中 國

Open Source in China
J Aaron Farr
The JadeTower Corp The Apache Software Foundation


言知 者者 不不 道 德知 言 經

Those who know don’t talk, Those who talk don’t know

言知 者者 不不 道 德知 言 經

有 名 萬 物 之 道 母 德

無 名 天 地 之 始

名 可 名 非 常 名

道 可 道 非 常 道

有 無 名 The tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao名 名 可 The name that can be named 萬 天 名 is not the eternal Name. The unnamable is the物 地 非 eternally real. Naming is the origin 之 之 常 of all particular things. 道 母 始 名 德

道 可 道 非 常 道


A Tour of China

China By The Numbers
No. 1 in FDI at around $60 billion since 2002 Avg 9.4% annual GDP growth rate for 25 years Currently 4th largest economy Will surpass UK, Germany, Italy, and France by the end of the decade

to misunderstandings and a mismatch of

China By The Numbers
Figure 2 Foreign Direct Investment into China
U.S Dollars in Billions

Figure 1

• Midsize. Fast-growing as today’s China is notes a 2005 estimated GDP of US$1.8 t no more than a midsize economic power growth trends hold, it will not catch up w 2020 and the US before 2040. That is, fo Tomorrow’s Giants planning The largest economies in 2050 horizon they will be competing economy similar to European nations suc Italy and Germany.

• Extreme contrasts. Although the scale of market is indeed huge, the contrasts are While average annual income reaches US in the eastern coastal cities (US$5,000 in fraction of that in the smaller cities, and areas of the interior have been barely touch These account for nearly half of the Chin While there is a burgeoning Chinese mid mass consumer markets will likely requi product market approaches from those co used to at home.
Figure 2

The Chinese Century
“We are about to wake up to a new business environment, with new ground rules for business competition, fresh terms of employment, and novel consumption patterns -- one that will redraw the battle lines on the political, economic, and social fronts, and one that will place new challenges at the doorstep of nations, firms, and individuals.”

-Oded Shenkar The Chinese Century

顏 淵 曰 回 雖 不 敏 請 事 斯 語 矣

非 禮 勿 言 非 禮 勿 動

子 曰 非 禮 勿 視 非 禮 勿 聽

顏 淵 曰 請 問 其 目

爲 仁 由 己 而 由 仁 乎 哉

一 日 克 己 復 禮 天 下 歸 仁 焉

顏 淵 問 仁 子 曰 克 己 復 禮 爲 仁

顏 Yen Yüan asked about the meaning of 非 子 humaneness. The Master said, "To 淵 禮 曰 completely overcome selfishness and keep to 非 曰勿 propriety is humaneness. If for a full day you 回言 禮 can overcome selfishness and keep to propriety, everyone in the world will雖 非to 勿 return humaneness. Does humaneness come from 不禮 視 oneself, or from others?" Yen Yüan asked: "May I ask in further detail how this敏 勿 非 is to be brought about?" Confucius said, "Do not 動 禮 請 watch what is improper; do not listen to what 事 is improper; do not speak improperly and do 勿 聽 not act improperly." Yen Yüan said, 斯 "Although I am not so perspicacious, I will 語 apply myself to this teaching." 矣

顏 淵 曰 請 問 其 目

爲 仁 由 己 而 由 仁 乎 哉

一 日 克 己 復 禮 天 下 歸 仁 焉

顏 淵 問 仁 子 曰 克 己 復 禮 爲 仁


Chinese Culture
individualist egalitarian information oriented reductionist sequential seeks the truth argument culture

collectivist hierarchical relationship oriented holistic circular seeks the way haggling culture

Chinese Culture


Chinese Culture


Chinese Culture


以 靜 為 下

牝 常 以 靜 勝 牡

天 下 之 牝

天 下 之 交

大 國 者 下 流

以 牝 天 天 靜 常 下 下 為 以 之 之 下 靜 牝 交 When a country obtains great power, it becomes like the sea: 勝into it. all streams run downward The more powerful it grows, 牡 the greater the need for humility.

大 國 者 下 流


Software Exports
400 300 200 100 0 2000

Software Exports
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 2000 2005

Software Exports
15,000 11,250 7,500 3,750 0 2000 2005 2010 China Ministry of Information Industry

China IT Industry
Graduate 100,000 programmers each year Domestic software market $5.8 billion in 2005, up 17% Domestic IT services market $9.8 billion, up 20% 160 million Internet users, 8% of the population Java developer hourly rate: under $10 USD

Intellectual Property
Yamaha: 5 out of every 6 motorcycles DVD: 95% piracy rate Software: 94% piracy rate

Economics of Piracy

Economics of Piracy
2002: 852 raids for illegal CD/DVD

Economics of Piracy
2002: 852 raids for illegal CD/DVD 99.5% convicted

Economics of Piracy
2002: 852 raids for illegal CD/DVD 99.5% convicted 764 fined under $1,000

Economics of Piracy
2002: 852 raids for illegal CD/DVD 99.5% convicted 764 fined under $1,000 Only 2 fined $5,000 - $10,000

報 大 味 事為 怨 小 無 無無 以 多 味 事為 德少

Act without doing; work without effort. Find taste in the tasteless Think of the small as large and the few as many. Answer evil with inner power.

報 大 味 事為 怨 小 無 無無 以 多 味 事為 德少


Open Source in China
Analyst forecast China’s Linux market will grow ~30% yearly from 2006-2010 Linux sales in 2005 were $21 million, 81% increase or $11.8 million, up 27.1% Other open source software sales $19 million Linux market share increase 4.2% to 9.8% between 2003 and 2005

Open Source in China
China's open source communities are relatively small and don't have much influence. There is a lack of big projects, few participants, and little money. - Hu Ke, CCID Analyst

Open Source in China
In China, Open Source = Linux Server, embedded, mobile (30.3%) Use of open source is increasing rapidly and broadly Participation in open source is lagging behind Government driven versus market driven Concern about a “business model” for FOSS in China

China Open Source Promotion Union Hong Kong Open Source Software Center Macau Open Source Software Association Beijing Linux Users Group Taipei Open Source Software Users Group and many more...

Linux World China 2004-2006 Open Source Software Summit, Beijing 2006 China Linux User Convention, Beijing 2006 Open Source Developers Conference, Taipei 2007 Open China, Open World, Guangzhou 2007 and many more...

RedFlag Linux Pugs (Perl 6 in Haskell) SVK XOOPS OpenFoundry: 703 projects, 4214 users Many language tools, fonts, and translations

Top down approach Closed community, open source Complexity in copyright laws Communities tend to be very fragile

以吾以以以 此何無奇正 以事用治 知取兵國 其天 然下 哉

以吾以以以 此何無奇正 以事用治 If you want to be a great leader, you must learn to follow the Tao. 取 兵 國 知 Stop trying to control. Let go of fixed plans and concepts, 其天 and the world will govern itself. 然下 哉


Case Study: Xoops
Extensible Object Oriented Portal System PHP + MySQL CMS Started in 2001 with 2 developers (1 China, 1 Japan) Currently 4 main developers, 149 committers English, Chinese, French, Japanese, Brazillian, Spanish and Italian communities

15,000 registered users on Xoops.org.cn Specific resources for Chinese users and a China community model Support and encouragement of consultants, use in business and education Feedback, translations, modules, bug fixes

Competition vs Collaboration
Active effort to encourage global participation Documentation Translation Encouragement of localized groups Coordination between communities

百 功 悠有信其 其 其 太 姓 成 兮不不次 次 次 上 皆 事 其信足侮 畏 親 下 謂 遂 貴焉焉之 之 而 知 我 言 譽有 自 之之 然

When the Master governs, the people are hardly aware that he exists. Next best is a leader who is loved. Next, one who is feared. The worst is one who is despised.

百 功 悠有信其 其 其 太 姓 成 兮不不次 次 次 上 皆 事 其信足侮 畏 親 下 謂 遂 貴焉焉 If you don't trust the people, 之 之 而 知 you make them untrustworthy. 我 言 譽有 The Master doesn't talk, he acts. 自 之之 When his work is done, the people say, "Amazing: 然 we did it, all by ourselves!"


Apache at Hong Kong
OS Summit Asia November 26-27, 2007 Cyberport, Hong Kong In cooperation with the Eclipse Foundation CFP Soon!

Thank You! J Aaron Farr farra@apache.org cubiclemuses.com