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* Includes material used in a Ph. GOLDZIHER. but their alleged claims. 20I-78. 2. I shall not discuss their opposition to this on the basis of variant readings (qird'dt). Leiden I952. that the text was deliberately corrupted for political reasons in order to prejudice the rights of the Ahl al-Bayt and that they had a # genuine?)recension different to that canonized by the third Caliph. The gi'a claim that the 'Utmanic Quyr'n is not the true Quyr'n as revealed to the Prophet. especially 263-309. reprinted. Vorlesungen iuber den Islam. D. I. 3. controversieswith Sunnf commentators on the historical causes of the descent of the Qur'anic verses (asbdbaltanzil) and subsequently their interpretation. Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung. and that many verses and certain siiras which glorified 'Ali and asserted the prominent position of him and his family were omitted by cUtman and that the order of others was altered. Die i. juridically and politically. Two of the omitted siiras are: ((The Two Lights)) containing 4I verses and the (<al-walaya)> containing 7 verses 3. on the sects in his Vorlesungen His conclusions have been unquestioningly adopted by Islamists hitherto and may be summed up as follows: A. thesis entitled cASIb. but in this essay I jurists shall attempt to examine the attitude of the ImdmT-S?fi towards the text of the cUtmanic Codex. Goldziher devotes a considerable part of his lectures concerned with the exegesis of the Qur'dnwhich he delivered in the university of Upsala in I9I3 1 to this problem and touches on it in the chapter 2. GOLDZIHER. Abi Talib in Itnacasharf-gf c Belief written by the author and accepted by the Senate JNconnection of the University of London in June I966. I. The term & ca as used by Goldziher in this context refers to non-gulat . far-reaching theologically. Heidelberg I9IO.such as the concept of the nature of the Quradn as God's created word.<THE 'TE QUR'AN)): cI A Reconsiderationof Goldziher'sInterpretation* BY JOSEPH ELIASH with the S-jc attitude to the Qur'dn several problemsarise.
in discussing other g?ci schools from early Islam to the present time without differentiation. Chapitre inconnu du Coran. vol. cit. 249. in EI. Dieselbe. 'Ali possessed the complete and authentic copy of the Qur'dn which is three times longer in text than the cUtmanic Codex. veroffentlicht. Geschichte des Qurans. Koran.. XIII (1842). cAli. ST. op. Relation of Sbica Theology to the Qur'an. Shica additions to the Koran. idem. Leipzig I909. In addition to those sources dealing with genuine or alleged Ss'c material Goldziher. so behaupten die Schiciten. LII. XVI (I936).I6 J. London 1955. Examining the references of Goldziher one finds. either doctrinally or historically. anderseits seien wieder wichtige Stiicke des echten Korans durch Weglassung getilgt worden >. JEFFERY. III (I9I3). In the meanwhile. 3. 6. 227-41. 431-9. CLAIR TISDALL. idem. I97. in June I9I2. The Qur'anic Readings of Zaid b. LI. true believers are to accept the recension of cUtman until the appearance of the Hidden IMdm2. so hat sie seit der friihesten Zeit ihres Auftretens im allgemeinen die Integritat der cothmanischen Textgestaltung verdachtigt. I24-8. Clair Tisdall. i. 270. 92-8. no i (Jan. besides the Sunni sources the Tirfh of Yacqflbi3. Ed. 28-9. and <Alle diese schicitischen Zutaten wurden durch W. it also contained explanatory notes compiled on the authority of the Prophet. HOUTSMA. . 152-4. no 2 (April I962). D. enthalte im Verhaltnis zum echten Koran Muhammeds Zusatze und wesentliche Textanderungen. II. Cf. Alles Beweise fur die fortdauernde schIcitische Voraussetzung eines nicht unerheblichen Mankos im cothmanischen Koran im Verhaltnis zu dem urspruinglichen echten Kodex >. containing the full text of the above mentioned sfiras 4 and two articles concerning the siuraof <(The Two Lights)> published respectively by Garcin de Tassy5 and Mirza Kazembeg 6. 17-2I. C. 102-3. ELIASH  B. in Rivista degli Studi Orientali. It disappeared with the Twelfth Imam on whose reappearanceit will be revealed to the believers 1. It was secretly kept by cAli and the Imdms after him. BUHL. St. 4. I962). 37I-429. a #? )>manuscript of the Qur'dn which was discovered in Bankipore. no 3 (July I96I). 27I. and HOLLISTER. RAHBAR. India. in The Moslem World. XIV (I843). ed. N6LDEKE-SCHWALLY. i. in The Moslem World. 277-8. 5. Observations sur Chapitre inconnu du Coran. in Journal Asiatique. 2. nach welcher der uberlieferte Koran wegen der Bedenken gegen seine Authentie und Integritat nicht einmal als Quelle der Religion anerkannt werden k6nne. who is considered as proSt's cAld. This copy called ( Mushaf Fatima)> was given by the Prophet to his daughter before his death. W. Leiden I952. The Shica of India. Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung. vorlaufig nur in englischer tYbersetzung. His judgement is unequivocal and faithful to his clarity of expression he states as follows: ((Wenn auch in der Schlcitensekte die von einer ihrer extremen Gruppen versuchte Lehre zuriickgewiesen wird. A.
those men shall be made drink of boiling water# 5. . 3. 4. De Tassy cited it from the ascribed to Muhsin Fani... The one is from the other. The original text of these two lines reads as follows (as appears in the Dabistan. Verses (I7-20): (I7) <(And verily cAll is the Pious (I8) And verily We shall surely pay him his whole due on the Day of Judgment (I9) Nor are We regardless of his being wronged (20) And We have honoured him above all thy family . It begins as follows: (i)<< 0 ye who have believed. I02-7. refersto the Usfil al-kdfiof Kulini 1 The articles by de Tassy and Kazembeg discuss the siura of <(TheTwo Lights >which was published and translated by de Tassy for the first time in a Europeanlanguage. 272): 4pLs -UT auT & 't selc . shall be cast into Hell (5) Verily those who have wronged their own souls and have rebelled against the Executor (wasg)of the Apostle. Z_4ilk J 91l e-LLr L. and ye broke the convenants after confirming i. through their breaking their contract and what the apostle covenanted upon with them. idem.f (20) ' 4. idem.. the Knower 4 Verses (4) and (5) read as follows: (4) <(And those who have disbelieved after that they have believed. published a few years Dabistan-i-Maddhib earlierin India 2.. E)!J(2) I 1jA' Cf. iT uAA AijT u is tL(I) C N l.!_1 l. This sfurais quoted in the Dabistan in Arabic and 3. r4L! 1a-TLJ . They recite unto you my verses and they warn you of the punishment of a great day (2) Two Lights one of them 4 from another: and verily We are the Hearer. 2 .. 6.[31 ((THE SI'ITE QUR AN)> I7 S?ic topics.@lJ + tt + < (4) ~~~~(5) &S I8 ! N"0b(I7) OSl 6. believe in the Two Lights which we have sent down.. 272. 2. Verse (23): ((Say thou to those who have disbelieved after they believed: "Ye have sought the adornment of the lower life and were over-hasty about it. one for << of them from another? read. (I9) 1~ 4<A -ud ARABICA XVI o L. ibid. s. especially ?fIc Hadit. 4sWwt .!s. The translation of this passage and the following is by TISDALL. idem. N6LDEKE-SCHWALLY. entitled sarat al-niurayn referring to Muhammad and cAll. Vorlesungen iuberden Islam. The edition at my disposal was lithographed in Lucknow I294/I877.
none of which are to be found in the 'Utmanic Codex and that it is claimed that the manuscripts had been purchased from a nawwdbin Lucknow and that it was 200-300 years old 5.AU j1. And We have indeed stricken for you the likeness of those who are beforehand that perchance ye might be guided aright" . and I am the Knower. Reading sanagcalu the translation would be <<We shall place. supra. (32) wYI~~~~. "Allis an adorer by night. Say thou: Are they equal [to him] those who have acted wrongfully? And they shall know it in my punishing their doings (36) He shall place [sic] 2 iron collars about their necks and they shall be remorsefulof their doings# 3. 34-36): (32) <(And We have made for thee from among them an Executor (wasiyyan). containing 7 verses reads as follows: (i) # 0 ye who have believed.t:14 J-)I iT U (34) . Jo IS Le I a1S o!U (3)aXILpw . the translation may be rendered as follows: << will be placed?. Tisdall quotes also from this manuscript the sgra of the Two Lights (sfiratal-ngrayn) and adds that the manuscript contains in addition to these two siiras. idem. and be thou of the thankful ones (35) Verily. a number of odd verses. Verses (32. 3. oA>o y<. those who faithfully performGod's covenant. the Well-Informed (3) Verily. who quotes it from the above mentioned manuscript of the Qur'dn discovered in Bankipore 4. . J9Sl ~~(36) ). 5.i8 J. to them belong the Gardens I. . a worshipper.?0 or Iron collars reading satugcalu.>1. that perchancethey may return (34) O Apostle. (U. he dreadeth the next world and he hopeth for his Lord's reward. This other suira. The other sura quoted by Goldziher is in fact the <siirat alwalaya > published by Tisdall.. We have believed [sic!]: accept thou it. believe in the Prophet and the Governor (wali) both of whom we have sent: They shall guide you to a right way (2) A Prophet and a Governor are the one from the other.(23) J 2. note 4. p.ai ""&&4) 4. ELIASH [41 them.. therefore.
4 lil aJ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~J d (4) ~ H t o " R L (6) ZA1X.(7) 9. indeed. it As to the Dabistdn-i-Maddhib. is to consider whether these references quoted by Goldzihercan be presented as evidence that the Imdmi Si'a rejects the integrity of the text of the 'Utmanic Codex of the Qur'dn. It has already been shown by St..U 9 LLJT + S. ((THE SI'ITE QUR'AN )> i9 of delight (4) And those who. the Imdmf-S'i claim that 'All is the walf of God and that he was the direct successor of Muhammaddesignated to his office by God. those who account the messengers liars? (6) He created them not.-jj sj1. The contents of the two <( siras)> support. (5) Z rtai- .) reads as follows: [sic] Cyvp .except in the truth. 'Ali is [one] of the witnesses # '. have accounted our verses lies (5) Verily to them belongeth in hell a great place. L.What is relevant here. and God was not about to manifest them until an appointed time near at hand (7) And land thou in the praise of the Lord. however. ClairTisdall that these additions are forgeries.X1< 4otILW C5t. the Messengers.7. cit. rj19I 4J1 ji p6<Jb J1 K I JX 1 ji bl (3) o g I. Zj. AI . but in orderto accept these #siras ))as an Imdam-Si'ievidence. when our verses are recited to them. He discusses twelve different religions practised in his time in India and devotes just a i.a 2 4S LLZJ : fW Gf . we have first to prove that they are considered by the Imcmi-9S'a themselves as genuine siiras that have been omitted from the 'Utmanic Codex. The Arabic text as quoted in the Dabistdn (op.T oiJI [sic] Lv I (I) 4?o + 9 1S 1w. . its only < connection ))with the is Imdmf-SfTa the claim that the manuscript was bougth from a nawwJbin Lucknow which was a centre of Imdmi learning in India.rv -. sis a4 J-.U T . is significant to note that the author does not identify himself with the Ss'a. Concerningthe Bankipore text. Where are the wrong-doers. when it is proclaimed to them on the day of Resurrection. This alone does not constitute it into an authoritative Qur'an for the Imdmi-Si'a.
vol. Muhammad Mu'min and Mulla IbrThim.<(theauthor of this book relates what he has learned from Mulla Muhammad Ma'sum. I. He precedes the ((Si7rat al-ni7rayn)>by the following statement: ( Some of them [the Sf'a] say that 'Utman burnt the copies of the Qur'an and excluded (rejected) some of the si7ras which were on the subject of the dignity of "Aliand his excellence.ltj 270.1 IJ* ? 1 91 31 c5 4) JV1 " idem. TROYER. 320/932) there are several traditions which. in EI. also rewritten by H.D. oL. ibid. Transl. has 6.. Muhsin Fani. idem.. a scholar of Mulla 5. " . no one collected it and recited it. . I643) were in Lahore and from others . ELIASH [6) few pages to the gf'a which he entitles ((Statements about the second sect of the Muslims who are known as the S!. Introduction. Yakub.. Paris I843. at first sight. 3 vols. may justify Goldziher's conclusions. . by D... 270.s 9 4. Madahib: <# the author really seems to have belonged to an enlightened Parsi sect. 885. VII.^ 4 S6 w - j 3.20 J. vol. all of it as was sent down. They give the date of the death of the supposed author. whoever claims that he collected the Quryin. MASSA in the second ed. Hence the Dabistan cannot be referred to as an Imami-S "isource and nor can its author be called an Imdmi'Sic 6. Stifi of Kachmir)> but make no mention whatsoever that he was a Ss's authority. is a liar. HOROVITz the following to say about the author of the Dabistan-iMuhsin Fani was long erroneously regarded as the author.. 2. Muhammad al-Baqir: ((Verily.1 31 Jv L" i T b 31 J" 41. . one of those sairas is this: >3. SHEA and A.. Among them are the following two traditions quoted on the authority of the fifth Imdm.>2 and the like. 72. In Kulini's Usfjl (written ca. The Dabistan or School of Manners. first ed.. as probably I08I/I670. II. 1."a 1 and * prefaces his remarks by phrases such as <( author of this book the was informed by the learned of this sect >. I. the editors are not certain of the identity of the author. and state of that he was <( the philosophic sect of the saffs >.. j3 AS" rx>1i . ibid. 5. vol. as God the Most High had sent it I. < a native of Kachmir. *6.)-j jl 4D: A C-. The Dabistcn-i-Maddhibwas critically edited and translated into English in the year I843 4. Dabistan. I.who in the year of I053 (A. p. a learned man and a respectable poet. j .
Abi Talib. ibid. Hasan al-TABARsI. and the Imams. and a change in the order of some of the suiras as well as some of the verses 3.II w S ~~~~wA L. Their regard for the cUtmanicCodex is clearly shown in the following words of Saddfiqi (d.AJK. its apparent (zahir) and hidden (bdtin) meaning except the awsiyd' [i. Lithographed ed. I. in referring to such hadfts do not claim deliberate corruption of the contents of the cUtmanic Codex.bT w _. I. by FYZEE. WI WI 4JI4w L1a. 6. of it. Risdlat al-Ictiqadat al-Imamiyya. 56. " . ibid. held among others by the Banu Nawbaht7. Tehran I37I/I95I and MA6LISI.e. Mufid (d.. but only certain textual differencesarising from the variant readings (qira'at) and dialectical peculiarities.1s L "?~~~~~~jI 2. London I942. They also claim that cAli and the eleven Imdms are the only ones after Muhammad who know the right order. unacceptable to the Imami-Ss'a..e. ((THE SI'ITE QUR'AN*) 2I down. XIX. may peace be upon him. 85. nothing is omitted from it] ))5. Awa'il al-Maqcldt ft l-Maddhib al-Muhtyrat. and it is not greater in extent than that [i. ibid. English transl. relating mainly to the period before the w X. it becomes clear that Kulini and other Imdmi jurists. ?g1^ L> 4w*1c. But on a closer examination and having regard to Imdmf-St'c juristic terminology. Tabriz I364/1944. J l l I rU I Di 51 . 38I/99I-2): ((Our belief is that the Qur'dn. These different views.which God revealed to His prophet Muhammad is [the same as] the one between the And it is [the same as] that two boards (ma bayna 1-daffatayn). and that this copy contains in the margin explanatory notes by cAllwhich they revere to the same extent as the revealed text 4. 4I3/I022) tells of different views. the Magmac al-Bay2n ft Tafsir al-Qur'dn. Tehran 1374/I954. 5. . by Fadl b. all claim that he possesses the whole of the QuPrdn. but 'Ali b. I9-20. <(And he who asserts that we say it is greater in extent than this [the present text] is a liary)6. IlJt I1 Jls al-Kafi (Usul). may peace be upon them. the ImdMs] > 2. Bihar. 4. after him >) And ((No one is able to 1. l 4OI r 3. A Shicite Creed. See the authoritative ?il' (Imdmi) tafsir. which is in the hands of the people. that this copy is in the possession of the Twelfth Imam who will bring it forth on his reappearance. 228. Persia I30I- JU U" 15/I1883-97. 7. 4L-- 1E Y! I- L. I5. that (All possessed a copy which is set in the right order. Bihdr al-Anwar.
al-Kafl(UIihl). &I-. Some terms are used by the Sf'c jurists not in their most common is sense. For instance. taken in the sense of continuous innovation or creation.22 J. 4. in Joshua Bloch Memorial Volume-Studies in Booklore and History.w ~JI. as in the following: ((They [the Imdmf-S?fa] argued that the Imctms of the wrong differed in much concerning of the order (ta"lIf) the Qur'dnand they changed it from what is in accordance with the order of its revelation and the tradition of the Prophet )>2. See also Bihar. XIX. only on the ground that in the Koran the term mahli!k is never used as a description of the origin of the Koran. New York I960. and not ( uncreated 3 as in the following tradition related on the authority of the Imdm 6acfar al-$adiq: ((The Qur'dnis the speech of God created not containing a lie "jjL. by A. or. the Qur'an is not a rational being who commands and forbids but there are those who are endowed with the knowledge of the Qur'dnwho command and forbid . on the authority of the Imam (acfar al-$adiq. 1. affected Imdmi-BS'c thought but were not part of it. Commenting on the terms muhdat and gayr mahluiq in the usage of certain halamists with respect to the controversy of whether the Qur'an was eternal or created and as are quoted by A'sari. whereas hadat. ed. XIX. idem. on the ground that muhdat is a more appropriate term than mahlik to be used as a description of the emergence of the Koran into external existence from an existence as a power within God. I8-9. not # Thus < gayr mahli7q is used in the sense of <( containinga lie)> 3.c A_. WOLFSON states as follows: "The reason for the substitution of muhdat for mahlik as a description for the createdness or non-eternity of the Koran is either. The reason for the substitution of hadat for gayY mahlfk as a description of the uncreatedness or eternity of the Koran is that gayr mahlilk might mean eternal not only in the sense of beginningless but also in the sense of causeless. while it means eternal in the sense of beginningless. l PI y1 ~ AwtPil. ELIASH  disappearance of the Twelfth Imdm. can never be taken to mean causeless". L. 99. 91vvj Jxljt "D t9 ". i. I3. which determines the attitude of the Imdmf-9i cato the Qur'dn is the following: < Verily. . 31. the term ta'lUf used in the sense of assembling or setting in order. 3. r JT)Ii >" J JJTJI ! 4. Another tradition quoted by Kulini. . The Terms Muhdat and Hadat as Applied to the Koran. S. SADDUQ quotes the following verse from the Qur'an . BERGER.. MEYER. 246 J ejSi Gl~ A " 2. Bihdr. as in the passage of al-Thalji. &. whereas the term muhdat is used as such a description. as in the passage of al-Isbahani. MARWICK and I.
but do not form part of the Qur'dn. is its Creator and Revealer and Master and Utterer". His speech and His book. the Praiseworthy (4I: 42). idem. Risala.1 detailed discussion of the terms muhdat and gayr mahliiq as used by see the ?fci authorities not in the sense quoted by WOLFSON Bihdr. < k Z. is most explicit in conveying that the word mushaf implies a bookand not the Book.I 1 - i Lv. 240. al-Kaff (Usfil). ibid. For a that " L4 J1Zj tSZ.i k. they would surely have been included and not excluded from it .U S > L. the Qur'dn. And the difference [in the qird'dt. the Prophet. sent down by Him. 4-5. idem. the following tradition on the authority of the Imam Oa'far is al-$adiq may be quoted: # The Quir'dn one: it was revealed by One to one single Prophet. " (XXIX: i6) in order to explain 4 1 'v. 54-6. 87. 84-5. see Aw2'il. the circumstances of the compilation of this mushaf. In this category of Hadit. states the following also: "Our belief concerning the Qur'yn is that SADDUQ it is the word (kaldm) of Allah and His revelation.if they did. A revelation from the Wise. they claim. See also Bihar.>2. God sent an angel to console her. all of which are revelations. Risala. as shown by the following description on the authority of the Imdm Oa'far al-Sadiq. <a book (mushafUn)three times as large as the Qur'dn containing knowledge of all events until the Day of it Resurrection*)3and (x contains nothing which is in the Qur'an)*4. as quoted by Kulini. She heard the angel's voice speaking to her ts:i "tc . readings] is due only to different transmitters (ruwdt) >)1. . the Sif' tradition. The Imdm is quoted as stating. I. Discussing traditions which are considered as revelations (for instance those which are quoted on the authority of the Prophet as Gabriel'ssayings to him) the Imdm 6a'far al-$adiq is quoted as saying: # There are many such [traditions]. the gf' jurists include the explanatory notes which cAli wrote in the margin of his copy of the Qur'Jn.. also. 2.for. For a discussion concerning the integrity of the cUtmanic Codex based on reasoning. <(THE SI'ITE QUR'AN # 23 To sum up the attitude of the Imdmi-?'i jurists to the 'Utmanic Codex. 3. Blessed and Exalted is He above all. 4. Concerningthe # mushafFdtima ))referredto by Goldziheras a copy of the Qur'dnthree times longer in text than the 'Utmanic Codex. Verily Allah. He relates that when Fatima was in despair after the death of her father. idem. these notes arose out of his conversations with the Prophet. And falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it. I.
ASCARI Maqaldt al-Islamiyyin.i' jurists confirmsthe opinion that among the Imdmf-Ss'a there were some who rejected the 'Utmanic Codex. Discussion of the question of the integrity of the 'Utmanic Codex by the early Imdmi-S. the Qur'ln is altered in their [the Imlmi-gica] claim. is the same book accepted by the Imdmi-Si'a as the Holy Qur'Jn. 2nd edition. it is beyond any doubt that at least as early as Kulini (d. Hellmutt RITTER. al-Sunna wa-l-g?ca. i. They [the Sunnis] omitted about a third of it as their books declare #.. The Qur'dnin the form accepted by the Sunnis as the Holy Quyr'n revealed to the Prophet.e. promulgating that its infallible exegesis (kept by the absent Twelfth Imdm) will be available to the believers only at the end of time 2. #. The ImdmfT-S_a maintain that only the order of some of the suras as well as some of the odd verses. It is interesting to note that a Sunni scholar as distinguished as Muhammad Rasid Rid. 329/ 940). . Cf. C. The Imam is quoted as adding that it was all about what to be and nothing about what is lawful and what is unlawful 1. Wiesbaden I382/I963. 43. qird'dt. She did so. ELIASH [Io] and tolcd'All about it. 2.are concerned) was corrupted in the 'Utmanic Codex.. ed.it is suggested that Goldziher'sconclusions as referredto. and he wrote down everything the angel told her. Cairo I347/I928. 55 respectively. "Allinstructed her to tell him whenever she heard the voice. above. the late editor of al-Manar published the following: ((The Rdfida (meaning the Imami-gica) claim that what is between the two boards is not all God's word and that the Companions of the Prophet omitted from it some verses and the siQraof al-wilaeya i. idem. They elevated the interpretation of the Qur'dn ascribed to "Allto while continuing to share the same degree as the revealed Qu?r'dn the reverenceof the generalcommunity of the Muslimsto it. the wilaya of cAll *.24 J. "All'scopy of the Qur'dncontained the siiras and verses in their revealed order. It did not contain any additional revealed text and included "Ali's explanatory notes. and not their content (except as far as differenceswhich arose from various readings. the 'Utmanic Codex had been accepted by the Imdmi jurists. But. B. 'Ali and the eleven Imdms are the only ones after Muhammad who know the right order. 'All's notes are revered by the Sfca to the same extent as the revealed text. 47. be modified as follows: A. . And. Considering the views of the Imdmi jurists concerning their attitude to the Qur'dn.
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