Outline

Room Acoustical Measurements
27.11.2003
timo.peltonen@akukon.fi

• Background & Tradition
• • • • • • • • • •

• Room Acoustical Measurements and Analysis
Standards Equipment, Case study Measurement positions A glance at room acoustical parameters Theory vs. practice Requirements for data analysis Reporting results Accuracy of results

How to describe room acoustics? An overview of measurement methods

Timo Peltonen

… Examples and Case Studies • Discussion

Background & Tradition
• The acoustical properties of rooms and halls • how to describe/compare/quantify? • subjective/objective issues • a combined result of many factors • Historical issues • traditionally acoustical design was based on prior experience, copying, and chance • musical styles followed the architecture • First scientific approach by Sabine in 1900 • a century of discoveries followed, but • current practice is still largely empirical

Measurement Methods
• Sabine's reverberation measurements

and presenting the test report includes reverberation time T. data evaluation methods. Acoustics — Measurement of sound absorption in a reverberation room. • • • • applicable for evaluating rooms intended for speech or music (concert halls. . lateral energy fraction (LEF). hand claps • Levels recorded using analog devices (plotters) • determination of decay curve. early/late energy ratios (C.Slightly later on… • Impulsive sound sources used • pistols.4 kHz) • typically a dodecahedron • a subwoofer may be added for LF bands • ISO 354:1985.) • pseudorandom (MLS) • arbitrary (FFT) Standards for Measurements • ISO 3382:1997. apparatus. Acoustics — Measurement of the reverberation time of rooms with reference to other acoustical parameters. required coverage. T60 • Pros: • simple. rather robust • Cons: • limited repeatability • tedious for multiple frequency bands • Intermediate methods: • truncated noise • Modern methods: • measurement of system impulse response • sweeps (TDS etc.D). as well as for noise protection issues describes the measurement procedure. auditoria). relative sound pressure ratios (G). balloons. IACC) and background noise levels covers both impulse response and interrupted noise methods Equipment for measurements • Sound source • omnidirectional • sufficient SPL …over a large frequency band (125 Hz . interaural cross correlation (IACF.

B&K OmniPower Sound Source Type 4296 B&K Omnisource Type 4295 B&K Omnisource Type 4295 B&K OmniPower Sound Source Type 4296 • Microphones • omnidirectional (standard) • figure-of-eight (LEF) • dummy head or in-the-ear mics (IACC) • directional multichannel probes… B&K OmniPower Sound Source Type 4296 B&K Omnisource Type 4295 .

spark gap. processing and analysis • usually by means of a computer • traditional methods include devices such as • noise generator • sound level meter. filter bank • pen plotter • Filters • 1/3 and 1/1 octave band filters (standard) Case Study: The IRMA measurement system 1(2) 12-channel microphone grid 12 binaural head 2 3 2 3 A/D 6 D/A rackmount PC computer omni source (subwoofer unit) omni and 2 cardioids laptop pc . balloon etc.…) • computer for modern methods • Data storage. hand clap.• Signal source • noise generator • impulse source (pistol.

7 m above seat • variances caused by the seat dip effect • omni source and microphones as in ISO 3382 • frequency range: octave bands 125…4000 Hz • halls are usually empty during measurements • music stands and chairs present on platform • slight adjustment required for S-P pairs 2b / 5 R2 b / 4 l/2 R5 b/2 b/3 R3 l/5 STALLS EVENTUAL BALCONIES l/2 R4 . Filtering Room Acoustic Parameters Other applications The IRMA hardware External units Multichannel AD converter Multichannel preamplifier Other functions Plotting Accessories Measurement positions for concert halls • based on specifications published by A.C. violas/cellos (mid-right) • S3: winds (far left. 2nd row) • 5–7 audience receiver points: R1… • 3 stage receiver points • P1: solo oboist • P2: string section.2 m above floor / 0.The IRMA Matlab software IRMA setup structure GUI File I/O Devices Stimulus Acquisition Filtering Measurement Stimulus Acquisition IR calc. IR post processing Windows soundcard interface Analysis IR post-proc. 2nd row) Measurement PC Multichannel soundcard Remote operation for field use ORCHESTRA PLATFORM S3 P2 P1 P3 S2 S1 l/4 2b / 5 R1 l/2 • measurement position heights: • sources and stage receivers: 1 m above stage • audience receivers: • 1. Gade (1989) • 3 source points on stage • S1: soloist next to conductor (front left) • S2: string section. 1st/2nd violins (mid left) • P3: winds (far right.

time • no background noise Standard room acoustical parameters are based on this ideal model.A Glance at Room Acoustical Parameters • Room acoustics are always field measurements — are the results • reliable? • repeatable? • representative? (If so. what do they represent?) • An overview of standardized room acoustical parameters and factors affecting their measurement follows… A Little Theory… An ideal closed acoustical space has: • a perfectly diffuse sound field • evenly spaced absorption • negligible single room modes • an exponential decay of sound vs. A Little Practice (or: stepping into a muddy puddle…) Data Analysis In practice. reflected and diffuse sound (strong temporal variance) • unevenly spaced absorption (audience…) • strong single room modes at low frequencies • multiple decays • high levels of background noise (demo) Robust methods are required! . 99% of measurement results need to be analyzed automatically. (The Lumpy Road of) A real closed acoustical space typically exhibits: • a mixed sound field of direct.

raw response 0 0 2 0 2. noise floor truncated 0 2 0 2 0 3.Response analysis in the IRMA system Response analysis IR processing detect noise floor locate direct sound truncate pre-delay estimate decay curve iterate noise-decay crosspoint truncate noise tail calculate decay compensation Filtering calculate coefficients calculate delays time-reverse data filter data time-reverse filtered result Room acoustic parameters calculate Acquired response (ETC. Schroeder) 0 -0 2 -0 2 -0 4 -0 4 -0 6 -0 6 display results -0 8 -0 8 -0 10 0 10 0 20 0 30 0 40 0 50 0 -0 10 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 0 0 10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 0 100 200 300 400 500 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Example: Energy-time curves and Schroeder plots of an IR 1. Schroeder) 0 Extracted decay (ETC. direct sound located Reverberation time T • denoted as T or T60 • determined from the decay curve • straight? monotonic? ideal? • background noise level: • (15…)35…45 dB dynamic range required • T20: evaluated between [-5…-25] dB • T30: evaluated between [-5…-35] dB • T10 or EDT: Early Decay Time • evaluated between [0…-10] dB 4 0 4 0 4 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 -0 1 0 0 10 0 20 0 30 0 40 0 50 0 -0 1 0 0 5 0 10 0 10 5 20 0 20 5 -0 1 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 0 0 0 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 50 50 50 60 0 100 200 300 400 500 60 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 .

fig-8 = L-R • squaring of responses affects fig-8 directivity • cardioid = cos(φ).Early-to-Late Energy Ratios C. D • Clarity C: Center Time TS TS Cte = 10 lg • Definition D: ∫ ∫ te 0 ∞ te te p 2 (t )dt p 2 (t )dt p 2 (t )dt p 2 (t )dt ∫ t p (t )dt = ∫ p (t )dt 2 0 ∞ 2 0 ∞ Dte ∫ = 10 lg ∫ 0 ∞ • an alternative to C and D • avoids the discrete division of the IR into early and late periods 0 te is the early time limit (50 or 80 ms) Strength G G = 10 lg Lateral Energy Fraction LEF LEF = • p(t) is the IR measured at a receiver point • pref(t) is the reference IR. measured in a free field 10 m from the source • requires calibrated levels and gain settings ∫ ∫ p (t )dt 2 0 ∞ 2 0 ref ∞ p (t )dt ∫ ∫ ∞ 0 ∞ p fig 8 (t )dt 2 0 pomni (t )dt 2 • calibration of omni and fig-8 capsules required • one solution is to use sum L.R cardioids: omni = L+R. hypercardioid = cos2(φ) • true method (two omnis) not practicable .

) • stage furnishing. ST2 ST1 = 10 lg Reporting measurement results The acoustics of a room are affected by a wealth of factors. raised/lowered position • walls & ceiling: shape. λ = 2. which should be reported: • room name and location (…) • sketch plan of the room (to scale) • room volume (define limits) • seats: number and type of upholstering. the interaural phase difference becomes small yielding naturally high values of IACC: f = 125 Hz.7 m. number of people • state of variable acoustics (curtains.t2 (τ ) = IACCt1 .t2 = max IACFt1 . • Responses measured onstage 1 m from source • Factors affecting measurements: • source directivity(!) • random reflections from stands etc.Inter-Aural Cross-Correlation IACC IACFt1 .t2 (τ ) −1<τ <+1 • The parameter is divided into three subparts: • IACCearly (0…80 ms) • IACClate (80…1000 ms) • IACCall (0…1000 ms) ∫ ∫ t2 t1 pl ( t ) ⋅ pr ( t + τ ) dt pl ( t ) dt 2 t2 t1 ∫ t2 t1 pr ( t ) dt 2 • at low frequencies. material details. d = 0.17 m (1/16 λ) • head type and positioning affects measurement Stage Parameters ST1. ∫ ∫ 100 20 10 0 p 2 (t )dt p 2 (t )dt ST2 = 10 lg ∫ ∫ 200 20 10 0 p 2 (t )dt p 2 (t )dt . concert enclosure etc. PA etc. materials • state of occupancy.

but require a thorough understanding and evaluation of the underlying processes . novel approaches • Modern measurement methods offer good accuracy. name of measurement organization Accuracy of Results • The validity of any objective measurement should be questioned for the following : • reliability? • repeatability? • representativity? …if so.• • • • • temperature and relative humidity type and position of sound sources description of stimulus signals type. what? • Evaluating typical systematic errors: • system loop-back compensation • level calibration and alignment of channels • avoiding filtering artifacts Discussion and Conclusions • How to objectively qualify room acoustical properties? • Standard parameters. position and height of microphones date.