined on the COUOPT entries,
to avoid motion at the beginning of the calculation.
Contact:
The contact between all layers is defined with one CONTACT option. Because we have one continuous
surface, the single surface contact definition can be used. This airbag model is folded using offsets
between the folds. For offset folded air bags, a special contact option is available. It is called the BPFULL
contact option, which consists of two basic parts. One part looks for new nodal penetrations and the
second part takes special care of contacts near sharp corners. The first part of the BPFULL contact is quite
expensive but it is only necessary during the first few milliseconds of the calculation. This logic is
switched off at 3 milliseconds, using the TENDNEW option.
The GAP value is set equal to the thickness of the membranes (.0007 m).
A rule of thumb for airbag simulations is to set the monitoring distance double the GAP value, the
maximum penetration four times the GAP value, and the initial monitoring distance to a large number, so
all potential future contacts are verified.
Using the BPFULL option also activates the checking on crossing membrane layers that might have been
introduced during the folding process.
The default projection tolerances are used. For air bags, a value of 1.e-3 is typical.
In summary, the following contact options are used
SEARCH BPFULL
GAP 7.e-3 m
MONDISV 14.e-3 m
PENV 28.e-3 m
455 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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IMM – The Reference Air Bag model:
The air bag model is folded using offsets between all layers. Due to the nature of offset folding, the
original element shapes are distorted, and it is necessary to use the Initial Metric Method (IMM). The bag
model in unfolded shape (reference shape) is used to initialize the IMM strains in the folded model
(initial model). The IMM strains are re-initialized every 5 milliseconds, using the following parameter:
PARAM,IMM,,ON,5e-3,5E-3
The reference shape of the airbag is shown below.
To activate the Initial Metric Method, the reference shape must be stored in a separate file, which is
referenced using the IMMFILE option in the main input file. For example:
IMMFILE=flat_imm.dat
For more information about the IMM method, please see the User's Guide.
Figure 6-17 Reference Shape of Air Bag
INITMON .1 m
TENDNEW 3.e-3 seconds
TOLPROJ1 1e-3
TOLPROJ2 1e-3
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456
Miscellaneous:
1. Because this model uses the coupling surface interface, the time step safety factor for Eulerian
elements has to be .6. However, the Lagrangian elements (the bag membrane elements)
determine the time-step, and it is beneficial to use a higher time step safety factor for the
Lagrangian elements:
PARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
2. To speedup the simulation, sub-cycling is activated for the coupling calculations. During a sub-
cycle, it is assumed that the coupling surface location remains constant, and therefore, the cover
sections for each Euler element remains constant. The software will use a safety mechanism to
determine the number of sub-cycles based upon the velocities of the coupling surface. The
maximum number of sub-cycles is set by:
PARAM,COSUBMAX,10
3. The pressure in each compartment will be monitored. For this, a surface output request is used:
TYPE (Surface) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (Surface) = 3
SET 3 = 25
SURFOUT (Surface) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (Surface) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
SAVE (Surface) = 10000
For each compartment, another set of these is defined.
4. To visualize the gas flow in the Euler mesh, the following output request is used:
TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 1000
SET 1000 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (euler) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL PRESSURE
TIMES (euler) = 0,thru,end,by,1.E-3
SAVE (euler) = 1
There are six separate Euler domains, and different files are created for each Euler domain, using
the naming convention:
FOLDED_EULER_FV1_#.ARC
FOLDED_EULER_FV2_#.ARC
FOLDED_EULER_FV3_#.ARC
FOLDED_EULER_FV4_#.ARC
FOLDED_EULER_FV5_#.ARC
FOLDED_EULER_FV6_#.ARC
A new set of files is written at each output step.
Results
The model is set to run for 20 milliseconds. The Figure 6-18 below shows the average pressure in each
of the 5 vertical compartments.
457 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv)

Figure 6-18 Average Pressures in Vertical Compartments
The air bag at the end of the calculation is shown below (Figure 6-19)

Figure 6-19 Air Bag at End of Simulation
The six Euler domains at the end of the simulation are shown in Figure 6-20:
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv)
458

Figure 6-20 Euler Domains at End of Simulation
Input Deck
Main Input file folded.dat:
MEMORY-SIZE = 6000000,6000000
IMMFILE=flat_imm.dat
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.02
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: folded
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
$ Output result for request: elements
TYPE (elements) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elements) = 1
SET 1 = 16805 THRU 16875 16877 THRU 16947 16949 THRU 18080 ,
59 THRU 945 1067 1068 1069 1070 1181 THRU 1412 ,
1423 THRU 2965 3076 THRU 3930 4041 THRU 4895 ,
5006 THRU 5860 5971 THRU 7744 10855 THRU 12025 ,
12138 THRU 12990 13103 THRU 13955 14068 THRU 14920 ,
15033 THRU 15885 15998 THRU 16875 16877 THRU 16947 ,
16949 THRU 18080 16805 THRU 16875 16877 THRU 16947 ,
17005 THRU 18080 16949 THRU 17004
ELOUT (elements) = EFFSTS
TIMES (elements) = 0,THRU,END,BY,4e-4
SAVE (elements) = 1
$
INCLUDE output_for_euler.ccf
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,INISTEP,1.0e-7
PARAM,MINSTEP,1.0e-8
PARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
PARAM,IMM,,ON,5e-3,5E-3
459 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,COSUBMAX,10
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE bag.bdf
INCLUDE couple_settings.bdf
INCLUDE euler_mesh.bdf
INCLUDE fix_inflator.bdf
INCLUDE pressure_gauge.bdf
INCLUDE folded.bdf
$------- Contact Definition -----
CONTACT,25,SURF,,26,,,,,+
+,V4,BOTH,BPFULL,,0.0,.0007,,,+
+,,,DISTANCE,.0028,,0.45,DISTANCE,.0014,+
+,,10.E-3,,,,,.1,,+
+,,,1.E-3,1.E-3,,,,,+
+,3.e-3
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * P_SET.1 *
$
PSHELL1 1 2 MEMB +A000001
+A000001 .0007
$
$ * P_SET.2 *
$
PSHELL1 2 2 MEMB +A000002
+A000002 .0007
$
$ * P_SET.3 *
$
PSHELL1 3 2 MEMB +A000003
+A000003 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.4 *
$
PSHELL1 4 2 MEMB +A000004
+A000004 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.5 *
$
PSHELL1 5 2 MEMB +A000005
+A000005 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.6 *
$
PSHELL1 6 2 MEMB +A000006
+A000006 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.7 *
$
PSHELL1 7 2 MEMB +A000007
+A000007 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.8 *
$
PSHELL1 8 2 MEMB +A000008
+A000008 .00035
$
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460
$ * P_SET.14 *
$
PSHELL1 14 2 MEMB +A000010
+A000010 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.15 *
$
PSHELL1 15 2 MEMB +A000011
+A000011 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.16 *
$
PSHELL1 16 2 MEMB +A000012
+A000012 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.17 *
$
PSHELL1 17 2 MEMB +A000013
+A000013 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.18 *
$
PSHELL1 18 2 MEMB +A000014
+A000014 .00035
$
$ * P_SET.19 *
$
PSHELL1 19 2 MEMB +A000015
+A000015 .00035
$
$ * inlet.200 *
$
PSHELL 200 1 .00035
$
$ * Euler.300 *
$
PEULER1,300,,HYDRO,19
$
$ * face.201 *
$
PSHELL 201 1 .00035
$
$ * diffusor.10 *
$
PSHELL1 10 2 MEMB +A000016
+A000016 .00035
$
PSHELL1 301 DUMMY
PSHELL1 302 DUMMY
PSHELL1 303 DUMMY
PSHELL1 304 DUMMY
PSHELL1 305 DUMMY
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material Rigid id =1
MATRIG 1 783 +A000017
+A000017
461 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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$
$ -------- Material Fabric id =2
DMATEL 2 783 2.6e+08 .3 +
+ .01
$
$ -------- Material Ideal_Gas id =3
DMAT 3 1.527 3
$ |
$ -> density
$
EOSGAM,3,1.517,226.45
$ | |
$ | -> R
$ -------> Cp/Cv
$
$ -------- Material Webbing id =4
DMATEL 4 670 6.5e+09 .3 +
+ .1
$
$ Transient Dynamic Load
TLOAD1,1,1,,12
$ translational velocity
FORCE,1,MR1,,1.0,0.0,0.0,0.0
$ rotational velocity
MOMENT,1,MR1,,1.0,0.0,0.0,0.0
$
ENDDATA
The bulkdata file folded.bdf:
$ --- SPC-name = Attachments
SPC1 1 123456 555 THRU 563 566 THRU 574+
+ 611 THRU 636
$
$ --- Define 6722 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .0184701.0143125 .459878
GRID 2 .0125105.0143125 .459878
GRID 61 1.89e-08.0005000 .247850
GRID 62 1.45e-08.0005000 .172850
...
$
$ --- Define 13727 elements
$
$ -------- property set P_SET.1 ---------
CTRIA3 59 1 183 252 61
CTRIA3 60 1 253 270 252
CTRIA3 61 1 252 270 61
CTRIA3 62 1 248 189 62
CTRIA3 63 1 213 247 62
CTRIA3 64 1 248 62 247
...
The IMM reference file flat_imm.dat:
$
$ --- Define 6871 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .0009375-.626128 .230000
GRID 2 .0009375-.626128 .220000
GRID 61 .0005000-.414100 .450000
GRID 62 .0005000-.339100 .450000
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462
...
$
$ --- Define 13727 elements
$
$ -------- property set P_SET.1 ---------
CTRIA3 59 1 183 252 61
CTRIA3 60 1 253 270 252
CTRIA3 61 1 252 270 61
CTRIA3 62 1 248 189 62
CTRIA3 63 1 213 247 62
CTRIA3 64 1 248 62 247
The Surface definitions file bag.bdf:
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ bag 1, connected to the inflator
$ this surface is used for gbag/couple definition
$ main bag
SURFACE,25,,PROP,125
SET1,125,3,10,14,200,201,301,302,+
+,303,304,305
$SET1,125,3,THRU,8,10,14,THRU,19,+
$+,200,201
$
$ compartment 1
SURFACE,35,,PROP,135
SET1,135,4,15,301
$
$ compartment 2
SURFACE,45,,PROP,145
SET1,145,5,16,302
$
$ compartment 3
SURFACE,55,,PROP,155
SET1,155,6,17,303
$
$ compartment 4
SURFACE,65,,PROP,165
SET1,165,7,18,304
$
$ compartment 5
SURFACE,75,,PROP,175
SET1,175,8,19,305
$
$ this surface is used for contact (not 10, 200,201)
SURFACE,26,,PROP,126
SET1,126,3,THRU,8,14,THRU,19
$
SUBSURF,301,25,PROP,1301
SET1,1301,301
$
SUBSURF,302,25,PROP,1302
SET1,1302,302
$
SUBSURF,303,25,PROP,1303
SET1,1303,303
$
SUBSURF,304,25,PROP,1304
SET1,1304,304
$
463 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Side Curtain Air Bag (Courtesy of Autoliv)
SUBSURF,305,25,PROP,1305
SET1,1305,305
$
$ define gasbag
$ See section 2.1.1 in user manual for units
$
$ define euler coupled airbag
$
COUPLE,1,25,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,9,11,AIRBAG,+
+,10,,,,,,,,+
+,,22
COUPLE,2,35,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,12,AIRBAG,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,23
COUPLE,3,45,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,13,AIRBAG,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,24
COUPLE,4,55,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,14,AIRBAG,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,25
COUPLE,5,65,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,15,AIRBAG,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,26
COUPLE,6,75,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,16,AIRBAG,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,27
$ ..............................................................
$ inflator
$
SUBSURF,1001,25,PROP,1001
SET1,1001,200
$
COUINFL,1,10,1001,INFLATR1,85,constant,0.7
$ |
$ +- referenced by COUPLE entry
$
INFLATR1,85,1,,350.,1.557,,243.
$ |
$ |
$ +-> mass flow rate defined in TABLED1,1
$
TABLED1,1,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.001,3.0,0.015,0.0
$
$
COUPOR,1,9,301,PORFLCPL,3001,constant,1.0
COUPOR,2,9,302,PORFLCPL,3002,constant,1.0
COUPOR,3,9,303,PORFLCPL,3003,constant,1.0
COUPOR,4,9,304,PORFLCPL,3004,constant,1.0
COUPOR,5,9,305,PORFLCPL,3005,constant,1.0
$
PORFLCPL,3001,,,,2
PORFLCPL,3002,,,,3
PORFLCPL,3003,,,,4
PORFLCPL,3004,,,,5
PORFLCPL,3005,,,,6
$
$ Model atmospheric pressure by PLCOVER on the COUOPT card
$
$ -> referenced from couple card
Dytran Example Problem Manual
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464
$ |
COUOPT,1,11,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
COUOPT,2,12,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
COUOPT,3,13,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
COUOPT,4,14,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
COUOPT,5,15,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
COUOPT,6,16,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT,101325.
$
MESH,22,ADAPT,0.009,0.009,0.009,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
MESH,23,ADAPT,0.011,0.011,0.011,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
MESH,24,ADAPT,0.011,0.011,0.011,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
MESH,25,ADAPT,0.011,0.011,0.011,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
MESH,26,ADAPT,0.011,0.011,0.011,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
MESH,27,ADAPT,0.011,0.011,0.011,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,300
$
TICEUL,19,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,1,3,5,1.0
SPHERE,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.527,SIE,1.2815E5
The output request file output_for_euler.ccf:
$ Output result for request: euler
TYPE (euler) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (euler) = 1000
SET 1000 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT (euler) = XVEL YVEL ZVEL PRESSURE
$ SIE XMOM YMOM ZMOM DENSITY
TIMES (euler) = 0,thru,end,by,1.E-3
SAVE (euler) = 1
$
TYPE (Surface) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (Surface) = 3
SET 3 = 25
SURFOUT (Surface) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (Surface) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
SAVE (Surface) = 10000
$
TYPE (part1) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (part1) = 4
SET 4 = 35
SURFOUT (part1) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (part1) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
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SAVE (part1) = 10000
$
TYPE (part2) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (part2) = 5
SET 5 = 45
SURFOUT (part2) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (part2) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
SAVE (part2) = 10000
$
TYPE (part3) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (part3) = 6
SET 6 = 55
SURFOUT (part3) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (part3) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
SAVE (part3) = 10000
$
TYPE (part4) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (part4) = 7
SET 7 = 65
SURFOUT (part4) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (part4) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
SAVE (part4) = 10000
$
TYPE (part5) = TIMEHIS
SURFACES (part5) = 8
SET 8 = 75
SURFOUT (part5) = AREA VOLUME MASS PRESSURE TEMPTURE
TIMES (part5) = 0,thru,end,by,0.0001
SAVE (part5) = 10000
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466
Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy
Problem Description
In this part of the Example Problem Manual, a Finite Element model for the Hybrid III 5th%-tile small
female dummy will be introduced. This dummy has been especially calibrated and validated for Out-Of-
Position (OOP) situations as described in regulation FMVSS 208, revision 2001 and beyond set forward
by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this chapter, the complete dummy
is described first. This is followed by the description of the calibration tests that have been performed.

Figure 6-21 Finite Element Model for Hybrid III 5th%-tile
Model Description
The dummy model comprises 28 rigid body segments, linked together with multi-axis joints. Each body
segment has predefined inertia properties, and surface contour. The inertia properties are defined through
the MATRIG option, whilst rigid shell elements define the surface contour. Between the individual body
segments, “null” elements may be defined to obtain a closed surface for smooth contact behavior. The
kinematic joints, connecting the body segments, are modeled with directional springs (CELAST1) and
dampers (CDAMP1).
467 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy
The rigid bodies are connected with directional springs and dampers. For the neck area, the user may
choose between two types of neck models. One is the Pivot Neck Model and the second is the Rubber
Neck Model:
1. Pivot Neck Model: This model uses a series of rigid bodies connected with directional springs
and dampers. There are solid elements between the rigid bodies, but they are only modeled to
capture the inertia effects during the simulation. The stiffness is set to be very low.
2. Rubber Neck Model: The rigid parts of the neck are modeled with solid rubber elements. Contact
is defined between the slits to avoid penetration during flexion of the neck. The spring and damper
elements are completely deactivated when this model is chosen. The rubber elements have
validated material properties. Tetra elements are used to model the slits to improve the quality and
of the robustness of the behavior of the neck during flexion. The rubber is modeled with a linear
viscoelastic material model.

Figure 6-22 Pivot and Rubber Neck Models
The structure of linked rigid bodies is generally known as a tree structure. Starting at the Lower Torso,
which is at the root of the structure, the tree branches out to the Legs, and Arms and Head, through the
Upper Torso. Several coordinate systems are associated with each rigid body to define its properties and
the linkage with adjoining bodies. Every rigid body has a coordinate system that defines the body center
of mass and the three principal inertia axes. Each body, except the Lower Torso, which is at the root of
the body structure, has a coordinate system which defines the location and orientation of the joint that
connects it to its preceding, or Parent body. This coordinate system is referred to as the Joint Child
Coordinate System. Body segments that have a connection to an outer branch of the tree structure, further
have a coordinate system that locates the origin of that branch and its orientation relative to the parenting
body. This coordinate system is referred to as the Joint Parent Coordinate System. Note that each body
may have several children, but has only one parent. The relative position and orientation of the Joint
Parent and Child coordinate systems determines the forces and moments that act between them.
Depending on the body, two more types of coordinate systems may have been defined. For the Lower
Torso, Upper Torso, and Head, a coordinate system is defined in the location and with the orientation of
the accelerometers. Joint Parent coordinate systems in Femurs, Tibias and Neck double as coordinate
frames for the load transducers that are present at these locations.
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To help visualize the various coordinate systems, rod elements have been defined in their locations. For
example of the Right Femur, see below:

A complete schematic overview of the dummy is attached in Appendix A: File EXAMPLE.AIN as
generated by GEBODFor each of the body component, a set of SURFACEs and property SET1s are
predefined that can be used when contact is required between the dummy and external objects such as air
bags or the instrument panel. The detailed list of property and surface definitions can be found in
Appendix B: Complete ATB Input File for Sled Test CalculationThe structure of the Dytran input deck
necessitates that the dummy model data is split into two files. The file hyb305_case.mod contains the
CASE data, comprising options for output of the dummy kinematics (into ARC files) and instrumentation
responses (into THS files). The file hyb305_bulk.mod comprises the bulk data options defining the
dummy model. The model defined in this file represents the dummy in so-called “reference position”.
For a typical simulation analysis, the dummy will be used in a position and with an orientation that differs
from this reference position. A utility program is provided to change the position and orientation of the
dummy as a whole and of the limbs individually, to accommodate this. The user provides the desired
location of the H-point, orientation of the Lower Torso, and rotation angles of arm and leg segments in a
position definition file. The utility program hyb305 will then assemble a dummy model in the correct
position and orientation from the hyb305_bulk.mod file and the user provided position definition file.
The resulting bulk data files hyb305_bulk.dat and hyb305_case.dat can be included in a
simulation model for analysis. Positioning or changing the orientation of dummy parts through other
means may seriously affect the integrity of the dummy model and is therefore discouraged
Details of the structure of the position definition file and the execution of the positioning program are
contained in Appendix C: File Create_fem_dummy.dat Calibration Tests
In this section the calibration simulations will be described. The simulation performed follows the
guidelines of Ref 1. [Technical Report – Development and Evaluation of the Hybrid III fifth Percentile
Female Crash Test Dummy (H-III5F), NHTSA, August 1998]. However, the focus is on the dummy
behavior during the impact of an air bag. To this end, only in the area of the neck and chest calibration
tests have been performed. The head impact and knee impact are skipped at this point in time. Each one
of the following sections will describe the details of the test and show the results.
Coord A: Right Femur Principal Inertia Frame
Coord B: Right Femur Load Cell Parent Fram
Coord C: Right Hip Joint Child Frame
469 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Neck Extension Calibration Test
Experiment
In this test, the neck and head of the dummy are attached to a pendulum. The structure is then lifted to a
specific height and released. The pendulum impacts a honeycomb block which will give it a certain
deceleration profile. Due to the deceleration, the head of the dummy starts to show extension. In this test,
the moment and the head D-plane rotation are measured as a function of time.
Simulation
The neck portion of the dummy was extracted from the main hybrid305_bulk.dat file and was
attached to the pendulum by merging the MATRIG definitions using the parameter MATRMERG. In order
to save CPU time, the simulation will start just before the pendulum contacts the honeycomb block. The
contact with the foam will not be modeled, but instead the pendulum will be given a predefined rotational
velocity profile. All the rest of the neck and head nodes will be given an initial rotational and translational
velocity by using the TIC3 input option. At the moment of impact, the radial velocity of the system is
3.5523 Rad/sec. The force in rotational spring 1080051 and damper 1080052 will be monitored. This
represents the moment at the occipital condyle. For the D-Plane, the locations of nodes 1080020 and
1080023 are monitored. These nodes are part of the coordinate system that describes the location and
orientation of the head accelerometer. From the relative location of these two nodes, the orientation of
the head D-Plane is calculated.
Results
Figure 6-23 shows the results for the pivot neck and the rubber neck models for every 20 mseconds
followed by the time history graphics of the neck moment and the orientation of the head D-Plane.
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Figure 6-23 Results of Neck Extension for the Pivot and Rubber Neck Models for every
20 mseconds
471 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Figure 6-24 Time History of D-Plane Extension
Figure 6-25 Time History of Neck Extension Moment
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Figure 6-26 Time History of D-Plane Moment Extension
Neck Flexion Calibration Test
Experiment
In this test, the same pendulum is used but the neck bracket will be mounted in the opposite
direction.Also in this test, the neck moment and the head D-Plane rotation will be measured as a function
of time.
Simulation
In this simulation, the same model will be used as the neck extension model, but the enforced rotational
and initial velocity will be in the negative direction. Also, the absolute value of the radial velocity on
the TIC3 option was increased to 4.14435 as the deceleration curve is different according to the
NHTSA specifications.
Results
On the next page, the results for the pivot neck model and the rubber neck model for every 20 mseconds
followed by the time history graphics of the neck moment and orientation of the head D-Plane.
473 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Figure 6-27 Results of Flexion for the Pivot and Rubber Neck
Models for every 20 mseconds
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Figure 6-28 Time History of D-Plane Flexion
Figure 6-29 Time History of Neck Flexion Moment
475 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Figure 6-30 Time History of D-Plane Moment Flexion
Thorax Impact
Experiment
In this calibration test, an impactor with a weight of 14 kg will contact the chest at a velocity of 6.47 m/s.
Simulation
First, the dummy was positioned using the hyb305 positioner, the arms and legs were straightened, then
the floor and impactor were added to the test input file. A contact was defined between the impactor and
the dummy chest. During the simulation, the force in the spring 1050031 was monitored and is the impact
force. Also, the location of nodes 1040100 and 1050000 was monitored. The difference in x-position is
a measure for the chest deflection.
Results
On the next page, the results for the thorax impact are given for every 10 mseconds followed by the
graphs for thorax displacement in time and thorax force deflection curve.
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Figure 6-31 Results of Thorax Impact of Dummy Model
477 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Figure 6-32 Time History of Thorax Displacement
Figure 6-33 Time History of thorax Impact
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Conclusions and Recommendations
Rubber Neck Model
During extension, the rubber neck model fits the experiment very well, up to the time that the neck is
bend backwards to approximately 90 degrees. At that moment, the rubber layers on the disks contact each
other, and the peak moment that occurs at that moment is not captured completely. Some more attention
to this contact modeling during extension will be given in a future release.
In flexion, the rubber neck model initially follows the experimental data well, but then starts to show
a too soft a behavior. Given that the same material properties in flexion are used as in extension, and the
extension results were accurate, it can only be that the slit contact, the behavior of the tet elements during
compression, or the material definition during compression are causing the softening. In a future release,
more attention will be given to this slit contact and to a more detailed modeling of the rubber in the
slit area.
Pivot Neck Model
During extension, the pivot neck model initially follows the experimental data well, but it appears that
a stiffer contact between the disks is required. The extension side could also do with a little less
damping, but it remains a concern this can be accomplished without affecting the flexion response.
Perhaps, by lowering the damping little by little might help, yet care must be taken that a complete change
in Eigen mode can occur when the damping becomes too small. These items will be investigated for a
future release.
In flexion, the pivot neck behaves excellent. Care must be taken that this behavior remains at this high
level while further fine-tuning the behavior during extension.
Thorax Impact
The characteristics of the spring 1050031 were taken directly from the thorax experiment. This implies
that the damper characteristics of the system are already included in the spring data. Therefore, the
damper part of the chest deflection was deactivated for this release of the dummy.
As a result, the chest deflection matches the experiment well, but since the damper was deactivated, the
deflection returned to zero quicker than the experiment.
For a future release, the chest model will be adapted to be modeled with both a spring and a damper.
The chest deflection also needs to be validated against different velocities of the impactor.
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Input Files
Neck Extension
CEND
ENDTIME=0.120
ENDSTEP=99999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: neck_extension
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE(MR)=MRSUM
STEPS(MR)= 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
TYPE(MAT)=MATSUM
STEPS(MAT)= 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
TYPE(STEP)=STEPSUM
STEPS(STEP)= 0 THRU END BY 25
$
$ Output result for request: neck_extension
TYPE (elem) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elem) = 1
SET 1 = ALLELEMENTS
ELOUT (elem) = MASS
TIMES (elem) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (elem) = 10000
$
TYPE (dplane) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (dplane) = 2
SET 2 = 1080020 1080023
GPOUT (dplane) = XPOS YPOS ZPOS
TIMES (dplane) = 0 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (dplane) = 10000
$
TYPE(loadcells) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTS(loadcells) = 1000003
SET 1000003 = 1080011, 1080012, 1080021, 1080022, 1080031, 1080032,
1080041, 1080042, 1080051, 1080052, 1080061, 1080062
ELOUT(loadcells) = XFORCE
TIMES(loadcells) = 0.000 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE(loadcells) = 10000
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
BEGIN BULK
$
PARAM, INISTEP, 1.0e-6
PARAM, MINSTEP, 1.0e-9
PARAM, GEOCHECK, ON
PARAM, RBE2INFO, GRIDON
PARAM, MATRMERG, FR1, MR1040000, MR2000000
$
INCLUDE hyb305_pivot_neck.dat
$
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ BEGIN PENDULUM COMPONENT
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
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GRID 2000000 -.098729 .0381 .296886
GRID 2000001 -.098729 3.725-9 .296886
GRID 2000002 -.098729-.0381 .296886
-
$
CQUAD4 2000000 2000000 2000000 2000001 2000004 2000003
CQUAD4 2000001 2000000 2000001 2000002 2000005 2000004
-
$ pid mid form quad nip shfact ref cont
PSHELL1, 2000000,2000000, , , , , , ,+
$ thick
+, 0.005
$ mid rho E nu mass cogX cogY cogZ
MATRIG, 2000000, , , , 29.57,-.047929, 3.027-9 ,2.13209
$
TLOAD1 1 1001 12 2000001
MOMENT,1001,FR1,,1,0,1,0
FORCE,1001,FR1,,0,0,0,0
$
TABLED1,2000001,,,,,,,,+
+,0,-3.5523,0.01,-2.664,0.02,-1.7170,0.03,-0.8288,+
+,0.04,0,ENDT
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ END PENDULUM
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
TIC3,1,2000040,,1.0,,,,,+
+, , , , ,-3.5523, ,,,+
+ 1040010 THRU 1040013 1040020 THRU 1040023 1040200 THRU+
+ 1040203 1041601 THRU 1041675 1060000 THRU 1060003 1060010+
+ THRU 1060013 1060100 THRU 1060103 1061001 THRU 1061139+
+ 1070100 THRU 1070103 1070110 THRU 1070113 1070190 THRU+
+ 1070193 1070200 THRU 1070203 1070210 THRU 1070213 1070290+
+ THRU 1070293 1070300 THRU 1070303 1070310 THRU 1070313+
+ 1070390 THRU 1070393 1070400 THRU 1070403 1070410 THRU+
+ 1070413 1070490 THRU 1070493 1070500 THRU 1070503 1070510+
+ THRU 1070513 1070590 THRU 1070593 1070600 THRU 1070603+
+ 1071001 THRU 1074344 1080000 THRU 1080003 1080010 THRU+
+ 1080013 1080020 THRU 1080023 1081001 THRU 1081380
$
ENDDATA
481 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Neck Flexion
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.120
ENDSTEP=99999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: neck_extension
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE(MR)=MRSUM
STEPS(MR)= 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
TYPE(MAT)=MATSUM
STEPS(MAT)= 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
TYPE(STEP)=STEPSUM
STEPS(STEP)= 0 THRU END BY 25
$
$ Output result for request: neck_extension
TYPE (elem) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elem) = 1
SET 1 = ALLELEMENTS
ELOUT (elem) = MASS
TIMES (elem) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (elem) = 10000
$
TYPE (dplane) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (dplane) = 2
SET 2 = 1080020 1080023
GPOUT (dplane) = XPOS YPOS ZPOS
TIMES (dplane) = 0 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (dplane) = 10000
$
TYPE(loadcells) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTS(loadcells) = 1000003
SET 1000003 = 1080011, 1080012, 1080021, 1080022, 1080031, 1080032,
1080041, 1080042, 1080051, 1080052, 1080061, 1080062
ELOUT(loadcells) = XFORCE
TIMES(loadcells) = 0.000, THRU, END, BY, 0.0001
SAVE(loadcells) = 10000
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
BEGIN BULK
$
PARAM, INISTEP, 1.0e-6
PARAM, MINSTEP, 1.0e-9
PARAM, GEOCHECK, ON
PARAM, RBE2INFO, GRIDON
PARAM, MATRMERG,FR1,MR1040000,MR2000000
$
INCLUDE hyb305_pivot_neck.dat
$
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ BEGIN PENDULUM COMPONENT
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
GRID 2000000 -.098729 .0381 .296886
GRID 2000001 -.098729 3.725-9 .296886
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-
$
CQUAD4 2000000 2000000 2000000 2000001 2000004 2000003
CQUAD4 2000001 2000000 2000001 2000002 2000005 2000004
-
$ pid mid form quad nip shfact ref cont
PSHELL1, 2000000,2000000, , , , , , ,+
$ thick
+, 0.005
$ mid rho E nu mass cogX cogY cogZ
MATRIG, 2000000, , , , 29.57,-.047929, 3.027-9 ,2.13209
$
TLOAD1 1 1001 12 2000001
MOMENT,1001,FR1,,1,0,1,0
FORCE,1001,FR1,,0,0,0,0
$
TABLED1,2000001,,,,,,,,+
+,0,4.14435, 0.01,2.0465, 0.02,1.253, 0.03,0.501,+
+,0.04,0,ENDT
$
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ END PENDULUM
$--------------------------------------------------------------------------
$
TIC3,1,2000040,,1.0,,,,,+
+, , , , ,4.14435, ,,,+
+ 1040010 THRU 1040013 1040020 THRU 1040023 1040200 THRU+
+ 1040203 1041601 THRU 1041675 1060000 THRU 1060003 1060010+
+ THRU 1060013 1060100 THRU 1060103 1061001 THRU 1061139+
+ 1070100 THRU 1070103 1070110 THRU 1070113 1070190 THRU+
+ 1070193 1070200 THRU 1070203 1070210 THRU 1070213 1070290+
+ THRU 1070293 1070300 THRU 1070303 1070310 THRU 1070313+
+ 1070390 THRU 1070393 1070400 THRU 1070403 1070410 THRU+
+ 1070413 1070490 THRU 1070493 1070500 THRU 1070503 1070510+
+ THRU 1070513 1070590 THRU 1070593 1070600 THRU 1070603+
+ 1071001 THRU 1074344 1080000 THRU 1080003 1080010 THRU+
+ 1080013 1080020 THRU 1080023 1081001 THRU 1081380
$
ENDDATA
483 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Thorax Impact
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.050
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: test
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$
TYPE(MR)=MRSUM
STEPS(MR)= 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
TYPE(MAT)=MATSUM
STEPS(MAT)= 0 THRU END BY 1000
$
TYPE(STEP)=STEPSUM
STEPS(STEP)= 0 THRU END BY 25
$
TYPE (HIII) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (HIII) = 1
SET 1 = ALLELEMENTS
ELOUT (HIII) = MASS
TIMES (HIII) = 0 THRU END BY 0.005
SAVE (HIII) = 100000
$
TYPE (grid_CG) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (grid_CG) = 2
SET 2 = 1040100 1050000
GPOUT (grid_CG) = XPOS YPOS ZPOS
TIMES (grid_CG) = 0 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (grid_CG) = 10000
$
$ Output result for request: contact
TYPE (contact) = TIMEHIS
CONTS (contact) = 4
SET 4 = 3 4
CONTOUT (contact) = XFORCE YFORCE ZFORCE FMAGN DMIN
TIMES (contact) = 0 THRU END BY 0.001
SAVE (contact) = 100000
$
TYPE (loadcells) = TIMEHIS
ELEMENTS (loadcells) = 5
SET 5 = 1080011, 1080012, 1080021, 1080022, 1080031, 1080032,
1080041, 1080042, 1080051, 1080052, 1080061, 1080062,
1050011, 1050012, 1050021, 1050022, 1050031, 1050032,
1050041, 1050042, 1050051, 1050052, 1050061, 1050062
ELOUT (loadcells) = XFORCE
TIMES (loadcells) = 0.000 THRU END BY 0.0001
SAVE (loadcells) = 10000
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-7
PARAM,STEPFCT,0.9
$
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$
INCLUDE hyb305_bulk.dat
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484
INCLUDE floor.dat
INCLUDE impactbar.dat
$
$ Rigid Impactor can move only in global X dir
$
TLOAD1 1 1001 12
FORCE, 1001,MR1,,0.0, ,1.0,1.0
MOMENT,1001,MR1,,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
$
$ Rigid floor can not move
$
TLOAD1 1 1002 12
FORCE, 1002,MR2,,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
MOMENT,1002,MR2,,0.0,1.0,1.0,1.0
$
$ ------- Initial Velocity BC vel -----
SET1 1 1281154 THRU 1282050
TICGP 1 1 XVEL -6.47
$
$ -------- Contact between dummy and floor
$
CONTACT 3 SURF SURF 2 1 +
+ V4 TOP FULL 0.0 NONE+
+ +
+ +
+ 33
CONTFORC 33 3 3 33
$
TABLED1,3,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.050,1000.0
$
TABLED1,33,,,,,,,,+
+,-1.000,-200.0,1.000,200.0
$
$ Slave contact surface: Dummy
$
SURFACE 2 PROP 1011002 PROP 1091001 PROP 1101001+
+ PROP 1111001 PROP 1121001 PROP 1151001 PROP 1161001+
+ PROP 1191001 PROP 1201001
$
$ Master contact surface: Floor
$
SURFACE 1 PROP 2
SET1 2 2
$
$ -------- Contact between chest and impactbar
$
CONTACT 4 GRID SURF 4 1051001 +
+ V4 TOP FULL 0.0 NONE+
+ +
+ +
+ 44
CONTFORC 44 4 4 5
$
TABLED1,4,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.050,1000.0
$
TABLED1,5,,,,,,,,+
+,-1.000,-200.0,1.000,200.0
$
485 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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$ Slave contact gridpoints: Impactbar
SET1 4 1281154 THRU 1282050
$
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$
$ * impactbar *
$
PSOLID 1 1
$
$ * Floor *
$
PSHELL 2 2 .003
$
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Impactbar
MATRIG 1 2590 7e+10 .3
$
$ -------- Floor
MATRIG 2 7850 7e+10 .3
$
ENDDATA
floor.dat:
CQUAD4 1289794 2 1282051 1282052 1282073 1282072
CQUAD4 1289795 2 1282052 1282053 1282074 1282073
CQUAD4 1289796 2 1282053 1282054 1282075 1282074
CQUAD4 1289797 2 1282054 1282055 1282076 1282075
CQUAD4 1289798 2 1282055 1282056 1282077 1282076
...
GRID 1282051 -.553700-.250000-.091000
GRID 1282052 -.478700-.250000-.091000
GRID 1282053 -.403700-.250000-.091000
GRID 1282054 -.328700-.250000-.091000
...
impact_bar.dat:
$
GRID 1281154 .176400-.006968 .267826
GRID 1281155 .176400-.013936 .289273
GRID 1281156 .211960-.013936 .289273
GRID 1281157 .211960-.006968 .267826
GRID 1281158 .247520-.013936 .289273
GRID 1281159 .247520-.006968 .267826
-
$ -------- property set impactbar_prop ---------
CHEXA 1289014 1 1282001 1282002 1281991 1281990 1281154
1281157+A000001
+A000001 1281156 1281155
CHEXA 1289015 1 1282002 1282003 1281992 1281991 1281157
1281159+A000002
+A000002 1281158 1281156
CHEXA 1289016 1 1282003 1282004 1281993 1281992 1281159
1281161+A000003
+A000003 1281160 1281158
CHEXA 1289017 1 1282004 1282005 1281994 1281993 1281161
1281163+A000004
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486
+A000004 1281162 1281160
-
CPENTA 1289474 1 1282001 1281154 1282012 1282002 1281157 1282013
CPENTA 1289475 1 1282002 1281157 1282013 1282003 1281159 1282014
CPENTA 1289476 1 1282003 1281159 1282014 1282004 1281161 1282015
CPENTA 1289477 1 1282004 1281161 1282015 1282005 1281163 1282016
CPENTA 1289478 1 1282005 1281163 1282016 1282006 1281165 1282017
-
487 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Appendix A: Overview of the Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy
Schematic Setup
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488
Joint Information
489 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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General Numbering Information
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Component Numbering Information
491 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
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Joint Numbering Information
Appendix B: SURFACE and SET1 Definition
Surface
SURFACE and SET1
Identification Number Association Typical Usage
Buttocks 1011002 Lower Torso Seat Contact
Lap 1011003 Lower Torso,
Abdomen, Femurs
Lap Belt Contact
ChestRib 1041001 Upper Torso Chin to Chest Contact
Jacket 1041002 Upper Torso, Chest Belt and Airbag Contact
Back 1041003 Upper Torso Seat Contact
Chest 1051001 Chest Steering Wheel Contact
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Appendix C: hyb305 Positioning
The positioning of the dummy can be done by means of a little fortran program, called hyb305.f.
In the remainder of this text, it is assumed that the user has access to the executable form: hyb305.exe
Definition file: hyb305.def
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$
$ 5th Percentile Hybrid III Dummy Database Definition Model
$
$ @(#) HYB305 : 1.0 2003/05/01 :
$
$ Developed For : Dytran 2003
$ Unit System : kg, m, s, K
$ Release Status : NOT RELEASED
$ Performance : Functional Model Only - NOT VALIDATED
$
$ IMPORTANT NOTICE:
$
$ This Database is distributed under the GNU General Public License.
$ This database can be freely used, redistributed and/or modified under
Neck 1071001 Neck Belt and Airbag Contact
Head 1081001 Head Airbag Contact
Chin 1081002 Head Chin to Chest Contact
Left Upper Leg 1091001 Left Femur Seat Contact
Right Upper Leg 1101001 Right Femur Seat Contact
Left Knee 1111001 Left Knee Bolster Contact
Right Knee 1121001 Right Knee Bolster Contact
Left-lower Leg 1151001 Left Tibia Bolster Contact
Right-lower Leg 1161001 Right Tibia Bolster Contact
Left Shoe 1191001 Left Foot Floor Contact
Right Shoe 1201001 Right Shoe Floor Contact
Left-upper Arm 1231001 Left-upper Arm Airbag Contact
Right-upper Arm 1241001 Right-upper Arm Airbag Contact
Left-lower Arm 1251001 Left-lower Arm Airbag Contact
Right-lower Arm 1261001 Right-lower Arm Airbag Contact
Left Hand 1271001 Left Hand IP Contact
Right Hand 1281001 Right Hand IP Contact
Surface
SURFACE and SET1
Identification Number Association Typical Usage
493 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy
$ the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
$ Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or any later
$ version, provided that this message is retained.
$
$ This database is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
$ WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
$ See the GNU General Public License for more details
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$
$
$ NOTE: Interpretation of this file is case sensitive
$
$
$ 1 = pivot model for Rubber Neck components
$ 2 = FEM model for Rubber Neck components
SELECT, NeckModel, 2
$
$ Note: Angles in Degrees
$
$ nameID dim dof1 dof2 dof3
INIVAR, NumberingBase, 1, 1000000
$
$ translate in direction : forward left vertical
INIVAR, HPointPosition, 3, 0.000, 0.00, 0.000
$
$ rotate around direction: forward left vertical
INIVAR, HPointAngle, 3, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: forward left vertical
INIVAR, LowerTorsoAngle, 3, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left
INIVAR, NeckBracketAngle, 1, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left forward vertical
INIVAR, LeftHipAngle, 3, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left forward vertical
INIVAR, RightHipAngle, 3, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left
INIVAR, LeftKneeAngle, 1, -90.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left
INIVAR, RightKneeAngle, 1, -90.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left forward vertical
INIVAR, LeftAnkleAngle, 3, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left forward vertical
INIVAR, RightAnkleAngle, 3, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left vertical forward
INIVAR, LeftShoulderAngle, 3, -90.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left vertical forward
INIVAR, RightShoulderAngle, 3, -90.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left vertical
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy
494
INIVAR, LeftElbowAngle, 2, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left vertical
INIVAR, RightElbowAngle, 2, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left forward
INIVAR, LeftWristAngle, 2, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
$
$ rotate around direction: left forward
INIVAR, RightWristAngle, 2, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
495 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Hybrid III 5th%-tile Dummy
Reference Database
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
496
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
During a simulation with adaptive meshing, the Euler mesh changes continuously and “adapts itself” to
follow the coupling surface moves and deformations. The Euler mesh adapts to the coupling surface by
adding and removing elements. The adaptive algorithm ensures that the coupling surface is contained
inside the Euler mesh at all times with the minimum amount of elements.
This can save a lot of computational time but postprocessing can be a little tricky. Since the geometry can
change at any cycle, Euler archives contain only one cycle. This makes postprocessing with Patran
cumbersome, especially if one needs to postprocess several cycles. Usually, all one needs to do is to have
Dytran output results of all cycles in one big archive and read that into Patran. Not so with adaptive
meshing. Here, one has to read in a separate archive for each cycle which makes animation a difficult
task. For this purpose, a postprocessor must have multi-model capability to postprocess the multiple
archives each having a different geometry simultaneously.
A new functionally now allows easy postprocessing with Patran. The user defines a box. This box
consists of virtual elements and all adaptive elements completely inside the box will be mapped onto
matching virtual elements, making virtual element real. Virtual elements have grid points that are
compatible with real elements. Therefore, virtual and the real element have the same geometry and user
number, but only the adaptive elements have nonzero element values. When a virtual element is written
to output and if it has a matching real element the values of the real element are written out. The virtual
elements that have no matching real element are written out with zeroes. Since this box is fixed during
the simulation, the Euler element geometry does not change. Therefore, archives written with this option
can contain multiple cycles and can be postprocessed by Patran. Then, also with Patran, one can make
animations with adaptive mesh results. This new functionality is activated by specifying the STATBOX
entries on the MESH entry.
The size of the box can be chosen freely, but then, adaptive elements may be created that are outside of
the box. The run will continue with a warning and no output will be written for elements that are outside.
In general the box should be large enough to contain all adaptive elements that are created during the
simulation. For an adaptive run the adaptive meshing summary in the OUT file lists the largest box that
surrounds all adaptive elements. This box can be used to define the static output box. This option does
not require a significant amount of CPU time.
Problem Description
To illustrate static output for adaptive meshing, example problem 6.1 will be run with the Euler solver.
497 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
Airbag Model
Dytran Modeling
For details, see Example 6 1. The GBAG is replaced by a MESH entry and COUPLE entry. The MESH
entry will use adaptive meshing.
MESH,1,ADAPT,0.02,0.02,0.02,0.002,0.002,-0.002,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,1,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,-0.538,-0.438,-0.242,1.060,0.960,0.880
The dimensions of the static output box are set by the STATBOX fields on the sixth line of the MESH
entry. To get appropriate dimensions for the static output box the simulation is first run without the
STATBOX option. In this OUT file, there are several messages about adaptive meshing that monitor the
largest box that surrounds all adaptive elements so far. The last of this message reads:
* SMALLEST BOX CONTAINING ALL ELEMENTS:
*
*
*
* NUMBER OF ELEMENTS IN X,Y,Z DIRECTION: 53 44 21
*
* POINT OF ORIGIN -0.5380E+00 -0.4380E+00 -0.2420E+00
*
* WIDTH OF BOX 0.1060E+01 0.9000E+00 0.4200E+00
*
This is used on the STABOX fields. Also the simulation with STATBOX will show this message at the end.
Therefore, the box is large enough to contain the complete deployment process.
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
498
The coupling surface and inflator are defined by:
COUOPT, 1, 10,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT, 101325.
$
COUPLE,10,25,OUTSIDE,ON,ON, ,10,AIRBAG,+
+,10,,,,,,,,+
+, ,1
$
COUINFL,10,10,82,INFLATR1,82,CONSTANT,.01
INFLATR1,82,1,2,,1.4,,286.
The Euler is initialized by:
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO, 1,,,,,+
SPHERE, 1,, 0., 0. , 0., 1.E10
TICEUL,1,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,1, 5, 1, 1.
TICVAL,1, , DENSITY, 1.500, SIE , 371500.
To keep this example straightforward, no resizing has been applied. In this type of simulation, resizing is
worthwhile and static output supports it. The mapping between statbox element and adaptive elements is
one to one. Therefore, after each resize, the current Euler archive is closed and a new one is opened.
Results
All figures below where obtained by post processing just one Euler archive with Patran. The variable
VOLUME indicates whether an element is really existing as an adaptive element or as nonexisting
(VOLUME=0). The figures with Eulerian output show the first layer of element after x=0.
The figure at cycle 0 of Volume shows that initially a lot of elements have been created by adaptive
meshing. Many elements have been deleted as shown in the figure at cycle 219.
499 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
500
Velocities on the fmat=0.5 iso-surface for 20 ms and 60 ms.
501 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
Dytran Input File
NIF = FORM
START
Dytran input deck
CEND
CHECK=NO
ENDSTEP=100000
ENDTIME=60.E-3
TITLE=INFLATION OF DEMO PASSENGER-BAG USING EULER
TIC=1
SPC=1
TLOAD=1
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the euler elements:
$
ELEMENTS(EUL) = 995
SET 995 = ALLEULHYDRO
ELOUT(EUL) = PRESSURE,DENSITY,FMAT,XVEL,YVEL,ZVEL,SIE,VOLUME
ELOUT(EUL) = XMOM,YMOM,ZMOM
TIMES(EUL) = 0. THRU END BY 4.E-3
TYPE(EUL) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(EUL) = 1000
$
$ --------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the output for the membrane elements:
$
ELEMENTS(AIRBAG) = 996
SET 996 = ALLMEMTRIA
ELOUT(AIRBAG) = THICK,SMDFER
TIMES(AIRBAG) = 0. THRU END BY 4.E-3
TYPE(AIRBAG) = ARCHIVE
SAVE(AIRBAG) = 100000
$
$
$
BEGIN BULK
$ Initial timestep & minimum timestep
$
PARAM,FASTCOUP
PARAM,INISTEP,0.7E-05
PARAM,MINSTEP,.5E-8
$
CTRIA3 1 501 1 12 13
CTRIA3 2 501 1 13 2
--------
--------
CTRIA3 3514 505 1248 1242 2053
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 2 -.03 0.0 0.0
--------
--------
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
502
GRID 2145 .15 .0496 -.04
$
$ First quarter
$
PSHELL1,501,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
PSHELL1,502,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
------
------
PSHELL1,513,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ Second quarter (PID first + 50)
$
PSHELL1,551,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
PSHELL1,552,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
------
PSHELL1,563,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ Third quarter (PID first + 100)
$
PSHELL1,601,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
PSHELL1,602,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
------
PSHELL1,613,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ fourth quarter (PID first + 150)
$
PSHELL1,651,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
PSHELL1,652,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
------
------
PSHELL1,663,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ Define the inflator as membranes with a SPC to keep it at its
$ place.
$
PSHELL1,505,1,MEMB,,,,,,+
+,5.E-4
$
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
$ define the holes as dummy elements, so they have no strength
$ --> No material associated with them either !
$
503 Chapter 6: Occupant Safety
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
PSHELL1,510, ,DUMMY
PSHELL1,560, ,DUMMY
PSHELL1,610, ,DUMMY
PSHELL1,660, ,DUMMY
$
DMATEL,1,600.,6.E7,0.3
$
DMAT 5 .681864 1
EOSGAM 1 1.4 297.
$
MESH,1,ADAPT,0.02,0.02,0.02,0.002,0.002,-0.002,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,EULER,1,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,-0.538,-0.438,-0.242,1.060,0.960,0.880
PEULER1,1,,HYDRO, 1,,,,,+
SPHERE, 1,, 0., 0. , 0., 1.E10
TICEUL,1,,,,,,,,+
+,SPHERE,1, 5, 1, 1.
TICVAL,1, , DENSITY, 1.500, SIE , 371500.
$
$
COUOPT, 1, 10,,,,,,,+
+,CONSTANT, 101325.
$
COUPLE,10,25,OUTSIDE,ON,ON, ,10,AIRBAG,+
+,10,,,,,,,,+
+, ,1
$
$
$
COUINFL,10,10,82,INFLATR1,82,CONSTANT,.01
INFLATR1,82,1,2,,1.4,,286.
$
TABLED1 1 +
+ 0.00E+00 0.0 0.50E-02 .15 0.10E-01 3.05 0.15E-01 3.2
+
+ 0.20E-01 3.25 0.25E-01 3.25 0.50E-01 2.8 0.55E-01 1.75
+
+ 0.60E-01 1.0 0.65E-01 .5 0.70E-01 0.0 0.10E+00 0.0+
+ ENDT
TABLED1 2 +
+ 0.00E+00 500. 0.50E-02 500. 0.10E-01 600.
0.10E+006.000E+0+
+ ENDT
SPC 1 253 123456
SPC 1 254 123456
------
------
SPC 1 2145 123456
$
SURFACE,25,,SUB,42
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Easy Postprocessing with Adaptive Meshing
504
$
SUBSURF,42,25,PROP,42
SET1,42,501,THRU,513,551,THRU,563,601,+
+,THRU,604,606,THRU,613,651,THRU,663
$
SUBSURF,81,25,PROP,81
SET1,81,510,560,610,660
$
SUBSURF,82,25,PROP,82
SET1,82,505
$
ENDDATA
Chapter 7: Quasi-static Analysis
Dytran Example Problem Manual
7
Quasi-static Analysis

Overview 506

Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element
Solutions 507
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Overview
506
Overview
In this chapter, a number of example problems are presented that highlight the capabilities of Dytran in
the area of Quasi-static Analysis.
The user can find in these examples guidelines to model Quasi-static problems that include comparison
of Dytran results with that of MD Nastran.
The following example problem is described:
507 Chapter 7: Quasi-static Analysis
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran
Shell Element Solutions
Problem Description
A simple curved plate is subjected to constant load on one end and supported on the other end.
The motion of the nodes is damped by means of dynamic relaxation (VDAMP) to reach a static
deformed state.
The purpose of this model is to study the different options of the Dytran shell element formulations and
compare it to the solution of MD Nastran.

Figure 7-1 Curved Plate with CQUAD4 Elements
Material of the Plate (M300 Steel)

Initial Load
Total Force = 76.5 N
Density p = 8027 Kg/m
3
Young’s modulus E = 2E+11 Pa
Poisson’s ratio v = 0.3
Yield stress o
y
= 1.86E+9 Pa
Hardening modulus E
h
= 4E+9 Pa
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
508
Dytran Model
A simple mesh is set up (see Figure 7-1).
The curved plate, with overall length L = 0.3 m and width W = 0.1 m, is modeled with 800 CQUAD4
elements with a thickness of 2mm. The nodes near the holes of the plate are constrained in all direction.
The nodes on the end of the plate are loaded by a constant force, using the combination of TLOAD1,
FORCE, and TABLED1 options. In order to be able to compare the results with MD Nastran, the
LOBATTO quadrature is used on the PSHELL1 option. This option will give the effective stress output
on the face of the shell element. The model is run using both the KEYHOFF and BLT formulation.
The analysis is performed in two steps:
Step 1: In order to find the most optimal dynamic relaxation value (VDAMP), the first run is meant to
capture the oscillation frequency of the nodes, which are subjected to load. The parameter
VDAMP can be given in the following algebraic form:
In which T denotes the natural period of free vibration and is the time step used during the
analysis. The latter represents DLTH in .OUT file and can be found constant throughout the
analysis. The period T can be determined from the displacement versus time.
Step 2: In the second, by defining the parameter VDAMP found using the first step, damp out the
oscillations in the model.
Results
The correct solution of the undamped model is an oscillation with constant amplitude and frequency,
around an equilibrium state. Figure 7-2 shows the displacement of the nodes at the free end of the plate
for both the BLT and KEYHOFF shell formulations.
The KEYHOFF shell element shows the correct behavior, while the BLT shell diverges over time.
The reason for this is that the BLT element formulation does not capture a twisting deformation mode.
Figure 7-3 shows the displacement of the nodes at the free end of the plate for the KEYHOFF model, with
and without damping.
VDAMP
2
-
t
-
o
t
T
----------------- =
o
t
509 Chapter 7: Quasi-static Analysis
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
Figure 7-2 Resultant Displacement Time History of the Free Grid Point using BLT and
KEYHOFF Shell Formulation
Figure 7-3 Resultant Displacement Time History of the Free Grid Point using KEYHOFF
Shell Formulation (Damped and Undamped Models)
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
510
MD Nastran Results
MD Nastran’s linear static solution (SOL 101) and the nonlinear static solution (SOL 106) give very
similar results. See the table below.
It is important to note that MD Nastran by default computes the stress results on the face of the elements.
The load increment is done in steps of five for the nonlinear static analysis.
Dytran Results
When shell elements undergo a large rigid body rotation, it is important to activate the rigid body rotation
correction in the hourglass control (RBRCOR on the HGSUPPR option). The table below shows the
results obtained for the damped model, using the KEYHOFF shell formulation, with and without the rigid
body rotation correction.
It can be seen that the result of Dytran compares well with MD Nastran. When the rigid body rotation
correction is active, the displacements are identical, while the Maximum Stress differs by only 3.4%.
Maximum Displacement Maximum Stress
SOL 101 (linear statics) 0.0203 m 3.42E8 Pa
SOL 106 (nonlinear statics) 0.0202 m 3.43E8 Pa
Maximum Displacement (*) Maximum Stress (*)
KEYHOFF without RBRCOR 0.0199 m (1.9%) 3.11E8 Pa (9.0%)
KEYHOFF with RBRCOR 0.0202 m. (0.0%) 3.55E8 Pa (3.4%)
(*) = difference with MD Nastran SOL 106 solution
511 Chapter 7: Quasi-static Analysis
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
Figure 7-4 Fringe Plots from MD Nastran Results
Figure 7-5 Fringe Plot for Dytran Results
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
512
Files

Abbreviated Dytran Input File
START
CEND
ENDTIME=0.070
ENDSTEP=999999
CHECK=NO
TITLE= Jobname is: dytranjob
TLOAD=1
TIC=1
SPC=1
$ Output result for request: elements
TYPE (elem) = ARCHIVE
ELEMENTS (elem) = 1
SET 1 = 1 THRU 800
ELOUT (elem) = EFFSTS
TIMES (elem) = 0 thru end by 0.0005
SAVE (elem) = 10000
$
TYPE (grid) = TIMEHIS
GRIDS (grid) = 10
SET 10 = 977 713 449
GPOUT (grid) = XDIS YDIS ZDIS XFORCE RVEL RDIS RFORCE
TIMES (grid) = 0 thru end by 0.0005
SAVE (grid) = 10000
$
$------- Parameter Section ------
PARAM,CONTACT,THICK,0.0
PARAM,INISTEP,1e-7
PARAM,VDAMP,0.0001
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$ --- SPC-name = nodal_constraints
SPC1 1 123456 11 14 15 16 42 43+A000001
$
$ --- Define 889 grid points ---
$
GRID 1 .100000.0750000 .00000
GRID 2 .100000 .100000 .00000
:
GRID 1008 .106455 .00000.0005027
$
$ --- Define 800 elements
$
$ -------- property set prop ---------
CQUAD4 1 1 7 19 5 2
CQUAD4 2 1 8 20 19 7
:
plate.dat Dytran input file
PLATE.OUT Dytran output file
PLATE_ELEM_0.ARC Dytran archive file
PLATE_GRID_0.THS Dytran time history file
513 Chapter 7: Quasi-static Analysis
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
CQUAD4 800 1 975 229 226 1008
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
$ * prop *
$
PSHELL1 1 1 KEYHOFF LOBATTO +
+A000001 .0020
$
HGSUPPR,1,SHELL,1,,,,,,+
+,YES
$
CORD2R 1 0 .3 0 .05-.617356 0-.348067 +A000007
+A000007 .3 1 .05
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$ -------- Material steel1 id =1
DMATEP 1 8027 2e+11 .3 1
YLDVM 11.86e+09 4e+09 +A000008
+A000008
$
$ ======== Load Cases ========================
$ ------- Force BC nodal_force -----
TLOAD1 1 9 0 2
FORCE 9 449 0 1 1.7913 0 -4.1281
:
FORCE 9 977 0 1 1.7913 0 -4.1281
$
$ ================ TABLES =================
$ ------- TABLE 2: force_table -------
TABLED1 2
+A000009
+A000009 0 0 .003 1 .07 1 ENDT
ENDDATA
Dytran Example Problem Manual
Comparison of Quasi-static Dytran to MD Nastran Shell Element Solutions
514

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