Deriving Fields of Moving Point Charge From Jemenko's equations

Seng Chien Yeah March 26, 2010

The Jemenko's equations are given by:
⃗ r E(⃗, t) ⃗ r B(⃗, t) = = ˆ ˙ ⃗r 1 ρ(⃗′ , tr ) r ρ(⃗′ , tr ) ˙ r J(⃗′ , tr ) ′ [ η+ η− ]dτ 4πϵ0 η2 cη c2 η ˆ ⃗ ′ ˙ ⃗r µ0 J(⃗ , tr ) J(⃗′ , tr ) r [ + ] × ηdτ ′ 4π η2 cη

Where ⃗ ≡ ⃗ − ⃗′ , η = |⃗ − ⃗′ | and tr ≡ t − η . A moving point charge has its η r r r r c charge and current density as the following:
ρ(⃗′ , tr ) = qδ 3 (⃗′ − w(tr )) r r ⃗ ′ 3 ′ ⃗r J(⃗ , tr ) = q⃗ (tr )δ (⃗ − w(tr )) v r ⃗

What we need to do now is to plug the charge and current density into the Jemenko's equations, and then evaluate the integral. But before this let's do some preparation work. We dene: ⃗′′ ≡ ⃗′ − w(tr ), because later we'll r r ⃗ do a change of integration varibale from ⃗′ to ⃗′′ . Also, we need to know the r r ∂x′ i general expression of ∂x′′ . It is evaluated as the following (notice that Einstein's j summation is assummed throughout the whole working):
⃗′ r ∂x′ ⇒ ∂x′′ ∂y ′ ∂x′′ ∂z ′ ∂x′′ ≡ ⃗′′ + w(tr ) r ⃗ 1 ∂x′ ∂y ′ ∂z ′ = 1 + vx (tr ){ηx ′′ + ηy ′′ + ηz ′′ } cη ∂x ∂x ∂x ′ ′ ′ ∂x ∂y ∂z 1 = vy (tr ){ηx ′′ + ηy ′′ + ηz ′′ } cη ∂x ∂x ∂x 1 ∂x′ ∂y ′ ∂z ′ = vz (tr ){ηx ′′ + ηy ′′ + ηz ′′ } cη ∂x ∂x ∂x

Solving these three linear equations, we obtain:
∂x′ ∂x′′ = 1+ 1 1−
⃗ ·η v c

1 vx ηx cη

1

∂y ′ ∂x′′ ∂z ∂x′′ ′ = = 1 1− 1 1− ⃗ ·η v c ⃗ ·η v c 1 vy ηx cη 1 vz ηx cη To be parallel with Griths. tr ) = = ∂tr qδ 3 (⃗′ − w(tr )) r ⃗ ′′ ∂⃗ r q · ∇′′ δ 3 (⃗′′ ) r ∂tr −q⃗ (tr ) · ∇′′ δ 3 (⃗′′ ) v r ∂tr {q⃗ (tr )δ 3 (⃗′ − w(tr ))} v r ⃗ 3 ′′ q⃗ (tr )δ (⃗ ) − q⃗ (tr ){⃗ (tr ) · ∇′′ δ 3 (⃗′′ )} a r v v r Finally we recall that when we change the integration variable from ⃗′ to ⃗′′ . tr ) = ˙ r = = ˙ ′ ⃗r J(⃗ . so the previous result can u v be written in the following general form: ∂x′ 1 i ′′ = δij + ⃗ · ⃗ vi ηj ∂xj u η Next we need the expression of derivaties of certain functions with respect to ⃗′ (the reason will be clear later). 2 . so we just quote the results: ′ ∂k η ′ ∂k (η)i ′ ∂k vi ′ ∂k ui c 1 (η)i (η)k − ai (η)k η c 1 ′ a η ∂k (⃗ · ⃗ ) = −c(η)k − (⃗ · ⃗ )(η)k + vk u η c = −(η)k 1 = − δik + η 1 = ai (η)k c c = − δik + η 1 (η)i (η)k η The third thing to know is how to take time derivative on the charge and current density. r r the integration measure also suers a change: dτ ′ = 1 1− ⃗ ·η v c dτ ′′ = cη dτ ′′ ⃗ ·⃗ u η This feature was discussed in the class when we learned the Lienard-Wiechert potential. There's no diculty at all in the derivation r (the only point to remember is that all functions with time-dependence are evaluated at the retarded time). we dene ⃗ = cη − ⃗ . It can be easily done using chain rule: ρ(⃗′ .

tr ) ˙ r ηdτ ′ 4πϵ0 cη ˆ q 1 = − η{⃗ (tr ) · ∇′′ δ 3 (⃗′′ )}dτ ′′ v r 4πϵ0 ⃗ ·⃗ u η ˆ q ⃗η v = [∇′′ · { }]δ 3 (⃗′′ )dτ ′′ r 4πϵ0 ⃗ ·⃗ u η We have performed an integration by part to obtain the last line. t) are independent variables.Now we have everything prepared so we can start our job. tr ) ′ r dτ 4πϵ0 c2 η ˆ 1 q⃗ (tr )δ 3 (⃗′′ ) − q⃗ (tr ){⃗ (tr ) · ∇′′ δ 3 (⃗′′ )} ′′ a r v v r − dτ 4πϵ0 c⃗ · ⃗ u η ˆ q⃗ a q ⃗ (tr ){⃗ (tr ) · ∇′′ δ 3 (⃗′′ )} ′′ v v r − + dτ 4πϵ0 c(⃗ · ⃗ ) 4πϵ0 c u η ⃗ ·⃗ u η ˆ q⃗ a q ⃗⃗ vv − − [∇′′ · { }]δ 3 (⃗′′ )dτ ′′ r 4πϵ0 c(⃗ · ⃗ ) 4πϵ0 c u η ⃗ ·⃗ u η − ˆ = = = Now we can add all three terms together. The nal expression is a vector. One point here to be emphasized: before doing the integration. ⃗′ and (⃗. r r however after carrying out the integration. There are three ⃗ terms in the E -formula. It goes as: ˆ 1 ρ(⃗′ . and the rst term reads: ˆ 3 ′′ q δ (⃗ ) r ηdτ ′ 4πϵ0 η2 ˆ 3 ′′ qc δ (⃗ ) 1 r η dτ ′′ 4πϵ0 η ⃗ ·⃗ u η qc η 4πϵ0 η(⃗ · ⃗ ) u η = = The integration is done using the delta-function. and proceed to the third term. ⃗′ becomes a function of (⃗. with its ith component given by: q 4πϵ0 ˆ ′′ [∂j { vj (η)i 3 ′′ }]δ (⃗ )dτ ′′ r ⃗ ·⃗ u η Before carrying out the actual integration. let's just leave it there. t) given r r implicitly by: ⃗′ = w(t − r ⃗ |⃗ − ⃗′ | r r ) c We then evaluate the second term. and otain: ⃗ E= qc q⃗ a q η− + 4πϵ0 η(⃗ · ⃗ ) u η 4πϵ0 c(⃗ · ⃗ ) 4πϵ0 c u η [∇′′ · { ⃗⃗ vu }]δ 3 (⃗′′ )dτ ′′ r ⃗ ·⃗ u η 3 . which reads: ˆ ⃗ ′ ˙ 1 J(⃗ .

This is probably the most dicult part. as described previously.⃗⃗ vu We have to evaluate ∇′′ · { ⃗ ·⃗ } before carrying out the integration using deltauη function. so we just stop at this point. say ith component. and 2nd line to 4th line. It goes as: = = = = = = ⃗⃗ vu })i ⃗ ·⃗ u η ′′ vj ui ∂j { } ⃗ ·⃗ u η ∂x′ ′ vj ui k ∂ { } ∂x′′ k ⃗ · ⃗ u η j 1 ′ vj ui {δjk + vk ηj }∂k { } ⃗ ·⃗ u η ⃗ ·⃗ u η 1 1 ′ ′ ′ {δjk + vk ηj } {(⃗ · ⃗ )(vj ∂k ui + ui ∂k vj ) − vj ui ∂k (⃗ · ⃗ )} u η u η ⃗ ·⃗ u η (⃗ · ⃗ )2 u η 1 ′ ′ ′ [(⃗ · ⃗ ){vk ∂k ui + ui ∂k vk } − vk ui ∂k (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η u η (⃗ · ⃗ )2 u η 1 ′ ′ ′ u η v η {(⃗ · ⃗ )[(⃗ · ⃗ )vk ∂k ui + ui ηj vk ∂k vj ] − (⃗ · ⃗ )ui vk ∂k (⃗ · ⃗ )}] u η v η + ⃗ ·⃗ u η 1 c c 1 1 {vk [− δik + (η)i (η)k − ai (η)k ] + ui ⃗ · η} a ⃗ ·⃗ u η η η c c 1 1 − v u {−c(η)k − (⃗ · ⃗ )(η)k + vk } a η 2 k i (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η c c c 1 1 ⃗ ·⃗ v η {vk [− δik + (η)i (η)k − ai (η)k ] + ui ⃗ · η} a + 2 (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η η η c c ⃗ ·⃗ v η 1 − vk ui {−c(η)k − (⃗ · ⃗ )(η)k + vk } a η (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η c (∇′′ · { Adding 1st line to 3rd line. so I'll present the calculation as clear as possible. After this. we evaluate the integral using delta-function δ 3 (⃗′′ ). which results in all ⃗′ taking r r denite value. we get: c c 1 1 cη {vk [− δik + (η)i (η)k − ai (η)k ] + ui ⃗ · η} a 2 (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η η η c c cη 1 − vk ui {−uk − (⃗ · ⃗ )(η)k } a η (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η c 1 1 c {cui − c(⃗ · η)(η)i − (⃗ · ⃗ )ai + (⃗ · ⃗ )ui } u v η a η = 2 (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η c c c 1 − {−η(⃗ · ⃗ )ui − (⃗ · ⃗ )(⃗ · ⃗ )ui } v u a η v η (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η c c2 ui c2 (η)i (⃗ · ⃗ )ai v η cη(⃗ · ⃗ )ui v u cη(⃗ · ⃗ )ui a η = − − + + (⃗ · ⃗ )2 u η η(⃗ · ⃗ ) u η (⃗ · ⃗ )2 u η (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η The last line is simple enough. 4 . Let's evaluate one component of it.

The magnetic eld can be worked out accordingly.In the last step we put all the pieces together. hence we've successfully derived the electric eld produced by a single moving point charge. producing: ⃗ E = qcη q⃗ a q c2 ⃗ u c2 η (⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ v η a − + { − − 2 4πϵ0 η(⃗ · ⃗ ) 4πϵ0 c(⃗ · ⃗ ) 4πϵ0 c (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η u η u η η(⃗ · ⃗ ) (⃗ · ⃗ )2 u η u η cη(⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ v u u cη(⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ a η u + + } (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η qc⃗ u qη⃗ a qη(⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ v uu qη(⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ a η u + − + + 2 3 ⃗ · ⃗ )2 4πϵ0 (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η 4πϵ0 (⃗ · ⃗ ) u η 4πϵ0 (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η 4πϵ0 (u η c qη [−(⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ + (⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ + (⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ + (⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ ] u η a u η u v uu a η u 4πϵ0 (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η η qη c [−(⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ + (⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ + (⃗ · ⃗ )⃗ + (cη · ⃗ − v 2 )⃗ ] u η a a η u u η u v u 4πϵ0 (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η η qη [⃗ × (⃗ × ⃗ ) + (c2 − v 2 )⃗ ] η u a u 4πϵ0 (⃗ · ⃗ )3 u η = = = = This is exactly (10.65) of Griths' textbook. so we will not write it down here. 5 .

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