Introduction to Helix delta-T

Welcome to the Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program - an essential tool for engineers, contractors and plant operators to quickly and easily optimise Conveyor system designs.

Automatic Selection of Belt and Tension, Power Calculations Equipment Selection from Databases for Belts, Idlers, Pulleys & Shafts, Gearboxes, Motors, Fluid Couplings, Brakes etc. Create a 3D model of the conveyor Calculate Vertical Curve radii and super-elevation (banking) angles for Horizontal curves Add any number of Conveyor Pulleys, Drives, Loading points, Trippers, Brakes etc. Over 60 reports can be viewed, printed or exported to Word, PDF files or Excel etc. Helix delta-T has been used as the design tool and proven in many hundreds of real conveyor installations in more than 25 countries around the world for than 10 years. The latest version Helix delta-T 5 brings you even more power and flexibility in your conveyor designs.

New Dynamic Analysis version available - November 2003
A new version of the program which has full Dynamic Analysis capabilities has been added to the existing Lite, Standard and Professional versions of the software.

This new version calculates the transient belt Tensions and Velocities during starting and stopping of a conveyor. It can model the conveyor belt transient behaviour during Starting Fully Loaded, Starting Empty, Stopping Fully Loaded and Stopping Empty. The program allows the user to input any number of Drives or Brakes and allows for input of Drive Torque / Speed curves, Delay times, Braking Torques, Flywheels and inertia effects. After the Dynamic Calculations have been performed, the user can view and Print two dimensional and surface plot three dimensional graphs for Belt Tensions, Belt Velocities, Strain rates and Takeup movement versus time step for all points along the conveyor.

The Dynamic calculation process uses sophisticated Variable Step Runge Kutta method integrators for solving the complex differential equations, including flexible, easy to use boundary condition specification by the user.

The Dynamic Calculations are easy use to use and Engineers who have static conveyor design experience can perform these complex dynamic simulations using this very powerful software.

The program will automatically calculate the belt tensions in the system, select a suitable belt from the database, calculate the pulley and shaft sizes required, select a suitable electric motor, fluid coupling and gearbox from the databases, calculate the idler shaft deflections and bearing life and then present the full conveyor design in reports which can be viewed, printed or exported to Word for Windows, Excel, PDF files and other applications.

Belt tensions can be viewed graphically, and the Calc section provides useful procedures for calculating discharge trajectories, vertical curve radii and other frequently performed routines. Context sensitive on screen Help will guide you through the operating procedures and provide the formulae used in the calculations.

You can also create and view a 3D model of the conveyor and merge in a digital terrain model. The program also allows you to dynamically calculate vertical and Horizontal curve geometry for the conveyor.

In addition, delta-T provides an in-depth analysis of conveyor belt tensions under different operating conditions such as running fully loaded, running empty, starting fully loaded, starting empty, braking fully loaded, braking empty and coasting. A new sketch facility allows users to sketch the conveyor profile and enter data in tabular format.

delta-T will save you time and reduce your plant capital, maintenance and operating costs.

New Features in delta-T version 5

The new Professional version includes the following features:

Powerful OpenGL 3D modeling of the conveyor and terrain

• • •

Completely New design report formats - over 50 reports can be generated easily, with excellent presentation of the design. Belt Tension calculations for Running, Starting and Braking including accelerating and stopping times. Calculation to ISO and CEMA standards with auto friction factor calculation.

New Database system compiled directly into the program . Software Operation & Technical conveyor Design support.belt drift and banking angle calculations. • • • • • • • • Completely New design report formats . . with excellent presentation of the design. with live on-screen feedback about radii.just drag an intersection point on the screen and the vertical curve is redrawn in front of you so that you can see immediately if you can fit the radius into the geometry. Improved equipment database for Belts. Copy and Paste data from Excel. Export design reports directly to MS Word® Excel® or PDF® file formats plus others.this eliminates previous issues with the MS MDB files system. Fluid Couplings. hoppers and drives to your conveyor New scale drawing system for live feedback on Vertical curve radii . New comprehensive instruction and context sensitive help files New Belt Feeder / Hopper pullout calculations. Idlers. Dynamic Analysis Calculation Features • Easily model the belt transient tensions and velocities during Starting and Stopping of conveyors. Ability to import or copy and paste data directly from Excel spreadsheets to conveyor design or equipment databases. New Horizontal Curve Calculation routines .over 50 reports can be generated easily. Motors. load area and edge distance. Improved Braking calculations including a Brake database and Brake Selection routines. New Sketching facility to quickly add pulleys.• • • • • • • Bar and 3 D line graphs of belt tensions under different loading and starting and braking conditions. Estimating and Costing schedules for all conveyor equipment from civil & electrical to conveyor components. Gearboxes. Brakes etc. Improved Belt Selection routines with diagrammatic feedback on belt width vs.

View the movement of the Takeup pulley during Starting and Stopping Predict the maximum Transient Belt Tensions at any point along the conveyor as well as the timing of these transients. Calculate the torque loadings on gearboxes and couplings during starting and stopping. Add Delay times for multiple drives for Dynamic Tuning Add Flywheels to pulleys to optimize starting and stopping Add Brakes to pulleys as required. Predict the magnitude of transient loads on conveyor structures. Compare the Dynamic Calculations results with the rigid body static calculations in the delta-T5. Perform Dynamic Tuning by changing the start delay times on different drives . Eliminate conditions which may cause costly equipment failures.• • • • • • • • • • Add Torque Control or Speed Control on drive acceleration.

Deutsche Norm. elements in Finite Element Netherlands Analysis of Belt Conveyors Part 1 Analysis of Belt dynamics in Horizontal Curves of Long Belt Conveyors Transient Belt Stresses During Starting and Stopping: elastic G. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN MANUAL. Germany L. Melco Mining Supplies (Pty) Ltd CONVEYOR IDLERS . No 1 Jan/March 1995 A. Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association (CEMA). USA No 1 March 1984 .BELT CONVEYORS WITH CARRYING IDLERS ISO 5048. 2nd onwards HAND BOOK OF CONVEYOR AND ELEVATOR BELTING. No 6 December 1988 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 7. No 3 June 1987 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 14. International Standards Organisation BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS. Harrison A. Dunlop Industrial Products CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM DESIGN. No 4 October 1994 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15. Schulz. Adi Fritella Criteria for Minimising Transient Stress in Conveyor Belts On the Appropriate Use of dynamic Stress Models for Conveyor Design Future Design of Belt Conveyors using Dynamic Analysis A. DIN 22101 THE MELCO PRECISMECA BELT CONVEYOR IDLER ROLL.P.References The following references were used during the development of this program : BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS. Harrison On the application of beam G. Z. Nordell. Lodewijks. Ciozda.MATHEMATICAL SELECTION CRITERIA. Bulk Solids Handling Vol 4. Continental CONTINUOUS MECHANICAL HANDLING SYSTEMS .K. Harrison Mech Eng Transactions 1983 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 8. Bridgestone CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN MANUAL.

: Calculation of the Dynamics of Long Belt Conveyors Viscoelastic Properties of conveyor belts modeling of vibration phenomena in belt conveyors during starting and stopping Zur. Wee and G. No.Response simulated by FEM Technical Requirements for A. 4. Harrison H.F. No 1 February 1986 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 16.6. Korea G.W Bulk Solids Handling. Ledwich. No 1 March 1984 The Institute of Engineers. Schulz. Bulk Solids Handling Vol 19. No 1 Jan/March 1997 Colliery Guardian vol 221 sept 1981 pg 459 Schulz G. No. Germany A. Harrison Schulz G Bulk Solids Handling. Harrison Bulk Solids Handling Vol 4. Roberts Speed Flexural Behaviour of Tensioned Conveyor Belts Experimental Investigations and Theory for the Design of a Long-Distance Belt Conveyor System Stress Front Velocity in Elastomeric Belts with Bonded Steel Cable reinforcement Analysis of a Long Belt Conveyor using the Multi-body Dynamics Program Uphill and Downhill Conveying of Important Mass Flows Feedback Control of Conveyor systems Non-Linear Dynamics of Belt Conveyor systems Dynamic Behaviour of steel cord conveyor belts Transient Stresses in long conveyor belts Further Results in the Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of Belt Conveyors A.W. No 4 Oct/Dec 1995 Hyung-Suk Han et al. p. Netherlands A. 3. November 1993. Harrison A. Australia Bulk Solids Handling Vol 8. p. Vol. Germany L. Lodewijks. Harrison and Operating Conveyor Belts at High A. No 1 Jan/March 1999 Australia G. No 4 Oct/Dec 1996 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15.K. No 5 October 1988 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 6. T. Bulk Solids Handling Vol 17. .13. 705-710. 705-710. November 1986. Vol. Funke & F. Konneker.

hoppers etc that you do not want in the conveyor. Drives Hoppers input form for details on how to build the conveyor model. Help topic. This may look something like the one shown below: Click the Delete Items button to delete pulleys. This set of files will all be preceded by the file name you entered e.Getting Started with delta-T To start using Helix delta-T 5 follow these steps : Start the program and select the File. A list of files and their contents can be viewed under the Design Files. Drives. . When you crate a new file the contents of the Master design file are copied into the new files. Hopper and Take-up buttons to add items at the end of the list. New File menu or press the New button. Press F1 for Help at any point in the program or use the Help Contents or Search menus. Type in a new file name . Press the Conveyor Profile Schematic Diagram tab sheet and the current conveyor profile sketch will be displayed. Intersection Point.My new File and press Open. Refer to the Adding Pulleys. Now create the conveyor sketch profile. My New File.g. Use the Add Pulleys.for example . A new set of design files will be created.

Now select each of the Duty Input menu options and input the data for the following input Forms : Input Project Details. Once you have drawn the conveyor profile sketch. . Idler Spacing etc on the Conveyor Sections input tables. input the Conveyor Capacity.Move. select Items Delete Items Add Pulley Add Drive Add Intersection Point Add Hopper Add Take-up Pulley Insert Item The program automatically starts at the Tail pulley and works in a clockwise direction around the conveyor towards the Head on the Right hand side and then returns back to the tail pulley.

Check that the Take-up Tension is sufficient by viewing the Take-up and Drive Traction report and the Tension Summary Report. Create a 3D model of the conveyor and view Terrain data. fluid coupling and gearbox from the databases. If not. The Design Reports can now be Viewed and Printed or Exported using the Reports menu or the Report buttons on the toolbar. PDF files and other applications. Helix delta-T has been used as the design tool and proven in many hundreds of real conveyor installations in more than 25 countries around the world for more than 10 years. calculate the idler shaft deflections and bearing life and then present the full conveyor design in reports which can be viewed. Trippers. increase the Take-up mass manually and re-calculate. Note any warning messages during the design calculation and modify your input data accordingly. Input Take-up Details Input Carry Idlers Input Return Idlers Input Drive Details Input Motor Details Input Gearbox Details Input Fluid Coupling / Soft-starter Details Input Brake Details Input Pulley Shaft Details You can now perform a Conveyor Design Calculation using the ISO or CEMA calculation buttons. use the Save as… menu to create a new file before making your changes. . Drives. calculate the pulley and shaft sizes required.Input Conveyed Material Input Conveyor Pulleys and Sections You may already have done this above. PDF files or Excel etc. Loading points. You can now build a Cost Estimate and also create Equipment Schedules. Review all Design Reports and refine your design. Brakes etc. Excel. Calculate Vertical Curve radii and super-elevation (banking) angles for Horizontal curves Add any number of Conveyor Pulleys. The program automatically saves your data in the design file as you go along. select a suitable belt from the database. The program will automatically calculate the belt tensions in the system. If you want to investigate different design options. The latest version Helix delta-T 5 brings you even more power and flexibility in your conveyor designs. Over 60 reports can be viewed. printed or exported to Word for Windows. printed or exported to Word. select a suitable electric motor.

Context sensitive on screen Help will guide you through the operating procedures and provide the formulae used in the calculations. Belt Feeder and Hopper pullout forces. You can also create and view a 3D model of the conveyor and merge in a digital terrain model. vertical curve radii and other frequently performed routines. starting fully loaded. In addition. running empty. A new sketch facility allows users to sketch the conveyor profile and enter data in tabular format. delta-T provides an in-depth analysis of conveyor belt tensions under different operating conditions such as running fully loaded. braking empty and coasting. and the Calc section provides useful procedures for calculating discharge trajectories. maintenance and operating costs. delta-T will save you time and reduce your plant capital. starting empty. . The program also allows you to dynamically calculate vertical and horizontal curve geometry for the conveyor.Belt tensions can be viewed graphically. braking fully loaded.

This program uses the popular DBISAM database engine for storage of all data. When you open a New Conveyor Design File the program copies the Master files as a template for the new project. Every time you start the program.DAT MasterDynDrives.DAT MasterPull.DAT data file.Z co-ordinates Only required by the Dynamic analysis version Used by Dynamic Analysis version only Master.DBK file which is a backup of the .DAT Conveyor Input and Output Data Cost Estimate Category Table Cost Estimate Items Table Conveyor Drives Table Conveyor Pulley Table Conveyor Sections Table Conveyor Terrain Data Table Drive Starting Torque data for the Dynamic Analysis Program Dynamic Analysis Design input data Yes MasterCostCategory. if you create a new project called My New Conveyor.DAT MasterTerrain. You can then use the File. When you create a new project. denoted by . and the new file name is appended as a prefix in place of the word Master. the tables emptied. all linked together by a common file name.DAT MasterSect.DES Conveyor Design file.DAT MasterDrive. Conveyor Design Files The Master File set consists of the following file names which make up a conveyor Design: New File Created File Name Master.Conveyor Design Files Each conveyor design consists of many files.DAT Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes MasterDynInput.IDX file extension. or create a New Design file before proceeding to do your design. new files called My New . For example. the Master files listed above are copied.DAT MasterCostTab. Open menu to open an existing file.Y.DES Contents Header file only Yes Remarks File name is used as prefix for all other Conveyor Design files The main data storage file for a conveyor Design Estimating Form Contents Estimating Form Contents All conveyor Drive Data All conveyor Pulley Data All conveyor Sections Data Terrain Data X. as well as a .IBK file which is a backup copy of the Index file.DAT Yes Note: Each of the above files has an Index file. it automatically opens the Master. and a .

menu option.DAT.DAT Motors.DAT Covers. but keep the original data intact. you must create a New conveyor design file using the File.DAT FLCplgs. The files are located in the Data subdirectory of the main program. will be created.DAT BeltWidths.DAT etc. The Conveyor Design files are actually live DBISAM database files.DAT UnitsEnglish.DAT PulleyWidths. Database Files In Addition to the conveyor Design Files.DAT ReportList. use the File.DAT PulleyShafts. which means the data is Automatically saved as you go along. Save as.DAT Pulleys. My New Conveyor. If you want to make changes to a file.DAT Materials. This will create a duplicate file with the new name and if you need to revert to the old file. File Name Belts.DAT Idlers. My New ConveyorCost Category. They can be accessed to capture data into the current .DAT Gboxes.DAT UnitsMetric.DAT BrakeTable.. there is a set of Equipment Database files. Only files with a Yes in the New File Created column above are created.DES.DAT Contents Conveyor Belting Data Table Conveyor Belt Widths Data Conveyor Brake Data Conveyor Belt Covers Data Fluid Coupling Data Conveyor Gearbox Data Conveyor Idler Data Conveyed Materials Data Motor Data Pulley Data Pulley Shaft Data Pulley Face Width Data List of Reports to Print Units Units Remarks Add you own data if required Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Internal use only Internal use only Internal use only These files are not project or design specific.Conveyor. Open menu to open the original file.

and if the data files are different. A further method of tracking revisions.des’ and the original file is preserved. is to implement a conveyor design file naming system which contains the revision number. The files are installed in the c:\program files\Helix\delta-T5\Data sub-directory. For instance. when the file is run again. or to do equipment selections during the design calculation process. . The following form will be displayed. the file is saved as (name is changed and saved before modification) ‘ABC Mining Project Conveyor CV102 Rev B. Backing. Project Details main menu. and one which we recommend. Click the Duty/Input. using the ‘Freeze’ method mentioned above. Exit the program before making the back-ups. If any switches are left on Auto. Press the Freeze / Protect Design File form button.up Data It is recommended that regular back-up's are made of all data files. different equipment will be selected. you could name a design file ‘ABC Mining Project Conveyor CV102 Rev A. Copying a Project to send to another PC You can copy all the files listed in the table above and move them to a new PC or send by email to someone else who has the Helix delta-T5 program to use.des’ When the next revision is issued. Freezing or Preserving a Design file You should set all the Equipment selection options to Manual on the Duty/Input forms if you want to preserve your equipment selections.design file. the program will try to select equipment from the current database files.

This program is called DBSys. you can try to repair the file using the Database Utility program supplied with Helix delta-T.DBK files to . Repair Database menu option.IDX file extension.DBK file to a .IBK file to a . and the .DBSYS.DAT extension.exe and is located on the Helix CD ROM and in the main program file directory.DAT files Rename . If this doesn't work. you can make copies of the files and then try to restore the original file by renaming the . Copy it to your hard disk and then run it and select the Utilities. Repair Database Utility . Then select all the DAT files in the Data (or Project ) . contact Helix for a utility to recover your data.IBK files to .You can set individual items to Manual or use the Freeze All / Un-Freeze All buttons. Data Recovery If your data becomes corrupted.IDX files Try running the delta-T program again and opening the project file.EXE If a data or design file becomes corrupted. Exit the Helix delta-T program Copy all files in the \Data sub-directory to a temporary backup directory Rename .

directory. Once the DAT files have been repaired a log file will be displayed showing what if any errors were found . The DBSys program will repair the files.

DES'.Open / Create a New Design File You should create a New Conveyor Design file for each design. denoting a Conveyor Design File. if you type in a file name 'MyFile. The default file extension is . Select the File.DES. New menu and type in a new file name and press the Open button. This DES file links together all the various sub-files which make up a Conveyor Design. . the program will copy the contents of the Master Design files into a New set of design files preceded by the word MyFile Refer to Conveyor Design Files for a list of files and the data contained in them. For example.

Record your current project details in this form. The Metric units check box is for future use. Select the Duty / Input. You can add notes and comments about the conveyor design in the Designers Comments text window at the bottom of the form. the temperature correction factor Kt is automatically calculated and will be applied to the design power requirements. . This calculation method will be set automatically when you press the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form to perform a design calculation. When you edit this temperature. The ISO or CEMA calculation method displays the last calculation method used.Setting Up your Project Details Once you have opened a New Conveyor Design file. you can set up the Project details. Refer to the Temperature Correction help topic for more details. The Kt value will be printed on the Design Summary report form. Project details menu and the following form will be displayed. The Temperature window is to record the Minimum expected site temperature.

skirt and scraper details and so on. along with the Pulley and Section Tables. Every Drive pulley must have a corresponding Drive in the Drives Table. Drive Pulleys. . the capacity loaded on the section. The Drives table is the third link to the conveyor Profile sketch. The Sections table is a list of the conveyor sections between the items or pulleys listed in the Pulley table and contains information such as the Idler spacing.Drawing the Conveyor Profile Introduction and Overview The heart of the delta-T program is the Conveyor Profile sketch. form the basis of the conveyor design. Loading Hoppers. This sketch. The Link to Drive No column in the Pulley Table tells the program which drive in the Drives table to link to each drive pulley. Intersection Points and the Take-up of the conveyor. The total number of pulley items must equal the total number of sections. every item in the pulley table must have a corresponding Section in the sections table. The Pulley table is a list of Pulleys. By definition.

one Carry. Add pulleys in a clockwise direction (following the belt travel direction) towards the Head or discharge pulley at the right hand side and then add the return side items back towards the Tail pulley. Hoppers and Takeup's help topic for details. Start at the Tail pulley of the conveyor. Place this pulley on the left of the screen. . Each Drive in the Pulley Table must be linked to a Drive number in the Drives Table. Important rules for creating a conveyor The number of Pulleys must equal the number of sections. 0 Refer to the Adding Pulleys. one Return).Every Drive Pulley MUST be linked to a Drive in the drives table by typing in the Drive number in the Pulley table. The program will automatically link the last item back to the first item. Every conveyor must have at least one Drive and one Take-up pulley (and of course two Sections . Drives.

This set of files will all be preceded by the file name you entered e. When you crate a new file the contents of the Master design file are copied into the new files. This may look something like the one shown below: .My new File and press Open. New File menu or press the New button. A new set of design files will be created.for example . My New File. Press the Conveyor Profile Schematic Diagram tab sheet and the current conveyor profile sketch will be displayed. Hoppers. Help topic.Adding Pulleys. Type in a new file name . A list of files and their contents can be viewed under the Design Files.g. Drives & Take-up Introduction and Overview Start the program and select the File.

select Items Delete Items Add Pulley Add Drive Add Intersection Point Add Hopper Add Take-up Pulley Insert Item The easiest way to draw your Conveyor is to delete all items from the list and then add your own items in the order required. you will be asked whether to delete the drive . Press the Delete Items button and move your mouse over any of the Pulleys .you can delete the existing pulleys and then add your own pulleys.this will be the one just before the belt returns to the tail pulley.you will notice that the cursor changes to a "Delete" item view. The Following Tool Buttons are provided on this form Move. but we will add these later. Do not delete the Tail pulley and the Hopper. Click on the last intersection point or pulley on the sketch . Each conveyor must have at least two items (Take-up and Drive). intersection points etc until only the first two items remain. Delete all of the pulleys. When deleting a Drive.Your conveyor will probably have a completely different layout .

Pt is added into the table. Now drag the new intersection point down and to the right of the loading hopper using the Left mouse button. This is because delta-T tries to maintain the same number of sections as pulleys at all times.Press Yes.linked to this Pulley . Click on the Add Intersection Point button. the new conveyor line is drawn back to the tail. and the new Int. Click on the Sections tab next to the Pulley Data tab sheet. You can now add your own pulleys. You will note that only two Sections remain in the list. When you release it. A new Intersection point will be added to the sketch at the top left hand side. . You should now have something like this on the screen: Note that there are only two items in Pulley table.

Right click on the Drive Pulley. 2 Drag the new drive to right and above the previously added Int. The Link to Drive No cell will automatically be entered as 1. The belt line will be re-drawn. It is the users responsibility to Ensure that each Drive Pulley is linked to the Correct Drive number in the Drive table. .Press the Add Drive button. A new drive will be added on the top left of the screen. The Input Drives form will be displayed. Pt.

A Table with the Drive details will be displayed. Drive Details main menu. This table contains all the drive parameters for all drives. Click on the Drive Table tab sheet. Click on the Drive Table tab sheet.This form can also be accessed from the Duty/ Input. Wrap angle Load Share % and other inputs. Close this form and return to the Sketch . Refer to the Input Drives Help Topic. You can input the type of Lagging. A Table with the Drive details will be displayed.

Pulley Co-ordinates table row number 5 (the pulley we have just added). The Ptype will now Display Snub. Click in the Pulley Data. A Drop down arrow will appear.Press the Add New Pulley button Drag the new pulley to below the Drive pulley. This will be a snub Pulley Note the Belt is not drawn correctly on the snub pulley as it contacts the top of the pulley and leaves it at the bottom. We need to adjust the Belt Contact and Departure Angles on the pulley to correct this. Click on this drop down arrow and a list of Pulley Types will be displayed. Select Snub from the list by clicking on it. . Move to the Ptype column and click once on the Word Pulley.

.Now move to the right in the Pulley table until the Contact Angle and Departure Angle columns are visible. These cells control where the belt line contacts and departs from the pulley using the following co-ordinate system and angles.

We now have a basic conveyor. Pulley Co-ordinates table. The Rotation direction determines the angle of Wrap on the pulley.The contact angle in the above sample is 295 degrees. Click on the Tail pulley in the sketch to give it the focus. We have now entered the basic profile but we still need to enter the actual co-ordinates of each pulley in the system. These co-ordinates indicate the relative positions of each pulley or . Now. the departure angle is 80 degrees and the direction of Rotation is Clockwise. in the Pulley data. We have now got a basic conveyor. Returning to our Snub pulley key in a contact Angle of (say) 70 degrees and Departure Angle of 90 degrees. This will change the Tail pulley to a Take-up pulley. and in the clockwise Column. Move the Snub pulley in close to the drive pulley in the sketch. The Belt Line will now be re-drawn at the correct Contact and Departure Angles. find the PType column and in the Drop Down box select the Take-up from the list by clicking on it. click on the Drop Down Arrow and Choose False to set Rotation Direction to Anti-clockwise (True = Clockwise. but we need to add more details. False = Anti-clockwise). except for one important thing .there is no Take-up pulley in the system.

using a 3 dimensional co-ordinate system. 0. You have raised the hopper to the Belt line by increasing the z co-ordinate to 0. X=0. In the Pulley Data. Y Z co-ordinates of each item in the sketch. This means the Hopper is 2m away from the centre of the tail pulley. In the example we have the Drive pulley 15m away from the Tail / take-up pulley. Key in a 0.4 respectively. and Z co-ordinate for the Hopper of 2. select the take-up pulley row and move the X column.4m). Pulley Co-ordinates table. . with the Z-axis being the vertical axis. Y. 0. key in a zero and also for the Z co-ordinate. say 0. In the Y co-ordinate. This is the X co-ordinate of the centre of this pulley.4 (half the pulley diameter.intersection point in space. Continue to enter the X. Y=0 Z=0 Now enter an X.

To insert a pulley or item in the sketch follow the instructions in the Insert Pulley. Conveyor Sections to continue. click on the Sections tab sheet to see the data required. Drive.Load on each section. .We now need to enter the details of the conveyor Sections . skirts etc. Insert a Pulley or Hopper etc. Refer to next Topic. Hopper or Int. the idler spacing. Pt help topic.

. Pt. 3 If you want to insert an item into the sketch at an intermediate position in the list. The new item will be inserted as a copy of the current Row selected in the Pulley Grid. Move the mouse up to the Insert button on the left of the sketch and click. Do not move the mouse over the sketch. as this will change the position of the cursor in the pulley grid. Drive etc on the toolbar. 2 These buttons add the new item at the end of the list of pulleys and the belt line is drawn from the first item to the last in a clockwise direction. 4 Alternatively. A copy of the pulley or item will be inserted. Hopper etc. Inserting a Pulley or other item in the Profile Sketch 0 You can add items into the pulley sketch using the buttons for Pulley. Pulley Co-ordinates tabsheet. 1 Add at end of list. Pt you can change it to a Pulley.e if you inserted an Int. follow these steps: Click on the Pulley Data. Drives etc. Change the inserted Row PType to suit the type of item required i. Scroll to the position of the Pulley.Insert Pulleys. Drive. Int. Int. Pt or Hopper located just before the position you want to insert an item at. This row will be copied. move the mouse to the position of the pulley where you want to insert and then Right Click and press the Insert Pulley popup menu. Hoppers. Click on this item in the Pulley Co-ordinates Grid to give it the focus.

In the example above. and Z co-ordinates entered in the Pulley Data tables. Lifts. The Length of section and the Lift of each section are calculated from the X. The Capacity column is where you enter the loaded capacity of the section. the Idler Spacing.Conveyor Sections The Conveyor Sections table allows you to input details about the conveyor between Pulleys. This data includes the Capacity in Tonnes per hour loaded on the sections. The Section Type column allows you to select whether the section is a Carry or Return Section. we would need to set sections 4 and 5 to return sections by clicking on the Drop Down Arrow and selecting Return from the list. Y. Enter a Capacity of 777 . Capacities … tab sheet. The sections must numbered consecutively from 1 upwards. Click on the Sections tab sheet and select the Input Section Lengths. the Friction Factor. Skirt Lengths and also the number of Scrapers on the section. Intersection Points. Loading hoppers / points etc. A loaded section is drawn with a thicker black line than an unloaded section in the sketch.

00 % 0. Alter the Carry Idler spacing to 1.015 Carry Side Average Belt Sag % 2.00 % 1.75 to 1. The f Factor input column is the Friction Factor to apply over this section during the Tension Calculations. Using the CEMA calculation button will result in a friction factor obtained from the CEMA Ky tables. If this column is left as a 0 (zero) the program will automatically calculate a Friction factor which will appear in the f Factor Calculated column.023 0.00 to 3.tph over sections 2 and 3 in our example.2 m (say) for the carry sections and 3m for the return sections.00 % . based on the belt sag and the idler trough angle for the conveyor section: The following table is used by the ISO calculation method to determine the friction factor values: Loaded Belt 35 degree Idlers 45 degree Idlers fx fx 0.024 0. a Friction factor will be interpolated from the following table.015 0.035 0.032 0.029 Empty Belt All Idlers fy 0. and if the ISO calculation button is used.015 0.00 to 2. You can lookup Recommended Idler Spacing.030 0.

Temperature Correction Where the minimum site Temperature falls below zero degrees Celsius. a reduced friction factor will be used if the CEMA method of calculation is used. The Friction factor used for each conveyor section is shown in the last column of the Loading Tension reports. No reduced friction factors are applied when the ISO calculation method is used.0.66 times the normal friction and it is intended to increase the power that would be required to restrain a declined belt.027 0. The average belt sag is displayed on the Belt Tension Summary Report. Loading Tensions menu reports.40 % 0. using the formula given in the Scrapers Help Topic. Scrapers and Ploughs Enter the number of Belt Scrapers.024 0. an increased Friction factor Kt may be applied according to the CEMA method. To view the Friction factors used refer to the Design. and then choose a large enough drive to overcome the worst case. As a general rule. The concept is explained in the CEMA manual. but it is essentially a safety factor to ensure that Friction on declined sections is not overestimated resulting in a motor power which would be insufficient to stop the belt from running away. Skirts Enter the total linear length of the Loading Skirt in m.20 % < 0.015 0.018 0. and repetitive iterations of the calculation algorithm are performed in order to arrive at the final f Factor vs Sag values.15 to 0. This Kt factor is detailed in the Temperature Correction Factor help topic.022 0.015 0.022 0.20 to 0. The program will calculate the additional tension due to friction between the skirt and the belt and the material and the skirt and add this tension to the tension of the first conveyor section.021 0. .018 0.15 % 0. The formula used for skirt tension is given under the Skirt Friction Help topic. Declined conveyor sections . the designer should investigate the power required under full friction and using a reduced friction factor.019 0.30 to 0.016 0.020 0. This reduced friction is 0.reduced Friction For decline sections of the conveyor. Details of the friction factors used can be obtained from the Loading Tensions reports.015 0.75 % 0.015 0. and the user should adjust the Friction factors downwards if the conveyor is re-generative.5%.30 % 0.50 % 0.40 to 0. This number is used to calculate the additional tension caused by the scraper on the belt.015 0. Warning: A conveyor with inclined and declined sections should be examined very closely by the user in order to avoid under-sizing the motors because a reduced friction factor has been used on the declined sections. where the slope exceeds 2.020 0.50 to 0.025 0.015 Intermediate values are calculated by interpolation.

You can view the stopping times on the Conveyor Dynamics report and adjust the braking torque up or down as required. The program will apply this torque during the stopping calculations and the belt tensions under braking will be calculated. This adjustment may be to compensate for Hopper Pullout forces. in kNm for metric users. Refer to the Input Brake Details form for more details on brake selections.Tension Adjustments Tension Adjustments . Select the Pulley Data.You can add a tension adjustment to any section of conveyor. The additional inertia of the brake disc should be added in Drive Inertia input field. Pulley Brakes tab sheet on the main form. enter the value of the Low Speed Braking torque. You can have as many brakes as you wish in the system. to apply at this pulley. . or additional tension due to belt driven equipment. In the Braking Torque Inp column. Brakes To add a brake to a drive pulley is easy. The tension value added here is added to the calculated tension values for the conveyor section under consideration.

If the Item deleted is a Drive pulley.Deleting Pulleys etc You can delete any Pulley or item from the conveyor Profile sketch. . you will also be prompted to Delete the Drive linked to the Pulley. Select Yes to confirm the deletion of the drive too. Click on the intersection point or pulley on the sketch that you want to delete.you will notice that the cursor changes to a "Delete" item view. Select the Conveyor Profile Sketch Tab sheet and then the Pulley Data. Pulley Co-ordinates table Press the Delete Items button and move your mouse over any of the Pulleys . You will be prompted to confirm the deletion and if you press Yes the item will be deleted from the list.

Takeup etc You can change any Pulley or item to any other type of item. This will change the currently selected pulley to the type specified by you. Select the Conveyor Profile Sketch Tab sheet and then the Pulley Data. . find the PType column and in the Drop Down box select the Take-up (or whatever type of item you require) from the list by clicking on it. Pulley Co-ordinates table.Changing Pulleys to Hoppers.

This will change the currently selected pulley to the type specified by you.Changing Pulleys to Hoppers. Takeup etc You can change any Pulley or item to any other type of item. Select the Conveyor Profile Sketch Tab sheet and then the Pulley Data. . find the PType column and in the Drop Down box select the Take-up (or whatever type of item you require) from the list by clicking on it. Pulley Co-ordinates table.

the program will still calculate a conveyor section that is steeper than this angle. you should select a belt width at least three times the maximum lump size. . Blank values may result in incorrect calculation results. The material from the database will be transferred to the design file.Input Material Details Select the Duty / Input. Input Conveyed Material main menu. The Uniform Lump size option should be set if the material is uniform and mixed with fines. Do not leave any input values blank . As a general rule. Material Lump size affects belt width. Now right click with your mouse and press the Copy to Current Design file menu.it is better to estimate a value rather than not to input one at all. The following form will be displayed: You may enter the Material details or you can press the Select a Material from Database button and then scroll down the material database to the material you require and select it by clicking in the row. where you can edit the input properties if you wish. For definitions of terms refer to the follow: Angle of Repose Surcharge Angle Flowability of Material Abrasion The maximum Incline angle is for information only . Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit.

Enter the Belt Capacity you require .this value must be at least as great as the largest capacity entered in the Conveyor Sections input table. Selecting a Belt Width Select the Belt Category using the drop down box list. Enter the Belt Speed. An increase . You can now scroll down the list and right-click to select a belt. The Belt from the database will be transferred to the design file. If you set the Belt Selection Mode to Manual. Enter the Allowable % Full. The following form will be displayed: You may enter the Belt details or you can press the Belt Database button and then scroll down the Belt Database to the belt you require and select it by clicking in the row. Note regarding Belt Speed: Power absorbed is affected by the belt speed entered. You can use the Recommended Speeds button to look up a table of recommended belt speeds.it is better to estimate a value rather than leave it blank. Input Belt Details main menu. This figure is for future use and has no effect on the selection process. where you can edit the input properties if you wish. the form will be extended to show a list of belts in the currently selected belt category. the recommended belt speeds are increasing. Do not leave any input values blank . Note that as conveyor technology improves. Now right click with your mouse and press the Copy to Current Design file menu. Consult your idler and belt manufacturer for their recommendations if you are unsure or if you want to increase speeds beyond those given in the table. Blank values may result in incorrect calculation results.Input Belt Details Select the Duty / Input.

Refer to Conveyor Sections input help topic for more details. For example. however. If you enter a zero value. Enter the Top and Bottom cover thickness you require. This list shows all the trough angles in the idler database. Concave Curve Safety factor . As the belt wears. based on the material characteristics. The formula used to calculate sag is: y= SAG where: S 2 (Wb + Wm) ⋅ g 8⋅T and y= % sag ⋅ S 100 y is the sag in m S is the idler spacing in m Wb is the mass of belt in kg/m Wm is the mass of load in kg/m T is the belt tension in N g is gravitational acceleration in m/s2 The % sag is normally limited to a maximum of 5% during stopping and starting and 3% maximum during running. You can select a wider or narrower belt as required. This value is used to calculate the minimum starting time in seconds.this safety factor increases the curve radius in direct proportion.in belt speed increases the power required to drive the empty belt. Select the Idler Trough angle from the drop down box. Increasing allowable sag may decrease the take-up mass required (if the sag is the limiting factor). Refer to Vertical Curve Calculations. you will have to add it to the Idler Database Select the Belt Width you require from the drop down list. Belt power in kW = Te x V. Enter the maximum allowable Belt Sag % between idlers. Refer to Vertical Curve Calculations. This input allows you to calculate the minimum curve radius required to prevent belt lift-off using a reduced or worn belt mass. You may enter a belt for the program to use. The default value is 2%.This is the allowable belt tension rise during starting. You can press the Lookup Covers button to lookup the recommended cover thickness. Enter the Allowable Belt Edge Tension Rise. but it may also increase the effective tension as the friction may be increased. If a loaded troughed belt sags too much spillage can occur. . the program will calculate the belt mass for you from the belt carcass mass plus the cover masses. These will be displayed on the form. Refer to the Starting Times report form for more details.the raised edge of the belt has to stretch to fit around the curved section. although many designers use 2% sag during running. usually limited to a maximum of 150% of operating tension by the belt manufacturers. Belt Mass input. a factor of two will double the minimum radius. Enter the Percentage Belt Mass to use for Belt Lift-off radius calculations. the mass reduces and so the down force in the concave vertical curve is reduced. The program will print the belt sag under the various operating conditions such as running loaded or during braking on the Belt Tension Summary Report. This is the allowable tension rise in a troughed belt due to convex curve effects . Maximum Allowable Tension Rise . Press the Calc button and the program will draw the belt cross-section and calculate the % full and the edge distance. If the trough angle you require is not listed. the power required to lift the load remains the same.

Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit. Refer to the Belt Details design report topic for further information. . The Belt from the database will be transferred to the design file. Manual button.Manual Belt Selection It is possible to select a belt class manually. The form will be extended to include the current belt category data: You can scroll down and select the belt class and strength you want by clicking in the row with the right mouse button and then using the Copy to Current Design file menu. Press the Belt Selection Mode. where you can edit the input properties if you wish.

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If. The program will calculate the minimum take-up mass to limit the belt sag to the maximum specified and to prevent belt slip during running. You can also use the Tension Graphs to see at a glance if you have low or negative tensions in the system. The take-up mass input is the total mass including the mass of the take-up pulley and shaft. so increase the take-up mass.Input Take-up Details Select the Duty / Input. E. The following form will be displayed: Select the Type of take-up from the drop down list. starting or braking and to prevent excessive belt sag.g. if you enter 500 kg it will go up in steps of 500 kg. . always refer to the Drive Traction report and the Tension Summary reports to see if there is sufficient take-up tension to prevent belt slip during running. Input Take-up Details main menu. For Manual Take-up mass input. Important Note: After performing a conveyor calculation. Switch the Auto OFF and input a take-up mass in the Manual Take-up mass edit box. The program will increase the take-up mass in mass steps specified in the Take-up Calculation Increment box. Click the Auto calculate Take-up mass check box to ON for Automatic calculation. Note that the actual effective take-up mass will be slightly different to the value input by you as the take-up pulley has a Pulley Rotational Effective Tension Tp which has to be compensated for.

The default value is 500N. Enter the Nominal Idler Spacing. If the conveyor does not have a convex curve. The contents of these combo boxes depend on the data in the idler database. Enter the Idler Misalignment and the Belt Deviation Load at convex curve due to curvature of belt. roll rotating mass and dynamic factors. This load is also known as the Belt Deviation Load and it can be calculated from the following formula : Belt Deviation Load Pdev = 0. It then calculates the resulting deflections and expected bearing life for that idler. See Recommended Idler Spacing for recommended idler spacing settings. although it is recommended that that you allow for an additional load which could be applied due to misalignment of adjacent idlers. the belt tension imposes an additional load on the carry side idlers. The following form will be displayed: Select the Idler Category from the Drop down box. Roll Diameter and Shaft Diameter from the drop down boxes provided.204 × Trun × D × g L . This nominal spacing is used for calculating the load on the idler. All categories in the Idler Database will be listed.Input Idler Details Select the Duty / Input. Input Carry (or Return) Idlers main menu. the bearing life and the shaft deflection. In a convex vertical curve. Number of Rolls. The program adds this load to the other idler loads imposed by the belt mass. the curve angle and the idler spacing. this load being a function of the belt tension at the curve. this value can be set to zero. The actual idler spacing for each conveyor section is entered in the Conveyor Sections form. Select the Idler Troughing Angle.

Ca. Automatic Idler Selection Click the Auto option in the Idler selection Mode box if you want the program to find an idler which matches your input data (number of rolls. click on the Manual option in the Selection mode box. or you can pre-select an idler. To do this. Repeat the input process for the Return Side idlers. roll diameter. and the values transferred to the input data boxes on the left of the Calc box. Select the Bearing type . This is a factor that is added to the load on the idler roll due to movement of the load on the roll. Manual Idler Selection You can let the program select the idler from the database. Note that the Dynamic Factor to input here is set to a default value of 1. The form will be expanded to look something like this: . as the type of material has no influence on the return idlers.4. The default value is 0. Enter the Dynamic Load Factor. The Belt Deviation load can be calculated using the Calc button on the form.009. This alters the Bearing Life calculation. See Recommended Idler Dynamic Load Factor.Ball or Roller. trough and shaft diameter).where Pdev = Belt Deviation Load in N Trun = Belt Tension in kN D = Misalignment of idler in mm g = gravitational acceleration in m/s2 L = idler spacing in m Normal installations have a deviation of 3 mm on the carry side and 6 mm on the return side.

Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit. The selected idler will be inserted in the fields below the table You may also type in the details of the idler if it is not in the database. . Refer to the Idler Details design report topic for further information.Scroll down the list of idlers and right click on the idler required then press the Use this Idler for the design calculation popup menu. or you can go to the Idler Database form and select an idler by right clicking on the database table.

This is the input data required for each drive. You can override the co-efficient of friction by entering the value you require.Input Drive Details Select the Duty / Input. Input Drives main menu. Each option will input a different drive co-efficient of Friction. The number of Drive pulleys in the sketch must equal the number of drives. Gearboxes etc.it is for information only. It is not necessary to enter all this data in this table. Click on the Pulley Condition in the drop down box. The options are WET. The following form will be displayed: This form gives a snapshot of the current drive. Return to the Drive Traction Tab sheet: Click on the type of Drive in the drop down box. Each Drive Pulley in the Conveyor Profile and Sketch must be linked to a Drive in the Conveyor Drives list. The Drive Table tab sheet lists all data about a drive such as the Motors. MOIST or DRY. You must ensure that the Load Share for all drives totals exactly 100%. Click on the Drive Design Input Data tab sheet to show a table of the drives in the conveyor. . You can have as many drives in the system as you wish. The type of drive has no effect on the calculations . as the Motors. Gearbox and Fluid coupling data is captured in other input screens.

15 0.25 0. Make sure that this value corresponds to the value entered in the Pulley Data table form. The table below may be used as a guide.30 Pulley Condition Wet Moist Dry Rubber 0. The type of lagging also affects the suggested co-efficient of friction. Enter the Belt wrap angle on the pulley. Values of co-efficient of friction.10 more than the running co-efficient of friction. Definition of Drive Factor Cw .25 0.35 0. u under Running conditions Type of Lagging Bare Steel 0.20 0. Enter a co-efficient of friction between belt and pulley during running conditions.10 0.Choose a lagging type and enter a lagging thickness. You can use the Calculate Belt Wrap Angle form to calculate a Wrap angle if you know the layout of the Drive pulley and the snub pulley. a higher co-efficient of friction may be used. This value is usually 0.35 Ceramic 0. The drive factor is calculated automatically from the Wrap angle and co-efficient of friction.45 For starting conditions. The program depending on the pulley condition and type of lagging will suggest this value.

e. If there is only one drive. You must ensure that the Load Share for all drives totals 100%. It is used to calculate the torque available from the drive to accelerate the conveyor. not the proportion which is accelerated before the main conveyor has to start moving. the T2 slack side tension must be increased to prevent slippage. High inertia reduces starting belt tensions. increasing the Wrap angle will increase the contact area between belt and pulley and therefore increase the effective tension. this value may fall as low as 130%. if you increase mass m. Alternatively. it is apparent that as the effective tension Te on a drive increases. The low speed coupling inertia (coupling between gearbox output shaft and pulley shaft) should be . This means that the counterweight mass needs to be increased. The % factor is applied to the full load motor torque. the Fluid coupling and the brake disc and flywheel inertia. For a squirrel cage electric motor starting direct on line. and should not be over -estimated. Enter the estimated Drive Efficiency %.25 times [(1500/1000)^2 = 2. you should enter only the proportion of the fluid coupling and motor inertia which has to be accelerated simultaneously with the conveyor belt. i. the longer the starting time and the lower the starting tensions. the Gearbox inertia referred to the high speed shaft. This indicates the proportion of the total effective tension that has to be input by the drive. a flywheel fitted on a 4 pole motor drive will have an equivalent mass of about 2. If a fluid coupling or some other form of soft-start device is used. the high speed coupling. Drive Inertia = Motor + HS Coupling + Fluid Coupling + Gearbox + Brake disc + Flywheel. For example. The Total Drive Inertia is a very important input value as it affects the system equivalent mass and the starting and stopping belt tensions and acceleration times of the conveyor. The Drive Equivalent mass is calculated using the square of the gearbox ratio.25 ] the same flywheel on a 6 pole motor drive and as F = ma.Enter the equivalent high-speed inertia of the total drive train. a value of between 200% and 230% is normally used. this value should be set to 100 %. which can be input. The lower the value. This should be the sum of the Motor inertia. and so changing the gearbox ratio or pulley diameter can affect the starting and stopping tensions of the conveyor. Refer to the Motor Database of an explanation of the Full Load torque. Enter the Load Share percentage for the drive.Cw = 1 e uθ − 1 where Cw is the drive factor e is the base of the Naperian log u is the coefficient of friction between pulley and belt is the angle of wrap in radians Also Cw = T2 1 = ua Te e − 1 and T2 = T1 − Te From the above.this value determines the motor torque during starting. then acceleration rate a is reduced for the same starting torque force F. Starting Torque Factor for a fully loaded and empty start. When a fluid coupling is fitted. Refer to the Drive Efficiency lookup table for recommended values. Drive Inertia J .

Refer to the Conveyor Drives design report topic for further information. or alternatively if the device is fitted to the low speed side of the drive. J = mR (SI units) 2 where J is in kgm2 m is the mass in kg R is the radius of gyration in m You can look-up typical Moments of Inertia for AC motors in the Inertia Look-up table. the program will try to select a fluid coupling. report for more information The Direct Drive check box is a switch for selecting a Fluid Coupling or not.added as part of the Pulley inertia. It is only necessary to enter the information on the Drive Traction tab sheet in this form. Other data for Motors Gearboxes Fluid Coupling is captured in other input forms. if ON the program will skip the Fluid Coupling selection. the inertia is adjusted by the square of the reducer ratio to obtain an equivalent High-Speed Side inertia and then included in the Total Drive inertia value. but it will still use the Starting Torque % entered for the starting procedure. . Note: Some motor manufacturers publish moment of inertia figures in MKS units as GD2 values. Moment of inertia. If it is set to OFF. GD 2 J= 4 See Conveyor Starting and Stopping.

1 = 117 kW so select next motor size (say 132 kW motor) Number of Motors on Drive . Select the Drive number using the Datacontrol at the top of the form. This limits the motor selection to only motors with the voltage input. For Example: Belt Power = 100kW Drive Efficiency = 94% Motor Selection Safety Factor = 1. Manual Motor Selection You can let the program select the smallest motor from the category that will do the job. Select the Motor Category from the Drop down box.1 Minimum motor size = 100 / 0. The Motor power rating required is calculated from the Belt Power at the Drive (Te x V) divided by the Drive Efficiency and then multiplied by the Motor Selection Safety factor. or you can . Frequency and Power Rating and then selecting the smallest motor which meets the selection criteria. The selection process involves sorting the motors by Voltage. Enter the Motor Selection Safety factor. You can select motors from different categories for different drives in one conveyor design file. The following form will be displayed: Each Drive in the system must have motor selection input data entered. depending on the gearbox arrangement. Enter motor Voltage. Input Motor Details main menu. All categories in the Motor Database will be listed.94 * 1. Enter motor poles and Frequency. Poles. You can use this for Tandem Drives where you may have a single drive pulley fitted with a gearbox and motor at each end of the shaft.each drive may have one or 2 or even four motors on it. You can view a table list of all drives by clicking on the Drive and Motor Table tab sheet.Input Motor Details Select the Duty / Input. A multiple here effectively decreases the drive power but increases the number of motors required.

. To do this. click on the Manual Motor Selection mode option. You may also type in the details of the motor if it is not in the database. Refer to the Motor Details design report topic for further information. Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit. The form will be expanded to look something like this: Scroll down the list of motors and right click on the motor required then press the Use this Motor for the design calculation popup menu. The selected motor will be inserted in the fields below the table as well as in the Manually Selected tab sheet fields. or you can go to the Motor Database form and select a motor by right clicking on the database table.pre-select a motor on any drive. This motor will be used for this drive.

Enter Peak Torque %. The form will be expanded to look something like this: . unless there is no Fluid Coupling. a coupling with slip = 3 % will have an efficiency of 97%. Fluid Coupling / Soft Starter main menu. the efficiency is equal to 100% . Manual Coupling Selection You can let the program select the smallest coupling from the category that will do the job. The following form will be displayed: If there is no Fluid Coupling on the Drive. or you can pre-select a fluid coupling on any drive. For Example. Select the Drive number using the Datacontrol at the top of the form. Enter the Slip %. All categories in the Coupling Database will be listed. For fluid couplings. This limits the coupling selection to only couplings with the correct speed rating. click on the Manual Coupling Selection mode option. You can view a table list of all drives by clicking on the Drive and Motor Table tab sheet. set the Direct Drive option to ON. You can select motors from different categories for different drives in one conveyor design file. Select the Coupling Category from the Drop down box. in which case you should check the Direct Drive option to ON.Input Fluid Coupling / Soft Starter Details Select the Duty / Input. To do this. This factor limits the coupling selection to a coupling with a Peak Torque rating equal to or less than the value input. Each Drive in the system must have fluid coupling selection input data entered.Coupling Slip %. Enter motor poles.

.Scroll down the list of coupling and right click on the coupling required then press the Use this Coupling for the design calculation popup menu. You may also type in the details of the coupling if it is not in the database. Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit. The selected coupling will be inserted in the fields below the table as well as in the Manually Selected tab sheet fields. or you can go to the Fluid Coupling Database form and select a coupling by right clicking on the database table. Refer to the Fluid Coupling Details design report topic for further information. This coupling will be used for this drive.

You can view a table list of all drives by clicking on the Drive and Motor Table tab sheet. The plus and minus tolerances form a selection band around the actual ratio of the gearbox. and the motor speed is 1480 rpm and the Fluid Coupling Slip is 3%. This factor is multiplied by the absorbed power to arrive at a design power. Input Gearbox Details main menu. To do this. if the pulley design speed is 145 rpm.Input Gearbox Details Select the Duty / Input. Click on the minimum number of gearbox stages required. and ratio.03) = 1436 rpm. or you can pre-select a gearbox on any drive.6 rpm. Select the Drive number using the Datacontrol at the top of the form. the program will skip single stage gearboxes in the selection process. For instance. If you specify 2 stages as the minimum. and a suitable gearbox with a sufficiently high torque rating is selected from the category specified. then the input speed to the gearbox would be 1480 * (1-0.143. the gearbox is suitable.6 = 1. click on the Manual Gearbox Selection mode option. Manual Gearbox Selection You can let the program select the smallest gearbox from the category that will do the job. The torque is then calculated using the design power. The design speed = 145 . As this is less than the 5% tolerance. The program sorts the gearboxes in order of Number of stages. Enter the gearbox Service Factor. If the gearbox ratio were 1:10. the output speed would be 143. Select the Gearbox Category from the Drop down box. The following form will be displayed: Each Drive in the system must have Gearbox selection input data entered. The form will be expanded to look something like this: .4 rpm. All categories in the Gearbox Database will be listed. You can select Gearboxes from different categories for different drives in one conveyor design file. maximum torque rating. Enter the Speed Ratio Tolerances.

The selected gearbox will be inserted in the fields below the table as well as in the Manually Selected tab sheet fields.Scroll down the list of gearboxes and right click on the gearbox required then press the Use this Gearbox for the design calculation popup menu. This gearbox will be used for this drive. Refer to the Gearbox Details design report topic for further information. You may also type in the details of the gearbox if it is not in the database. Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit. . or you can go to the Gearbox Database form and select a gearbox by right clicking on the database table.

The additional inertia of the brake disc should be added in Drive Inertia input field. Low Speed Braking Torque To add a brake to a drive pulley is easy. You can view the stopping times on the Conveyor Dynamics report and adjust the braking torque up or down as required. The program will apply this torque during the stopping calculations and the belt tensions under braking will be calculated. If the pulley is not a Drive Pulley but only a Low Speed brake . Once the low speed braking torque has been optimized you can proceed to the second stage which is to select the brake caliper and disc required to give you the low speed torque required. The low speed torque is added to a drive pulley because we need to calculate the Drive Traction during braking. You can have as many brakes as you wish in the system. See Pulley Input data table.Input Brake Details Select the Duty / Input. There are two inputs required for brakes: The first is to input a Braking Torque on any Drive pulley you wish. The program will use this low speed braking torque for all the belt tension and stopping time calculations. Select the Pulley Data. The following form will be displayed: Brakes Helix delta-T requires two inputs for each brake: The first is the equivalent Low Speed Brake Torque to be applied at the pulley shaft. This torque is converted to a belt line force and all belt tensions are adjusted accordingly during the calculation process and a resulting stopping time is calculated and displayed on the Starting Stopping Report. Pulley Brakes tab sheet on the main form. in kNm. enter the value of the Low Speed Braking torque. Check Takeup mass and drive traction after adjusting the brake torque. In the Braking Torque Inp column. Input Brake Details main menu. to apply at this drive pulley.

pulley, you must nominate it as a Drive Pulley, add a new drive in the Drives Table but allocate it a zero Load Share percentage. This ensures that it will apply the braking torque but not affect the starting of the conveyor.

In addition, you can input Brake Selection details on any Drive pulley, and the program will try to select a brake from the database to meet the selection criteria. The above form is where we input the brake selection details. If you do not have a brake fitted on a drive set the Brake Selection Mode to No Brake on Drive. This is the default setting when you add a new drive.

You can view a table list of all drives by clicking on the Drive and Motor Table tab sheet. Select the Drive number using the Datacontrol at the top of the form. Select the Brake Category from the Drop down box. All categories in the Brake Database will be listed. You can select Brakes from different categories for different drives in one conveyor design file. Enter the Design Braking Torque. This torque is the braking torque that the brake will be required to transmit. If the Brake is fitted to the high-speed side of the drive, the torque that the brake has to input is reduced by the gearbox ratio, less any gearbox losses. You can use the following conversion from Low Speed torque to High Speed torque:

For example if the Low Speed toque is say 10 kNm, the reducer ratio is 16:1 and the Reducer Efficiency is 94% then High Speed torque = 10 x 1000 / (16 x 0.94) = 665.9 Nm Enter the Disc Speed of the brake. If it is a high speed brake, this would be the motor speed reduced by Fluid Coupling slip. E.g. 1450 x (1 - 0.03) = 1406.5 rpm. If the brake is a low speed brake, the disc speed should be equal to the pulley rpm. Click on the appropriate High Speed or Low Speed option button 0 To arrive at some of the brake input data, you may have to do a design calculation first and then input the brake data, such as motor speed, pulley speed etc. It may also be necessary to adjust the Low Speed braking torque input values once you have done the Brake Selection and obtained the actual braking torque which will be applied by the brake. Enter the Disk Diameter and Disc Thickness and the Ambient Temperature. The Disc Thickness should normally be between 15mm and 50mm, and diameters from 300mm to 1000mm are common. Enter the Design Stopping Time. This time is calculated by the program and can be viewed on the Conveyor Dynamics design report. The number of Consecutive stops and the Average number of stops per hour are used for the thermal design calculations for the brake. The Disc Temperature after the total number of consecutive stops will be calculated and displayed on the Brake Report form. As a rule, the brake disc temperature should not exceed 300 degrees C. If the temperature exceeds this value, you should increase the disc diameter, increase the disc thickness or select a larger brake with a larger Pad offset Width W. Choose a Disc Material - Mild Steel (u = 0.4) or Stainless Steel. (u = 0.25). The program suggests the co-efficient of friction between pads and disc, but you may enter your own values.

Manual Brake Selection
You can let the program select the smallest brake from the category that will do the job, or you can pre-select a brake on any drive. To do this, click on the Manual Brake Selection mode option. The form will be expanded to look something like this:

Scroll down the list of brakes and right click on the brake required then press the Use this Brake for the design calculation popup menu. The selected brake will be inserted in the fields below the table as well as in the Manually Selected tab sheet fields. This brake will be used for this drive. You may also type in the details of the brake if it is not in the database, or you can go to the Brake Database form and select a brake by right clicking on the database table. Press the Tick button on the Datacontrol to save your inputs and then Exit. Refer to the Brake Details design report topic for further information.

Pulley Dimensions
The Pulley Dimensions tab sheet allows you to view and input the currently selected pulley dimensions. The program will automatically select the pulley diameters and sizes from the Pulley Database unless you Override the pulley sizes and enter your own dimensions. The pulley diameters selected by the program depend on the Belt Manufacturers recommendation for minimum pulley sizes. These minimum pulley diameters are entered in the Belt Database Click on the Pulley Dimensions tab sheet on the main form.

After you have built your conveyor Profile and entered the Data required in the Duty / Input menu forms, you can perform a design calculation using the ISO or CEMA calculation buttons on the main form. You can now view the pulleys selected by the program, and if you wish, adjust the dimensions as well as the Inertia of the pulley. To input your own dimensions, click in the OverrideSizes column cell and from the Drop down box select the True option. This switch sets the sizes to manual input. You can now scroll along and enter pulley and shaft dimensions. The Input values you can change are the cells with a white background colour. Greyed out cells will be automatically re-selected and calculated.

Warning: If you set the OverrideSizes to On, ensure that you input appropriate dimensions. The program will not warn you if the Pulley or Shaft sizes selected by you are unsuitable. An asterisk appears on the Pulley and Shafts report to indicate that the OverrideSizes option was used.

Setting a Minimum Pulley Diameter
It is possible to force the program to select a larger pulley than the belt needs by entering a minimum pulley diameter in the MinPulleyDia column. This forces the program to select the next available pulley sizes from the pulley database.

Rationalising Pulley Sizes
You can also use the Allow Selection switch in the Pulley Database form to rationalise your pulley sizes. By switching off pulleys in the database, the program will skip them and select the next size available. This is an easy way of forcing the program to use (say) only three pulley sizes for a whole project.

select the Plan & Section Scale Drawing tab sheet. To input a curve radius. Also.Pt) along the profile by checking if there is a change in slope between the preceding and following sections. Vertical Curves tab sheet from the main form. If there is a change in slope. the different curve radii required for various conveyor conditions are calculated as detailed in the Vertical Curve Calculations report. select the Pulley Data. . The following form will be displayed. During the conveyor calculation process. the program determines if there is a vertical curve at any intersection point (Int.Vertical Curves Helix delta-T allows you to input a vertical curve radius at any point along the conveyor profile. The user may then review these curve calculations and decide on a curve radius to input at that point along the conveyor. a vertical curve exists and it may be a concave or convex curve. In either case.

especially if you have a long conveyor. You can also key in the vertical curve increment (default = 20). The Origin Z value is the Z co-ordinate of the bottom of the window. . The curve Length should also be shown in the table. You can see the current X and Z co-ordinates of the mouse as you move it over the Longsection drawing. The following form will be displayed: This form determines where the drawing is placed in the panel and what the horizontal (X) and vertical (Z) scales are.To draw the Longsection and Plan of the Conveyor. The Longsection form provides a powerful feedback to the designer of what combination of Intersection point co-ordinates and curve radius can be fitted into the conveyor geometry. Click on the Scale and Origin button on the toolbar. The Curve length is calculated for you and depends on the radius and the change in angle at the curve. The scale refers to the ratio of screen pixels to real X. You can change the Scale of the Drawing. Pt on the screen. This is the number of segments into which the curve is divided for drawing purposes. You may have to draw the conveyor using a different X and Z scales. Z co-ordinates. curve radius and position of the intersection point. select the Vertical Curve Radius column cell from the table and key in the radius required. The lower panel shows a Longsection drawing of the conveyor. Now click on the sketch and the curve should be drawn in red on the sketch. You can let the program determine the scales to use by pressing the Auto Calc button. The scales are in m (or ft) per pixel. You will see the program draws the new curve in the sketch. Just Click with the Left mouse button on a curve intersection point and drag the Int. click in the Plan and Longsection panels in turn. To add a vertical curve radius at any point. The Origin X is the X co-ordinate to place at the left edge of the window. Adjusting the curve radius Under some circumstances it will be necessary to try to fit a particular curve radius into a conveyor. Pressing the Save button saves the settings and closes the form. You can see this by moving your mouse to these points. and you will see the effect of changing the section lengths.

. Changing the drawing size of the window.The above sketch shows the Intersection Point before the first drive moved downwards and the new curve is drawn in red . drag it to the new position and release it. A value of about 200 to 250 usually works well. Y or Z co-ordinates changing in the table. but you should experiment with the sizes which suit your system best.it now projects beyond the drive pulley. Moving Pulleys and Points The Longsection drawing allows you to physically change the position of a point or pulley. Click on the pulley or point and whilst holding the left mouse button down. or you will have to re-position the curve Intersection point until the curve does fit. You can now change the radius. You will then be prompted to enter the width of the Window in pixels. and so you can see that it is not possible to have this radius in the curve. As you do this you will see the X. The next input value you will be prompted for is the depth of the Window.this value matches the printout form size on the Design Reports and gives a good aspect ratio for printing. You can change the drawing are size by clicking with the right mouse button in the window and pressing the Set Longsection Image size menu. The default value is 688 pixels wide . also in pixels.

Horizontal Curve Radius .Horizontal Curves Helix delta-T allows you to input a Horizontal curve radius at any point along the conveyor profile. click in the Plan and Longsection panels in turn. During the conveyor calculation process. select the Plan & Section Scale Drawing tab sheet. To Input a curve radius. Also. Horizontal Curves tab sheet from the main form. The user may then review these curve calculations and decide on a curve radius to input at that point along the conveyor. To draw the Longsection and Plan of the Conveyor. The lower panel shows a Longsection drawing of the conveyor and the upper the plan of the conveyor. The following form will be displayed. select the Pulley Data. if the designer has entered a Horizontal curve radius at a point. the program will calculate the belt drift and banking angle required under the different loading conditions as detailed in the Horizontal Curve Calculations report.

The Origin X is the X co-ordinate to place at the left edge of the window. This is the number of segments into which the curve is divided for drawing purposes. You can see the current X. Super Elevation Angle Enter the Super Elevation (Banking) angle in Degrees. A positive Calculated Belt Drift means that the belt is creeping . The Origin Y value is the Y co-ordinate of the bottom of the window. You may have to draw the conveyor using a different X and Y scales. the less the banking angle required to resist the motivating force in the curve which tends to bring the belt off the idlers on the inside of the curve. Refer the Horizontal Curve Calculations report for more details. Now click on the plan sketch and the curve should be drawn in red on the sketch. Horizontal Curve Input data required Curve Radius You must enter a curve radius. The Curve length is calculated for you and depends on the radius and the change in angle at the curve. The more belt drift you allow. The following form will be displayed: This form determines where the drawing is placed in the panel and what the horizontal (X) and alignment (Y) scales are.To add a Horizontal curve radius at any point. You can change the Scale of the Drawing. The curve Length should also be shown in the table. Y co-ordinates of the mouse as you move it over the Plan drawing. Horizontal Curves. select the Horizontal Curve Radius column cell from the table and key in the radius required. The scales are in m (or ft) per pixel. Pressing the Save button saves the settings and closes the form. especially if you have a long conveyor. Y co-ordinates. You can see this by moving your mouse to the edges of the window and observing the co-ordinate labels. View the Reports. Banking Angle menus. The program will calculate the Belt Drift that results if the idlers are tilted at this angle. Belt Drift Enter the allowable belt drift in the curve. The default units are mm. Click on the Scale and Origin button on the toolbar. You can let the program determine the scales to use by pressing the Auto Calc button. Belt Drift menus. The scale refers to the ratio of screen pixels to real X. Perform a design calculation and then view the Reports. You can also key in the Horizontal curve increment (default = 20). Horizontal Curves.

Load Factor Ks and Km These are the correction factors for the "shifting" of the load cross-sectional area on the belt as the belt drifts off line towards the centre of the curve. The Plan form provides a powerful feedback to the designer of what combination of Intersection point co-ordinates and curve radius can be fitted into the conveyor geometry. which is too high. Friction Factor us1 This is the co-efficient of friction between belt and idler roller that is used to calculate the resisting force of the belt acting against the motivating force. Just Click with the Left mouse button on a curve intersection point and drag the Int. Pt on the screen. curve radius and position of the intersection point. A negative Belt Drift value means the belt is sagging down the idler away from the Horizontal curve centre. Refer to Conveyor Drives for typical values of co-efficient friction between belt and a steel drum under various conditions such as wet. The default value is 20.1 and 0. The default values are 1. moist or dry.up the idlers towards the centre of the horizontal curve. Care should be used not to enter a value. . and you will see the effect of changing the section lengths.9 respectively. especially if the belt and idlers may become wet. You will see the program draws the new curve in the sketch. H Curve Increment This is the number of segments into which the curve is divided for drawing purposes and banking angle calculation purposes. Adjusting the curve radius Under some circumstances it will be necessary to try to fit a particular curve radius into a conveyor.

The above sketch shows the Intersection Point before the curve moved upwards and the new curve is drawn in red. If the curve projects beyond the intersection point at the end of the section, the curve radius is too long. You can change the radius, or you will have to re-position the curve Intersection point until the curve does fit.

Moving Pulleys and Points
The Plan drawing allows you to physically change the position of a point or pulley. Click on the pulley or point and whilst holding the left mouse button down, drag it to the new position and release it. As you do this you will see the X, Y or Z co-ordinates changing in the table.

Changing the drawing size of the window.
You can change the drawing are size by clicking with the right mouse button in the window and pressing the Set Plan image size menu. You will then be prompted to enter the width of the Window in pixels. The default value is 688 pixels wide - this value matches the printout form size on the Design Reports and gives a good aspect ratio for printing, but you should experiment with the sizes

which suit your system best. The next input value you will be prompted for is the depth of the Window, also in pixels. A value of about 200 to 250 usually works well.

View Design Reports
Helix delta-T is supplied many different reports. After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar, the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view, print or export any of the Design Reports.

Select the Reports, Design Summary main menu to view the following form

The tool bar at the top of the form allows you zoom in or out, scroll to the end or beginning of the document (if there is more than one page in the report), setup the current printer details and select which pages of the report to print, print the report or save it as a file with various file formats.

Refer to the Export Reports help topic for details on the File formats you can save the reports as. The native Report format is a file called a QuickReport file and it has a file extension of QRP. You can save a file as a QRP file and open it later for viewing, printing or exporting. Note: Input data is normally shown in Italics on the Reports, with calculated data in normal upright text.

Print Design Reports
Helix delta-T is supplied many different reports. After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar, the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view, print or export any of the Design Reports. Select the Reports, Design Summary main menu to view the following form

The tool bar at the top of the form allows you zoom in or out, scroll to the end or beginning of the document (if there is more than one page in the report, setup the current printer details and select which pages of the report to print, print the report or save it as a file with various file formats.

Select the Printer using the Printer Setup Button, then press the Print Button. See picture above for button details. You can print selected pages of a report by specifying the pages in the Printer setup form. You can also specify the number of copies of the report to print.

.Refer to the Export Reports help topic for details on the File formats you can save the reports as.

Select the Reports. After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. You can Export a report to various file formats by using the Save File button shown above. . scroll to the end or beginning of the document (if there is more than one page in the report. print or export any of the Design Reports. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Export Design Reports Helix delta-T is supplied many different reports. setup the current printer details and select which pages of the report to print. Design Summary main menu to view the following form The tool bar at the top of the form allows you zoom in or out. print the report or save it as a file with various file formats.

good format for electronic storage and email good quality printing. Does not Require Adobe Acrobat. In this case export the file as a text file and then import it into Excel Text file.can be used to transfer to CAD packages etc. Rich Text Format Excel Worksheet RTF XLS Text Document JPEG Bitmap File Enhanced Metafile TXT JPG BMP EMF Refer to the Print Reports help topic for details on printing the reports.adobe. Refer to the Print Selected Reports help topic for details on printing or Export multiple reports at once. but does require the Free Acrobat Reader from www.com/acrobat For use in most word processors including MS Word. Can be used as an intermediate stage between other applications / files JPEG image file Windows bitmap image file Vector file . .The file formats supported are: File Type Quick Report File HTML (Web) Document Adobe Acrobat Document File Extension QRP HTM PDF Remarks Native file format for Design Output Reports For Web File Deployment PDF file . WordPerfect Export Reports to Excel file formats. Sometimes data is not transferred accurately due to screen / font size combinations.

If the Report Format option is set to Individual Reports. reports with multiple . the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. The following form will be displayed: The table lists the available reports for this function. each report will be assembled into a composite report and then printed as a single document. print or export any of the Design Reports. main menu will allow you to view and print individual reports.Printing / Exporting Multiple and Selected Design Reports Helix delta-T is supplied many different reports. Select the Reports. If the Report Format option is set to Combined Reports. this can be tedious if you want to print out a whole design . set the Report Print Column cell to True by clicking in it and selecting true form the drop down box. each report will be printed exactly as it appears under the Design menu option i.don't despair. Select the Reports.e. The composite report will not be exactly the same as the individual reports. because delta-T has many reports. To print a selection of reports. For example. Now you can print all reports set to True by clicking the Print button. as if it was a stand-alone report. Print Selected Reports menu after doing a design calculation. After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. as some formatting may be lost. there is a way to print multiple reports at once. However.

A work around is to print individual reports. You can also export the selected reports to the file formats shown near the Export button. The Exported files will be saved to the Sub-directory shown in the Tree view above the Exit button. The Preview and Print buttons at the bottom of the form only work if the Combined Report option is set to ON. You can select the directory to export the file to before pressing the Export button. This is a limitation of the QuickReports section of the program. .columns may have the Column headers omitted when the report is created.

the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Report .Design Summary After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. print or export any of the Design Reports. Design Summary main menu to view the following form . Select the Reports.

Belt and Idlers to Pulley Diameters. Conveying distance. It shows brief details about the design. Tensions. Installed Power. The information on this report is usually sufficient for a feasibility study or a design check. The Designers Comments section allows you to record details about the load case or other assumptions made. .This output screen summarises the salient points of your design. ranging from the Material Details.

print or export any of the Design Reports. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Report .Tension Summary Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. Tension Summary main menu to view the following form . Select the Reports.

The suggested take-up mass deficiency is shown on the report. The equivalent tension required to maintain these sag values are shown at the top of the Tension Summary form. Under normal running conditions the sag is normally limited to a maximum of 2% and under Starting and Stopping conditions to a maximum of 5%. The 2% and 5% sag tensions are displayed. Designers would normally limit the maximum sag on the carry side of the conveyor during running to 2% and during braking to 5%. . Refer to Input Conveyor Sections help topic for more details about the recommended friction factor at certain sag conditions. which you can adjust.The Running. Starting and Braking Tensions under various conditions are displayed. the friction factor input is displayed in small letters to the left of the running tensions column and the AVERAGE sag over the section is displayed in small letters to the right of this column. Add this mass to the take-up mass shown at the top of the report and input this value on the Input Take-up Details form and then re-calculate. These are input values. as well as the belt sag at the point under consideration. You should inspect the tensions and increase the take-up mass if necessary. The tension at any point should exceed the tension required to prevent excessive sag. If the minimum tensions fall too low during braking. Note: Negative tension values must be avoided by increasing the Take-up mass. Excessive sag can lead to material spillage or even belt buckling and damage to the belt due to miss tracking. spillage of material may occur. The carry side sag tensions can be used to determine whether a suitable friction factor was input. To assist with this.

the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Report .Take-up and Drive Traction Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. print or export any of the Design Reports. Take-up & Drive Traction Report main menu to view the following form . Select the Reports.

25 0.35 0. Definition of Drive Factor Cw Cw = 1 e uθ − 1 where Cw is the drive factor e is the base of the Naperian log u is the coefficient of friction between pulley and belt is the angle of wrap in radians Also Cw = T2 1 = ua Te e − 1 and T2 = T1 − Te .20 0.15 0. The Required T2 value is compared to the actual T2 value.35 Pulley Condition Wet Moist Dry Bare Steel 0. Starting and Braking conditions. The suggested additional take-up mass is calculated and shown.This report indicates whether there is sufficient T2 (Slack Side) tension on the Drive pulleys to prevent belt slippage during Running. and if the difference is negative the take-up mass needs to be increased. This value is usually 0.45 For starting conditions. Use the Input Take-up Details form and then re-calculate. The drive factor is calculated automatically from the Wrap angle and co-efficient of friction.25 0. Notes regarding Drives and Belt Slippage follow . a higher co-efficient of friction may be used.30 Ceramic 0.10 0. u under Running conditions Type of Lagging Rubber 0. Values of co-efficient of friction.10 more than the running co-efficient of friction. You should adjust the Take-up mass upwards by the amount shown.also refer to the Input Drive Details form. This value will be suggested by the program depending on the pulley condition and type of lagging. Co-efficient of friction between belt and pulley during running conditions. The table below may be used as a guide.

Alternatively.From the above. . increasing the Wrap angle will increase the contact area between belt and pulley and therefor increase the effective tension which can be input. This means that the counterweight mass needs to be increased. it is apparent that as the effective tension Te on a drive increases. the T2 slack side tension must be increased to prevent slippage.

Select the Reports. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. print or export any of the Design Reports. Belt Details main menu to view the following form .Report .Belt Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar.

In addition.do a manual calculation of the effective load area of the sidewall or skirted belt. Now the material mass per unit length will be correct and any tension calculations will be as for a skirted or sidewall system. it is possible to perform calculations using a belt which has full skirts or a sidewall belt . the flooded belt load area and masses are given. then adjust the belt width downwards (and adjust the material surcharge angle) until the same area is calculated by the program.5% of belt width plus a 20mm margin as detailed in the CEMA and ISO specifications. . Standard edge distances are also given. however it is the users responsibility to ensure that the load area used by the program is the actual load area required. being 5. Note. This Flooded condition is when the belt is loaded up to its edge. You may also add a 90 degree troughing angle idler to the database and use this for the sketch of the load area.The belt details report gives details relating to the belt strength. capacity load area etc. as well as showing a sketch of the cross-section of the load on the belt. You will note slight differences in load area between CEMA and ISO calculations due to different methods used by each code.

the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. Select the Reports. print or export any of the Design Reports. Idler Details main menu to view the following form .Idler Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar.Report .

material mass and the belt deviation load which may be due to idler misalignment or to a convex curve load.000 hours upwards. Normal life requirements range from 20. The Idler Bearing life (L10h) is calculated and the user should ensure that this L10h life is sufficient for the duty. If not. select an idler with higher load rating bearing. This belt deviation load is an input value and may be calculated on the Input Idler Details form The Idler load also includes an Idler Dynamic Load Factor which is related to the speed of the belt and the lumps in the material and whether there is a cushioning layer of fines. depending on the specifications and requirements of the project. The Load on the Centre Roll of the idler includes the load from the belt mass. .A warning message will be displayed if the idler Shaft Deflection exceeds the allowable deflection.

Pulley diameters marked with an * indicate the pulley dimensions have been overridden and input by the user.Report .Pulley Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. Select the Reports. . print or export any of the Design Reports. Pulley Details main menu to view the following form Note: Shaft length = Bearing Centres + 2 x Bearing Width + Shaft Extension Length.

.Refer to the Shaft Calculations help topic for details on pulley shaft calculations.

Shafts marked with an * indicate the pulley dimensions have been overridden and input by the user.Report . . Select the Reports. Shaft Details main menu to view the following form Note: Shaft length = Bearing Centres + 2 x Bearing Width + Shaft Extension Length.Pulley Shafts Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. Refer to the Shaft Calculations help topic for details on pulley shaft calculations. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. print or export any of the Design Reports.

the shaft size is selected on the larger diameter of the Torsion diameter and the Deflection diameter.Note: For Drive pulleys. .

Select the Reports.Pulley Sketch Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. Pulley Sketch main menu to view the following form Note: Shaft length = Bearing Centres + 2 x Bearing Width + Shaft Extension Length. print or export any of the Design Reports.Report . . Note: For Drive pulleys. Refer to the Shaft Calculations help topic for details on pulley shaft calculations. the shaft size is selected on the larger diameter of the Torsion diameter and the Deflection diameter. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.

Fully Loaded Tensions main menu to view the following form .Report . Loading Tensions. Select the Reports.Running Fully Loaded Tensions After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. print or export any of the Design Reports. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.

. Scraper Friction is the tension required to overcome the friction between the belt and scrapers and ploughs and other cleaning devices. and Declines and Level sections only loaded. using the CEMA or ISO method depending on which method you use for the calculation. Similar reports are produced for the Belt Running Empty. Refer to the Skirt Friction help topic for more details. Every time the program encounters an increase in capacity from one section to the next. If you input a zero friction factor for the conveyor section. Refer to the Scraper Friction help topic for more details. The summary panel at the bottom of the Loading Tensions report shows the minimum and maximum values. The Belt Power for this loading condition is also shown. then the program will calculate a value for you. It is calculated in accordance with the CEMA Appendix 3 method. overcome bearing friction losses and the additional tension required to wrap the belt around the pulley. the resulting belt elongation and take-up movement are calculated. The Friction Factor column shows the actual friction factor used to arrive at the effective tension over the section. The weighted average stationary belt tension is also calculated and subtracted from the weighted average tension for this loading condition.This report shows how the tensions for this loading condition are made up: T1 is the tight side tension on the pulley T2 is the slack side tension on the pulley Tp is the tension required to rotate the pulley . Refer to the ISO Calculation help topic for more details. Refer to the Tension Graphs help topic to view a graph of the tensions. and when the belt modulus is applied. total values as well as average tensions for this loading condition.e. or it may be calculated using the tables described in the Input Conveyor Sections form help topic.i. Te is the effective tension input at a drive pulley Material acceleration is the Tension required to accelerate the material on the belt from rest to the belt speed. This factor may be an input value. Skirt Friction is the tension required to overcome the friction between the material and the skirts. it will automatically add this Acceleration tension. Inclines and Level sections only loaded. Section Effective Tension is the effective tension over the section due to the belt and material moving over the idlers plus the tension required to lift (or lower) the belt and material (if applicable).

or in Line Graph form. Select the Reports. the belt tensions shown on the Tension Summary Report form.Belt Tensions Bar and Line Graph After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. either in Bar Graph form. Bar Graph or Line Graph main menu to view the following form These reports show. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. Tension Graphs. print or export any of the Design Reports.Report . .

The graphs show the tensions under the different loading conditions as well as during starting. You should view the graphs and ensure that there are no negative values. or values below the sag tension.The Bar graph makes it easy to see the tensions input at each drive. braking and coasting conditions. .

print or export any of the Design Reports. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Report .Vertical Curves Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. Vertical Curves main menu to view the following form Left half of report . Select the Reports.

The largest radius for Concave curves or the Minimum Radius for Convex curves for all conditions and checks is then added to the last column of the report. a special load case where the conveyor is loaded up the curve intersection point will usually yield the largest radius required to prevent belt lift-off. and a check made on the Longsection Drawing of the conveyor that this curve radius can actually fit into the geometry of the conveyor. This radius should then be transferred back as an input into the program under the Input Vertical Curves Radius form. For concave curves.Right half of report The vertical curve calculation report shows the belt lift off radius calculations as well as minimum radii for limiting Edge Tension rise and Centre Tension radii at each point along the conveyor. The section capacity is . You will have to alter the conveyor capacities in the Conveyor Sections input form to simulate these conditions.

Limit Edge sagging Steel belts .e.(note units . the worn belt mass. i. Length of curve X = RSina where X = Length of curve in m a = angle of incline or change of grade. You can record comments about the loading case in the Designers Comments input box under the Project Details input form. in degrees Concave Curves . For Convex curve Belt Lift-off calculations.kN per m) = worn belt mass per lineal m = gravitational acceleration in m/s Note: The belt tension under all possible loading conditions should be considered. The following formulae have been used for the curve calculations: Concave Curves R= SWTu gB minimum radius to prevent belt-lift off where S W Tu B g R = radius of curve in m = safety factor (usually 1. for the current loading condition. The % worn is input under the Input Belt Details form. the reduced belt mass is used.Limit Edge sagging Fabric belts R= nEW 1000(Tu ) R = radius of curve in m = 0.222 Sin(Troughing angle) = belt modulus in kN/m = belt width in mm = belt tension at curve in kN/m where n E W Tu Concave Curves .2 to 2.0) see Input Belt Details form = belt width in mm = tension at curve in kN/m . The last column on the report shows the maximum radius required at the intersection point.printed on the form for information purposes.

15 other variables as detailed above.Maximum Centre Tension R= nEW 2000(mTr − Tu ) R = radius of curve in m = 0. 1.222 Sin(Troughing angle) = belt modulus in kN/m = belt width in mm = edge tension rise factor = 1 + Edge Tension % / 100 .15 = rated maximum operating tension for belt in kN/m = belt tension at curve in kN/m where n E W m Tr Tu Convex curves .to avoid centre buckling R= nEW 2000(Tu − mTr ) = edge tension rise % / 100 e.limit edge tension rise R= nEW 1000( mTr − Tu ) R = radius of curve in m = 0.15 = rated maximum operating tension for belt in kN/m = belt tension at curve in kN/m where n E W m Tr Tu Convex curves .R= WE × Sinφ 12000(Tu ) where R = radius of curve in m theta = Troughing angle E = belt modulus in kN/m W = belt width in mm Tu = belt tension at curve in kN/m Concave Curves .g. 0.g.e.e. where m .222 Sin(Troughing angle) = belt modulus in kN/m = belt width in mm = edge tension rise factor = 1 + Edge Tension % / 100 . 1.g.

See Input Belt Details for details of input requirements. If there is more than one concave curve in the conveyor.As a rule. the worst case is generally during starting with the belt loaded up to the concave curve and empty after the curve. the worst case for convex curves is when the belt is running fully loaded and the belt is new. . Different loading conditions are entered in the Conveyor Sections input form. you should run different load cases for each curve loaded up to the intersection point. For concave curve lift-off.

Select the Reports.Horizontal Curves Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. Horizontal Curves. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. Running Fully Loaded main menu to view the following form . print or export any of the Design Reports.Report .

and this resisting force is created by tilting the idlers upward on the inside of the curve. Banking Angle menus. View the Reports. This tilt angle causes the belt and material on the belt to tend to slide off the belt. in the case away from the centre of the curve. Horizontal Curves. Horizontal Curves. A positive Calculated Belt Drift means that the belt is creeping up the idlers towards the centre of the horizontal curve. The method of calculation involves assuming a curve radius and an allowable Belt Drift (from the centre line). The program then calculates. A negative Belt Drift value means the belt is sagging down the idler away from the Horizontal curve centre. The calculation method involves calculating the Motivating Force which is the force towards the centre of the belt curve caused by the tension in the belt at the curve. In addition to the mass forces acting on the belt. you can enter a Super Elevation Angle (Banking angle) for each horizontal curve and the resulting Belt Drift will be calculated for each loading and operating condition. The resisting force is a component of the gravitational forces acting on the belt and the material. there is also a frictional resistance between the belt . Belt Drift is limited to a maximum of the Idler Roll face width minus 1 mm. The amount of belt drift allowed towards the centre of the curve increases this resisting force.The Helix delta-T program has a very powerful routine which is used to calculate the behaviour of the belt in Horizontal curves. Horizontal Curve Calculations This motivating force has to be balanced by an equivalent force in the opposite direction. Belt Drift menus. View the Reports. the Idler Banking Angle that will be required to keep the belt from slipping off the conveyor. Alternatively. at user input X co-ordinate increments.

The Input Horizontal Curves form has the facility to input the allowable belt drift. and all of these reports should be reviewed so that worst cases are identified before deciding on the final banking angle to use. the larger the Horizontal curve radius. However. the co-efficient of friction as well as the number of curve increments to calculate. Braking and Coasting. 3. as well as for Starting. .and idlers. so we recommend that only very low co-efficient of friction values be used. such as when it is raining and the idlers and belt are wet. The return belt curves are calculated using the belt mass only (unless it is a loaded return belt). 4 and 5 roll idlers. Trough Training idlers with side rollers should also be considered as a safety measure to prevent the belt drifting off centre by too much. The spacing between X co-ordinate calculation increments is also an input value .2.enter the number of curve increments in the Horizontal Curve Input Form. this frictional resistance may be very low under certain conditions. the better. As a general rule. The Horizontal curve report can be produced for all the different loading conditions. the curve radius. Provision is made for 1.

Report . . Drive Details main menu to view the following form The conveyor may have as many Drives as you like . the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. Select the Reports. print or export any of the Design Reports.Drive Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar.each one will be listed as for the sample above.

In this case. Note: For multiple drives.Backstop Torque This report indicates whether a backstop or holdback device is required. The method used to determine this is: Force required to Lift the load = Net lift x Mass of Matl x g Horizontal Force = Te x 1000 . the backstop would be required to hold this torque.HorizontalForce / 2) The Backstop torque calculated using the above method will be a maximum when only the inclined sections of conveyor are loaded. This value is shown on the report for information. the motor would deliver up to 3 times full load torque into the belt. the total backstop torque required is shown at each drive motor report. When the overload trips. Refer to the Input Drive Details form for more information about drives.Net lift x Mass of Matl x g If LiftForce x 2 > Horizontal force then a backstop is required The backstop torque = Drive Pulley Radius (m) x (LiftForce . . The worst case scenario for a backstop would be if the belt was restrained (jammed fast) at some point and an attempt to start the conveyor was made.

. print or export any of the Design Reports.Motor Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. You should then either enter a motor detail manually or add a suitable motor to the database so that the program can select it. Select the Reports. The next motor size in the database with the correct voltage. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. The motor efficiency and power factor are calculated from the 50%. Motor Details main menu to view the following form Each drive motor will be listed. The Motor power rating required is taken from the Belt Power x Load share % on drive divided by the Drive Efficiency input and then multiplied by the Motor Selection Safety factor.Report . Note: If a suitable motor is not found in the database. a warning message will be displayed during the Design Calculation. 75% and 100% load values using a regression method. poles and frequency will be selected. Motor data is extracted from the motor database.

Refer to the Input Drive Details help topic for more information. .

Gearbox Details main menu to view the following form Gearbox selection and equipment details are given here. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Gearbox Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. the required gearbox ratio takes into account the % Slip of the Fluid coupling.Report . Select the Reports. The Program sorts the gearbox database in the following order . Note that if a Fluid coupling is present. print or export any of the Design Reports.

Note that a closer speed ratio may be found by decreasing the Plus and Minus Speed ratio tolerances.5) Speed Required is calculated from Required Pulley speed plus or minus the Speed Selection Tolerance %. Metric. Allow Selection. and if No Gearbox Selection was possible. . Max Torque. Refer to the Input Gearbox Details form. Ratio and then selects the first gearbox which meets the requirements: Torque Required = Motor FL Torque x Service Factor (default 1.Category. it could be because the program is looking for a ratio within a too narrow speed band. No Of Stages.

. Allow Selection. This time is calculated by the program and can be viewed on the Conveyor Dynamics design report. the co-efficient of friction and the effective disc radius. Brake Details main menu to view the following form Brake selection and equipment details are given here. print or export any of the Design Reports.Report . The Design Stopping Time. the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view.Brake Details Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar. Select the Reports. The number of Consecutive stops and the Average number of stops per hour are used for the thermal design calculations for the brake. The Program sorts the brake database in the following order Category. Minimum Clamping Force and then selects the first brake which meets the torque requirements: The Disc diameter is reduced to an Effective diameter by subtracting the Pad Offset width or distance from the radius. and the braking Torque is calculated using the Clamping force. Metric.

increase the disc thickness or select a larger brake with a larger Pad offset Width W.The Disc Temperature after the total number of consecutive stops will be calculated and displayed on the above form. As a rule. you should increase the disc diameter. Refer to the Input Brake Details form. the brake disc temperature should not exceed 300 degrees C. . If the temperature exceeds this value.

Conveyor Dynamics main menu to view the following form . Select the Reports.Conveyor Dynamics .Report . the Reports main menu will be enabled and you can then view. print or export any of the Design Reports.Starting Stopping Times Report After completing a design calculation run using the ISO or CEMA buttons on the main form toolbar.

pulleys and idlers. The deceleration rate is given by the formula F = m⋅a where F is the effective tension + the drive losses m is the total moving mass a is the deceleration rate and a= V t where a is the deceleration rate V is the belt speed t is the starting or stopping time The coasting distance S is given by: V2 S= 2a The discharge mass is given by Dmass = Wm ⋅ S where Wm is the mass of material per unit length ( kg/m) . To start a conveyor. as well as the inertia of the drives. Deceleration The deceleration rates are calculated from the drive inertia and the inertia of the belt and material on the belt. As long as the Tension available to start the conveyor exceeds the effective tension. the tension at the drives needs to overcome the resisting or 'effective tension' of the conveyor system.This Report summarises the Starting and Stopping time calculations for the conveyor as well as giving the mass of material that will be discharged during the conveyor stopping time. the conveyor will start moving. The rate of acceleration depends on the margin between the Starting tensions and the resisting tensions.

Braking and Conveyor Coasting
Braking and Conveyor Coasting times are also calculated for loaded and empty conveyor conditions. The Braking force is entered as a low speed torque on the drive pulley, which is converted to a force once the drive pulley diameter has been determined. If the brake is fitted on the High Speed Side of the reducer (which is normally the case) you must convert the braking torque to a low speed torque before entering the value in the Pulley Data, Pulley Brakes table on the main form. You can do this using the following conversion. The LS Brake Torque = HS Brake Torque * Reducer Ratio * Reducer Efficiency % / 100. For example, HS Brake torque = 1500 Nm, reducer ratio = 18:1, reducer efficiency = 95% LS Brake Torque = 1500 x 18 x 95 /100 = 25650 Nm = 25.65 kNm which is the value that should be entered on the drive pulley.

Maximum Belt Starting Tension Percentage
This is the maximum allowable increase in belt tension during startup divided by the maximum allowable operating belt tension. It is used to calculate the maximum allowable acceleration rates during starting. The default value is 150% This increase in starting tension multiplied by the belt rated tension minus the effective tension Te becomes the accelerating force available to start the conveyor. Using the formula F = ma and the belt speed V, an acceleration rate and thus a starting time is calculated. This starting time is compared to the starting time calculated using the allowable peak torque starting percentage (see next item) and the longest starting time of the two is chosen as the minimum starting time required. Thus, the belt starting tension percentage will only affect the conveyor allowable starting time if it is calculated to be the limiting case when compared to the motor and fluid coupling drive starting requirements.

Motor Acceleration Torque Percentage
This Percentage value limits the extent to which the peak drive torque may rise to, expressed as a percentage of the motor full load torque. The selection of the fluid coupling depends on this limitation, as the value of the peak torque percentage of the fluid coupling must be less than or equal to this percentage. See Fluid Coupling / Soft Starter for details. The acceleration rates and starting time of the conveyor are also affected by this starting torque value. The lower the value, the lower the starting time required, provided that the allowable tension rise in the belt is not the limiting factor. (See item above) To vary the Starting time of the conveyor, change the Starting Torque % input value on the Input Drives form. A conveyor fitted with oversized motors may cause an excessive Tension Rise in the belt during starting. The program will issue a warning message during the calculation process if this happens. The program allows you to input different Starting Torque percentages for a Full and Empty belt. This situation would only occur if the Startup system was specifically designed to do so. In these special cases, the Starting torque of an empty belt is lower than for a full belt (inclined conveyors).

Flywheels
The inertia of the pulleys and drives are reduced to equivalent masses and added to the belt, material, and idler rotating masses. A high inertia at a certain point will keep the belt moving for longer during stopping, and increase the starting time during starting. Fitting a flywheel at a pulley will

allow you to alter the behavior and Starting / Stopping tensions of the conveyor. A flywheel may be simulated by adding the equivalent moment of inertia of the flywheel to that of the pulley. This can be done in Pulley Dimensions input form. The moment of inertia can be calculated as follows:

Moment of inertia,

J = mR 2

(SI units)

where J is in kgm2 m is the mass in kg R is the radius of gyration in m

For example, the Moment of inertia of a flywheel 1m in diameter and 30mm thick would be:

m=

πD
4

× 0 .030 × 7850 = 185 kg

Where 7850 is the density of the steel in kg/m3

J =

1 × m × Radius 2

2

So the Moment of inertia J in kgm2 is:

1 2 J = × 185 × (0.5) = 23.125 2
The Low Speed inertia may be calculated using the reducer ratio as follows:

LS inertia = HS inertia × Ratio 2
You can look-up typical Moments of Inertia for AC motors in the Inertia Look-up table.

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Datacontrol - Adding Editing, Deleting Records
Helix delta-T is supplied many places where you can add, delete or edit data. You can use the Data Control to perform actions on your data:

The Plus button adds a new record The Minus button deletes the current record Click the Tick button on the Data Control to save your changes. The Arrow buttons let you navigate up and down the table View the Tool tips popup by hovering your mouse over the data control buttons.

If you are using one of the many data tables you can also perform the following: Use Ctrl + Insert to insert a record Use Ctrl + Delete to delete a record Use Ctrl + C to copy text Use Ctrl + V to Paste text Right click on all Tables, Images and Drawing areas to see if there is a Popup menu available.

Material Database
Helix delta-T is supplied a list of common materials. You can also add your own material details, either to the Duty / Input Materials form, where the material will be used for the current design file, or to the Data, Material Database form. The Material can be added in either form and transferred to the other for design use or for storage in the database for future use. To add a material to the Database, press the Data, Materials main menu. The following form will be displayed:

You can scroll down the list and select the material to use in the current design file by clicking on the row with the Right mouse button and pressing the 'Copy to Current Design file' menu. This action will send the currently selected material to the current design file. To add a new material, navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list, or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. Now key in the data required in each column. 1. Press Add New + button on the datacontrol. A new record will be added at the end of the list. Click in the new row in the Material Description cell. Enter a Material Description. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. 2. Enter the material Low Bulk Density. This density is used for the belt capacity calculation and belt width selection. 3. Enter a material High Bulk Density. This value is used for the belt load support calculations and belt cover selections.

4. Enter the Maximum Recommended Belt Speed. This value is for information purposes only. If the design belt speed is higher, this value is ignored during the selection process. 5. Enter the material Maximum Lump size. If the material is uniform, i.e. it contains less than 10% fines, then click on the Uniform check box. If the material is mixed with fines and smaller lumps, leave the Uniform check box blank. 6. Enter the Angle of Repose. This is the angle at which the material stockpile sides will form. 7. Enter the Maximum Recommended Incline Angle for the material. The program will not over-ride the design process if the incline angle is larger than this value. It is for information purposes only. 8. Enter the Surcharge Angle of the material. This is the angle (from the horizontal) which the material will form during transportation. It must be less than the Angle of Repose. 9. Click on the Flowability Check Box which applies to this material. 10. Click on the Abrasion Factor Check Box which applies to this material. 11. Enter any Miscellaneous Characteristics of the material in the large text box provided. Use a new line for each characteristic. This is an optional field. 12. When all details have been entered you can use this newly added material for calculations by right clicking on the row and pressing the 'Copy to Current Design file' menu. This will save the new record and select it for use in the calculations. You can also save the newly added record by clicking on any other record in the table. Moving from one record to another automatically saves any changes you have made to the record.

Detail view of Material

The above form is accessed by clicking the Material details tab sheet. It gives a snapshot of one material at a time.

. So it is important to set these two parameters.Note: The Material Lump size and Abrasion are used to select the belt covers (if Auto selection is used).

Copy or Delete Records. You can choose to view another belt category by selecting a different category from the drop down list provided above the table. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. either to the Duty / Input Belt Details form. The following form will be displayed: This is a list of belts in the currently selected Belt Category. You can also add your own belt details. The Belt can be added in either form and transferred to the other for design use or for storage in the database for future use. You can also the Edit Menu to Insert. where the belt will be used for the current design file. You can view or print a report listing all the belts in the category. Belts main menu. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. To add a new belt. navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list. press the Data. To add a belt to the Database. Now key in the data required in each column. Press the Data Report button on the toolbar. You can view or print a report listing all the idlers in the category. Copying records and then editing the data is sometimes a quicker way to add a range of belts than typing each individual record. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. .Belt Database Helix delta-T is supplied a list of belts from various belt manufacturers. Belt Database form. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. or to the Data.

Press Add New + button on the datacontrol. If the belt is a metric belt. it will not be displayed until you select the new category from the drop down list. Note that when you save a new record with a new belt category entered. Click in the new row in the Category Description cell and key in the Category description. Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols . Enter the number of plies if a fabric belt. You will then have to select the new category from the drop down list for it to be listed. Typing a new Belt Category name will create a new belt category in the drop down list. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. Enter the Maximum Allowable Operating Tension of the Belt. Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's . Enter the Belt Category description. edit the data and then import the data again. the belt will not be selected by the program during the selection process. the program will rank all the belts in the category in ascending order of operating . enter a zero.You can List All Belt categories by pressing the List all button on the toolbar. Enter the description of the belt if not already entered. Description and Class of belt. A new record will be added at the end of the list. This category can be any description you choose. To add data manually. If it is a steel belt or a solid woven belt. then open it in Excel. Enter a Belt Description.add words such as True or False where applicable. A quick way to edit a whole category of data is to export the category to a CSV file. Use the words FABRIC for fabric belts. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells.see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. During the belt selection procedure. set the Metric column to True. the new record will disappear when you save it. STEEL for steel belts and SOLID W for solid woven belts. Use capital letters only. If it is set to False. follow these steps. Enter the material of the reinforcing fibres. but if it is not the same as the current category description. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. The Allow Selection column is a switch which allows you to switch the belt ON or OFF for Automatic Belt Selection purposes.

Enter the belt modulus in kN/m. For example. In this case. but the allowable operating stress. Enter the maximum allowable belt width for correct load support at the material densities of 800. Enter the density of the rubber covers. Enter the belt carcass thickness in mm . a figure of 1. or press the Tick button on the Datacontrol. The program will select the pulley diameters based on the calculated tension at the pulley and this minimum diameter. Snub Pulleys > 30 degree angle of wrap. Note: This Maximum Tension is not the ultimate breaking strength of the belt. 31-60% of rated tension and <30% of rated tension. Pulley Type A B C Description Drive Pulleys. The bottom cover will be selected at 1/3 of the top cover thickness unless a minimum cover thickness is specified in the input routines.the thickness excluding the covers Enter the belt carcass mass. but because of the narrow width being less than that specified for correct empty belt troughing. Bend Pulleys. This cost is added to the carcass cost to arrive at an estimate of the belt cost. 14. Take-up Pulleys. the program rejects that belt (and class) and goes to the next belt or returns a message saying that “No belt selection was possible”. 1200.13 may be used. Refer to the Belt Covers help topic for more details. resulting in a safety factor of 10:1. The program will select an appropriate cover thickness based on the abrasiveness of the material and the belt trip rate or frequency factor. . 35 and 45 degree troughing angles. Enter the minimum pulley diameters for type A. You may also view a snapshot of a single belt record by pressing the Individual Belt Detail tab sheet. To Save your changes.tension and select the first belt that has an allowable operating tension which is higher than the maximum tension in the system. Use the manual minimum belt width override to increase the belt width selected. 2400 and 3000 kg/m3 respectively. This is the mass of the belt with zero top and bottom covers. Snub Pulleys < 30 degree angle of wrap 13. High Tension Head Pulley. 1600. enter the 63 kN in the Maximum Operating Tension column. Enter the cost of the belt covers per unit volume of rubber. B and C Pulleys at 61-100% of rated tension. Enter the minimum belt width for correct Empty Belt Troughing at 20. This will be used for belt Elastic Elongation calculations. Note: It is possible for the program to select a belt width which can carry the tonnes per hour required. a class 630 belt will normally have an ultimate breaking strength of 630 kN and an allowable operating tension of 63 kN. move to the next or the previous record. If unknown. Tail Pulley.

.Belt Widths and Belt Covers tabs are shown below.

.

.

Idler Database form. You can choose to view another idler category by selecting a different category from the drop down list provided above the table. You can also add your own idler details. Now key in the data required in each column. either to the Duty / Input Carry Idlers (or Return Idlers) form. Copying records and then editing the data is sometimes a quicker way to add a range of idlers than typing each individual record. You can view or print a report listing all the idlers in the category. You can also the Edit Menu to Insert.Idler Database Helix delta-T is supplied a list of idlers from various manufacturers. The idler can be added in either the design form and transferred to the database for future use. where the idler will be used for the current design file. navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list. Idlers main menu. . or added in the database and then used in the current design. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. Copy or Delete Records. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. or to the Data. To add a new idler. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. To add an idler to the Database. The following form will be displayed: This is a list of idlers in the currently selected Idler Category. press the Data.

Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols . is to export the category to a CSV file. You will then have to select the new category from the drop down list for it to be listed. Click in the new row in the Idler Category cell. Enter the troughing angle in degrees. then open it in Excel. Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's . Enter the Idler description. Enter the roll diameter in mm. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu. but if it is not the same as the current category description. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. Drawing number Enter the number of idler rolls. A new record will be added at the end of the list. A quick way to edit a whole category of data. This idler category can be any description you choose.see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. . edit the data and then import the data again. Enter the shaft diameter in mm. Enter an Idler Category description. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. the new record will disappear when you save it. This value is used for shaft deflection calculations. The records are sorted alphabetically by category description. and Series description.add words such as True or False where applicable. follow these steps. This is also sometimes called the idler series. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. Enter the Idler Category description. To add data manually. Press Add New + button on the datacontrol.You can List All Idler categories by pressing the List all button on the toolbar. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. Enter the bearing number or designation.

the sum of the individual Roll rotating masses. The FaceToSprtDim is the dimension from the roll face edge to the support point. Enter the Fixing Width of the Idler . The Bearing Centre dimension is the Face Width minus twice the FaceToBrgDim value. These widths are from the Belt Width database. any changes to the widths will also affect the belt database. however. and can be edited. This is usually a limitation of the bearing design and is between 8 to 12 minutes.e. if available. Enter the rotating mass of all the idler rolls combined i. . An idler may be both a carry and return idler if required. The FaceToBrgDim is the dimension from the Roll face edge to the bearing. Move to the Idler Belt Width check boxes and click on the widths for which this idler is available. or use a zero. (Previous versions of Helix delta-T used the individual rotating masses. Now enter the roll face widths for each idler in mm. Enter the idler prices.for information only. Enter the allowable shaft deflection at the bearing. The User Data cell is for any other information you may want to store.. You can save the data by pressing the Tick button on the datacontrol or by moving to another record in the table.) Enter the Idler Set mass . Enter the bearing centres and support centres. This value will be used for bearing L10h life calculations. Return or Impact idler check box.for information only. Detail view You may also view a snapshot of a single idler record by pressing the Idler Details tab sheet. The Support Centre dimension is the Face Width plus twice the FaceToSprtDim value.Enter the bearing dynamic C rating in N. Click on the Carry.

. but the sketch will only display up to three rolls.This view shows a Three. You may add other numbers of idler rolls such as 4 or 5 roll idlers. Two or Single roll idler in the sketch.

These three parameters are combined to make up a Pulley and Shaft combination during the selection process. The following form will be displayed: The Pulley data is separated in to Pulley Diameters. Pulleys main menu. Copying records and then editing the data is sometimes a quicker way to add a range of data than typing each individual record. To add data to the Database. To switch off a pulley or shaft. Pulley Widths and Shaft details. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. Copy or Delete Records. . set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False.Pulley and Shaft Database Helix delta-T is supplied a list of Pulleys and Shafts from various manufacturers. You can also add data but switch it off so that it is not used in the current selection process. You can also add your own Pulley and Shaft details. press the Data. Now key in the data required in each column. You can also the Edit Menu to Insert. navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. You may have as many pulley and shaft combinations as you wish. To add a new record. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard.

Pulley Widths . Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's . Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols .this value is used to calculate the pulley inertia.see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. Enter the cost of the pulley per unit mass. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes.this value is used to calculate the pulley inertia. A quick way to edit a whole category of data. Enter the End Disc Thickness . Lagging is added in the design file. then open it in Excel. A new record will be added at the end of the list. follow these steps. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. Enter the Shell Diameter of the pulley excluding lagging. is to export the category to a CSV file. set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. To switch off a pulley or shaft. Enter a description.add words such as True or False where applicable. or for forcing the program to select a particular pulley. edit the data and then import the data again. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. This cost per kg will be used to calculate a cost for the pulley in the Cost Estimating portion of the program. Pulley Diameters Press Add New + button on the datacontrol. Enter the Shell Thickness . To add data manually. This will mean that the program will not select this item during the design calculations. Click in the new row in the Description cell. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. Set the Metric value to True for a metric pulley or to False for a pulley with dimensions in Inches. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard.You can view or print a report listing all the idlers in the category. so enter the average thickness if it has tapered end discs. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu.

To switch off a pulley or shaft. Key in the Bearing Centres for this pulley . The User Data cell is for any other information you may want to store. set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False. or for forcing the program to select a particular pulley. Enter the Belt Width for the pulley. Pulley Shafts .this is for a pulley not mounted in a discharge chute. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes. Enter the bearing centres for a pulley mounted in a discharge chute. This will mean that the program will not select this item during the design calculations. This value can be used for Head pulleys. Enter the Pulley Face Width.Select True if the data is in metric units.

. Enter the bearing designation. Enter the Shaft Diameter at the Bearing. Enter the cost of the bearing. or for forcing the program to select a particular pulley. set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False. Enter the cost of the pulley shaft per unit mass. This cost per kg will be used to calculate a cost for the pulley in the Cost Estimating portion of the program. Key in the width of the Bearing. This will mean that the program will not select this item during the design calculations. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes. Select True if the data is in metric units. Two bearings are added for the shaft costing. This is an optional input value. Enter the Shaft Diameter at the Hub. This value is added to the bearing centres to calculate the shaft length. To switch off a pulley or shaft.Enter a Description for the Shaft. This value is optional and for information only.

To add a new motor. Copying records and then editing the data is sometimes a quicker way to add a range of data than typing each individual record. Copy or Delete Records. Now key in the data required in each column. The following form will be displayed: This is a list of motors in the currently selected Motor Category. You can also add your own motor details.Motor Database Helix delta-T is supplied a list of Motors from various manufacturers. or added in the database and then used in the current design. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. press the Data. where the motor will be used for the current design file. To add a motor to the Database. or to the Data. navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list. Motors main menu. Motor Database form. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. either to the Duty / Input Motors form. You can also the Edit Menu to Insert. . You can choose to view another motor category by selecting a different category from the drop down list provided above the table. The motor can be added in either the design form and transferred to the database for future use.

Enter a Motor Category description.You can view or print a report listing all the motors in the category. Voltage and Power Rating. Speed etc. To add data manually. All data should be entered as blank values . set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False. You will then have to select the new category from the drop down list for it to be listed. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. Enter the Voltage. Click in the new row in the Motor Category cell. Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols . Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. edit the data and then import the data again. To switch off a motor. then by Number of Poles. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes. A quick way to edit a whole category of data. Select True if the data is in metric units. Enter the Motor Category description. follow these steps.add words such as True or False where applicable. is to export the category to a CSV file. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. The records are sorted alphabetically by category description. but if it is not the same as the current category description. This motor category can be any description you choose. Enter the Motor description. Press Add New + button on the datacontrol. A new record will be added at the end of the list. the new record will disappear when you save it. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's . then open it in Excel. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. This will mean that the program will not select this item during the design calculations. Poles.see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu. You can List All Motor categories by pressing the List all button on the toolbar. Power Rating. or for forcing the program to select a particular motor.

However. .may cause an error during the design calculations. Detail view You may also view a snapshot of a single record by pressing the Motor Details tab sheet. If you do not know a value. The actual running speed n is where the Motor Torque and Load Torque curves intersect. if this is not available. the Moment of Inertia Look-up table may be used as a guide. Moment of Inertia of motor The motor manufacturer will normally supply the Moment of Inertia of the motor rotor. enter an estimate or 9999 or some other value you can recognise as a dummy value.

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You can also the Edit Menu to Insert.Gearbox Database Helix delta-T is supplied a list of Gearboxes from various manufacturers. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. . where the Gearbox will be used for the current design file. Gearbox Database form. Copy or Delete Records. Now key in the data required in each column. navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. To add a new Gearbox. or added in the database and then used in the current design. Copying records and then editing the data is sometimes a quicker way to add a range of data than typing each individual record. press the Data. You can choose to view another Gearbox category by selecting a different category from the drop down list provided above the table. The following form will be displayed: This is a list of Gearboxes in the currently selected Gearbox Category. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. Gearboxes main menu. To add a Gearbox to the Database. You can also add your own Gearbox details. You can view or print a report listing all the Gearboxes in the category. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. or to the Data. either to the Duty / Input Gearbox form. The Gearbox can be added in either the design form and transferred to the database for future use.

Size. Enter the Gearbox Category description. Enter a Gearbox Category description. is to export the category to a CSV file. edit the data and then import the data again. All data should be entered as blank values may cause an error during the design calculations. To switch off a Gearbox. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False.add words such as True or False where applicable. but if it is not the same as the current category description. You will then have to select the new category from the drop down list for it to be listed. Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols .see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. then by Number of Stages. follow these steps. A new record will be added at the end of the list. enter an estimate or 9999 or some other value you can recognize as a dummy value. Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's . You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes. Enter the Gearbox description and Type. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu. Enter the Code. or for forcing the program to select a particular Gearbox. Select True if the data is in metric units. then open it in Excel. Press Add New + button on the datacontrol. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. If you do not know a value. A gearbox will not . The records are sorted alphabetically by category description.You can List All Gearbox categories by pressing the List all button on the toolbar. The Max Input Speed and Min Input Speed is the speed range of the motor. Number of Stages and Ratio of the gearbox. the new record will disappear when you save it. This will mean that the program will not select this item during the design calculations. Click in the new row in the Gearbox Category cell. This Gearbox category can be any description you choose. A quick way to edit a whole category of data. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. To add data manually. Maximum Torque Rating and then Ratio.

Enter the Moment of Inertia in the MomI column if you have this value. If not.be selected if the motor speed falls outside this range. Detail view You may also view a snapshot of a single record by pressing the Gearbox Details tab sheet. you may leave it blank. .

Brake Database form. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard.Brake Database Helix delta-T is supplied a list of Brakes from various manufacturers. You can also the Edit Menu to Insert. where the Brake will be used for the current design file. To add a Brake to the Database. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. To add a new Brake. You can List All Brake categories by pressing the List all button on the toolbar. Copy or Delete Records. press the Data. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. You can also add your own Brake details. You can view or print a report listing all the Brakes in the category. The Brake can be added in either the design form and transferred to the database for future use. . or added in the database and then used in the current design. either to the Duty / Input Brake form. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. Now key in the data required in each column. The following form will be displayed: This is a list of Brakes in the currently selected Brake Category. navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list. You can choose to view another Brake category by selecting a different category from the drop down list provided above the table. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. Copying records and then editing the data is sometimes a quicker way to add a range of data than typing each individual record. Brakes main menu. or to the Data.

To add data manually. Loss of Force per mm of gap. Enter the Caliper Size. and the Pad offset distance. Click in the new row in the Brake Category cell. edit the data and then import the data again. To switch off a Brake. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu. This Brake category can be any description you choose.see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. then by Minimum Clamping Force. This will mean that the program will not select this item during the design calculations. but if it is not the same as the current category description. Enter a Brake Category description. Detail view You may also view a snapshot of a single record by pressing the Brake Details tab sheet. You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. The records are sorted alphabetically by category description. The other input data is for information only and may be omitted if you wish. then open it in Excel. set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False. Enter the Brake description and Caliper description. You will then have to select the new category from the drop down list for it to be listed.Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols . or for forcing the program to select a particular brake. A new record will be added at the end of the list. follow these steps. A quick way to edit a whole category of data.add words such as True or False where applicable. Minimum Clamping Force of the brake. . Press Add New + button on the datacontrol. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes. Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's . Enter the Gearbox Category description. is to export the category to a CSV file. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. Use the Tab key or the mouse to move between records and cells. Maximum allowable air Gap. the new record will disappear when you save it. Select True if the data is in metric units.

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navigate to the end of the list and use the down arrow on your keyboard to open a new line in the list.Cost Estimating You can build up cost estimate for the conveyor. Once you have added a new category and saved it. Civil works. or press the + button on the Datacontrol to insert a new item. The following form will be displayed: The Estimating system consists of a two-table system. the bottom table will reflect all items associated with that category (-usually none. Press the Data Report button on the toolbar. Now key in the data required in each column. ensuring that you link the items to the Category by using the same description in the category columns of each table. The top table contains Cost Categories. Electrical and Installation and Commissioning costs for the conveyor. Select the Estimating. Mechanical. for a new category). You can now add items in the bottom table. Conveyor Cost Estimate menu from the main form. You can Add new records by pressing the Ctrl Insert button on your keyboard. including Engineering and Design costs. . To add a new cost category. The Auto Add Category name option will ensure that the Category name is automatically added in the items table each time you add a new item You can view or print a report listing all the Cost items in all the categories. and each category can have as many Cost Items associated within it.

Leave out formatting such as Currency symbols . The following popup menu will appear: .add words such as True or False where applicable. Ensure that the cells are values and not formula's .You can Delete records by pressing the Ctrl Delete button on your keyboard. then open it in Excel.see the spreadsheet help file Select the cells to import in the spreadsheet program Press the Edit Copy menu in the spreadsheet program Click on the Database Table in the Helix program to give it the Focus Press the Paste From Clipboard button The data will be pasted into the table. edit the data and then import the data again. Adding or Importing Data from other applications and files You can easily import data from MS Excel or other spreadsheet programs: Set out the data to import in the same columns and the same format as the Database table. A quick way to edit a whole category of data is to export the category to a CSV file. Extracting Equipment and Cost Data from the current design File Right click in the Cost Items table. You can also Import data from a Comma Separated file (CSV) or Export data to a CSV file using the Data Transfer menu.

gearboxes. You can view or print a report listing all the Cost Items in the Estimate. This can be used for calculating a Selling Price for conveyor system This menu also allows you to extract cost data from the current conveyor design file. The Margin % column in the Categories table allows you to enter a Gross Margin % to add to the costs. . You can Print or Export this report. The Cost Report will be created and displayed. belts. Pasting data etc.The Popup menu allows you to perform a whole range of activities such as Factoring All Prices. You can get the motors. Press one of the Data Report buttons on the toolbar. The actual quantities in the design file will be extracted and merged with the costs from the Database files. idlers and Pulley and shaft costs. after importing them from the design file. You can change the quantities and cost rates if you wish. The Factor Prices menu allows you to adjust all prices in the current category by a factor. fluid couplings.

such as belt details. and use it as basis for your own customised reports. Select the Equipment Schedules main menu option. you may do 5 conveyor designs and then construct a schedule showing the Belt details for the 5 conveyors on one report. capacity etc. You can export this report to PDF. Fluid Couplings and Gearboxes. The following from will be displayed. How to Construct an Equipment Schedule . In addition. you can set up a Project Design Summary Report. These schedules summarise the equipment from a number of designs onto one report. For instance. Pulleys. first do your conveyor designs. Word (RTF) Excel etc. This is a summary of the main conveyor design features from any number of conveyors.Equipment Schedules After doing a number of Conveyor Design Calculations you may want to construct equipment schedules. Equipment schedules are also provided for Idlers. Each design should be done in a New Conveyor Design File. speed. Motors. To construct Equipment Schedules.

Conveyor Summary Report One of the most useful Equipment schedules is the Pulley Schedule . Sample of Equipment Schedule . To create a new report for different equipment for the same group of designs. click on the report type required and press the View / Print Schedule button. pricing.sample shown below: . This will usually be in the Projects subdirectory. Press the View / Print Schedule button. faxing to suppliers for prices or just for record purposes. You can use the Directory Tree list provided to do this.Select the subdirectory in which the design files are stored. Click on the Equipment Schedule required in the group on the top right hand corner of the form. You can double click on a file in the file list to add it the schedule list at the bottom of the form. These schedules may be used for cost estimates. The program will now construct the schedule and display it. not just the file name. Ensure that the full path of the file is in the Schedule list. or select multiple files using the Ctrl button and your mouse and then press the Add File to Schedule List button. Select the design files you want to include in the reports.

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ISO Calculation Method The ISO Tension calculation is based on: T = C ⋅ f ⋅ L ⋅ g Qro + Qru + 2 ⋅ Qb + Qg ⋅ Cos( Alpha ) + Qg ⋅ H ⋅ g + Fs1 + Fs 2 where T is the tension in N C is the adjustment factor for secondary resistances f is the artificial friction coefficient L is the conveying distance in m g is gravitational acceleration in m/s2 Qro is the rotating mass of the troughing idlers in kg/m Qru is the rotating mass of return idlers in kg/m Qb is the belt mass in kg/m Qg is the mass of material in kg/m H is the vertical lift in m Fs1 are the special main resistances in N Fs2 are the secondary resistances in N Alpha is the incline angle [ ( ) ] The ISO method of calculation uses a so-called C factor to compensate for secondary losses. the C factor is relatively high because the proportion of secondary resistance’s to the total resistance’s is high. Skirts. On short conveyors. however on long conveyors (over 2000m ) this factor tends to be equal to 1. Pulley Rotation. Material Acceleration etc. . Refer to ISO 5048 for further details.05. The formula used for calculating C is: C= 17 ⋅ Ln[ L] L +1 where C is the adjustment factor Ln is the natural logarithm = log to the base e L is the conveying distance in m The Helix delta-T program does not use the C factor as all secondary resistance's such as Scrapers. This is a factor by which the tensions are adjusted upwards to allow for secondary resistance’s such as pulley inertia etc. are calculated each time a calculation is performed.

0. Ts = u⋅ I 2 ⋅r ⋅ L⋅ g V 2 ⋅ b2 See ISO 5048 and DIN 22101 where Ts is the skirt resistance in N u is the coefficient of friction between material and belt .Skirt Friction The program will calculate the additional tension due to friction between the skirt and the belt and the material and the skirt and add this tension to the tension of the first conveyor section.5 .7 I is the conveyor capacity in m3/s L is the length of skirt in m V is the belt speed in m/s r is the material density in kg/m3 b is the effective width of skirt = 2/3 belt width .usually 0.

4 where Ts is the scraper tension in N n is the number of scraper blades W is the belt width in mm g is gravitational acceleration in m/s2 .Scraper Resistance's The following formula is used to calculate the additional tension caused by the scraper (or ploughs) on the belt. Ts = n ⋅W ⋅ g 25.

After Calculations are done you can view. Print or Export the following report: . Once you have the magnitude of these Pullout force tensions. Two methods of calculation are offered . Generally. You will note that two Tensions are given: Starting or Initial Pull-out force Running or Flow conditions Pullout force. The higher Starting force is required to overcome the interlocking (or bridging) of the material whilst stationary. The following form will be displayed: This form allows you to calculate the Additional Tension required to pull a material out of a hopper. you should design the Feeder as a normal conveyor and add the Pullout Tension as a Tension Adjustment in the Conveyor Sections form. We use the term additional tension.Bruff's method and the method proposed in the Bridgestone conveyor design manual. Once it is flowing. Hopper Pullout Forces menu from the main form. the force required reduces. but the extra tension required to pull the material out of the hopper. Select the Calcs.Hopper or Feeder Pullout Forces You can calculate the additional forces required to pull material out of a hopper or bin. because the forces calculated here are not the normal running tensions of the feeder. Bruff's method is more conservative and is the preferred choice for safety.

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Enter your conveyor parameters and press the Calc button. The Time after discharge is broken into the number of Calc increments you input and the program calculates the relative X and Y co-ordinates of the particle. The following form will be displayed: This form allows you to calculate the X. Discharge Trajectory menu from the main form. This system yields an 'envelope' which should cover the spread of the material (ignoring wind etc) during its path towards the ground. The main inputs required are the Belt Speed. You can save your settings by using the Datacontrol buttons.one for a particle sitting at the belt line and one for a particle (a lump say) which is on top of the material on the belt. The discharge Radius from the centre of the pulley to the particle sitting on the belt. at these time increments. and a time period. Select the Calcs. the angle of the belt incline (minus for decline) at the discharge pulley.Discharge Trajectory You can calculate the Trajectory of the material as it leaves the head pulley of a conveyor. . relative to the Pulley Centre line. Y position of a particle discharged from the belt. You can input two discharge radii .

If the pulley is moving relatively slowly. but will be carried around the perimeter of the pulley / belt to some point until gravitational force causes it to begin its fall.The X and Y co-ordinates can be viewed and printed by selecting the Print. can cause a lump perched on top of the material. to actually begin falling before a particle which was sitting directly beneath it on the belt line at time t = 0. the particle will not be leaving belt immediately to begin its fall. Print Co-ordinate menu option: The program calculates the point at which the particle will leave the belt which is wrapped around the pulley. This is a sort of avalanche effect. This can make the discharge lines cross paths. because it is effectively hanging out further. This phenomenon. .

The bearing life is calculated as follows: Where L10h is the basic rating life in hours C is the dynamic load rating of the bearing in N P is the load on the bearing in N (half the pulley load) P = 3 for ball bearings P=10/3 for roller bearings N is rotational speed in rpm .Bearing Life L10h Idler and pulley shaft bearing life calculations are performed using the L10h bearing life formula.

The shaft calculations are based on the running tensions using the following formulae: (Consult your pulley manufacturer for final shaft sizing) Resultant Force on shaft R=2 T 1 + T 2 − (2 ⋅ T1 ⋅ T2⋅ Cosθ ) 2 2 where R is the resultant force on the pulley in kN T1 is the tight side tension in kN T2 is the slack side tension in kN theta is the angle of wrap of the belt on the pulley The Deflection Diameter is given by: Dd = 4 64 R⋅a ⋅ ⋅ ( L − 2 ⋅ a) E ⋅ π ⋅ Tanα 4 where Dd is the deflection diameter in mm E is the Modulus of Elasticity = 210000 Mpa alpha is the allowable angular deflection in minutes .Shaft Calculations Idler and pulley shaft bearing life calculations are performed using the L10h bearing life formula. The combined stress formula used is : P ⋅ 60 ⋅ 10 6 T= 2 ⋅π ⋅ n where T is the torque in Nmm P is the installed power in kW n is the pulley rotational speed in rpm The bending moment is given by M= R⋅a 2 where M is the bending moment in Nmm R is the resultant force a= Bearing Centres .Pulley Hub Centres 2 in mm .default is 5 minutes R is the resultant force on the shaft in N L is the bearing centres in mm a= Bearing Centres .Pulley Hub Centres 2 in mm Note that pulley hub centres are assumed to be the same as the belt width on the pulley.

if the diameter calculated is 127. This is to prevent the program from oversizing the shaft when the calculated diameter is only marginally larger than the shaft diameters available. the 125mm will be selected. .9 mm and there is 125mm shaft in the database. Refer to The Machinery’s Handbook or similar for more details. Note: For Drive pulleys. Consult your pulley manufacturer before finalising shaft details. The program allows a margin of 3mm on the diameter calculated to the diameter selected. The allowable stress is usually taken to be 41 Mpa for axle steels and 55Mpa for higher strength K4140 steels. For example. the shaft size is selected on the larger diameter of the Torsion diameter and the Deflection diameter.Minimum shaft Diameter combined stresses Dt Dt = 3 16 ⋅ M + 2 M2 + T2 π ⋅ Allowable Stress ( ) where all symbols are as detailed above.

Input Project details main menu. Details of the Kt values versus temperature are given in the CEMA manual. This Kt factor is applied to the Friction factor calculated. .Temperature Correction Factor Cold weather increases the Idler Frictional resistances as well as the flexing resistance of the Belt during operation. Select the Duty / Input. and a Kt factor is calculated. To apply a Temperature correction factor. This increased friction is catered for by multiplying the normal Friction Factor values by a factor Kt. The Project Details form allows you to enter a minimum expected site temperature.

In high ambient temperature regions. but there may be limits on motor and gearbox operations. Special grease for idlers and bearings may be required for operation at temperatures below -15 degrees F (-26 deg C). Again. the power required to drive the conveyor is not affected. check with suppliers on the thermal ratings of equipment for temperatures above 35 deg C. Check with equipment suppliers.The charts show how Kt varies with temperature. . Conveyor belting may also be affected. Note that only temperatures below freezing point result in a Kt value larger than 1.

Uniform size. such as anthracite coal. as wood very dry. coal. dry common stringy. such as weight. lumpy materials materials such rounded particles of as bituminous interlocking medium of medium particles. Rounded. polished granular or very small fibrous. See also Surcharge Angle General Characteristics of Materials. Flowability. such whole grain cottonseed chips. as dry silica and beans meal. material. Irregular. foundry sand. clay bagasse. . stone. cement. such either wet or weight. most ores. sand.Angle of Repose The Angle of Repose of a material is the angle that the sides of a stockpile of the material makes with the horizontal plane. tempered wet concrete. Surcharge Angle and Angle of Repose Very Free Flowing 5 deg Angle of Surcharge 0 -19 deg Angle of Repose Free Flowing Average Flowing Sluggish 10 deg Angle 20 deg Angle of 25 deg Angle of 30 deg Angle of Surcharge Surcharge Surcharge of Surcharge 20 -29 deg 30 -34 deg 34 -35 deg > 40 deg Angle of Angle of Repose Angle of Angle of Repose Repose Repose Material Characteristics Typical Irregular.

polished granular or very small fibrous. tempered wet concrete. sand. Flowability. as wood very dry. dry common stringy. clay bagasse. such either wet or weight. that it makes when on a moving conveyor belt. Rounded. lumpy materials materials such rounded particles of as bituminous interlocking medium of medium particles. such whole grain cottonseed chips. The Surcharge angle is usually between 5 to 15 degrees less than the Angle of Repose of the material. stone. material. General Characteristics of Materials. foundry sand. measured from the horizontal. most ores. such as anthracite coal. Irregular. . cement. Surcharge Angle and Angle of Repose Very Free Flowing 5 deg Angle of Surcharge 0 -19 deg Angle of Repose Free Flowing Average Flowing Sluggish 10 deg Angle 20 deg Angle of 25 deg Angle of 30 deg Angle of Surcharge Surcharge Surcharge of Surcharge 20 -29 deg 30 -34 deg 34 -35 deg > 40 deg Angle of Angle of Repose Angle of Angle of Repose Repose Repose Material Characteristics Typical Irregular.Surcharge Angle The Surcharge Angle of a Material is the Angle of the Slope of the material. as dry silica and beans meal. coal. Uniform size. such as weight.

Rounded. whole grain very dry. stone. Typical Uniform size. Reference: Belt Conveyors for Bulk Materials . foundry sand. General Characteristics of Materials. rounded particles are freer flowing than angular sharp particles which interlock. cement. such as most ores. Flowability. cottonseed and beans as dry silica bagasse. Small. particles of lumpy materials materials such rounded as bituminous interlocking medium of medium particles. dry Irregular. clay sand. material. coal. such as weight. meal. such either wet or weight. 2nd Edition.Flowability of Material The Flowability of a Material is an indication of the load cross-section which a material forms during transportation on a moving conveyor belt. tempered wet concrete. as wood anthracite coal. such chips. polished granular or common very small fibrous. stringy. 39 . Surcharge Angle and Angle of Repose Very Free Flowing 5 deg Angle of Surcharge 0 -19 deg Angle of Repose Free Flowing Average Flowing Sluggish 10 deg Angle 20 deg Angle of 25 deg Angle of 30 deg Angle of Surcharge Surcharge Surcharge of Surcharge 20 -29 deg 30 -34 deg 34 -35 deg > 40 deg Angle of Angle of Repose Angle of Angle of Repose Repose Repose Material Characteristics Irregular. pg.CEMA.

5 2.0 6.5 2.6 1.3 6.0 5.5 2.5 2.0 5. Minimum Belt Cover Thickness is listed in the following table.2 3.0 10 10 5.0 4.2 3.0 3.2 3.0 4.5 6. mm 12 50 150 >150 12 50 150 >150 1.2 3.2 3. and then searches the belt database and selects the first cover thickness equal to or larger than this value.0 5.3 3.2 3.2 3.5 2.5 2.0 5.2 50 10 8.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.2 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.0 5.0 4.0 4.5 2.6 1.0 5.0 4.3 6. FrequencyFactor = where 2⋅ L V (sometimes called “Trip Rate”) Frequency Factor is in seconds L = Conveying distance in m V = Belt Speed in m/s Minimum Belt Top Covers in mm No Abrasion or Light Medium Abrasion Abrasion Lump Size.2 3.2 3.3 6.0 5.0 5.0 >150 10 10 10 10 6.2 3.6 1.2 8.5 2.2 3.0 5.0 5.0 Freq.5 2. The bottom cover is selected as one third of the thickness of the top cover.3 6.6 1.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 5.5 2.2 3.2 150 10 10 8.3 12 25 40 60 90 120 180 240 .5 6. The program uses these parameters for the automatic belt cover thickness calculation.3 5.0 3.2 3.6 1.3 4. Factor Heavy Abrasion 12 8.0 3.5 2.0 5.5 2.6 1.2 2.2 3.2 3.6 1.2 3.0 4.Abrasion Factor The Abrasion factor is used in the cover selection of the belt.2 10 6.

0 4.5 2.3 3.0 5.2 10 6.0 4.6 1.2 3.0 5.2 3.3 6. and then searches the belt database and selects the first cover thickness equal to or larger than this value.5 2.6 1. Factor Heavy Abrasion 12 8.3 5.0 5.0 5.2 3.0 5.Belt Cover Thickness The Abrasion factor is used in the cover selection of the belt.5 2.3 12 25 40 60 90 120 180 240 The bottom cover is usually taken as one third of the top cover thickness.0 Freq.0 5.5 6.2 150 10 10 8.5 2.0 5.2 8.0 4.2 3.0 4.0 3.2 3.0 5.3 6.2 3.6 1.2 3.6 1.3 6.3 4.0 6.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 >150 10 10 10 10 6.0 2. The bottom cover is selected as one third of the thickness of the top cover.0 5.2 3.2 3.2 2.6 1.5 2.5 6. Minimum Belt Cover Thickness is listed in the following table.5 2.2 3.2 3.5 2.5 2. mm 12 50 150 >150 12 50 150 >150 1.2 3.2 3.5 2.6 1.0 10 10 5.2 3.2 3.2 50 10 8.2 3.5 2.0 4.0 5.2 3.3 3. .2 3.6 1.5 2. The program uses these parameters for the automatic belt cover thickness calculation.0 3.6 3.0 5.3 6.5 2.2 3.0 3. FrequencyFactor = where 2⋅L V (sometimes called “Trip Rate”) Frequency Factor is in seconds L = Conveying distance in m V = Belt Speed in m/s Minimum Belt Top Covers in mm No Abrasion or Light Medium Abrasion Abrasion Lump Size.2 3.0 4.0 5.2 3.

2 1.0 3.4 1.0 3.4 2.4 1.9 0.Idler Spacing Recommended Idler spacing is shown in the table below: Belt Width mm 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 2100 2400 500 1.5 1.60 0.2 1. 68 .5 1.4 2.0 1.0 1.0 3.5 1.0 0.0 1.4 1.5 1.0 3.4 1.2 1.0 1.4 2. Troughing Idler Spacing in m Bulk Density of Material in kg/m3 800 1200 1600 2400 1.9 0.0 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.0 SUGGESTED NORMAL SPACING OF BELT IDLERS.75 0.2 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.9 0.0 0.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.75 0.0 3.0 1.9 0.0 1. 2nd Edition.9 0.4 Source: CEMA Handbook.75 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.75 0. Pg.9 0.4 1.9 0.9 1.2 1.60 Return Idler Spacing 3200 1.75 0.9 0.9 0.5 1.4 1.75 0.4 1.60 3.5 1.0 0.9 0.4 1.0 3.4 1.75 0.0 2.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 3.0 1.2 1.

02 Type of Bulk Material Fine-grained Material Individual small chips Coarse Chips on layer of cushioning material Coarse Chips without layer of cushioning material Exclusively Coarse lumps weighing up to 100kg The Dynamic Factor is calculated from : F = 1 + Ca ⋅ V 2 where F is the Dynamic load factor Ca is the Factor from the table above V is the belt speed in m/s The dynamic factor F is multiplied by the load on the idler roll imposed by the mass of the material on the roll.005 0 0.009 0.050 0.005 0. Ca Fixed Idler Set Suspended Idler Set 0 0 0. .014 0.009 0.Idler Dynamic Load Factor Recommended Idler Dynamic Load Factors are shown in the table below: Dynamic Load Factor.

oil bath lubrication Single Reduction Helical Gear reducer Double Reduction Helical Gear reducer Triple Reduction Helical Gear reducer Worm Gear Reducers (20:1 ratio) Worm Gear Reducers (20:1 to 60:1 ratio) Worm Gear Reducers (60:1 to 100:1 ratio) Cut Spur Gears Cast Spur Gears Source: CEMA handbook.Gearbox Efficiencies Mechanical Efficiencies of speed reduction equipment. Approximate Efficiency % 94% 93% 95% 95% 94% 93% 90% 70% 50% 90% 85% Type of Reducer V belts and pulleys Roller Chain and cut sprockets. Fenner Power Transmission Handbook . open guard Roller Chain and cut sprockets.

sharp-edged ore. coarse-crushed stone Foundry sand.0.0.5 750 4 1050 5 2400 Coal. hard.5 450 material 3. soft ores. or mildly abrasive materials from hoppers and bins. damp clay.5 3 1. shakeout sand with small cores. for feeding fine.8 450 900 1500 2400 450 900 >900 Any Width Heavy.0 Any Width 1. fine crushed stone 2 3 4 5 1.50 Any Width Feeder belts. except for wood pulp where 2.0 is preferable 0. 1. Any Width . prepared or damp. with or without small castings (not hot enough to harm belting) Prepared foundry sand and similar damp (or dry abrasive) materials discharged from belt by rubber-edged plows Non-abrasive materials discharged from belt by means of plows.Recommended Maximum Belt Speeds Recommended Maximum Belt Speeds are given in the table below: RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM BELT SPEEDS . flat or troughed. non-abrasive.25 .8 2.CEMA MANUAL BELT SPEED BELT MATERIAL BEING CONVEYED WIDTH m/s mm Grain or other free flowing non-abrasive 2. overburden and earth.

.65m 1% + 0.5% + 0.65m 2.25% + Splice Length 75% of Rated Tension Vulcanised Splices 100% of Rated Tension 75% of Rated Tension You can refer to the Loading Tension Reports for details of the take-up movement due to Elastic Elongation of the belt due to tension changes between stationary and operating conditions.25% + Splice Length 3% 2% + 0.5% + 0.5% + 0. The following table gives a guideline on take-up travel distances which should be allowed: Screw or Manual Take-up Minimum Take-up Travel in % of Centre Distance Fastened joints Operating Tension 100% of Rated Tension Belt Type All Fabric Belts 1.Rayon / Nylon Fabric .Take-up Travel or Stroke The take-up stroke or movement depends on a number factors including Belt Elastic Elongation.Nylon Steel Cable 1.65m 1.65m 2.65m 0.Cotton Fibre Fabric .5% 2% 1% 2% 1% 1.5% 1% 1. Permanent Belt Stretch and Initial Belt stretch.5% 4% 2.5% + 0.Cotton / Nylon Fabric .65m 0.5% 1% 4% 3% 75% of Rated Tension Vulcanised Splices 100% of Rated Tension 75% of Rated Tension Automatic or Gravity Take-up Minimum Take-up Travel in % of Centre Distance Fastened joints Operating Tension 100% of Rated Tension Belt Type Fabric .

7 1. AC Motors The following table lists typical Rotor inertia values for AC Electric motors. As a guide.9 3. Moment of inertia.19 0.43 0.33 0.2 1. J= GD 2 4 Note that values for DC motors and Wound Rotor motors may vary significantly from these values which are supplied as a guide only. J moment of Inertia AC motors Power kW 3000 rpm 11 22 30 45 55 75 90 110 250 0.0 13 Moment of Inertia [ kgm2] for different rpm Note: Some motor manufacturers publish moment of inertia figures in MKS units as GD2 values.7 2. Consult the manufacturer for exact details.6 1000 rpm 0.2 3.1 750 rpm 0.73 1. J = mR 2 (SI units) where J is in kgm2 m is the mass in kg R is the radius of gyration in m For example.2 1.13 0.6 1.35 0.055 0.4 2 5. These should be converted to J values as follows. if exact figures are not available.2 4.0 6.7 1500 rpm 0.73 0.31 0.1 0. these values can be multiplied by 1.5 2.2 1.24 0.5 .4 3.25 and used as the Input Value for Drive Inertia.25 0.Moment of Inertia.4 2. the Moment of inertia of a flywheel 1m in diameter and 30mm thick would be: J = 1 × m × Radius 2 2 Radius = 0 .9 1.4 2.065 0.5 9.

125 2 The Low Speed inertia may be calculated using the reducer ratio as follows: LS inertia = HS inertia × Ratio 2 .m= πD 4 × 0.5) = 23.030 × 7850 = 185kg Where 7850 is the density of the steel in kg/m3 So the Moment of inertia J in kgm2 is: 1 2 J = ×185× (0.

where the bulk of the power required goes into overcoming internal conveyor friction and not on lifting the load. in the f. It is apparent that the large discrepancy on long conveyors between conventional methods and actual measured values is due to the cumulative effects a large number of small variations between the predicted and actual friction factors for the conveyor.011 under some operating conditions. Use of the ISO and CEMA buttons in the Helix delta-T program will use the appropriate friction factor calculated in accordance with CEMA tables or the belt sag vs f factor tables shown in the Helix help file topic called Input Sections You can also override the Automatic friction factor calculation by inputting the value you want to use for each Section on the Sections tab sheet. This method has been incorporated in the program and can be used to refine the friction factor estimate for the conveyor. For example. This calculation method is intended to allow the design engineer to justify the use of a particular friction factor based on making up the friction factor based on known input data. in the Channar case the conveyor can operate with two drives totaling 1400kW whereas the traditional methods predicted a power requirement of 3 drives totaling 2100kW.Viscoelastic friction factor calculation method Introduction Friction factor f Conveyor resistances have traditionally been estimated using a Coulomb friction factor applied to the mass per m of the load and conveyor belt.035. the errors accumulate until they are significant. the traditional methods have been known to yield a friction factor which is higher than measured friction factor.81m/s2 This friction factor is usually estimated to be between 0. . there is evidence from existing conveyor installations. rather than relying purely on experience and judgment to decide on a friction factor. where u is the co-efficient of friction.See References in this help file for details. that if the conveyor is very long (say more than 4km) and does not have a large vertical lift and is operating in a hot climate.015 and 0. m is mass and g is 9. the errors are not significant. This low friction factor results in a much lower power requirement. Much research has been undertaken and many papers have been published on the subject . the Channar 10km long conveyor operated by Rio Tinto in Western Australia has been measured to have an equivalent friction factor of about 0. Long level conveyors Whilst the above methods work very well for in-plant and inclined conveyors. but on long ones. formulated a method of calculating and predicting the friction factor for these conveyors. and with assistance of consultants and other Engineers. Helix Technologies have reviewed these papers. On short conveyors.

Main Conveyor Resistances In this Helix delta-T program we deal with four main components of the conveyor resistance. These are: Belt to Idler Indentation resistance . There are many other secondary resistances such as Belt Scrapers. allowing you to alter idler spacing of individual sections in order to optimize power consumption.fr Frictional resistance caused by belt scuffing over forward tilted. Proportion of Friction factor Typical breakdown of f Proportion of friction factor for long horizontal conveyors 9% 6% Rubber Indentation Material & Belt Flexure Idler Rim Drag 25% 60% Idler Misalignment . Skirts.fi Belt and Material Flexure Resistance. skew and misaligned idlers .ft Total friction factor f = fi + fm + fr + ft This friction factor is calculated for each individual conveyor Section.fm Idler Rotation or Drag resistance . Material Acceleration etc. but these are covered in the normal conveyor calculations by the program and so are not considered as part of the friction factor.

Jonkers developed the following formula for the Indentation resistance ⎛ Z ' Fer = 1. Many people have researched this subject and names such as Jonkers. See References From this research it is evident that the main factors which affect the indentation resistance are the actual rubber properties of the belt cover. which for a fixed tonnage and belt speed is dependent on the idler spacing. Lodewijks and Wheeler come to mind. It is intuitively apparent that the more the penetration of the idler roll into the belt cover. Spaans.Indentation Resistance . . Maton. Hager.14Tan(delta )⎜ ' 2 ⎜ED B r ⎝ Where F' is the Indentation resistance Z is the belt rubber cover thickness 4 ⎞ ⎟ (qr Br )3 ⎟ ⎠ 1 3 E' is the Dynamic Modulus of the rubber cover in N/mm2 Tan(delta) is the Loss Factor Tan(delta) property of the rubber cover D is the idler roll diameter Br is the idler face width Qr is the load on the idler .Belt on Idler Indentation Resistance This resistance is caused by the idler roll pressing into the relatively soft belt cover rubber. the more resistance there is likely to be. the diameter of the idler rolls and the load on the idler roll.

7 0. which in turn is related to belt speed.This Resistance is calculated for centre and wing roll idlers and summed to get the total indentation resistance for the conveyor section under consideration.2 0. It normally ranges from about 300 rad/s up to 3000 rad/s.Sample Data for 4 types of rubber. There is DIN standard number 53513 which covers the procedure for obtaining these values and they are normally in the following ranges E ' = 4 to 35 Mpa Tan(delta) = 0. Rubber Sample 1 Rubber DMA Properties . idler roll diameter and idler spacing. deg C E' Tan(delta) 0.3 0.6 0. The deformation rate is calculated by the Helix delta-T program and it is shown on the Viscoelastic Friction Factor report.6 These values are dependent on the temperature of the rubber as well as the rate of deformation (in radians per second or Hz) of the rubber cover. usually performed by the Belt manufacturer or specialist laboratories.8 0. The parameters E' and Tan(delta) for the belt rubber cover properties are obtained by a laboratory test procedure called Dynamic Mechanical Analysis.1 to 0.4 0.5 0.Low Resistance Rubber 1 at 10Hz 40 Dynamic Modulus E' N/mm2 30 20 10 0 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 Temperature.1 0 Tan(delta) . and then the friction factor fi for indentation is obtained by the program. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis .

64 4.09 Rubber Sample 2 Rubber DMA Properties .5 4.2 4.25 0.4 0.14 0.7 0.19 0.11 0.3 10 0.7 0.1 0 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 Temperature.4 4.13 0. deg C E' Tan(delta) 0 .85 4.5 5.2 0.1 0.55 0.5 0.16 0.4 0.6 Tan(delta) 20 0.Temp deg C -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 E' 35 18 8 6 5.3 Tan(delta) 0.Low Resistance Rubber 2 at 10Hz 30 Dynamic Modulus E' N/mm2 0.

Temp deg C -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 E' 27 14 10 9 8.38 0.1 0 Tan(delta) Tan(delta) .108 Rubber Sample 3 Rubber DMA Properties .95 6. deg C E' Temp deg C E' Tan(delta) 0.6 0.Low Resistance Rubber 3 at 10Hz 40 Dynamic Modulus E' N/mm2 30 20 10 0 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 Temperature.5 7.132 0.5 Tan(delta) 0.118 0.25 0.2 7.192 0.58 0.2 0.17 0.144 0.3 0.2 6.5 0.7 0.4 0.

17 0.306 0.-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 37 17.144 0.118 0.2 7.192 0.132 0.1 0 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 Temperature.58 0.17 0.25 0.95 5.3 0.05 0 Tan(delta) Tan(delta) .35 0. deg C E' Temp deg C -30 -20 -10 E' 7.3 6.38 0.3 5.2 5.4 9 8.25 0.15 0.Low Resistance Rubber 4 at 10Hz 10 Dynamic Modulus E' N/mm2 0.2 6.2 0.85 0.5 Tan(delta) 0.21 0.5 11.108 Rubber Sample 4 Rubber DMA Properties .

and for a frequency of 1000Hz. the values may be about 10 percent higher than shown here. or obtain independent laboratory analysis of the rubber. Factors which affect the Indentation rolling resistance The following factors indicate the sensitivity of the indentation rolling resistance. At different temperatures and frequencies. The curves above are from tests carried out at a deformation frequency of 10Hz.152 0. possibly even reducing the amount of indentation due to the added 'stiffness' of the rubber due to the filler.135 0.P Brown. page 149. 10% for a jump from 1 Hz to 100 Hz. the following influence on the indentation resistance factor fi will result: Vertical load on the belt is factored exponentially to a power of 2^4/3 = 2. and that the E' and Tan(delta) values increase by 10% for every decade increase in the deformation frequency.139 0.142 0. Rubber properties can vary widely and it is important for users to obtain data from their own suppliers.6 4. The increase in E' and Tan(delta) due to frequency increase may be estimated as 10 percent per decade on a log scale. namely Williams Landel Ferry (WLF) and Arrenhius for adjusting the E' and Tan(delta) values . the E' and Tan(delta) values reduce by 1% for every 1 degree C increase in temperature. Care must be taken to ensure that the values used in the program have been estimated from the so called 'Master Curve' for the rubber using appropriate WLF shift factors. if you alter input data by a factor of 2.128 The curves and tables above show typical values of Low Resistance rubber Dynamic Mechanical Analysis showing E' and tan(delta) values. There are methods. The values will increase as the deformation frequency increases.e. however.7 3.79 Viscoelastic property Tan(delta) is directly proportional i. a decrease in Tan(delta) reduces the indentation resistance proportionally whilst a reduction in E' increases the resistance by the power of 1/3. Some texts indicate that for most rubbers at room temperature. Certain rubbers may contain a large proportion of filler such as carbon black.0 10 20 30 40 50 5 4.e factor is 2 times. . E' and Tan(delta) values should not be extrapolated linearly. and this in turn reduces the E' and Tan(delta) values. See References The user must ensure that the input values for the E' and Tan(delta) are applicable to both the temperature and the deformation rate.52 Diameter of Idler rolls is factored 2^2/3 = 1. It is also worth noting that the deformation of the rubber increases the rubber temperature due to hysteresis. as the rubber can pass through a transition zone where large variations in E' can have a big effect on the Tan(delta) values as well. but also increasing the loss factor Tan(delta).refer to references for details.3 4 3. a further 10% for a jump from 100 Hz to 1000Hz etc.58 Viscoelastic Property E' is factored as 0. i.147 0. the rubber properties can vary over a wide range and it is important to use the applicable E' and Tan(delta) values for your operating conditions. For example. and this changes the properties of the rubber.5^1/3 = 0. Refer to [10] "Physical Testing of Rubber by R.45 0.

belt speed decreases the vertical load. change the idler roll diameters. note the effect on friction factor. The user must ensure that the E' and Tan(delta) values used in the input data are applicable at the actual deformation frequency calculated and shown on the calculation reports.worn belt It is worth noting that the friction factor can reduce significantly with a worn belt. However. but increases the number of idlers in turn increasing the rim drag and skew and tilt resistance.Belt Cover thickness is factored 2^1/3 = 1. note effects etc. Idler Spacing . you can still optimize your design. so belt speed increase will generally increase indentation rolling resistance. or the misalignment of the idlers. change rim drag. which has a significant effect as seen from the factor above. which in turn affects the material and belt flexure resistance which is very sensitive to changes in belt sag. it is important to record the actual belt mass and cover thicknesses of the worn belt and to use this mass for the calculations. . note the effect. It also has a marked effect on belt sag. change belt speed. Even if you do not have exact figures for the belt rubber tan(delta) properties.26 Belt Speed increases the deformation frequency and E' and Tan(delta) increase marginally as the frequency increases. Change the idler spacing.closer idler spacing reduces the load on the individual rolls. If measurements on power consumption are being made on existing conveyors. Belt Condition . or the idler rim drag. Design Optimisation and Sensitivity Analysis The Helix delta-T program combines all of the factors affecting the power calculations so that the user can quickly perform a sensitivity analysis to determine the optimum configuration by trial and observation.

. the flexure resistance friction factor is given by the following: fm = c 4 c5 (Wb + Wm )n m Tave Where C4 is a function of the troughing angle C5 a function of number of idler rolls and configuration .Belt and Material Flexure Belt and Material Flexure Resistance This resistance can be described as the resistance caused by the bending and flexing of the belt over and between each idler roll along with the flexure of the material over each idler roll. so an iterative process is required in order to determine the belt sag vs belt tension equilibrium values. which in turn depends on load per m. we have provided an adjustment factor for the material flexure fm.i. Length of Conveyor Section Because the friction factor due to material and belt flexure varies with the amount of belt sag. Behrens and Vincent (See References) and it depends on the amount of belt sag. According to Behrens.76 for 45 deg. You should avoid having exceptionally long sections of conveyor in the model. as the friction is calculated based on the average belt tension over the section of conveyor. This implies that the flexure resistance is proportional to the belt sag between idlers. Having very long or unbalanced length sections can allocate more or less weight to the section in the form of a high or low friction factor than it deserves. This adjustment factor allows the user to adjust the fm values according to the material properties.83 for 35 deg) n is an exponent function of the troughing angle (2. Now belt tension depends on takeup mass and also on belt sag.06 for 35 deg and 2.see [10] in References Adjustment factor for Flexure In the Helix delta-T software. it is important to try to balance the lengths of individual sections of conveyor.e. According to Wheeler. and hence the Flexure resistance. rather than having an input value for the internal co-efficient of friction for the material. 0.26 for 45 deg) T is the belt tension in kgf The delta-T program shows the Flexure friction factor fm calculated in the Viscoelastic friction factor report. The Helix delta-T program uses a method developed by Ozster. 3 or 4 or 5 roll idlers m is an exponent function of the troughing angle (0. idler spacing and belt tension. the material flexure resistance is proportional to the kinematic internal friction angle of the bulk material . as well as the percentage this makes up of the total friction factor. and in turn belt sag is dependent on belt tension. then there would be no flexure resistance. It is apparent that if you had a perfectly flat belt which did not sag at all between idlers.

Seal drag and effects of viscosity of the lubricant are more difficult to quantify as these can vary not only due to manufacturing variations but also due to site conditions such as temperature. Actual rolling resistance may be substantially different due to site conditions .53 1.50 10 11 12 05 15 20 22 23 25 30 32 35 40 45 50 54 .55 2.58 1. Bearing friction formulae are also published in bearing manufacturers catalogues .35 2. The resistance per roll is usually in the range of between 1N to 4N per roll.10 1. research and papers have been published on this subject.consult your supplier.20 3.Idler Rolling Resistance Idler Rotation resistance The idler rolls have a rolling resistance due to seal drag and bearing rolling friction. Some idler manufacturers have published measured data and we reproduce data from Sandvik Materials Handling (Prok Idlers) below as a guide.50 3. per Roll.40 2.90 2.55 1.00 3. Once again.60 1.60 2.50 1. many experiments. age of installation etc. Rolling Resistance for Prok Idlers Idler Series Roll Diameter. For this reason. ingression of dust.refer to SKF and FAG catalogues for more details.25 2. mm 102 114 127 114 127 152 127 152 127 152 178 152 178 152 178 152 Rim Drag. N 1. the Helix delta-T program uses a simple input for the rolling resistance and this is the actual resistance per roll.

30 3.18N per roll on carry idlers and 1. bedding in of the lip seals. .we recommend that you obtain the latest data from your supplier. freeing up of the labyrinth seals. and reduction in grease viscosity due to temperature rise.1: 2002 and also SABS 1313 . In some cases the actual rolling resistance can be significantly lower due to the idlers becoming "run-in".00 3. Prok are constantly striving to improve designs and reduce the roll drag .2 N per roll on vee return idlers.59 59(impact) 55 60 65 178 178 152 178 194 3.70 *Above figures are on the conservative side Figures above are tested at 4 m/s belt speed and after 2 hours running with Shell Albania grease. More information can be obtained from the South African bureaux of Standards SABS 1313 . It is known that for 152mm 3 roll idlers this rolling resistance has reduced to 1. This is due to smoothing of the bearings.90 3.80 3.1: 1998 and DIN standard.

The scuffing resistance is calculated from the load on each conveyor roll using the co-efficient of friction between belt and idler roll of u = 0. The user can adjust the amount of Skew and Tilt angle to suit the average misalignment of the idlers in the installation. a scuffing resistance results. The magnitude of this scuffing resistance depends on the amount of misalignment as well as the co-efficient of friction between the belt and idler roll. wet or moist.35.Idler Skew and Tilt misalignment Idler Skew and Forward Tilt If the idler rolls are not aligned perpendicular to the belt travel direction. The co-efficient of friction will in turn depend on whether the belt surface is dry. The inputs are the amount of Skew angle in degrees. which is the misalignment in a plan view of the conveyor and also the amount of forward tilt angle in degrees for wing rollers.35 is co-efficient of friction mg is down-force on roll in N . Scuffing Resistance R = μmgSin θ Where u = 0.

the angle theta in the resistance calculations is taken as the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual angles. Where the conveyor has inclined side roll idlers such as normal 3 roll idlers and you input both a skew and a forward tilt angle. θ = α2 + β2 Where alpha is the Skew angle and beta is the Forward Tilt angle. .theta is skew angle in degrees.

30 (1980) No 4 Mining Engineering. W. Maton Publication Fordern und heben vol. London Bulk Solids Handling Vol 26 (2006) Theory and Practice of Engineering P.F. Roberts.O Jonkers Z.J Hoftyzer C. December 1980 3 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No 4 January 1991 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No 4 January 1991 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15 No 1 January 1995 University of Wisconsin Technical Manager RAPRA Technology Ltd. Brown D. Lodewijks Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers John D Ferry Physical Testing of Rubber Properties of Polymers The Calculation of the Main Resistances of Belt Conveyors Bulk Solid Flexure Resistance Calculating Flexure Resistance of Bulk Solids Transported on Belt Conveyors Application of Time Temperature Superposition Principles to DMA Application of Time Temperature Superposition Principles to Rheology Viscoelasticity and dynamic mechanical testing .AN004 The Power of Rubber .R Payne Overland Conveyors Designed for L.Viscoelastic friction factor . Spaans Craig A Wheeler Craig A.W. D. Wheeler.References Ref Paper Title 1 2 The Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors Large Capacity Belt Conveyors Motion Resistance Evaluation The Effects of Idler Alignment and Belt Properties on Conveyor Belt Power Consumption The Development of Low Friction Belt Conveyors for Overland Applications The Rolling Resistance of Conveyor Belts Authors C.Behrends.P.tainst. Jones TA Instruments TA Instruments 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 A.com Instruments Germany L. Freakley and with Rubber A.com 4 D. Mark G.K Nordell M. U.com www. Franck.Part 1 The Energy Saving Design of Belts for Long Conveyor Systems R. Oszter.E.K.tainst. van Krevelen. TA www. Amsterdam Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No 4 November 1991 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 25 (2004) No 4 Particle Systems Characterisation 21 (2004) www.Vincent A.tainst. P. Alan W.K Nordell .E Beckley 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 G. Hager and A Hintz Bulk Solids Handling Vol 16 No 3 November 1993 Bulk Solids Handling Vol 13 No 4 November 1993 Applied Science Publishers Ltd.K Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.k.

GmbH http://us. L. with gratitude. 2nd edition Deutche Industrial Norm No 1 DIN 53513 http://webstore.Efficient Cost and Performance 19 DIN 53513 . Hager.org/ansidocstore/ 20 Craig A Wheeler Bulk Solids Handling Vol 26 (2006) No 1 21 22 Mettler Toledo.M Ward John Wiley & Sons Acknowledgement Helix Technologies wishes to acknowledge. Maton in the development of the Viscoelastic calculations. E.ansi. the valuable assistance provided by Mr. as well as for testing and verification of the software against known conveyor installations. A.mt.A Finite Element Solution Elastomers.com/mt/products M.Determination of the viscoelastic properties of elastomers on exposure to forced vibration at non-resonant frequencies Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors . Overmeyer and F. . including passing on his considerable knowledge in this field. Scholl Jerry Antoniak Bulk Solids Handling Vol 25 (2005) No 2 Acta Montanistica Slovaca Rocnik * (2003) Eislo 2-3 23 24 I. Collected Applications of Thermal Analysis Investigation on Causes and Value of the Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors Theoretical basis industrial applications of energy-saving and increased durability of belt conveyors Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers.

however. The first tab sheet is for the belt properties. Again this must be for the temperature and frequency for the calculation case. Enter the Dynamic Modulus E' for the top cover of the belt. at low temperatures. A higher E' values results in a lower indentation resistance. remembering that running the conveyor raises the temperature. Refer to the Viscoelastic friction . Enter Description for the belt rubber .this is for record purposes.Viscoelastic friction factor . This ensures that the bottom cover rubber properties are also used for the return belt run. . you can adjust the values up or down. This value should be adjusted for the expected operating temperature of the belt cover as well as the calculated deformation frequency which will be realized (refer Viscoelastic Friction Factor Report for the calculated frequency). the E' value usually increases. 11] has published research into the effects of the Internal Co-efficient of Friction of the material on this flexure resistance.Belt Properties Inputs The following form shows the Viscoelastic belt properties input form. then click the Conveyor has belt turnover on return run button to ON. at higher frequencies. Wheeler [10. Enter an adjustment factor for the Material and Belt flexure friction factor. Enter the Loss Factor Tan(delta) for the top cover.Indentation help topic. This paper was based on Iron Ore conveyors. Repeat above for the belt bottom cover rubber. the E' value is usually higher. and so if your application has an appreciably lower or higher material flexure resistance. If the conveyor has a belt turnover on the return belt run which turns the belt over after the takeup or head end so that the clean side of the belt is in contact with return rollers (same side as in contact with carry rollers). The program uses the methods developed by Behrens for estimating the flexure resistance flexure resistance. Also.

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Enter the Wing Roll Diameter in mm for the Carry Side .the current selected idler diameter is shown in grey.the current selected idler diameter is shown in grey. Now input the Idler Set Skew Angle and Forward Tilt angle. enter the Idler Roll data in the Centre Roll input section. For example. increasing the centre roller to the next size up may have a significant reduction in indentation rolling resistance Enter the Centre Roll Diameter in mm for the Carry Side . Repeat inputs for Wing Rollers and also for Return Idlers. For 4 roll idlers.Idler Inputs The Idler Roller Details tab sheet requires the inputs relevant to the Viscoelastic Calculations which are not already captured by the program elsewhere. 5 roll idlers are one Centre roll and 4 wing rollers. These inputs allow you to input different Roll Diameters and roll length for centre and Wing Rollers.Viscoelastic friction factor . Data in the Wing roll sections will be ignored. . the two centre roller data is taken from the Centre Roll inputs and the two outer roller data is from the Wing Roll inputs. Enter the Centre Roll Rim Drag in N per Roll. For Vee type 2 roll carry or return idlers. See Idler Skew and Tilt for details of the angles and nomenclature. such as in the idler input forms. His value is multiplied by the number of rollers to get the total resistance per idler set.

Stopping Fully Loaded and Stopping Empty. It also allows flexible. Braking Torques. Starting Empty. Belt Velocities. The Dynamic Calculations are easy use to use and Engineers who have static conveyor design experience can perform these complex dynamic simulations using this very powerful software.Introduction New Dynamic Analysis module A new version of the program which has full Dynamic Analysis capabilities has been added to the existing Lite. Standard and Professional versions of the software. easy to use boundary condition specification by the user. Perform Dynamic Tuning by changing the start delay times on different drives . Compare the Dynamic Calculations results with the rigid body static calculations in the delta-T5. Delay times. Calculate the torque loadings on gearboxes and couplings during starting and stopping. Add Torque Control or Speed Control on drive acceleration. Eliminate conditions which may cause costly equipment failures. the user can view and Print two dimensional and surface plot three dimensional graphs for Belt Tensions. Predict the magnitude of transient loads on conveyor structures. • • • • • • • • • • • Easily model the belt transient tensions and velocities during Starting and Stopping of conveyors. It can model the conveyor belt transient behaviour during Starting Fully Loaded. View the movement of the Takeup pulley during Starting and Stopping Predict the maximum Transient Belt Tensions at any point along the conveyor as well as the timing of these transients. Add Delay times for multiple drives for Dynamic Tuning Add Flywheels to pulleys to optimise starting and stopping Add Brakes to pulleys as required. After the Dynamic Calculations have been performed. Flywheels and inertia effects.Dynamic Analysis . Strain rates and Takeup movement versus time step for all points along the conveyor. This new version calculates the transient belt Tensions and Velocities during starting and stopping of a conveyor. All the numerical analysis is compiled into the program and it does not require any other software to perform the calculations or display graphs etc. The Dynamic calculation process uses sophisticated Variable Step Runge Kutta method integrators for solving the complex differential equations. The program allows the user to input any number of Drives or Brakes and allows for input of Drive Torque / Speed curves.

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Belt Velocities during Starting Fully Loaded .

Movement during Starting .

Drive Starting Torques Curve for Wound Rotor Motors .

Ts and Tv respectively. takeup mass and the equivalent mass of each element in the conveyor. . All idler roller rotating masses and pulley. Once the conveyor is segmented. the rate of change of velocity. The Tension force acting on segment i at time t is given by the sum of the spring and viscoelastic Tension forces. inertias. resistances. as well as the idler spacing. length etc. The conveyor is broken up into segments. and the resulting Belt Tensions. combined with the strain on each conveyor segment is calculated. The designer can specify the maximum segment length to be used. which is a function of instantaneous belt tension and belt sag at the segment under consideration. are taken into account. which is a spring in parallel with a viscoelastic element. The Dynamic calculation breaks the standard conveyor sections into smaller segments. At each time step of say 0. the moving mass. rotating masses. The program already knows the geometry of each section of conveyor. drive and brake inertias are included in the acceleration and tension calculations. of each segment is known. as shown below: Kelvin Solid Model Conveyor Model Diagram The conveyor model created and captured in the normal delta-T program is automatically broken up into segments in the Dynamic Calculation process. and for each segment. These values are presented graphically for ease of interpretation. drive power and location.Overview Helix delta-T uses a Finite Element model of the conveyor to perform the dynamic analysis. we use a Kelvin solid model. strains and belt Velocities are output for each time step and for each point along the conveyor. Delta-T uses the Finite Element method of dynamic analysis. represented by the Coulomb friction factor f. The peripheral force at the drive pulleys is the motivating force.1 seconds. The Drive Torque or Velocity is input graphically. The main conveyor resistances. mi V = Ti +1 (t ) − Ti (t ) − mi g sin θ − Wi (t ) + Fm .Dynamic Analysis .

. Strain) values and the best way to present these values is graphically.000 individual Tension (or Velocity.Sample of 3D surface plot Belt Tensions of a conveyor stopping A typical conveyor Dynamic Analysis run of say 60 seconds may include 60. Delta-T allows you to view a two dimensional graph of (say) Tension vs Time for any point along the conveyor.

. Drive. You can plot any station's values merely by clicking on the label and pressing a button. Head. For more details about the Theory of Conveyor Dynamics refer to the list of References.Belt Tensions during Starting Fully Loaded In the sample graphs only a few conveyor stations such as Tail. Takeup have been plotted for clarity.

Drive Torque Speed Principles Helix delta-T allows the designer to control the starting of a conveyor by means of • • Torque Control Speed Control Torque Control Torque control means that the Torque. This means that the Driving Peripheral force on the drive pulley is controlled and the magnitude of the force depends on the actual pulley speed at each time step expressed as a % of Full Load Speed.Dynamic Analysis . Typical Starting Torque Curve for an Induction motor . expressed as a % of Full Load Torque is the controlled parameter at the Drive.

Starting Torque Pull-out Torque AcceleratingTorque Pull-up Torque Load Torque Negative Torque . Above the asynchronous speed the torque is reversed ie it becomes negative and the motor acts as brake. Load Sharing between Drives The above equilibrium explains why Squirrel Cage electric motors automatically load share. the first drive will automatically take more load. the other drives takes more share. but are terminated to a set of slip rings for connection to external resistors and contactors. the Torque % along the curve is progressively applied until the pulley reaches 100% of Full Load speed. Load Torque vs Drive Torque During the Dynamic Analysis calculations. and the Conveyor load will then tend to bring to reduce the speed. the Torque supplied by the drive is applied to the drive pulley. as it helps to control the drive speed and keep it from overspeeding. the motor operates in the band above the 100% FL speed range and thus acts as a brake.braking Typical Induction Motor starting Curve input into Delta-T program The delta-T program allows you to model each Drive's Starting Torque vs Speed characteristics. the Starting Torque is applied and as the drive pulley accelerates. This overspeed braking effect is very important in Conveyor operation and Dynamic Analysis. and as it slows down. For regenerative conveyors. When the Drive starts. Note that if the conveyor tries to run at speeds above the Full load speed of the motor. The method used is a tabular description of the % of Full Load Torque vs the % of Full load speed. Eventually equilibrium is reached where the Drive Torque equals the Load Torque. Wound Rotor or Slip Ring Motor Slip ring motors or wound rotor motors are a variation on the standard cage induction motors. This causes the second drive to slow down. the Torque reduces to below the Load Torque and the drive slows down. The slip ring motor has a set of windings on the rotor which are not short circuited. If one Drive takes less than its fair share of load. All you need to do is enter the Torque % at the relevant % Speed values and the program will draw the curves for you and then use regression methods to get the actual values of Torque to apply during the calculation process. If the drive pulley is pushed over the full load speed by a Tension wave. The slip ring motor enables the starting characteristics of the motor to be totally controlled and modified to suit the load. the value of the resistance can be reduced altering the start torque curve in a manner . The Full Load Speed and Torque and is reached when 100% Speed is reached. As the motor accelerates. the available torque from the drive drops off rapidly.

The sliprings and brush assemblies need regular maintenance which is a cost not applicable to the standard cage motor. The program will then use whatever shape of curve you specify. Resistors are switched to control Starting torque between 150% and 110% in this case Wound Rotor Motor Speed Torque Curve Input into Delta-T Delta-T applies the calculated torque at each time step to the Drive pulley according to the relationship shown in the Torque speed Curve. the torque on the output shaft of the fluid coupling increase gradually until it is sufficient to move the conveyor and accelerate it. To use a Fluid Coupling Start in Helix delta-T. merely enter the output shaft Torque Speed curve for the fluid coupling as a mapped dataset in the Torque Speed curve table. . Fluid Coupling Torque Control A Fluid Coupling is a device consisting of an impeller and a runner where the impeller is driven by the motor and torque is transmitted to the runner by fluid between the impeller and runner.such that the maximum torque is gradually moved towards synchronous speed. This means that the program can model any Torque Speed relationship you wish. This results in a step controlled starting torque from zero speed to full speed at a relatively low starting current. This allows the motor to start freely and as fluid is drawn into the impeller / runner interface.

Speed Control The second method of starting control is known as Speed Control or a Velocity Ramp control. S curve Acceleration Ramps Notably A.Cross sectional drawing of a soft start fluid coupling and some typical Torque speed curves Drawing and Graphs Courtesy Voith Transmissions. It specifies a pulley Speed at each time step during acceleration and sufficient Torque is applied in order to maintain the specified speed. This method of control does not specify the amount of Torque applied to the Drive pulley. Both of these starting methods can be simulated in delta-T. Nordell have proposed various 'S' curve acceleration ramps. A typical linear Velocity Ramp In the above starting speed ramp the speed increases linearly with time. Harrison and L. Refer to the papers on these subjects in the References section for more details. This method of starting is usually provided by electronic solid state Variable Speed Drives which control the motor speed accurately to with fractions of a percent of Full Load Speed. .

Nordell Model This form of S curve was first proposed by Nordell.Harrison Model This form of S curve was first proposed by Dr Alex Harrison and it is called a cycloidal front characteristic.0 ≤ t ≤ T 2⎝ T ⎠ The maximum acceleration is a = V/2 when t = T/2 S curve .S curve . Cyclo Front S Curve (Harrison) The cycloidal front curve is derived from v(t ) = V⎛ π ⎞ ⎜1 − Cos t ⎟. It takes the form .

0 ≤ t ≤ ⎜T ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ t t2 ⎞ T v(t ) = V ⎜ − 1 + 4 − 2 2 ⎟. before acceleration is resumed. This is intended to allow the whole belt to be tensioned by the drive and to start moving. ≤ t ≤ T ⎜ T T ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Nordell's model has a higher acceleration than Harrison's but a lower Jerk (first derivative of acceleration) In delta-T. you are free to use any Velocity ramp you wish . You can also derive your own relationships using a spreadsheet program such as Excel and then paste the values into delta-T.merely type in the speed time values and the program will do the rest. .S Curve (Nordell) This S curve is obtained as follows: ⎛ 2t 2 ⎞ T v(t ) = V ⎜ 2 ⎟. Dwell Period Velocity Ramp Another popular starting velocity ramp has a built in dwell period during which the velocity is kept constant.

if the start is aborted at 80% of Full load Speed the following (simplified) Torque speed curve could be used to model the conveyor.Dwell period Dwell Period Velocity Ramp Aborted Start You can model an aborted start by truncating the Drive Torque vs Speed curve. % of Full Load Speed 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Aborted Start Torque Speed Curve . For example. Torque Speed Curves for Drive No 1 150 140 130 Torque % of Full Load Torque 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Speed.

By observing the time it takes to reach this 80% speed (from the Belt Velocities graph).With the above curve. you can see what the belt tensions would be at that stage. the drive will accelerate and settle at a speed equal to 80% of the Full Load Speed of the conveyor. .

Dynamic Analysis . Some Datasets will apply to Torque vs Speed curves and some to Speed vs Time curves. It is sorted according to MapDatasetNo field. The following form will be displayed: This form allows you to type in the relationship between Drive Torque vs run-up speed. both expressed as a percentage of Full Load Torque and Full Load Speed. provided that the shape of the curve is applicable for the size of drive you are currently modelling.Torque Speed Input You can setup the Torque vs Speed relationship for a Drive under starting conditions. From the main Dynamic Data Input form select the Drive Starting Torque Input tabsheet. So once you have modelled (say) a Direct on Line Induction motor start you do not need to re-model it for all motor sizes. If you are on . Overview of torque speed data table structure: All the drive data is stored in a single table. We use % value rather than absolute values because this allows us to change the actual kW of a drive without having to re-input all the values.

when you do the dynamic calculations. merely give it a new unused MapDataset number and then add the data. Link between Drive No and MapDatasetno • • First Select the Drive No using the data control to left of the Drive Number edit box Select the Dataset no to display in the curve. or enter new MapDatasetNo until a Torque vs Speed dataset appears. All the drive data is stored in a single table. Later. This makes it easy to compare different starting methods in the same design file. This action filters out all other data except the number selected and redraws the curve based on the data in the Speed% and Torque% columns. However. then it will be displayed in the graph. To add a new drive Starting Torque curve. So to add a new set of data. It is sorted according to MapDatasetNo field.the Torque . Click on the Speed Time tabsheet and you will see the data. just type in a new unused MapDatasetNo and then add new rows in the table using the new Mapdatasetno.Speed tabsheet and you select a MapDatasetno which contains Torque speed data. The program will now filter the data table and display only records with 15 as the MapDataset field value. If no records exist with 15. • For example: Type 15 (say) in the yellow MapDataset no box. if the selected MapDatasetno contains Time vs Speed data you will get only a straight line displayed. you can point the Drive to any MapDatasetNo and the program will use the current data for the calculations. then a blank table and graph will be displayed: .

It is only necessary to add the MapDatasetNo.01% speed . Now type in a Speed % of 0. Type in the Full Load Torque and Full Load Speed for this drive. Speed% and Torque% values in each row. For multiple drive conveyors. Then put in a description for the Drive.Blank table and graph for new dataset no 15 (say) Now type in the table • • • • • • • • • • Start by adding 15 in the MapDatasetno column. select the Next Drive number using the Datacontrol button and then type in the Map to Torque Dataset No to set up the details for the second drive. Eg DOL Motor or Wound Rotor. Each drive can be mapped to a different MapDatasetNo or to the same one if it is identical. Add the next Speed% and Torque% values Add new rows as required. .say 220% for an Induction motor Now add a new row by using the Datacontrol + button or by using the Down Arrow on your keyboard. Press the Draw Curve button or the enter button to view the Graph When all the data is entered you can proceed to the Drive Start & Brake Delay Times tabsheet. These are for information only.01 to start with Type in the Starting Torque % at 0. Repeat this for all drives.

.Print Report You can print a record of the Torque vs Speed values for each drive by using the Reports. Drive Speed Torque Curve main menu.

.Example of Wound Rotor motor speed torque curve report.

.Dynamic Analysis .Speed Time Velocity Ramp You can setup the Velocity Ramp vs Time relationship for a Drive under starting conditions. From the main Dynamic Data Input form select the Drive Starting Speed Ramp Input tabsheet. The following form will be displayed: This form allows you to type in the relationship between Drive Speed vs run-up Time in seconds.

Later. If no records exist with 15. However. To add a new set of data. if the selected MapDatasetno contains Torque vs Speed data you will get only a straight line displayed. To add a new drive Starting Speed Ramp curve.Overview of speed . then it will be displayed in the graph. Some Datasets will apply to Torque vs Speed curves and some to Speed vs Time curves. or enter new MapDatasetNo until a Speed vs Time dataset appears. you can point the Drive to any MapDatasetNo and the program will use the current data for the calculations. This action filters out all other data except the number selected and redraws the curve based on the data in the Time and Speed% columns.time data table structure: All the drive data is stored in a single table. then a blank table and graph will be displayed: . merely give it a new unused MapDataset number and then add the data. The program will now filter the data table and display only records with 15 as the MapDataset field value. Link between Drive No and MapDatasetno • • • First Select the Drive No using the data control to left of the Drive Number edit box Select the Dataset no to display in the curve. when you do the dynamic calculations. This makes it easy to compare different starting methods in the same design file. For example: Type 15 (say) in the yellow MapDataset no box. It is sorted according to MapDatasetNo field. If you are on the Time . just type in a new unused MapDatasetNo and then add new rows in the table using the new Mapdatasetno. Click on the Torque speed tabsheet and you will see the data.Speed tabsheet and you select a MapDatasetno which contains Time speed data.

01 time .01as the first value Type in the Speed % at 0. Press the Draw Curve button or the enter button to view the Graph . starting with 0. It is only necessary to add the MapDatasetNo. Eg S curve Ramp. These are for information only. Then put in a description for the Drive. Speed% and Time values in each row.say 0% for a VSD drive Now add a new row by using the Datacontrol + button or by using the Down Arrow on your keyboard. Add the next Speed% and Time values Add new rows as required. Type in the Full Load Torque and Full Load Speed for this drive.Blank table and graph for new dataset no 16 (say) Now type in the table • • • • • • • • • Start by adding 16 in the MapDatasetno column. Now Type in the Time in seconds.

Print Report You can print a record of the Time vs Speed values for each drive by using the Reports. For multiple drive conveyors. . Repeat this for all drives. Drive Speed Torque Curve main menu. Each drive can be mapped to a different MapDatasetNo or to the same one if it is identical.• When all the data is entered you can proceed to the Drive Start & Brake Delay Times tabsheet. select the Next Drive number using the Datacontrol button and then type in the Map to Speed Dataset No to set up the details for the second drive.

.Example of Speed Time Velocity Ramp curve report.

the mass of the belt on the carry and return runs cancel each other out so runback is not normally an issue.Start & Stop Delay Times The program allows you to specify a Delay time before a Drive is started or a Brake is activated. if the time step is less than this time. click on the Draw Belt Velocities button and examine the graph of Belt Velocities. then there is a possibility that the conveyor will slow down and then actually start to run in reverse. • HoldBack Device. If the velocities at each point drop off to and then stabilise at zero. the drive will start to follow the Torque% vs Speed% or Time vs Speed% you have mapped out for the drive. You can enter a different Delay time for each drive. On inclined conveyors. the drive is not actually activated and is in free-wheel mode. The driving force here is gravity acting on the load on the belt. You can check if a conveyor needs a Holdback device by performing a Dynamic Calculation with the Conveyor Stopping fully loaded. you can enter a delay time for the brake to be activated.Dynamic Analysis . After this delay time is reached. if the velocities drop off and then continue to drop below the zero velocity line and continue . For an empty belt. However. Then in the dynamic Results form. if they are modelled stopping with a full load. Select the Drive Start & Brake Delay Times tabsheet from the Dynamics Data Input form. This allows you to perform fine-tuning of the design in order to minimise dynamic tensions in the system. The following will be displayed: To add delay time to a drive: • • Select the Drive number using the Datacontrol Enter a Start delay time for this drive if modelling a Start sequence. If you are modelling a stopping sequence. During the calculations. then the conveyor stops and does not run back.

this indicates that the conveyor is running backwards. If you add a hold back to more than one drive. Note that you should only have one drive with a holdback fitted. Only fit a Holdback to one drive. It will also increase the Belt Tensions at the Drive.Drive pulley comes to stop and stays at zero velocity . You will have to fit a Holdback device to the Drive or head pulley to prevent this runback. it is important to only switch on a holdback on one drive. the Holdbacks will not necessarily share the load and so the tensions become unstable. Therefore.on with a downward trend. Backstop fitted . This will prevent the Drive pulley from attaining a negative velocity during the Dynamic Calculations. Switch ON the Drive has holdback Device to prevent runback check box on the form.

Backstop increases belt tensions at drive during stopping. Backstop increases belt tension at drive Holdback Tension .

Drive pulley comes to stop and then rotates backwards Example of Holdback Tension graph .conveyor stopping fully loaded .No Backstop fitted .

A 2 dimensional graph showing the belt velocities will be drawn.Results Form After performing the Dynamic calculations the Dynamic Results form will be displayed.Dynamic Analysis . . Click on the Draw Velocities button.

The additional points are sufficed with a /1. All the pulley and intersection points in the conveyor will be listed. /3 etc. To graph a . You can change the items graphed by clicking in the Drop down box at Top Right hand side of the form. Drive. Takeup are automatically added into the list of items to be graphed. Head. Note that the elements in the conveyor with names such as Tail. along with additional points created for the dynamic modelling. /2.double click to delete one Sample of Belt Velocities 2D Graph.Click here to select other points to draw Note delay before tail pulley starts to move List of points drawn in graph .

graph above is a zoomed section of the Belt Velocity graph above it. To view the Belt Tensions click the Draw Tensions button. click on it in the drop down list and then press the Draw Velocities button again.Left click with mouse and drag a rectangle down and to the right to zoom in . The new point will be added into the graph. .specific point along the conveyor. Zoom in on Graph To Zoom in click and drag down and to right To Zoom out click and drag up and to left You can Zoom in on a section of graph .

To Zoom out. copy and print graph etc Belt Tensions shown in 2-D format. the Takeup Travel and the Drive Starting Torque in 2-D format by clicking on the buttons. colours. 3D. You can also view the graphs of the Belt Strain. . draw a rectangle by left clicking and dragging up and to the left with the mouse Chart editor .change lines.

. Velocities etc.Click on the 3D Graphs tabsheet to draw and view a Surface plot graph of Belt Tensions.

of 3d Belt Tensions Graph with Transparency set to 25% in Chart Editor. To print a report of the Dynamic Input data. Copy or Edit chart. Data. The same can be done with the 3D graphs. Refer to the Export Reports help topic for details on the File formats you can save the reports as. Note that there are many thousands of points on each graph and this process can take a bit of time. This data can then be saved a CSV for importation into Excel etc. only the input data is saved to disk. Select View or Print 2D Graph report and the last displayed graph will be presented in a report which can be printed or exported in the normal way as for other Helix delta-T reports. However. View the report by selecting it from the Reports menu.QRP (QuickReport) file. At a later stage you can view the report from any Report in Helix delta-T by opening a report (even in the standard section of program) and then clicking the Load Report button. Dynamic Calcs Input Data menu. Use Toolbar to Zoom.you can print or export this too.QRP files. then Export the report and save it as a . Damping Factors and Delay times will be shown . Series. Export menus. Select the previously saved QRP file and it will be displayed. it is possible to save the Dynamic Result reports. To view and Print or Export a Graph you can use the Main Reports menu. select Reports. Rotate. . You can also Export the actual Belt Tension and Velocity data by using the Chart Editor. If you exit the program and then want to return to view the results. you have to re-do the Dynamic Calculations. Note that the Load Report only works with . Because of the very large number of calculation results produced during the dynamic calculations. A report showing the input data such as Belt Modulus. Save Calculation Data It is possible to save the calculated data by saving the Reports as QRP files.

splices. pulleys.if the tension drops below the Minimum Required T2 tension.does the takeup move beyond the stops allowed for in the 'Static' design? Belt Velocities should stabilise at the Running belt speed during starting. belt slip will occur. Tensions should stabilise at the same values shown in the Static calculations for running values. instability can result. You will need to increase the Delay Time Tau value in the dynamic input form and redo the calculations. Takeup travel or movement . such as a Torque speed Curve not equal to 100% FLTorque at 100% FL Speed. delay times etc. Points to consider when examining Dynamic Results • • • Maximum Belt Tensions . braking torques. Increase damping (delay time). The program uses the very best variable step size algorithms available for solving the differential equations. and structures. or not enough to get it to speed and it 'stalls' Belt Velocities should go to zero when stopping. Minimum Belt Tension for sag to prevent spillage of material Minimum Required Tension to maintain Traction at all times on drives and brakes . If your Dynamic Tension graph has large 'spikes' on it. The conveyor belt should be able to operate satisfactorily when the 'Static' tension designs have been completed. increase element length or masses on each element and redo calculations • • • • • . inertia's. The program only applies Tension from drives and brakes to a pulley if there is sufficient T2 tension during the calculations. If not. An examination of the Dynamic Results will then highlight if there are any problem areas such as excessive sag or even negative belt tensions in the system. then a Holdback is required. If they continue down and become negative. the combinations of which can be investigated is almost limitless. As you can imagine. Tension spikes. changing the maximum Element length of section will help to damp out the errors. If not. shafts.Fine Tuning Dynamic Tuning is the process of optimising the performance of a conveyor during starting or stopping by changing Drive characteristics. Also whether Tensions at drives or braking pulleys reduce to below the Minimum Required Tension to maintain Traction at all times. Also.Dynamic Analysis . investigate as there is probably an input error in the dynamics.do they exceed the allowable tension rise above the operating tension of the belt? Affect on belt. but if you have a very stiff belt (high modulus) which is lightly loaded and so has low strain present. A comparison of the Dynamic Results with the Static Tension graphs is always a good place to start. The challenge for the Helix delta-T user is to identify problem areas by examining the output results and then to eliminate these problems by changing the operating parameters or equipment selection in the conveyor. belt strength (modulus). there is either too much torque available from the drive. including an error checking and adjustment routine. starting velocity ramps. this indicates numerical instability during the calculation process.

re-do calculations • Observe the delay times before the Tail and other parts of the conveyor begin to move . increase element length.increase delay time.Numerical Instability .

Chart parameters and the Series parameters. To get help on any Topic in the Chart Editor. Series. . which are separated as 2 tabs of the Chart Editor. select the button at the top right hand side of the Editor window and drag it onto the Topic in question. Editor design There are 2 principal sections to the Chart editor. Series Pages Series pages will contain parameters dependant on the series type concerned. Chart pages You may define overall Chart display parameters.Chart Editor Editor Copy button Chart Editor . Export menus. The Combobox at the top of the Series tab page shows which series you are editing. This data can then be saved a CSV for importation into Excel etc. 3D etc Introduction The Chart Editor is designed to help you quickly modify Charts. TeeChart Pro help will show you the runtime property or method associated with the feature. lines.use to edit colors. Note that there are many thousands of points on each graph and this process can take a bit of time. Data.Dynamic Analysis . Export Dynamic Data results You can also Export the actual Belt Tension and Velocity data by using the Chart Editor.

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It has brake fitted at the Tail. Design Summary as follows: . It is fitted with 3 Drives. two x 315 kW on the Primary drive pulley and one x 315 kW on the Secondary Drive.Level Conveyor This conveyor is a 1200 wide ST1600 belt carrying 3500 tph of Iron over 2600m.Dynamic Analysis Example.

This Conveyor is first modelled during Starting Fully Loaded. . All the Drive motors are Wound Rotor motors switched between 150% and 110% of FL Torque as follows.

Dynamic Calculation Input Data is as follows .

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Belt Velocities Note that the Drive reaches the design speed of 4 m/s after about 30 seconds .02 secs.refer to green line on graph.5 seconds .Drive reaches Full Load Speed Tail Pulley starts moving after 3. The Static calculations predicted a starting time 30. so this correlates well. Zoom of Tail pulley Velocity .see Zoomed in Graph which follows Conveyor Starting Fully Loaded Results .

5 seconds .Zoomed from Graph above .Tail Pulley starts moving after 3.

Rigid Body Starting time Duration = 30.02 seconds .

Belt Tensions starting Fully Loaded Starting Running .

In the Dynamic Graph above.77 kN.The Dynamic Tensions compared with the 'Static' Tensions from the normal delta-T calcs. As can be seen from the Running Tensions above. The calc run was only done for 80 seconds. the primary drive should be 258. so the Standing waves have not been Damped out completely. you can see the Red line for the Primary drive is about 258 kN at the end of the calculation run. Now let us look at the Starting Tensions from the Static calcs: . Similarly the Secondary Drive. Takeup and Tail tensions at 80 seconds compare with the Static calculations.

the 13% peak could shorten equipment life and so may be significant. the Primary Drive Tension is 373. so the correlation is again good.85 kN. However. it shows the Primary Drive Tensions oscillating between 320kN and 420 kN.As you can see from the above bar graph. A 3D Graph of the Belt Tensions is shown below: . The Dynamic calculations show that in fact the maximum belt tension is higher than the value shown in the rigid body calculations. but not by more than about 13%. When the Dynamic Graph above is examined.

Another view of the 3D Tensions Graph of Takeup Travel .

3m. This highlights that the Average Tension rise as used in the Rigid body calculations is less than the Peak Tensions which result in the Dynamic Calculations.97m Running and 1. . The normal Rigid body calculations show values of 0.Average Running Average Starting The takeup Travel Graph shows the Takeup settling during running at about -0.78m Starting Full. with a maximum travel of -2.85m from the original position when stationary.

It has brake fitted at the Tail. one at the Secondary Drive is 20kNm brake torque on the pulley and the the other is at the Tail pulley and is a low speed brake equal to 50 kNm giving a total braking torque of 70 knm. There are two brakes. .refer to Report shown in previous section. The Belt Velocity graph during stopping is shown below: It can be seen from the Belt Velocity graph above that portions of the belt reach zero velocity at 9 seconds and then speed up again and the whole conveyor is stationary after 14 seconds. Refer to Help topic called Level Conveyor Starting for details of the Conveyor layout etc.Level Conveyor Stopping This conveyor is a 1200 wide ST1600 belt carrying 3500 tph of Iron over 2600m. The following model shows the conveyor stopping with a fully loaded belt with the brakes applied. two x 315 kW on the Primary drive pulley and one x 315 kW on the Secondary Drive.59 seconds . It is fitted with 3 Drives. The Rigid body calculations indiacte a Stopping time of 10.Dynamic Analysis Example. The blue line is the velocity at the loading hopper just after the Tail pulley.

Braking Tensions from Rigid body calculations Dynamic Braking Tensions .

Tensions at Hopper = Tight side of Tail brake pulley Slack side of Tail Brake Stationary Tensions A comparison of the magnitude of the Dynamic Tensions on the tight side of the tail brake versus the Rigid body calculations show maximum values of 297 kN for Dynamic and 187 for static .this is a substantial difference. 3D Graph of Tensions during Stopping . You can see how the Dynamic wave increases the tension at the brake from 110 kN up to the maximum of 297 kN.

Note the peak tension at the Hopper and the minimum Tension in the same Graph rotated for a better view below .

When this Intersection point is graphed in the 2D graph it looks like the following: .The second 3D graph shows the minimum tensions occurring at the Intersection point before the Drive.

Minimum Tension at Int. Pt before Primary Drive The negative tension shown at the Intersection Point indicates material spillage would occur. . Changes would have to be made to the design in order to prevent this. The 3D Graphs help to identify the worst case because you can see the whole conveyor at once.

Belt Tensions starting with 3 drives . This is because there is 1890 kW installed power and the total power to run the empty belt is only about 225kW. The basic conveyor is 2900m long with a lift of 501m.Dynamic Analysis Example.1 seconds. Capacity is 1000 tph and installed power is 3 x 630kW drives.All Drives Starting The above graph shows that the belt accelerates very quickly up to the belt speed of 3. Belt Velocity Starting Empty .Inclined 3 Drive Conveyor This conveyor is a large underground mine conveyor designed to lift ore up the main decline to the portal on surface. 2 on the primary drive pulley and one on the secondary pulley. so the Torque available to accelerate the conveyor is too high.

.High belt tensions with large amplitude tension waves are present when starting all three drives with the belt empty.

The following graphs show the same belt started empty with only the one 630kW Secondary drive. The Primary Drive is given a delay time of 10 seconds before starting. Belt Velocity Starting Empty with secondary drive only .

Starting with the Secondary Drive only shows that the conveyor will start satisfactorily without the tendency for the tension waves to push the Drive pulleys to more than full load speed. Belt Tensions Starting Empty with Secondary Drive only and then Primary Drive Switched in after 10 seconds . The primary drive would be allowed to freewheel up to full speed with the belt and then the power would be switched on after the 10 second delay. Starting time is extended to just over 5 seconds from less than 1 second with three drives starting.

.Belt tensions are much lower when starting with only the secondary drive and the magnitude of the tension waves is not as large.

Design Summary is as follows: . It has 1500mm wide belt and is running at 3. The model below shows the conveyor stopping fully loaded with a Holdback device fitted and without a Holdback device fitted.Dynamic Analysis Example.5m/s with 2500 tph capacity.Inclined Fabric Belt Conveyor with Holdback This conveyor is a 1000m long coal conveyor level for 750m with the last 250m rising up 50m in elevation.

The first Dynamic Calculation run shows the conveyor stopping fully loaded.no Holdback Drive velocity drops to zero in 7.5 seconds Drive and Tail velocity continues to drop and becomes negative . The conveyor does not have a Holdback device fitted to the Drive. Belt Velocities Stopping .

Belt velocity at Drive drops quickly from 3.5 m/s to 1.3 m/s. Tail pulley velocity is maintained at just under 3.5 m/s by the inertia of the moving belt and material and then drops of after about 2.5 seconds. The Drive pulley reaches zero velocity at 7.5 seconds and this compares with the rigid body calculations where a Stopping time of 7.34 seconds is predicted. However, the Drive pulley speed continues to drop off and becomes negative, indicating that the pulley is now running backwards. This is because there is no Holdback device fitted. The following graph shows the Tensions during stopping with no holdback fitted.

Belt Tensions - no holdback

Drive Tension Drops suddenly and stabilises. Tail Tension fluctuates with wave.

From the above you can see that Tension at drive drops suddenly from the 241 kN Running tension to just under 100 kN and then stabilises at the no load tension of 79 kN. Tensions at the tail continue to fluctuate as the standing wave passes through.

Belt Velocities Stopping - with Holdback fitted

Drive Velocity Drops to zero in 7.5 seconds and is prevented from becoming negative by the holdback

The graph above shows the Drive velocity dropping to zero and then being held at zero by the Holdback device.

Belt Tensions - with holdback

Holdback Tension

Drive Tension drops and rises steadily as Holdback takes load then stabilises

Dynamic Analysis Example - Declined Tail Drive Conveyor
This example shows a Declined conveyor, fitted with a Tail Drive Starting and Stopping. The conveyor is 1600m long and drops 77m over its length. Installed power is a 250kW motor on the Tail drive. The takeup is located at the tail, before the drive.

Declined Conveyor Starting on Velocity Ramp

A large tension wave is setup by the braking action of the motor. .Declined Conveyor Starting Full Belt Tensions Tension graphs show how the tension on the tight side of the drive increase dramatically as the motor starts to act as brake.

Declined Conveyor 3D Graph of Belt Tensions During Starting .

Declined Conveyor Stopping under brakes .above shows the Belt Velocities with a Fully Loaded conveyor when the brake is released. It accelerates under its own power with no outside forces.

This ensures that once the drive pulley stops. it is best to tick the 'Holdback fitted to Drive' checkbox. it is held at zero velocity by the brake and does not oscillate about the zero velocity point. Declined Conveyor Belt Tensions Stopping under brakes .76 seconds so the correlation is very good. The rigid body calculations show the conveyor will stop in 29.Belt velocities in graph above show belt coming to a stop about 30 seconds after initiation of the stop. The Drive velocity and the velocity of the intersection point on the Tight (during braking) side of the brake pulley is shown in a yellow colour. In order to prevent 'hunting' about the zero velocity.

Pt line above .about 255 kN. The slack side of the brake (red line) has a tension magnitude almost the same as the Takeup tension (black line). The Rigid Body calculations show the following tensions during stopping under brakes.Belt Tensions during stopping under brakes above shows the braking force applied . . The stationary braking force required by a fully loaded conveyor is the magnitude of the Int.yellow line.

The actual Dynamic tensions at the brake are higher than those indicated by the rigid body calculations. .

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