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The Seoul Consensus
Courtesy of Reuters
International Development International development is aid given by governments and other agencies to support the growth of economic, social and political systems in developing nations. There are different kinds of aid, and considerable debate over which is best. Humanitarian Aid: This is also known as emergency aid and is given to people of countries in immediate need of assistance. For example, after the Haiti earthquake, many nations and individuals gave humanitarian aid for basics like food, water and shelter. Development Aid: This is the transfer of financial assistance or resources to eliminate poverty in the long term. There are many different ways development aid can be given. This includes, food aid (when a country is given food supplies), project aid (when money and resources are directed towards building a school or water project), or even technical assistance (when professions like doctors lend their expertise). The Seoul Consensus was agreed upon by the G20 nations in Nov. 2010. It takes a new approach to development by focusing on economic growth. States plan to invest in infrastructure, job creation and the development of a skilled workforce among other principles. Key Terms consensus – majority of opinion infrastructure – the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools investment – the investment of money or capital in order to gain profitable returns, as interest, income, or appreciation in value micro-finance – a means of extending credit, usually in the form of small loans with no collateral, to nontraditional borrowers such as the poor in rural or undeveloped areas poverty – the state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support; condition of being poor; indigence SIM card – a small card used in a mobile phone to store data about the network, telephone number, etc.
For more information on the Seoul Consensus see http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/2010/g20seoul-development.html
Global Voices Elementary Educator Resources
Note to Educators:
The following activities are designed to stimulate a current events discussion. Generative in nature, these questions can be a launching point for additional assignments or research projects. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities to meet the contextual needs of their classroom. In some cases, reading the article with students may be appropriate, coupled with reviewing the information sheet to further explore the concepts and contexts being discussed. From here, teachers can select from the questions provided below. Activities are structured to introduce students to the issues, then allow them to explore and apply their learnings. Extension and conclusion activities are included to challenge students and finally, encourage them to reflect on the issues at hand. Ontario curriculum connections charts for grades 6 to 12 are included on the Global Voices homepage, www.thestar.com/globalvoices.
General Expectations: strategies are not included.
Since these activities are designed as discussions rather than formal lessons, assessment
Themes and Course Connections
Technology, poverty, budgeting, finance, development, investment, NGOs, communication, and infrastructure. Curriculum Connections: Social Studies, Science and Technology, Language, The Arts.
Blackboard Writing utensils Monopoly money or construction paper Paper Global Voices column: Consensus
Specific Expectations and Learning Goals
Students will: Learn about methods of communication. Organize a school event. Learn the value of money, how to budget and the importance of banks. Develop their own point of view from evaluating and discussing various news sources. Develop and strengthen existing research skills. Participate in active group discussions. Practice their media literacy skills.
Knowledge and Understanding
1. Broken Telephone (estimated time: 15 minutes) a. Ask the whole class to sit in a circle on the ground. b. Explain to the students that they will be playing a game called “broken telephone”. The way the game works is the teacher will whisper a sentence to one person in the circle. This person must memorize the sentence and pass it to the next person by whispering in their ear. The sentence will be passed down the 1 of 4
line until it finally gets to the last person in the group. This person will then have to stand up and reveal the sentence. c. Begin the game by whispering a sentence in one of the student’s ears allowing the students to carry out the rest as instructed. (Teacher Note: the sentence should be at least six words long, as the more complicated it is, the more successful the game will be.) d. When the sentence has made its way around the entire circle and has been announced by the final participant, have a class discussion using the following suggested questions: i. Did the sentence change as it went around the circle? How? ii. Why did these changes occur? iii. How could we have ensured that the sentence didn’t change from the first recipient to the last? e. Move the discussion onto outlets of communication using the following suggested questions: i. What are the different ways that we communicate with the people around us? ii. Who in this room has a phone in their house? How does a landline improve your communication with others? iii. Who in this room owns a cell phone? Whose parents own a cell phone? How do cell phones improve your communication with others? iv. If you did not own a landline or a cell phone, how would your communication with others suffer? f. Explain to students that the game of broken telephone symbolizes communication in the developing world. In many cases there are no landlines and no cell phones, making communication much more difficult.
1. Guided Reading: Global Voices column (estimated time: 20 minutes) a. Have students sit in a circle and distribute one copy of the Global Voices column to each student. b. Pre-reading steps: i. Make predictions: ask students to read the title of the column and view the pictures. After doing so, ask them to make predictions over what the column is going to be about. ii. Introduce vocabulary: mobile phones, poverty, subscriber, customers, pseudo, technology, financial, consensus, development, investment, private-sector, foreign, NGOs, communication, revolutionized, rural, looters, SIM card, text, infrastructure, and microfinance. iii. Prior knowledge: ask students to discuss what they already know about these topics. c. Reading steps: i. Go around the circle and have each student read a section of the column to the class, giving each student a turn to read. ii. As students are reading offer guidance and coaching by providing prompts, asking questions, and encouraging attempts at reading strategy application. d. Post reading steps: i. Encourage students to provide a summary of the column in order to ensure they have understood the series of events. ii. Ask questions about the text to judge comprehension. 2. Media Literacy (estimated time: 15 minutes) a. Divide the class into small groups and distribute chart paper to each group. b. On the chart paper, ask each group to write the heading “Consensus” in the center of the page. 2 of 4
Creating a word web, ask each group to write out all the words that come to mind upon reading the column. d. When students have completed their word webs ask them to answer the following questions in their groups: i. What is the title of this column? ii. Who created this message? iii. What creative techniques are used to attract my attention? iv. How might other people understand this message differently than me? v. What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in this message? Which ones are left out? vi. What statistics or facts are listed in the column? vii. Why has this message been created? viii. Do you agree with this message? ix. What do you know? What are you unsure of? What would you like to know? e. As a class, discuss the students’ word webs as well as their answers to the above questions. Address the reasons why it is important to understand the source and potential bias of a website or print resource offering news information.
1. Money (estimated time: 40 minutes) a. Ask the students what they found most interesting in the Global Voices column. (Teacher Note: lead students into a conversation about money and banks.) b. Once on the topic of banks, ask students to discuss the following and their purpose: i. Money ii. Banks iii. Savings account and checking account iv. Budget c. Organize the class into groups of three and provide each group with a pretend $20 bill. (Teacher Note: these bills can be used from the monopoly board game or they can be created out of construction paper.) d. Explain to the students that the goal for each group is to sell all of the products in their store and budget their spending money to purchase products they need to make it through a school day. e. Ask each group to find four items from their desk and/or back pack to price such as a pencil, a book, an eraser and a pair of scissors. f. Students within each group must decide on a price for each of their four “products” and write the price on a sticky note that they attach to the item. g. Each group will be responsible for deciding how they are going to spend their $20 budget. h. As a group, they must display their items on a desk as if it is their store. i. Instruct each group to arrange themselves in the following roles: banker, shopper and store owner. j. The shoppers must wander around the classroom visiting each store and determining what to buy while the store owners run their stores and try to pitch the products to the shoppers. Meanwhile, the banker must track the money the shopper spends and the money the store owner makes and act as a consultant for the shopper determining whether or not to buy certain products or save the money. k. Continue this activity until the majority of the groups have sold all four of their products. When this is complete, ask each group to present their choices to the class, discussing how and why they decided to spend and save their money. l. Debrief the activity using the following suggested questions: 3 of 4
i. In this activity, what did the shopper represent? When do you play this role in your life? What about the store owner? What about the banker? ii. What would have happened during this activity if you had not had a banker? How would you have tracked your money? Where would you have stored it? What problems would this have caused? m. Revisit the Global Voices column and discuss the impact that the new banking system has on the Kenyan people.
1. Classroom Rummage Sale (estimated time: continuous project) a. As an opportunity to learn about the value of money while incorporating social action, have a class run a school rummage sale. b. As a class, choose a cause and an organization to direct your earnings. c. Divide the students into roles such as: advertiser spokesperson, banker, salesperson etc. Empower the students in your class by encouraging them to take charge in their role and decide what needs to be done to ensure that the event runs smoothly and that the school is aware of what is happening. d. Approaching the date of your rummage sale, ask students and teachers in the school to bring in old toys, books, etc. to sell. e. Then let the event unfold!
In addition to the above lesson plans, you may want to share some additional resources with your students. Listed below are some links to useful online resources: Multi-Yeah Action Plan on Development - http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/2010/g20seouldevelopment.html About the G20 - http://www.g20.org/about_what_is_g20.aspx The International Development Research Center - http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-1-201-1DO_TOPIC.html Division of Sustainable Development United Nations http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/index.shtml?utm_source=OldRedirect&utm_medium=redirect&utm_co ntent=dsd&utm_campaign=OldRedirect
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