An Introduction to Acoustics

S.W. Rienstra & A. Hirschberg Eindhoven University of Technology 11th November 2001

(extended and revised edition of IWDE 92-06)

Contents
Preface 1 1.1 1.2 Some fluid dynamics Conservation laws and constitutive equations . . . . . . . . . . . Approximations and alternative forms of the conservation laws for ideal fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wave equation, speed of sound, and acoustic energy 2.1 2.2 Order of magnitude estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wave equation for a uniform stagnant fluid and compactness 1 1 5 11 11 16 16 17 19 20 20 22 22 24 26 27 27 27 29 33 34

2

2.2.1 Linearization and wave equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Simple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Compactness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Speed of sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Ideal gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Bubbly liquid at low frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 2.5 2.6 Influence of temperature gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence of mean flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sources of sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Inverse problem and uniqueness of sources . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Mass and momentum injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.3 Lighthill’s analogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4 Vortex sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Acoustic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ii

Contents 2.7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.2 Kirchhoff’s equation for quiescent fluids . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.3 Acoustic energy in a non-uniform flow . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.4 Acoustic energy and vortex sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 36 39 40 44 44 44 47 48 50 50 51 53 55 56 60 60 61 61 62 62 63

3 3.1

Green’s functions, impedance, and evanescent waves Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Integral representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Remarks on finding Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Acoustic impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Impedance and acoustic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Impedance and reflection coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Impedance and causality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Impedance and surface waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5 Acoustic boundary condition in the presence of mean flow . 3.2.6 Surface waves along an impedance wall with mean flow . . 3.3 Evanescent waves and related behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 An important complex square root . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 The Walkman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Ill-posed inverse problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4 Typical plate pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Snell’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.6 Silent vorticity

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Contents 4 4.1 4.2 One dimensional acoustics Plane waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic equations and method of characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 The wave equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Linear behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Non-linear simple waves and shock waves . . . . . . . . . 4.3 4.4 Source terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflection at discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Jump in characteristic impedance ρc . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Monotonic change in pipe cross section 4.4.3 Orifice and high amplitude behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.4 Multiple junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.5 Reflection at a small air bubble in a pipe . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Attenuation of an acoustic wave by thermal and viscous dissipation 4.5.1 Reflection of a plane wave at a rigid wall . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Viscous laminar boundary layer 4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii 67 67 69 69 70 71 76 79 83 83 85 85 90 91 95 95 99

4.5.3 Damping in ducts with isothermal walls. . . . . . . . . . . 100 One dimensional Green’s function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.6.1 Infinite uniform tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.6.2 Finite uniform tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.7 Aero-acoustical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.7.1 Sound produced by turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.7.2 An isolated bubble in a turbulent pipe flow . . . . . . . . . 108 4.7.3 Reflection of a wave at a temperature inhomogeneity . . . . 110

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iv 5

Contents Resonators and self-sustained oscillations 5.1 5.2 117

Self-sustained oscillations, shear layers and jets . . . . . . . . . . 117 Some resonators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 5.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 . . . . . . . . . 133 5.2.2 Resonance in duct segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 5.2.3 The Helmholtz resonator (quiescent fluid) 5.2.4 Non-linear losses in a Helmholtz resonator . . . . . . . . . 135 5.2.5 The Helmholtz resonator in the presence of a mean flow . . 136

5.3 5.4

Green’s function of a finite duct 5.4.1 Introduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

Self-sustained oscillations of a clarinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 5.4.2 Linear stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 5.4.3 Rayleigh’s Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 5.4.4 Time domain simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

5.5

Some thermo-acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 5.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 . . . . . . . . 153 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 5.5.2 Modulated heat transfer by acoustic flow and Rijke tube . . 147

5.6 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator Spherical waves Introduction Pulsating and translating sphere

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Multipole expansion and far field approximation . . . . . . . . . . 170 Method of images and influence of walls on radiation . . . . . . . 175 Lighthill’s theory of jet noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Sound radiation by compact bodies in free space . . . . . . . . . . 182 6.6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 6.6.2 Tailored Green’s function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 6.6.3 Curle’s method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

6.7

Sound radiation from an open pipe termination

. . . . . . . . . . 188

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Contents 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 Duct acoustics Rectangular ducts Impedance wall

v 196

Cylindrical ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

7.3.1 Behaviour of complex modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 7.3.2 Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 7.4 7.5 7.6 Annular hard-walled duct modes in uniform mean flow . . . . . . . 206 Behaviour of soft-wall modes and mean flow . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Source expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 7.6.1 Modal amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 7.6.2 Rotating fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 7.6.3 Tyler and Soffrin rule for rotor-stator interaction . . . . . . 214 7.6.4 Point source in a duct wall 7.7 7.8 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 7.6.5 Vibrating duct wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Reflection and transmission at a discontinuity in diameter . . . . . 218 7.7.1 The iris problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Reflection at an unflanged open end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Approximation methods Regular Perturbations 8.1.1 Webster’s horn equation 227 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

Multiple scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Helmholtz resonator with non-linear dissipation . . . . . . . . . . 235 Slowly varying ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Reflection at an isolated turning point Ray acoustics in temperature gradient Refraction in shear flow Matched asymptotic expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

Duct junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

8.10 Co-rotating line-vortices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Moving point source and Doppler shift . . . . . . 298 C. . . . . . . . . 298 C. 301 C. .1 9. . . .1 The Fast Fourier Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 9 Contents Effects of flow and motion 9.2 Conservation laws . . .3 The delta function and other examples .8 Surface distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 A.2. . . . . . . . .1 Fourier transforms . . . . . . . . 295 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 283 B C Order of magnitudes: O and o. . 297 C. . . . . . . . .2 9. . 275 Appendix 281 281 A Integral laws and related results A. . . . . . . . . 299 C. .3 Fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Reynolds’ transport theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3 Rotating monopole and dipole with moving observer 269 .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourier transforms and generalized functions 284 285 C. . . . . . . . .2 Formal definition . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . 294 C. . . . . . . . . .1 Causality condition . . . . . . . . . .7 Higher dimensions and Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . 289 C. .2 Generalized functions . 293 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings equation for moving bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 305 D E Bessel functions Free field Green’s functions 307 314 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3 Normal vectors of level surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derivatives . . . . . .3.2. . . . . . . .2. . . . 281 A. .5 Fourier transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 C. . . . .6 Products . . . . . . . 293 C. .1. . . . . . . . 285 C.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 F.2.2. .3 Zero mean flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Acoustic approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 317 F. . . . . . . .F F. . . . . . . . . . 318 F. . . . . . . Bibliography Index 321 333 344 . 319 G Answers to exercises. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 Perturbations of a mean flow . . . . . . . 317 F. . .5 Irrotational isentropic flow . .1 Inviscid and isentropic .6 Uniform mean flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Time harmonic . . 319 F. . . . 317 F.2 Summary of equations for fluid motion 315 Conservation laws and constitutive equations . . 318 F. . . . .

In the latter. The mass source term m can. 1 For convenience later we present the basic conservation laws here both in the Gibbs notation and the Cartesian tensor notation. A conservation law in differential form may be written as the time derivative of the density of a property plus the divergence of the flux of this property being equal to the source per unit volume of this property in the particle [10. the summation over the values 1. See also the appendix of [10]. for example. 137. on the other hand. In some cases we will therefore use the more general integral laws. that the action of a pulsating sphere or of heat injection is well approximated by such a mass source term. In differential form1 we have for the mass conservation: ∂ρ + ∇ · (ρv) = m ∂t ∂ ∂ρ + (ρvi ) = m ∂t ∂ xi (1. which we will specify later when we discuss the conservation of momentum and energy. We will see.2.3 is understood with respect to all suffixes which appear twice in a given term. however. which assumes that the fluid properties are continuous and that derivatives exist.1 1. momentum and energy conservation applied to an elementary fluid particle. 142. The integral form of the equations of conservation are given in Appendix A.1) or where ρ is the fluid density and v = (vi ) is the flow velocity at position x = (xi ) and time t. 185]. . There is. be used as a representation for a complex process which we do not want to describe in detail. In principle as we consider a non-relativistic situation mass is conserved hence in general m = 0.1 Some fluid dynamics Conservation laws and constitutive equations In fluid dynamics we consider gas and liquids as a continuum: we assume that we can define a “fluid particle” which is large compared to molecular scales but small compared to the other length scales in our problem. Applying these laws to an infinitesimal volume element yields the equations in differential form. We can describe the fluid motion by using the laws of mass. some arbitrariness in the definition of m. 175.

that the fluid is in local thermodynamic equilibrium.2 1 Some fluid dynamics The momentum conservation law is2 : ∂ (ρv) + ∇ · ( P + ρvv) = f ∂t ∂ ∂ (P j i + ρv j vi ) = f i (ρvi ) + ∂t ∂x j (1. and δi j the Kronecker3 delta. the equations are quite complicated. The fluid stress tensor is related to the pressure p and the viscous stress tensor τ = (τi j ) by the relationship: P = p I −τ or Pi j = p δi j − τi j where I = (δi j ) is the unit tensor. expressed in the rate-of-strain tensor ∇v + (∇v)T . In most of the applications which we consider in the sequel.4) (1. In some cases one can represent the effect of an object like a propeller by a force density f acting on the fluid as a source of momentum. ij ij RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3) 2 The dyadic product of two vectors v and w is the tensor vw = (v w ). When this is not the case one usually assumes a relationship between τ and the deformation rate of the fluid element.2) or where f = ( f i ) is an external force density (like the gravitational force) and P = (Pi j ) is minus the fluid stress tensor. It should be noted that a characteristic of a fluid is that it opposes a rate of deformation. for compressible fluids as we consider in acoustics. we can neglect the viscous stresses. so that the pressure p and the thermodynamic pressure are equivalent. i j 3 δ = 1 if i = j. as in the case of a solid. Even with such a drastic simplification. In such a case we have: τ = η(∇v + (∇v)T ) − 2 η(∇ · v) I 3 or τi j = η ∂vi ∂v j + ∂x j ∂ xi ∂vk 2 − η 3 ∂ xk δi j (1. A considerable simplification is obtained when we assume Stokes’ hypothesis. δ = 0 if i = j. rather than the deformation itself. When this relation is linear the fluid is described as Newtonian and the resulting momentum conservation equation is referred to as the Navier-Stokes equation.

At high frequencies the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium may partially fail resulting in a dissipation related to volume changes ∇· v which is described with a volume viscosity parameter not simply related to η [195.4) is what we call a constitutive equation. 137.7) and the equation for mechanical energy. A commonly used linear constitutive equation for q is Fourier’s law: q = −K ∇T. 185]): ∂ ρ e + 1 v 2 + ∇ · ρv(e + 1 v 2 ) = 2 2 ∂t − ∇ · q − ∇ · ( pv) + ∇ · (τ · v) + f · v ∂ ∂ ρ e + 1 v2 + ρvi (e + 1 v 2 ) = 2 2 ∂t ∂ xi ∂ ∂ ∂qi − ( pvi ) + (τi j v j ) + f i vi − ∂ xi ∂ xi ∂ xi (1. 142]. These effects are also significant in the propagation of sound in dusty gases or in air over large distances [185]. (1. and simply the energy when there is no ambiguity. In general (m = 0) the energy conservation law is given by ([10.5) or where v = |v|. obtained by taking the inner product of the momentum conservation law (equation 1. Equation (1. ij ∂x j · · · · i RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .8) 4 We call this the specific internal energy.6) where K is the heat conductivity which depends on the pressure p and temperature T . Note the convention (∇v) = ∂ v .2) with v. 5 τ :∇v = ∇ (τ v) − v (∇ τ ) since τ is symmetric.1 Conservation laws and constitutive equations 3 where η is the dynamic viscosity. The viscosity η is determined experimentally and depends in general on the temperature T and the pressure p.1. Using the fundamental law of thermodynamics for a reversible process: T ds = de + p d(ρ −1 ) (1. e is the internal energy per unit of mass4 and q is the heat flux due to heat conduction. we obtain the equation for the entropy5 ρT or ρT ∂s + v ·∇s = −∇ · q + τ :∇v ∂t ∂s ∂s + vi ∂t ∂ xi =− ∂v j ∂qi + τi j ∂ xi ∂ xi (1.

the flow is adiabatic. Note that some authors define this type of flow isentropic. s).10a) s (1. When the density depends only on the pressure we call the fluid barotropic.9) still contain more unknowns than equations. If initially the entropy is equal to a constant value s0 throughout the fluid. When the fluid is homogeneous and the entropy uniform (ds = 0) we call the flow homentropic. While equation (1. for example e = e(ρ. we will see that c indeed is a measure for the speed of sound.12) s ∂p ∂s ds ρ (1. and we have simply a flow of uniform and constant entropy s = s0 . ∂t (1.4 1 Some fluid dynamics where s is the specific entropy or entropy per unit of mass. which implies with equation (1.9) Except for regions near walls this approximation will appear to be quite reasonable for most of the applications considered. s).1–1. it retains this value. 6 When heat transfer is negligible. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Equations (1.12) is a definition of the thermodynamic variable c(ρ.11) is the square of the isentropic speed of sound c.7): p = ρ2 T = ∂e ∂s ∂e ∂ρ ρ (1.10b) In many cases we will specify an equation of state p = p(ρ. When heat conduction 6 ∇ · q and viscous dissipation τ :∇v may be neglected. It is isentropic when it is adiabatic AND reversible. This means that the entropy s of a fluid particle remains constant: ∂s + v ·∇s = 0. As closure condition we introduce an additional constitutive equation. When the same equation of state c(ρ. s) is valid for the entire flow we say that the fluid is homogeneous. s). s) rather than e = e(ρ. In differential form this becomes: d p = c2 dρ + where c2 = ∂p ∂ρ (1. the flow is isentropic .

1.2 Approximations and alternative forms of the conservation laws for ideal fluids ∂ D = + v ·∇ Dt ∂t Using the definition of convective (or total) derivative7 D/Dt : (1. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2 Approximations and alternative forms of the conservation laws for ideal fluids In the following chapters we will use the heat capacity at constant volume CV which is defined for a reversible process by CV = ∂e ∂T . Indeed.17) which clearly shows that the divergence of the velocity ∇· v is a measure for the relative change in density of a fluid particle.e. V 5 (1.16) we can write the mass conservation law (1. (1.13) For an ideal gas the energy e is a function of the temperature only e(T ) = 0 T C V dT.1) in the absence of a source (m = 0) in the form: 1 Dρ = −∇ · v ρ Dt (1. (1.15) We call this a perfect gas. A justification for some of the simplifications introduced will be given in chapter 2 where we will consider the order of magnitude of various effects and derive the wave equation. Expressions for the pressure p and the speed of sound c will be given in section 2. t) for a path xi = xi (t) defined by x i = vi .3. i ordinary time derivative d f /dt of f (xi (t). 1. Before going further we consider some useful approximations and some different notations for the basic equations given above.14) For an ideal gas with constant thermal properties we will often use the simplified relation e = C V T. the divergence corresponds to 7 The total derivative D f /Dt of a function f = f (x . i. moving with a particle along xi = xi (t). t) and velocity field v denotes just the i .

The heat and momentum transfer are governed by the same processes of molecular collisions. 9 (ρv) + ∇ (ρvv) = ρ v + ρv + ∇ (ρv)v + ρ(v ∇)v = [ρ + ∇ (ρv)]v + ρ[v + (v ∇)v].18) This is the continuity equation for incompressible fluids. Note that in this equation c2 = ∂p ∂ρ (1.20) where c = c(ρ. In the absence of friction there are no tangential stresses acting on the surface of the fluid particle.17) simply expresses the fact that a fluid particle has a constant mass. Hence.1) implies an additional term −mv in the right hand side of (1. Dt (1.12) s is not necessarily a constant.6 1 Some fluid dynamics the dilatation rate8 of the fluid particle which vanishes when the density is constant. s). The motion is induced by the normal stresses (pressure force) −∇ p and the bulk forces f . The presence of a non-vanishing mass production m in the continuity equation (1. The mass conservation law (1. is measured or derived theoretically. the mass conservation law reduces to: ∇ · v = 0. This is a consequence of the fact that heat conduction is negligible in a frictionless gas flow.1) without mass source (m = 0) we can write9 the momentum conservation law for a frictionless fluid (∇· τ negligible) as: ρ Dv = −∇ p + f . if we can neglect density changes. t t t t t · · · · · RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . which corresponds to the second law of Newton (force = mass × acceleration) applied to a specific fluid element with a constant mass. The mass remains constant because we consider a specific material element. The equation of state commonly used in an isentropic flow is Dρ Dp = c2 Dt Dt (1.19) which should 8 Dilatation rate = rate of relative volume change.9) which states that the entropy of a particle remains constant. a function of ρ and s. By using the mass conservation law (1. The corresponding energy equation for a gas is Ds =0 Dt (1. (1.19) This is Euler’s equation.

Dt (1.21) 7 This corresponds to the hypothesis that the injected mass has no velocity in the laboratory frame of reference. 132. p. A flow described by the scalar potential only (v = ∇ϕ) is called a potential flow. or 312. because ∇ × ∇ϕ = 0. A useful definition of the acoustic field is therefore: the unsteady component of the irrotational flow field ∇ϕ.  10 = −1 if i j k = 321. or 213.17): 1 Dρ = −∇ 2 ϕ.23) From this it is obvious that the flow related to the acoustic field is an irrotational flow. We have from (1. Under reasonably general conditions [118. This is an important concept because the acoustic aspects of the flow are linked to ϕ. Hence we have11 : ω = ∇ × (∇ × ) = −∇ 2 . like in a homentropic flow  +1 if i j k = 123.1. When ρ = ρ( p) is a function of p only. (1.2 Approximations and alternative forms of the conservation laws for ideal fluids not be forgotten if we start a derivation from (1.24) It can be shown that the vorticity ω corresponds to twice the angular velocity of a fluid particle. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . · Note that v × w = ( i j k v j wk ).53] the velocity v. The amount of momentum mv has to be provided to this mass by the surrounding fluid in order to accelerate the injected mass up to the local velocity v.19) becomes: ρ Dv = −∇ p + f − mv. (1. and i j k the permutation symbol10 .2). = ( i ) a vectorial velocity potential or vector stream function. can be split into an irrotational part and a solenoidal part: v = ∇ϕ + ∇ × or vi = ∂ϕ + ∂ xi ijk with ∇ · with = 0. ijk   0 if any two indices are alike 11 For any vector field A: ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇(∇ A) − ∇ 2 A. 231. This is seen from the fact that ∇· (∇ × ) = 0 so that the compressibility of the flow is described by the scalar potential ϕ. like any vector field. ρ Dt (1.19) instead of the original momentum conservation law (1. ∂x j where ϕ is a scalar velocity potential.22) ∂ k ∂x j ∂ j = 0. The vector stream function describes the vorticity ω = ∇ × v in the flow. With external force and mass production equation (1.

In a two-dimensional incompressible flow (∇ · v = 0). because they exert a torque on the fluid particle. 0). ρ (1. Apart from the source term ∇ × f . 2 (1.19) as: 1 Dv = −∇i + f . the vorticity ω = (0.26) and the fundamental law of thermodynamics (1.28) The total enthalpy B corresponds to the enthalpy which is reached in a hypothetical fully reversible process when the fluid particle is decelerated down to a zero velocity (reservoir state). 0. we can eliminate the pressure and density from Euler’s equation by taking the curl of this equation. ∂t ρ (1. v y . because the particle’s lateral dimension is reduced. to obtain 1 ∂ω + v ·∇ω = ω ·∇v − ω∇ · v + ∇ × f . Using the definition of the specific enthalpy i: i =e+ p ρ (1.27) Hence we can write Euler’s equation (1. ∂ 13 [(v )∇v] = · i j v j ∂ x vi j RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Using the vector identity13 : (v ·∇)v = 1 ∇v 2 + ω × v 2 12 The stretching of an incompressible particle of fluid implies by conservation of angular momen- tum an increase of rotation. In a viscous flow tangential forces due to the viscous stress do change the fluid particle angular momentum.29) (1.8 1 Some fluid dynamics (uniform constant entropy ds = 0).7) we find for a homentropic flow (homogeneous fluid with ds = 0): di = dp . the momentum conservation law reduces to a purely kinematic law.25) 12 We see that vorticity of the particle is changed either by stretching or by a non-conservative external force field. with velocity v = (vx . Dt ρ We define the total specific enthalpy B (Bernoulli constant) of the flow by: B = 1 v 2 + i. and in the absence of tangential forces due to the viscosity (τ = 0). Hence we can say that (and ω) is linked to the kinematic aspects of the flow. ωz ) is not affected by stretching because there is no flow component in the direction of ω.

without loss of generality. c) Derive Bernoulli’s equation (1.7 that for a homentropic flow we can write the energy conservation law (1.2).32a) (1. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . absorb g(t) into ϕ and use g(t) = 0. dp = g(t) ρ (1.1) and (1. ∂t ∂ ρ(e + 1 v 2 ) + ∇ · (ρv B) = f · v .9) in the form: ∂ (ρ B − p) + ∇ · (ρv B) = f · v . In acoustics the Bernoulli equation will appear to be very useful. with v = ∇ϕ and hence ω = ∇ × ∇ϕ = 0.30). ∂t which may be integrated to Bernoulli’s equation: ∂ϕ +B ∂t ∂ϕ 1 2 + v + ∂t 2 = g(t). The acceleration ω×v corresponds to the acceleration of Coriolis experienced by an observer moving with the particle which is rotating at an angular velocity of = 1 ω. As only the gradient of ϕ is important (v = ∇ϕ) we can.19) from the conservation laws (1.30) 9 which will be used when we consider the sound production by vorticity.31b) or where g(t) is a function determined by boundary conditions.9) from the energy conservation law (1.19) in Crocco’s form: 1 ∂v = −∇ B − ω × v + f ∂t ρ (1.5) and the second law of thermodynamics (1. 2 ∂t (1.31b) from Crocco’s equation (1.1.31a) (1. 2 When the flow is irrotational in the absence of external force ( f = 0).2 Approximations and alternative forms of the conservation laws for ideal fluids we can write Euler’s equation (1. b) Derive the entropy conservation law (1.32b) or Exercises a) Derive Euler’s equation (1.28) into: ∂∇ϕ + ∇ B = 0.7). we can rewrite (1. We will see in section 2.

10 1 Some fluid dynamics d) Is the trace 1 Pii of the stress tensor Pi j always equal to the thermodynamic pressure 3 p = (∂e/∂ρ −1 )s ? e) Consider. a piston pushing with a constant acceleration a water from a tube 1 with surface area A 1 and length 1 through a tube 2 of surface A2 and length 2 . What is the ratio of the pressure drop over the two tubes at t = 0? RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . as a model for a water pistol. Neglect the non-uniformity of the flow in the transition region between the two tubes. Calculate the force necessary to move the piston if the water compressibility can be neglected and the water forms a free jet at the exit of tube 2.

In view of this large range of power levels and because our ear has roughly a logarithmic sensitivity we commonly use the decibel scale to measure sound levels. – when shouting we produce about 10−5 Watts. We have defined sound as a pressure perturbation p which propagates as a wave and which is detectable by the human ear. (2. while in water a typical value of 1500 m/s is found.3 we will discuss the dependence of the speed of sound on various parameters (such as temperature.1) The maximum sensitivity of the ear is around 3 kHz. – a jet airplane at take off produces about 105 Watts. In section 2. (homentropic flow). The Sound Power Level (PWL) is given in decibel (dB) by: PWL = 10 log10 (Power/10−12 W).2) . We therefore consider here some order of magnitude estimates of the various phenomena involved in sound propagation.1 Wave equation. This implies that we can justify the approximation introduced in section 1.2 we will obtain after linearization a wave equation in the next section. etc. so that second order effects can be neglected. In dry air at 20◦ C the speed of sound c is 344 m/s. the typical range of frequency of the human ear is: 20 Hz ≤ f ≤ 20 kHz.). and acoustic energy Order of magnitude estimates Starting from the conservation laws and the constitutive equations given in section 1. (2. sound is a small perturbation of a steady state.2 2. For harmonic pressure fluctuations. (which corresponds to a policeman’s whistle!). speed of sound. and that we can show that in general. Sound involves a large range of power levels: – when whispering we produce about 10−10 Watts. We limit ourselves to air and water.2.

2 Since for water ρ0 = 103 kg/m3 and c0 = 1. In general. The corresponding relative density fluctuations ρ /ρ0 are given at atmospheric pressure p0 = 105 Pa by: ρ /ρ0 = p /γ p0 ≤ 10−3 (2. The threshold of pain1 (140 dB) corresponds in air to pressure fluctuations of prms = 200 Pa.5) will be derived later.6) where γ = C P /C V is the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume respectively. Linear theory will therefore apply to such compression waves. The Intensity Level (IL) is given by: IL = 10 log10 (I /10−12 W/m2 ).12.2 · 10 Pa. and acoustic energy The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is given by: SPL = 20 log10 ( prms / pref ) (2. speed of sound. by defining the speed of sound following equation 1. The sound intensity I is defined as the energy flux (power per surface area) corresponding to sound propagation.5 · 103 m/s we see that ρ0 c0 9 2.5) where ρ0 c0 = 4 · 102 kg/m2 s for air under atmospheric conditions. Equation (2.4) The reference pressure level in air pref = 2 · 10−5 Pa corresponds to the threshold of hearing at 1 kHz for a typical human ear. When large expansion waves are created in water the pressure can 1 The SPL which we can only endure for a very short period of time without the risk of permanent ear damage. (2.12 2 Wave equation. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . and where pref = 2 · 10−5 Pa in air and pref = 10−6 Pa in other media. the relative density fluctuations are given by: 1 1 ρ = p = 2 ρ0 ρ0 ρ0 c0 ∂ρ ∂p p.3) where prms is the root mean square of the acoustic pressure fluctuations p . The reference intensity level Iref = 10−12 W/m2 is related to this pref = 2 · 10−5 Pa in air by the relationship valid for progressive plane waves: 2 I = prms /ρ0 c0 (2. s (2.7) 2 The factor 1/ρ0 c0 is the adiabatic bulk compressibility modulus of the medium. so that a compression wave of 10 bar corresponds to relative density fluctuations of order 10−3 in water.

prms = 2 · 102 Pa.1 Order of magnitude estimates 13 decrease below the saturation pressure of the liquid and cavitation bubbles may appear. By dividing 2 (2.8) by c0 we see by using (1.19) is of second order and can be neglected in a linear approximation. So a small acoustical Strouhal number R/δ implies that non-linear effects due to vortex shedding are important. We see from the data given above that the particle displacement δ can be significantly smaller than the molecular mean free path ¯ which in air at atmospheric pressure is about 5 · 10−8 m. (2. δ = 8 · 10−5 m.9) In order to justify a linearization of the equations of motion. On the other hand. In particular. the acoustic displacement δ should be small compared to the characteristic length scale L in the geometry considered. which results in strongly non-linear behaviour. if δ is larger than the radius of curvature R of the wall at edges the flow will separate from the wall resulting into vortex shedding.12) in the form p = c0 ρ that the acoustic Mach number u /c0 is a measure for the relative density variation ρ /ρ0 .20b): u = p /ρ0 c0 . This is a strongly non-linear effect which becomes important with decreasing frequency. prms = 2 · 10−5 Pa. since the formation of bubbles in pure water is a slow process.8) The factor ρ0 c0 is called the characteristic impedance of the fluid. δ = 1 · 10−11 m. u = 5 · 10−8 m/s. for f = 1 kHz we have in air: SPL = 140 dB.20a. The continuum hypothesis is valid if we can define RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . In other words. strong expansion waves (negative pressures of the order of 103 bar!) can be sustained in water before cavitation appears. SPL = 0 dB. a progressive plane wave involves displacement of fluid particles with a velocity u which is given by (as we will see in equations 2. In the absence of mean flow (u 0 = 0) this implies that a convective term such as ρ(v·∇)v in the momentum conservation (1. because δ increases when ω decreases. u = 5 · 10−1 m/s. For acoustic waves in a stagnant medium. the acoustical Strouhal number Sra = L/δ should be large. however. (2. The amplitude of the fluid particle displacement δ corresponding to harmonic wave propagation at a circular frequency ω = 2π f is given by: δ = |u |/ω. Hence. 2.2. It should be noted that a continuum hypothesis as assumed in chapter 1 does apply to sound even at such low amplitudes because δ is not the relevant length scale.

Moreover. and acoustic energy an air particle which is small compared to the dimensions of our measuring device (eardrum. speed of sound. As a result from this relation ν ∼ c ¯.14 2 Wave equation. = ¯ ν ν (2. in gases the absence of friction goes together with isentropy.10) is still large (λ 1. this ratio can also be considered as an unsteady Reynolds 2 The thermal velocity of molecules may be estimated to be equal to c .7 cm) compared to ¯. Therefore. As N −5 p0 / N we find that pth 10 Pa. Both the kinematic viscosity ν = η/ρ and the heat diffusivity a = K /ρCP of a gas are typically of the order of c ¯.11) This relates the diffusion length (ν/ f )1/2 for viscous effects to the acoustic wave length λ. Note that this is not the case in fluids. where n is the air molecular number density3 . but large compared to the mean free path ¯ = 5 · 10−8 m. diameter D = 5 mm) or to the wave length λ. This is related to the fact that c is in a gas a measure for the random (thermal) molecular velocities that we know macroscopically as heat and momentum diffusion. can also be interpreted as an acoustic Fourier number: λ2 f λc λ = . It appears that for harmonic signals of frequency f = 1 kHz the threshold of hearing pref = 2·10−5 Pa corresponds to the thermal fluctuations pth of the atmospheric pressure p0 detected by our ear.3) where NA is the Avogadro number RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . This result is obtained by calculating the num2 ber of molecules N colliding within half an oscillation period with our eardrum : c0 1020 and N ∼ n D 2√/2 f . 0 3 n is calculated for an ideal gas with molar mass M from: n = N ρ/M = N p/M RT = A A p/RT (see section 2. pth In gases the continuum hypothesis is directly coupled to the assumption that the wave is isentropic and frictionless. In terms of our ear drum we can say that although a displacement of δ = 10−11 m of an individual molecule cannot be measured. the ratio between the acoustic wave length λ and the mean free path ¯. the product of sound speed c and mean free path ¯. the same displacement averaged over a large amount of molecules at the ear drum can be heard as sound. It is obvious that we can satisfy this condition since for f = 20 kHz the wave length: λ = c0 / f (2. which is an acoustic Knudsen number. isothermal rather than isentropic wave propagation is common for normal frequencies. Here.

As a general rule. the heat conduction is not significant even in the presence of walls (γ = 1). For a musical instrument at 400 Hz.4 while ν/a = 0. This effect is related to the so-called bulk or volume viscosity which we quoted in chapter 1. In the presence of walls the viscous dissipation and thermal conduction will result into a significant attenuation of the waves over quite short distances. except that because the temperature fluctuations due to compression are negligible.) For air γ = CP /C V = 1.12) which is for a plane acoustic wave just the ratio between inertial and viscous forces in the momentum conservation law. vibration).13) (This equation will be derived in section 4. Re t = ν ∂ 2u η 2 ∂x ρ 15 (2. at low amplitudes the viscous dissipation is dominant in woodwind instruments at the fundamental (lowest) playing frequency. In general the attenuation of sound waves increases with frequency.g. This explains why we hear the lower frequencies of an airplane more and more accentuated as it flies from near the observation point (e.2. due to the relatively long relaxation times of molecular motion associated to the internal degrees of freedom (rotation. At higher frequencies the radiation losses which we will discuss later (chapter 6) become dominant.05m−1 so that a frictionless approximation is not a very accurate but still a fair first approximation.1 Order of magnitude estimates number Re t : ∂u 2 ∂t ∼ λ f . We therefore expect viscosity to play a significant rôle only if the sound propagates over distances of 107 wave lengths or more (3 · 103 km for f = 1 kHz). The amplitude of a plane wave travelling along a tube of cross-sectional surface area A and perimeter L p will decrease with the distance x along the tube following an exponential factor e−αx . such as the clarinet. The main dissipation mechanism is the departure from thermodynamic equilibrium. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . For air ν = 1. πfν 1+ √ 2Ac ν/a (2. where the damping coefficient α is given at reasonably high √ √ ν/ω but ω A/c0 < 1) by [142]: frequencies (A/L p α= γ −1 Lp . α = 0. In practice the kinematic viscosity appears to be a rather unimportant effect in the attenuation of waves in free space. Similar arguments hold for water.72.5 · 10−5 m2 /s so that for f = 1 kHz we have Re t = 4 · 107 .5. the airport) away to large distances (10 km).

(2. ρ0 .2). v .14a) (2.). . 2.12) becomes: 2 p = c0 ρ . ρ .1 Linearization and wave equation In the previous section we have seen that in what we call acoustic phenomena the density fluctuations ρ /ρ0 are very small. speed of sound. We first limit ourselves to the case of acoustic perturbations ( p . and acoustic energy A small ratio ρ /ρ0 of acoustic density fluctuations ρ to the mean density ρ0 implies that over distances of the order of a few wave lengths non-linear effects are negligible. Such conditions are also described in the literature as a quiescent fluid.) of a stagnant (u0 = 0) uniform fluid ( p0 . The constitutive equation (1. A derivation of general linearized wave equations is discussed by Pierce [142] and Goldstein [55].16 2 Wave equation. of the order of (ρ /ρ0 )c0 . When dissipation is very small acoustic waves can propagate over such large distances that non-linear effects always become significant (we will discuss this in section 4. the equations one obtains may still be complex if we assume a non-uniform mean flow or a nonuniform density distribution ρ0 . . .14c) where second order terms in the perturbations have been neglected. s0 . This justifies the use of a linear approximation of the equations describing the fluid motion which we presented in chapter 1. In a quiescent fluid the equations of motion given in chapter 1 simplify to: ∂ρ + ρ0 ∇ · v = 0 ∂t ∂v +∇p = 0 ρ0 ∂t ∂s =0 ∂t (2.15) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . s . Even with the additional assumption that the flow is frictionless.2. We also have seen that the fluid velocity fluctuation v associated with the wave propagation. are also small. . .2 Wave equation for a uniform stagnant fluid and compactness 2.14b) (2.

14a) from the divergence of the momentum conservation law (2.16) 2 Using the constitutive equation p = c0 ρ (2.20b) 4 In the case considered this property follows from the fact that ∇ × (ρ ∂ v + ∇ p) = ρ ∂ (∇ × 0 ∂t 0 ∂t RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .17a) a wave equation for ∂ϕ /∂t. 1 f (x − c0 t) − g(x + c0 t) .2 Simple solutions Two of the most simple and therefore most important solutions to the wave equation are d’Alembert’s solution in one and three dimensions. the potential ϕ is convenient for many calculations in acoustics.18) is used to translate the results obtained for ϕ into less abstract quantities such as the pressure fluctuations p.17a) (2. v = ρ0 c0 v ) = 0. Although a rather abstract quantity. In 1-D we have the general solution p = f (x − c0 t) + g(x + c0 t). (2.2.17b) ∂ 2ρ 2 − c0 ∇ 2 ρ = 0.19) ∂t 2 Taking the gradient of (2. 2.15) to eliminate either ρ or p yields the wave equations: or ∂2 p 2 − c0 ∇ 2 p = 0 ∂t 2 (2.20a) (2.18) 4 which should be valid because the acoustic field is irrotational . The linearized Bernoulli equation (2.2. ∂t 2 (2.19) we obtain a wave equation for the velocity v = ∇ϕ . We find therefore that ϕ satisfies the same wave equation as the pressure and the density: ∂ 2ϕ 2 − c0 ∇ 2 ϕ = 0.2 Wave equation for a uniform stagnant fluid and compactness 17 By subtracting the time derivative of the mass conservation law (2. ∂t 2 Using the linearized Bernoulli equation: p ∂ϕ + =0 ∂t ρ0 (2. we can derive from (2.14b) we eliminate v to obtain: ∂ 2ρ − ∇ 2 p = 0. (2. In general this property is imposed by the definition of the acoustic field.

because the combination r p(r.and right-running waves as in the 1-D case. ρ0 c0 where the direction of propagation is given by the unit vector n. and free field plane waves. The velocity v is obtained from the pressure p by using the linearized momentum equation (2. a free field plane wave is in general written as p = f (n · x − c0 t). or wave vector. the corresponding radial velocity vr is rather more complicated. (2. This solution is especially useful to describe low frequency sound waves in hard-walled ducts.21b) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . v ∼ e iωt−ik·x . the “ f ”-part corresponds to a right-running wave (in positive x-direction) and the “g”-part to a left-running wave. however. written in radial coordinates.e. v = n f (n · x − c0 t). the inherent 1/r-decay is necessary from energy conservation arguments. depending only on radial distance r). and acoustic energy where f and g are determined by boundary and initial conditions. ω where the wave-number vector. r r 1 1 1 f (r − c0 t) − 2 F(r − c0 t) vr = ρ0 c0 r r 1 1 1 g(r + c0 t) − 2 G(r + c0 t) . Rather than only left. t) happens to satisfy the 1-D wave equation (see section 6.21a) (2. that unlike in the 1-D case. indicates the direction of propagation of the wave. A time harmonic plane wave of frequency ω is usually written in complex form5 as p . − ρ0 c0 r r p = 5 The physical quantity considered is described by the real part.14b). To allow for a general orientation of the coordinate system. The velocity should be determined from the pressure by time-integration of the momentum equation (2.18 2 Wave equation. As is seen from the respective arguments x ± c0 t. but otherwise they are arbitrary. They are rather similar to the 1-D solution. In 3-D we have a general solution for spherically symmetric waves (i.14b). in free field any sum (or integral) over directions n may be taken. speed of sound.2). We have for pressure and radial velocity 1 1 f (r − c0 t) + g(r + c0 t). Since the outward radiated wave energy spreads out over the surface of a sphere. k = nk = nc0 . It should be noted.

Furthermore. and g(z) = 0 for any z = r + c0 t ≤ r + c0 t0 .23) (2.2. This remains true for any field in free space from a source of finite size.2. vr = 2 ρ0 c0 r r r p = where f denotes the derivative of f to its argument. A causal wave vanishes outside a large sphere.2].2 Wave equation for a uniform stagnant fluid and compactness 19 where F(z) = f (z)dz and G(z) = g(z)dz. since ∂∂x r = x . f (z) = 0 for z = r − c0 t ≥ r − c0 t0 ≥ −c0 t0 because r ≥ 0. r2 r 1 x 2 2 f (r − c0 t) − f (r − c0 t) + 2 F(r − c0 t) . This solution (2. because far away the field simplifies to that of a point source (although not necessarily spherically symmetric).1. 2. The general solution of sound radiation from spheres may be found in [119. but we can use a slightly modified form of the boundary condition in r. which means for any physical solution that the field vanishes before some time t0 (causality). this implies that g(z) ≡ 0 for all z. by differentiation to the source position other solutions of the wave equation can be generated (of dipole-type and higher). the RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . of which the radius grows linearly in time with velocity c0 .21b) is especially useful to describe the field of small symmetric sources (monopoles).21a. modelled in a point. Hence. we have r x 1 f (r − c0 t) − f (r − c0 t) . Since the rôle of r and t is symmetric in f and anti-symmetric in g.1. Since r is not restricted from above. ch7. In the case of the idealization of a time-harmonic field we cannot apply this causality condition directly. Usually we have only outgoing waves. we may formulate the causality condition in t also as a boundary condition in r. For example.2.22a) (2. called Sommerfeld’s radiation condition: lim r ∂p ∂p + c0 ∂t ∂r = 0.22b) r→∞ A more general discussion on causality for a time-harmonic field will be given in section C. (2.3 Compactness In regions –for example at boundaries– where the acoustic potential ϕ varies significantly over distances L which are short compared to the wave length λ.

The matching procedure is usually carried out almost intuitively in the first order approximation. and acoustic energy acoustic flow can locally be approximated as an incompressible potential flow. as suggested above. This allows us to use incompressible potential flow theory to derive the local behaviour of an acoustic field in a compact region. However. [32]). Within the compact region the time derivatives. (2. For a more precise definition we should assume that we can distinguish a typical time scale τ or frequency ω and length scale L in the problem. in many interesting cases c0 is non-uniform in space and RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Higher order approximations are obtained by using the method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions (section 8.20 2 Wave equation. near a singularity where spatial gradients become large. speed of sound. The dimensionless number He is called the ¯ ¯ ¯ Helmholtz number. and a source of size.1 Ideal gas In the previous section we have assumed that the speed of sound c2 = (∂ p/∂ρ)s 0 is constant. or at low frequencies when time derivatives become small. In dimensionless form the wave equation is then: 3 i=1 ∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ = (He )2 2 .3. is a compact source. If the compact region is embedded in a larger acoustic region of simpler nature. By matching the local incompressible approximation to this “far field” solution (spherical waves.8.26) which describes an incompressible potential flow (∇· v = 0). ∂2 ϕ /∂ t 2 and ∂ 2 ϕ /∂ xi2 are of the same order of magnitude. Such a region is called compact.25) This may occur. the solutions may be determined. being multiplied by the small He. In a compact region we have: He 1. plane waves). ¯ ∂t ∂ xi2 ¯ He = ωL L 2π L = = kL = c0 τ c0 λ (2. 2. it acts on the scale of the larger region as a point source. usually allowing a relatively simple acoustic field. and the character of the wave motion is completely described by He . may be ignored and the potential satisfies to leading order the Laplace equation: ∇ 2ϕ = 0 (2.3 Speed of sound 2.24) ¯ where t = t/τ = ωt and xi = xi /L . much smaller than λ. When τ and L are well chosen.

27) and (2. (2. T CV ρ (2.31) with the definition of the speed of sound c2 = (∂ p/∂ρ)s yields: c = (γ p/ρ)1/2 or c = (γ RT )1/2 . (2. For an ideal gas the internal energy e depends only on the temperature [137].27) where p is the pressure.33) 6 The universal gas constant is: R = k N = 8.73 J/kg K.2. with (1.14) leading to de = CV dT .022 · 1023 mol−1 by: R = k B NA /M.32) (2. B A RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . For an ideal gas we have further the relationship: R = C P − CV . The equation of state for an ideal gas is: p = ρ RT. For air R = 286.29) we find for an isentropic process: dp dρ dρ dT + = =γ . We therefore give here a short review of the dependence of the speed of sound in gas and water on some parameters like temperature. Comparison of (2. we find for an isentropic process (ds = 0): C V dT = − p d(ρ −1 ) or R dρ dT = . so that by using the second law of thermodynamics.3 Speed of sound 21 this affects the propagation of waves.29) where C P and C V are the specific heats at constant pressure and volume.31431 J/K mol. (2. ρ T p ρ where: γ = C P /C V (2.28) where M is the molar mass of the gas (in kg/mol). R is the specific gas constant6 which is related to the Boltzmann constant kB = 1. Air at atmospheric pressure behaves as an ideal gas.38066 · 10−23 J/K and the Avogadro number NA = 6. respectively.30) By using (2. ρ is the density and T is the absolute temperature.31) is the Poisson ratio. (2.

speed of sound. due to departure from thermodynamic equilibrium [185].i .402. The temperature dependence of the speed of sound is responsible for spectacular differences in sound propagation in the atmosphere. For example.i /R and γi = C p. the speed of sound in the temperature range 273 K to 293 K and in the pressure range 105 to 107 Pa can be calculated from the empirical formula [142]: c = c0 + a(T − T0 ) + bp (2.6. T0 = 283. These refraction effects will be discussed in section 8. a = 4.3.36) where c0 = 1447 m/s. 2.45 m/s. in a way that we hear traffic over much larger distances than on a hot summer afternoon.3 Bubbly liquid at low frequencies Also the presence of air bubbles in water can have a dramatic effect on the speed of sound ([94. 32]). whilst the speed of sound at T = 273.0 m/sK.6 · 10−6 m/sPa. 2. Moisture in air will only slightly affect the speed of sound but will drastically affect the damping. the vertical temperature stratification of the atmosphere (from colder near the ground to warmer at higher levels) that occurs on a winter day with fresh fallen snow refracts the sound back to the ground level.3.34) where Mi is the molar mass of component i. The presence of salt in sea water does significantly affect the speed of sound. For a mixture of ideal gases with mole fraction X i of component i the molar mass M is given by: M= i Mi X i (2.35) because γi /(γi − 1) = Mi C p.16 K and b = 1.i /C V. and acoustic energy We see from this equation that the speed of sound of an ideal gas of given chemical composition depends only on the temperature. The speed of sound is by definition determined by the “mass” RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .15 K is c = 331. The Poisson constant γ of the mixture can be calculated by: γ = X i γi /(γi − 1) X i /(γi − 1) (2.22 2 Wave equation.2 Water For pure water. For air γ = 1.

This resulted in an error of γ 1/2 in the predicted speed of sound in air which was corrected by Laplace [185]. As the Ks of the mixture can approach that for pure air. The behaviour of air bubbles at high frequencies involves a possible resonance which we will discuss in chapter 4 and chapter 6.38) increases with increasing stiffness. except for the fact that he used the isothermal bulk modulus KT rather than Ks . we derive an expression for the soundspeed c of the mixture as a function of the volume fraction β of gas in the water. If no gas dissolves in the liquid. dp dp ρ dp (2.37) s which is a measure for the “stiffness” of the fluid. one observes in such mixtures velocities of sound much lower than in air (or water). The density ρ of the mixture is given by: ρ = (1 − β)ρ + βρg . we can understand this behaviour intuitively.38). (2. and decreases with increasing inertia (density ρ). If we consider a small change in pressure d p we obtain: dρ dρg dβ dρ = (1 − β) +β + (ρg − ρ ) dp dp dp dp (2. In a one-dimensional model consisting of a discrete mass M connected by a spring of constant K. following Crighton [32]. we have: ρg dρg βρg dρ dβ +β − = 0. This massspring model was used by Newton to derive equation (2.40) where we assume both the gas and the liquid to compress isothermally [32].39) where ρ and ρg are the liquid and gas densities. while at the same time the density ρ is not strongly affected.38). The speed of sound c. Combining this assumption with (2. given by: c = (Ks /ρ) 2 1 (2.2. We now assume that the bubbles are in mechanical equilibrium with the water. which allows a low frequency approximation. so that the mass fraction (βρg /ρ) of gas remains constant.41) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . A small fraction of air bubbles present in water considerably reduces the bulk modulus Ks .3 Speed of sound density ρ and the isentropic bulk modulus: Ks = ρ ∂p ∂ρ 23 (2.

to approximate (2. (2. ∂t (2. and at 1 bar we find for example in a water/air mixture c 24 m/s! In the case of β not being close to zero or unity. In many cases.4 Influence of temperature gradient In section 2. while the water determines the density (1 − β)ρ . (2. We have seen in section 2.43) 2 The gas fraction determines the bulk modulus ρg cg /β of the mixture.41): 1−β β 1 = + . speed of sound.44b) (2. cg = d p/dρg and c2 = d p/dρ . we can use the fact 2 ρ c2 and ρg ρ . when the acoustic wave length is small compared to the temperature gradient length (distance over which a significant temperature variation occurs) we can still use the wave equation (2. 2. or c2 2 ρ g cg β(1 − β)ρ . and acoustic energy 2 Using the notation c2 = d p/dρ.5. which we have ignored here. we find by elimination of dβ/d p from (2. The minimum speed of sound occurs at β = 0. Air bubbles are also introduced in sea water near the surface by surface waves.40) and (2. It is however interesting to derive a wave equation in the more general case: for a stagnant ideal gas with an arbitrary temperature distribution.42) by: that ρg cg ρc2 2 ρ g cg β . momentum and energy for a stagnant gas: ∂ρ + ∇ · (ρ0 v ) = 0 ∂t ∂v +∇p = 0 ρ0 ∂t ∂s + v ·∇s0 = 0.44a) (2.44c) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3 that the speed of sound in the atmosphere is expected to vary considerably as a result of temperature gradients.42) 2 2 ρc2 ρ g cg ρc It is interesting to see that for small values of β the speed of sound c drops drastically from c at β = 0 towards a value lower than cg . we see that the presence of bubbles around a ship may dramatically affect the sound propagation near the surface.17a).24 2 Wave equation.2 we derived a wave equation (2. The dynamics of bubbles involving oscillations (see chapter 4 and chapter 6) appear to induce spectacular dispersion effects [32].17a) for an homogeneous stagnant medium. Hence. We start from the linearized equations for the conservation of mass.

2. ∂t 2 7 Why do we not use (2.44b) yields: 1 ∂ (∇ · v ) + ∇ · ∇p ∂t ρ0 = 0.47) can be written in the form: ∂2 p 2 − ∇ · (c0 ∇ p ) = 0. 2 ρ0 c0 ∂t Taking the divergence of the momentum conservation law (2. ∂t (2.44a) we find: ∂p 2 + v ·∇ p0 + ρ0 c0 ∇ · v = 0. The constitutive equation for isentropic flow (Ds/Dt = 0): Dp 2 Dρ = c0 Dt Dt can be written as7 : ∂p 2 ∂ρ + v ·∇ p0 = c0 + v ·∇ρ0 .45) with the continuity equation (2. we have 2 that ρ0 c0 .48) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .46) by: ∇· v = − 1 ∂p .45) If we consider temperature gradients over a small height (in a horizontal tube for ∇T0 /T0 ). ∂t ∂t Combining (2. By elimination of ∇· v we obtain: 1 ∂2 p 2 − c0 ρ0 ∇ · ∇p 2 ∂t ρ0 = 0. given by: 2 ρ0 c0 = γ p0 is a constant so that equation (2. we example) so that the variation in p0 can be neglected (∇ p0 / p0 can approximate (2.46) (2.4 Influence of temperature gradient 25 where ρ0 and s0 vary in space. (2.47) 2 For an ideal gas c0 = γ p0 /ρ0 .15)? (2. and since we assumed p0 to be uniform.

become (without sources): ∂ρ ∂t ∂v ∂t ∂s ∂t ∂p ∂t + v 0 ·∇ρ + v ·∇ρ0 + ρ0 ∇ · v + ρ ∇ · v0 = 0 + v 0 ·∇v + v ·∇v 0 + ρ v 0 ·∇v 0 = −∇ p + v0 ·∇s + v ·∇s0 = 0. 2 + v 0 ·∇ p + v ·∇ p0 = c0 (2.50) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . v 0 ·∇s0 = 0. Which acoustic variable is selected to work with is only indifferent in a quiescent fluid.49a) (2.49d) A wave equation can only be obtained from these equations if simplifying assumptions are introduced. This will be elaborated further in the discussion on the sources of sound in section 2. the wave equation (2. We will in section 1 and 8. unlike in quiescent (i.6.48) for the pressure fluctuation p in a stagnant non-uniform ideal gas is not valid for the density fluctuations. uniform and stagnant) fluids.45). the linearized conservation laws.5 Influence of mean flow See also Appendix F.49b) (2.e. It is interesting to note that. This approximation is called geometrical or ray acoustics. v 0 ·∇ p0 = c0 v 0 ·∇ρ0 . ∂t (2. In the presence of a mean flow that satisfies 2 ∇ · ρ0 v 0 = 0.49c) ρ0 ∂ρ + v0 ·∇ρ + v ·∇ρ0 . ρ0 v 0 ·∇v 0 = −∇ p0 . and constitutive equation for isentropic flow. and acoustic energy This is a rather complex wave equation. since c0 is non-uniform.6 consider approximate solutions for this equation in the case (∇c /ω) 0 for large propagation distances. This is because here the density fluctuations ρ not only relate to pressure fluctuations but also to convective effects (2. 2.26 2 Wave equation. ∂t (2. speed of sound. For a uniform medium with uniform flow velocity v0 = 0 we obtain ∂ 2 2 + v 0 ·∇ p − c0 ∇ 2 p = 0 ∂t where ∂ + v 0 ·∇ denotes a time derivative moving with the mean flow.

52) In general this source is not equal to q. This statement is easily verified by the construction of another sound field.51). On the other hand. it is not the solution of equation (2. ∂t 2 (2. This solution p is unique.1) and (1. for example [49]: p + F. because it satisfies a wave equation with another source: ∂2 ∂2 2 2 − c0 ∇ 2 ( p + F) = q + − c0 ∇ 2 F. ∂t 2 ∂t 2 (2. for example F = q itself! This field is outside the source region exactly equal to the original field p .6 Sources of sound 27 2. As starting point for the derivation of wave equations we have used the linearized equations of motion and we have assumed that the mass source term m and the external force density f in (1. Without these restrictions we still can (under specific conditions) derive a wave equation. i.51) Often we will consider situations where the source q is concentrated in a limited region of space embedded in a stagnant uniform fluid.2) were absent. we may find in the absence of mean flow: ∂2 p 2 − c0 ∇ 2 p = q. for any smooth function F that vanishes outside the source region (i. For example.1 Inverse problem and uniqueness of sources Until now we have focused our attention on the propagation of sound.6. F = 0 wherever q = 0). We further assume that RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . As we will see later the acoustic field p can formally be determined for a given source distribution q by means of a Green’s function. The wave equation will now be non-homogeneous. It should be noted that the so-called inverse problem of determining q from the measurement of p outside the source region does not have a unique solution without at least some additional information on the structure of the source.e. This proves that the measurement of the acoustic field outside the source region is not sufficient to determine the source uniquely [39].6. it will contain a source term q. 2.6 Sources of sound 2.2.2 Mass and momentum injection As a first example of a non-homogeneous wave equation we consider the effect of the mass source term m on a uniform stagnant fluid.e.

(2. it can be shown in an analogous way that in linear approximation the presence of a uniform force field (a uniform gravitational field.56) in (2. that p = c0 ρ f everywhere. t) injected at a rate ∂ (βρm ). In addition.54) (ρv) + ∇ p = f . Since the injected mass displaces the original mass ρ f by the same (but negative) amount of volume.54) and (2.57) (2. and acoustic energy a linear approximation is valid. the total fluid density is m= ρ = βρm + (1 − β)ρ f (2. We see from (2. speed of sound.53) and eliminate βρm ∂ ∂ ρ f + ∇ · (ρv) = (βρ f ). ∂t 2 ∂t (2. ∂t The source m consists of mass of density ρm of volume fraction β = β(x. Consider the inhomogeneous equation of mass conservation ∂ ρ + ∇ · (ρv) = m (2.55) ∂t The source region is where β = 0.59) which shows that mass injection is a source of sound. Substitute (2.28 2 Wave equation. for simplicity.58) 2 If we assume. primarily because of the displacement of a volume fraction β of the original fluid ρf .59) that a continuous injection of mass of constant density does not produce sound.57) ∂2 ∂2 ρ f − ∇ 2 p = 2 (βρ f ) − ∇ · f . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . then ∂2 1 ∂2 p − ∇ 2 p = 2 (βρ f ) − ∇ · f 2 ∂t c0 ∂t 2 (2.53) ∂t and a linearized form of the equation of momentum conservation ∂ (2. where ρ f is the fluctuating part of ρ f which corresponds to the sound field outside the source region.56) where the injected matter does not mix with the original fluid. because ∂2 βρ f /∂t 2 vanishes. ∂t ∂t Eliminate ρv from (2. Hence injecting mass with a large density ρm is not necessarily an effective source of sound. for example) does not affect the sound field in a uniform stagnant fluid.

∂t∂ xi ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t 2 By taking the divergence of the momentum conservation law (1.2) we find: ∂2 ∂ fi ∂2 (ρvi ) = − (Pi j + ρvi v j ) + .e. In that particular case we express by this analogy the fact that the internal acoustic field of the clarinet is dominated by a standing wave corresponding to a resonance of the (ideal) resonator. For example.60) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The notion of “analogy” refers here to the idea of representing a complex fluid mechanical process that acts as an acoustic source by an acoustically equivalent source term. ∂t∂ xi ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂ xi (2. The key idea of the so-called “aero-acoustic analogy” of Lighthill is that we now derive from the exact equations of motion a non-homogeneous wave equation with the propagation part as given by (2. Hence the uniform stagnant fluid with sound speed c0 . density ρ0 and pressure p0 at the listener’s location is assumed to extend into the entire space. it is only useful when we consider the case of a limited source region embedded in a uniform stagnant fluid.17b). By taking the time derivative of the mass conservation law (1. At least we assume that the listener which detects the acoustic field at a point x at time t is surrounded by a uniform stagnant fluid characterized by a speed of sound c0 .61) (2. derived without approximation from the Navier-Stokes equations). 66]. Hence the acoustic field at the listener should accurately be described by the wave equation: ∂ 2ρ 2 − c0 ∇ 2 ρ = 0 ∂t 2 (2. While Lighthill’s equation is formally exact (i.57) we find: ∂ 2ρ ∂m ∂ 2ρ f ∂ 2 βρ f ∂2 − 2 =− 2 + (ρvi ) = .3 Lighthill’s analogy We now indicate how a wave equation with aerodynamic source terms can be derived.17b) is equivalent to a source of sound for the observer [98.1) and eliminating ∂m/∂t as in (2.6 Sources of sound 29 2. 99. with the effect of the flow through the mouth piece represented by a mass source at one end.2.17b) where we have chosen ρ as the acoustic variable as this will appear to be the most convenient choice for problems like the prediction of sound produced by turbulence. The most famous wave equation of this type is the equation of Lighthill. and any departure from the “ideal” acoustic behaviour predicted by (2. one may model a clarinet as an idealized resonator formed by a closed pipe.6. 145.

8 The perturbations are defined as the deviation from the uniform reference state (ρ .62) Because ρ f = ρ0 + ρ where only ρ varies in time we can construct a wave 2 equation for ρ by subtracting from both sides of (2. In equation (2.66) which is the usual form in the literature8 . In this way we have obtained the famous equation of Lighthill: 2 ∂ 2 Ti j ∂ 2 βρ f ∂ fi ∂ 2ρ 2∂ ρ − c0 2 = + − 2 2 ∂t ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂t ∂ xi ∂ xi (2. – the deviation from a uniform sound velocity c0 or the deviation from an isen2 tropic behaviour ( p − c0 ρ ).65) which is exact because c0 is a constant.63) where Lighthill’s stress tensor Ti j is defined by: 2 Ti j = Pi j + ρvi v j − (c0 ρ + p0 )δi j .61) the exact relation: ∂2 ∂ 2 βρ f ∂ fi ∂ 2ρ f = (Pi j + ρvi v j ) + − .66) we distinguish three basic aero-acoustic processes which result in sources of sound: – the non-linear convective forces described by the Reynolds stress tensor ρvi v j . speed of sound. and acoustic energy Hence we find from (2.61) a term c0 (∂ 2 ρ /∂ xi2 ) where in order to be meaningful c0 is not the local speed of sound but that at the listener’s location. 2 2 ∂t ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂t ∂ xi (2.60) and (2. – the viscous forces τi j . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3) we can also write: 2 Ti j = ρvi v j − τi j + ( p − c0 ρ )δi j (2.30 2 Wave equation. p ): ρ = 0 0 ρ − ρ0 . and p = p − p0 . Making use of definition (1. (2.64) We used 2 c0 2 ∂ 2 (c0 ρ δi j ) ∂ 2ρ = ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂ xi2 (2.

If we derive a wave equation for p instead of ρ .6 Sources of sound 31 As no approximations have been made. We are therefore certainly not closer to a solution unless we introduce some additional simplifying assumptions. For a given experimental or numerical set of data on the flow field in the source region. Such estimation procedure is based on the physical interpretation of the source term. In fact. as we will see.4) to affect the character of the wave equation. This is an efficient approach because an order of magnitude estimate of ∂2 Ti j /∂ xi ∂ x j involves the estimation of spatial derivatives which is very difficult. in an integral formulation we will need only an estimate for an average value of Ti j in order to obtain some relevant information on the acoustic field. equation (2. Unlike in the propagation in a uniform fluid the choice of the acoustic variable appeared already in the presence of a temperature gradient (section 2.2.62) in the form: ∂ 2ρ ∂2 ∂2 p = 2 + (τi j − ρvi v j ) ∂t ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂ xi2 −2 where we assumed that m = 0 and f = 0.63) is exact and not easier to solve than the original equations of motion. (2. 99].63) is that we can introduce some crude simplifications which yield an order of magnitude estimate for ρ . a key step of Lighthill’s analysis is to delay this physical interpretation until an integral equation formulation of (2. we have used four equations: the mass conservation and the three components of the momentum conservation to derive a single equation. while. we find by subtraction of c0 (∂ 2 /∂t 2 ) p on both sides: ∂2 p ∂2 ∂ 2 p0 ∂2 p 1 ∂2 p − = (ρvi v j − τi j ) + + 2 2 −ρ 2 ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂t c0 c0 ∂t 2 ∂ xi2 ∂ xi2 where the term ∂ 2 p0 /∂ xi2 vanishes because p0 is a constant. the integral formulation of Lighthill’s analogy often provides a maximum amount of information about the generated acoustic field. The usefulness of (2. This is the case when unsteady heat release occurs such as in combustion problems.63) has been obtained. In some cases it appears to be more convenient to use p instead of ρ . the structure of the source terms will be different.67) shows that the deviation from an isentropic be2 haviour leads to a source term of the type (∂2 /∂ xi2 )( p −c0 ρ ) when we choose ρ as 2 the acoustic variable. Starting from equation (2.67) Comparing (2. However. This crucial step was not recognized before the original papers of Lighthill [98. while we find a term (∂2 /∂t 2 )( p /c0 −ρ ) when we choose p RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .63) with (2.

11) ρ2 Dρ c2 + 2 −1 2 Dt c0 c0 ∂T ∂ρ s Ds Dt (2. we find − ∂ ∂ 2 ρe = 2 ∂t ∂t c2 ρ2 ∂ T ρe Dρ + 2 −1+ 2 ρ Dt c0 c0 ∂ρ Ds + ∇ · (vρe ) s Dt (2. and acoustic energy as the acoustic variable.7) where the “excess density” ρe is defined as: ρe = ρ − p . 2 c0 In a free jet the first term in −∂2 ρe /∂t 2 vanishes for an ideal gas with constant heat 2 capacity (because c2 /c0 − 1 + ρe /ρ = 0). As a final result. [32]) when using the thermodynamic relation (1. speed of sound.7) in the form: de = T ds − p d(ρ −1 ). Dt (1.32 2 Wave equation. using the mass conservation law.69) s ρ derived from the fundamental law of thermodynamics (1.70) (1.68) where we made use of the thermodynamic relation: ∂p ∂s = ρ2 ∂T ∂ρ (2. Hence ρ is more appropriate to describe the sound generation due to non-uniformity as for example the so-called acoustic “Bremsstrahlung” produced by the acceleration of a fluid particle with an entropy different from the main flow.11) that: D Dt p −ρ 2 c0 = ∂p ∂s ρ Ds . 2 We see that (∂/∂t)( p /c0 − ρ ) acts as a mass source term m. like combustion. We see that sound is produced both by spatial density variations ∇· (vρe ) and as a result of non-isentropic processes 2 (ρ 2 /c0 )(∂ T /∂ρ)s (Ds /Dt). The sound production by unsteady heat transfer or combustion is easier to describe in terms of p (Howe [66]). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .11) applied to a moving particle: Dρ Dp = c2 + Dt Dt We find from (1. which is intuitively more easily understood (Crighton et al.

17) we obtain by subtraction: ∂ ∂t 1 Dρ ρ Dt − ∇ 2 B = ∇ · (ω × v). we start our derivation of a wave equation from Euler’s equation in Crocco’s form: ∂v + ∇ B = −ω × v ∂t where B = i + 1 v 2 .17) (1.72) This can be rewritten as 2 ∂ 1 D2 B 1 D0 B − ∇ 2 B = ∇ · (ω × v) + 2 0 − c2 Dt c Dt ∂t 1 Di c2 Dt (2.2.30) and the time derivative of (1. on its turn. In Lighthill’s procedure the flow is assumed to be known. ρ Dt (1. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . with any feedback from the acoustic field to the flow somehow already included. This is due to the fact that the vorticity ω = ∇ × v is a very convenient quantity to describe a low Mach number flow.27): ∂ ∂t 1 Di c2 Dt − ∇ 2 B = ∇ · (ω × v). and the continuity equation: 2 1 Dρ = −∇ · v.6 Sources of sound 33 2. It is the commonly used procedure in which we derive information on the acoustic field from data on the flow in the source region.30) Taking the divergence of (1. the aerodynamic formulation of Powell [145]. with (1. 9 influenced by the acoustic field. (2. When such a feedback is significant.73) 9 This is not a necessary condition for the use of Lighthill’s analogy. Considering a homentropic non-conductive frictionless fluid.6.11) and (1. this formulation is not very convenient when one considers the sound production by a flow which is.4 Vortex sound While Lighthill’s analogy is very convenient for obtaining order of magnitude estimates of the sound produced by various processes. Howe [66] and Doak [38] based on the concept of vortex sound is most appropriate. and in general for homentropic low Mach number flow.71) As the entropy is constant (ds = 0) we have. (2.

both Lighthill’s and Howe’s analogy become less convenient.7. At high Mach numbers. 70] realized that the natural reference of the analogy is a potential flow rather than the quiescent fluid of Lighthill’s analogy. Examples of such flows are discussed by Howe [66].49d). Peters & Hirschberg [139]. Disselhorst & van Wijngaarden [37]. There is then no need to assume free field conditions nor a compact source region. The use of a vortex sound formulation is particularly powerful when a simplified vortex model is available for the flow considered. (Note: i = p /ρ0 and B = i + v0 · v . 2. For the reference flow U 0 we choose a Dt potential flow with stagnation enthalpy B0.7 Acoustic energy 2.49a–2.74) which explicitly stresses the fact that the vorticity ω is responsible for the generation of sound. and Howe [71]. In free space for a compact source region Powell [144] has derived this analogy directly from Lighthill’s analogy.) Some of the implications of (2. Howe [66] therefore proposes to define the acoustic field as the unsteady scalar potential flow component of the flow: ua = ∇ϕ where ϕ = ϕ − ϕ0 and ϕ0 is the steady scalar potential. and acoustic energy ∂ where B = B − B0 and D0 = ∂t + U 0 ·∇. Such a procedure is ad-hoc. The result is that the Coriolis force fc = ρ0 (ω ×v) appears to act as an external force on the acoustic field. At low Mach number M = v/c0 we have the inhomogeneous wave equation: 2 1 D0 B − ∇ 2 B = ∇ · (ω × v) 2 c0 Dt 2 (2. Historically an energy conser2 vation law was first derived by Kirchhoff for stagnant uniform fluids. He started from the linearized conservation laws (2.34 2 Wave equation. when the source is not compact. Alternative formulations have been proposed and are still being studied [124].1 Introduction Acoustic energy is a difficult concept because it involves second order terms in the perturbations like the kinetic energy density 1 ρ0 v 2 . speed of sound.74) will be considered in more detail in the next section. Considering Crocco’s equation (1.30) with this interpretation Howe [67. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

as Myers showed [126]. is essential and until now it remains subject of discussion. which of course results in a different definition of acoustic energy. since a small perturbation expansion of the full non-linear fluid energy conservation law (1. which do not propagate. If required. are often referred to in the literature as “pseudo sound”. an energy expression of the approximation. is not an approximation of the total energy. In such a case the question of definition. derived by Howe [67]. Finally we will consider a relationship between vorticity and sound generation in a homentropic uniform inviscid non-conducting fluid at low Mach numbers. and extend the results to those obtained by Myers. We will start our analysis with Kirchhoff’s equation for an inviscid non-conducting fluid. Things become much less obvious in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow including entropy variations and vorticity. but now at the expense of a resulting energy equation which is not a conservation law any more. However. in particular which part of the field is to be called acoustic. Pressure fluctuations related to vorticity. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The only way to obtain some kind of acoustic energy conservation equation (implying definitions for acoustic energy density and flux) is to redirect certain parts to the “right hand side” to become source or sink terms. first and neglected second order terms are (in a sense) not important and an acoustic energy conservation equation may be derived which is indeed the same as found by Kirchhoff [142].7 Acoustic energy 35 and the result.5) will contain zeroth and first order terms and potentially relevant second order terms O((ρ /ρ0 )2 ) which are dropped with the linearization of the mass and momentum equations.2. 128] by expanding the energy equation for small perturbations is due to Myers. the zeroth. As stated before. This approach may be extended to non-uniform flows as long as they are homentropic and irrotational. it appears that for a quiescent fluid these zeroth. we will consider as acoustical only that part of the field which is related to density variations and an unsteady (irrotational) potential flow. The foregoing approach of generalized expressions for acoustic energy for homentropic [126] and more general nonuniform flows [127. first and neglected second order terms of the expansion may still be ignored. In contrast to this approach Jenvey [78] calls any pressure fluctuations “acoustic”.

D =− pm −v ρ0 ·f . speed of sound. ∂t ∂v +∇p = f .78c) 10 Note that in order to keep equation (2. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ρ0 ∂t (2.2 Kirchhoff’s equation for quiescent fluids We start from the linearized mass and momentum conservation laws for a quiescent inviscid and non-conducting fluid: ∂ρ + ρ0 ∇ · v = m .75b) by v .76) which can be interpreted as a conservation law for the acoustic energy (2. Some authors define the acoustic intensity as the acoustic energy flux.36 2 Wave equation. the energy flux or intensity11 I and the dissipation D as: E= ρ0 v 2 p2 . adding the two equations. The flow would otherwise not be homentropic! In this case m /ρ0 corresponds to the injected volume fraction β of equation (2. From the assumption of homentropy (ds = 0) we have10 2 p = c0 ρ . and acoustic energy 2. (2.15) valid we have implicitly assumed that the injected mass corresponding to m has the same thermodynamic properties as the original fluid. 11 There is no uniformity in the nomenclature.75a) by p /ρ0 and (2.77) if we DEFINE the acoustic energy density E. (2.75b) where we assumed that f and m are of acoustic order. Since we assumed the mean flow to be quiescent and uniform there is no mean mass source (m0 = 0) or force ( f 0 = 0).7.15) After multiplying (2.75a) (2.78a) (2. we obtain the equation pm 1 ∂ p 2 1 ∂v 2 + ρ0 + ∇· ( p v ) = +v 2 ∂t 2 ∂t ρ0 2ρ0 c0 ∂E + ∇ · I = −D ∂t ·f (2.78b) I = pv. + 2 2 2ρ0 c0 (2.55). and utilizing the foregoing relation (2. others as the time-averaged acoustic energy flux.15) between density and pressure.

2.7 Acoustic energy

37

In integral form this conservation law (2.77) can be written for a fixed control volume V enclosed by a surface S with outer normal n as d dt V E dx + S I · n dσ = − V D dx, (2.79)

where we have used the theorem of Gauss to transform ∇ · I dx into a surface integral. For a periodic acoustic field the average E of the acoustic energy over a period is constant. Hence we find P = S I · n dσ = − V D dx, (2.80)

where P is the acoustic power flow across the volume surface S. The left-hand side of (2.80) simply corresponds with the mechanical work performed by the volume injection (m /ρ0 ) and the external force field f on the acoustic field. This formula is useful because we can consider the effect of the movement of solid boundaries like a piston or a propeller represented by source terms m and f . We will at the end of this chapter use formula (2.80) to calculate the acoustic power generated by a compact vorticity field. We will now derive the acoustic energy equation starting from the original nonlinear energy conservation law (1.5). We consider the perturbation of a uniform quiescent fluid without mass source term (v0 = 0, m = 0, f 0 = 0, p0 and ρ0 constant). We start with equation (1.5) in standard conservation form: 1 1 ∂ ρe + ρv 2 + ∇ · v ρe + ρv 2 + p ∂t 2 2 =

− ∇ · q + ∇ · (τ · v) + f · v, (2.81) where we note that the total fluid energy density is 1 E tot = ρe + ρv 2 , 2 and the total fluid energy flux is 1 I tot = v(ρe + ρv 2 + p). 2 (2.82b) (2.82a)

We have dropped here the mass source term m because, in contrast to the force density f , it does not correspond to any physical process.

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2 Wave equation, speed of sound, and acoustic energy

For future reference we state here some related forms, a.o. related to the entropy variation of the fluid. Using the continuity equation we obtain v2 D e+ = −∇ · ( pv) − ∇ · q + ∇ · (τ · v) + f · v, (2.83) Dt 2 which by using the fundamental law of thermodynamics (1.7) may yield an equation for the change in entropy s of the fluid: ρ ρT p Dρ ρ Dv 2 Ds − + = −∇ · ( pv) − ∇ · q + ∇ · (τ · v) + f · v. (2.84) Dt ρ Dt 2 Dt

By subtraction of the inner product of the momentum conservation equation with the velocity, this may be further recast into Ds = −∇ · q + τ : ∇v. (2.85) Dt In the absence of friction (τ = 0) and heat conduction (q = 0) we have the following equations for energy and entropy: ρT 1 D e + v 2 = −∇ · ( pv) + f · v (2.86) Dt 2 Ds = 0. (2.87) Dt We return to the energy equation in standard conservation form, without friction and heat conduction: 1 1 ∂ ρe + ρv 2 + ∇ · v(ρe + ρv 2 + p) = v · f . (2.88) ∂t 2 2 From the fundamental law of thermodynamics (1.7): ρ p ∂e = 2 , and so we have for isentropic perturbations: ∂ρ s ρ 2 ∂ ρe p 1 ∂p c2 ∂ρe = e + = i, = = , ∂ρ s ρ ∂ρ 2 s ρ ∂ρ s ρ T ds = de + p d(ρ −1 ) (1.7)

where i is the enthalpy (1.26) or heat function. We can now expand the total energy density, energy flux and source for acoustic (i.e. isentropic) perturbations up to second order, to find (v0 = 0): ρ 2 1 + 2 ρ0 v 2 , (2.89a) ρe + 1 ρv 2 = ρ0 e0 + i 0 ρ + 1 ρ0 c0 2 2 2 ρ0 2 1 (2.89b) v(ρe + 2 ρv + p) = v (i 0 ρ0 + i 0 ρ + p ), v· f = v

·f

.

(2.89c)

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2.7 Acoustic energy

39

Noting that the steady state is constant, and using the equation of mass conservation ∂ρ + ∇ · (ρ0 v + ρ v ) = 0 ∂t in (2.88), with (2.89a–2.89c) substituted in it, we find that the zeroth and first order terms in ρ /ρ0 vanish so that (2.88) becomes within an accuracy of O((ρ /ρ0 )3 ): ∂ p2 ρ0 v 2 + ∇· ( p v ) = v + 2 ∂t 2ρ0 c0 2

·f

,

(2.90)

which demonstrates that Kirchhoff’s acoustic energy conservation law (2.77) is not only an energy-like relation of the approximate equations, but indeed also the consistent acoustic approximation of the energy equation of the full fluid mechanical problem.

2.7.3 Acoustic energy in a non-uniform flow
The method of Myers [126] to develop a more general acoustic energy conservation law follows similar lines as the discussion of the previous section. We consider a homentropic flow (ds = 0, so that de = ( p/ρ2 )dρ) with v0 = 0. In this case the total enthalpy B = e + p/ρ + 1 v 2 appears to be a convenient variable. In terms of 2 B the energy conservation law (2.88) becomes: ∂ (ρ B − p) + ∇ · (ρ Bv) = v · f . ∂t The momentum conservation law in Crocco’s form (1.30) also involves B: ∂v + ∇ B + ω × v = f /ρ. ∂t (2.92) (2.91)

By subtracting ρ0 v 0 times the momentum conservation law (2.92) plus B0 times the continuity equation (1.17) from the energy conservation law (2.91), substituting the steady state momentum conservation law: ∇ B0 + ω0 × v 0 = f 0 /ρ0 , (2.93)

subtracting the steady state limit of the resulting equation, and using the vector identity v · (ω × v) = 0, Myers obtained the following energy corollary: ∂ E∗ + ∇ · I ∗ = −D ∗ ∂t (2.94)

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2 Wave equation, speed of sound, and acoustic energy

where E ∗ , I ∗ and D ∗ are defined by: E ∗ = ρ(B − B0 ) − ( p − p0 ) − ρ0 v 0 · (v − v 0 ) I ∗ = (ρv − ρ0 v 0 )(B − B0 ) D ∗ = (ρv − ρ0 v 0 ) · (ω × v − ω0 × v 0 ) − (v − v 0 ) · ( f − f 0 ) − (1 − ρ0 /ρ)v 0 · f − (1 − ρ/ρ0 )v · f 0 . (2.95c) These auxiliary quantities E∗ , I and D ∗ have the important property, as Myers showed, that their zeroth and first order terms in the acoustic perturbation expansion in (ρ /ρ0 ) vanish, while the quadratic terms are only a function of the mean flow and acoustic (first order) quantities. As a result, the second order approximation of the exact quantities E∗ , I ∗ and D ∗ yield (for homentropic flow) a general acoustic energy definition12 : E=
2 c0 ρ 2 ρ0 v 2 + ρ v0 · v + 2ρ0 2 c2 ρ I = (ρ0 v + ρ v 0 ) 0 + v 0 · v ρ0 ∗

(2.95a) (2.95b)

(2.96a) (2.96b)

D = −ρ0 v 0 · (ω × v ) − ρ v · (ω0 × v 0 ) − (v + ρ v 0 /ρ0 ) · ( f − ρ f 0 /ρ0 ). (2.96c) This equation is identical to the acoustic energy conservation law derived by Goldstein [55] starting from the linearized equations of motion (with f0 = 0). It is important to note that, on the one hand, we have indeed obtained expressions entirely in first order quantities; on the other hand, however, these expressions represent only an acoustic energy conservation law if we adopt the definition that vorticity is non-acoustic and embodies possible acoustic sources or sinks. The present expressions for homentropic flow are further generalized by Myers in recent papers [127] and [128].

2.7.4 Acoustic energy and vortex sound
Averaging (2.94) over one period for a periodic acoustic field and integrating over space yields, if f = 0: P = S I · n dσ = − V ρ0 v 0 · (ω × v ) + ρ v · (ω0 × v0 ) dx (2.97)

12 Use the vector identity a (b × c) = −c (b × a).

·

·

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2.7 Acoustic energy

41

where P is the acoustic power generated by the flow. It is interesting to compare this expression with the one derived by Howe [67] for a low Mach number compact vorticity distribution ω in free space in the presence of compact solid surfaces: P =− V where ua is the acoustic velocity defined as the part of the unsteady velocity field v which is the gradient of a potential (irrotational ∇ × ua = 0). While (2.97) is not restricted to low Mach numbers it only allows small time dependent perturbations ω of the time average vorticity ω0 and in this sense is more restrictive than Howe’s formula. Furthermore, (2.97) is difficult to interpret physically because v includes the solenoidal velocity perturbations ω = ∇ × v . Howe’s equation (2.98) has a simple physical interpretation which in the same way as Lighthill’s theory can be called an aero-acoustic analogy (vortex sound). In the absence of vorticity the flow of an inviscid and non-conducting fluid is described by Bernoulli’s equation (1.31b): ∂ϕ + B = 0. ∂t (1.31b) ρ0 (ω × v) · ua dx (2.98)

If in the same way as in Lighthill’s analogy13 we extend the potential flow v = ∇ϕ in a region where vorticity is present (ω = 0) then we can think of the vorticity term (ω × v) in Crocco’s equation: ∂v + ∇ B = −ω × v ∂t (1.28)

equivalent to an external force field f acting on the potential flow (acoustic field). Hence we have: f = −ρ(ω × v) (2.99)

which is the density of the Coriolis force acting on the fluid particle as a result of the fluid rotation. For a compact region at low Mach numbers we can neglect density variation and use the approximation: f = −ρ0 (ω × v).
region.

(2.100)

13 In Lighthill’s analogy the uniform quiescent fluid at the listener is extended into the source

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2 Wave equation, speed of sound, and acoustic energy

In the absence of mean flow outside the source region we see by application of the integral form of Kirchhoff’s energy equation (2.80) that we recover Howe’s formula (2.98): P = V This could also have been deduced from a comparison of the wave equation (2.74) in which we introduced the approximation B = i = p /ρ0 because v0 = 0: 1 ∂2 p − ∇ 2 p = ρ0 ∇ · (ω × v) 2 c0 ∂t 2 and the wave equation (2.59) (without mass injection, m = 0): 1 ∂2 p − ∇ 2 p = −∇ · f . 2 c0 ∂t 2 (2.103) (2.102) f · ua dx. (2.101)

This corresponds to Powell’s approximation of the vortex sound theory in which we neglect terms of order M both in the wave region and in the source region (B = p /ρ0 ). In the presence of a uniform flow outside the source region, Goldstein [55] finds the wave equation: 1 D2 p 0 − ∇ 2 p = −∇ · f 2 Dt 2 c0 where ∂ D0 = + v 0 ·∇. Dt ∂t The energy equation corresponding to (2.104) is for f0 = 0: P = V ua + ρ v0 ρ0 (2.104)

·f

dx

(2.105)

which suggests a generalization of Howe’s equation with f = ρ0 (ω × v): P = −ρ0 V (ω × v) · ua + ρ v0 ρ0 dx, (2.106)

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2.7 Acoustic energy

43

which corresponds with the use of B = p /ρ0 + ua · v 0 as acoustical variable, and I = B (ρv) as the intensity with (ρv) = ρ0 ua + ρ v 0 the fluctuation of mass flux. This generalization of Howe’s equation is indeed derived by Jenvey [78]. Although the above discussion provides an intuitive interpretation of Jenvey’s result, it is not obvious that Jenvey’s definition of acoustic field agrees with Howe’s definition. The range of validity of this energy corollary is therefore not obvious. In practice Howe’s energy corollary is convenient because it is formulated by an integral. Similar to Lighthill’s analogy in integral form, it is not sensitive to “random errors” in the model. Integration over the volume and averaging over a period of oscillation smooths out such errors. Exercises
a) Calculate the minimum speed of sound of air/water mixtures at a depth of 100 m below sea surface. Assume a temperature T 0 = 300 K. Is it true that this speed of sound is independent of the gas as long as γ = C p /C V is the same? b) Derive (2.91) from (2.88). c) Is the choice of c 0 in the analogy of Lighthill arbitrary? d) Does the acoustic source
∂2 (p ∂t 2 2 /c0 − ρ ) vanish for isentropic flows?

e) Is the acoustic variable ρ the most convenient choice to describe the sound production by unsteady combustion at low Mach numbers? f) Is the definition of acoustic intensity I = p v valid in the presence of a mean flow? g) Is it correct that when using B as acoustic variable instead of p , one obtains a more accurate prediction of vortex sound in a compact region with locally a high Mach number?
2 h) Is the equation p = c0 ρ always valid in a stagnant fluid?

i) Is it correct that the acoustic impedance ρc of an ideal gas depends only on the pressure p?

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3
3.1

Green’s functions, impedance, and evanescent waves
Green’s functions

3.1.1 Integral representations
Using Green’s theorem we can construct an integral equation which combines the effect of sources, propagation, boundary conditions and initial conditions in a simple formula. The Green’s function G(x, t| y, τ ) is the pulse response of the wave equation:
2 ∂ 2G 2∂ G − c0 2 = δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ). ∂t 2 ∂ xi

(3.1)

Note that the Green’s function is a generalized function! (See Appendix C.) The pulse δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ) is released at the source point y at time τ and G is measured at the observation point x at time t. The definition of G is further completed by specifying suitable boundary conditions at a surface S with outer normal n enclosing the volume V in which x and y are localized: n ·∇G + bG = 0. (3.2)

Furthermore, one usually assumes a causality condition for G that there is no field other than due to the δ-source: G(x, t| y, τ ) = 0 and ∂ G(x, t| y, τ ) = 0 ∂t (3.3)

for t < τ . When the boundary conditions defining the Green’s function coincide with those of the physical problem considered the Green’s function is called a “tailored” Green’s function. The integral equation is in such a case a convolution of the source q( y, τ ) with the pulse response G(x, t| y, τ ). Of course, if the source q is known (and not dependent on the field) this integral equation is at the same time just the solution of the problem. A tailored Green’s function is, in general, not

τ2 | y1 . −t). (3. such as the important reciprocity relation: G(x. −t| y2 .5b) Multiplying (3. t| y. −τ2 ): 2 ∂ 2G1 2 ∂ G1 − c0 = δ(x − y1 )δ(t − τ1 ) ∂t 2 ∂ xi2 (3.4) For the free field this relation follows immediately from symmetry and causality.6) Partial integration of the left-hand side yields: G2 V ∂ G1 ∂ G2 − G1 dx ∂t ∂t 2 − c0 t −∞ t=t t=−∞ G2 S ∂ G1 ∂ G2 − G 1 2 n i dσ dt = 0 (3.3). this property can be derived by starting from the definition of the two Green’s functions G1 = G(x. The second integral vanishes because G 1 and G 2 satisfy the same boundary conditions on boundary S. −τ1 | y2 .5b) multiplied by G1 yields after integration over x and t in V from t = −∞ until a time t larger than τ1 and τ2 : t −∞ G2 V ∂ 2G1 ∂ 2G2 ∂ 2G1 ∂ 2G2 2 − G 1 2 − c0 G 2 − G1 ∂t 2 ∂t ∂ xi2 ∂ xi2 dx dt = G( y 1 . −τ |x.4). t| y1 . τ1 ) and G 2 = G(x. therefore. Replacing y1 and τ1 by y and τ and y2 and τ2 by x and t in the right-hand side of (3. (3. τ1 ).1 Green’s functions 45 easy to find. τ ) = G( y. It will.5a) and 2 ∂ 2G2 2 ∂ G2 − c0 = δ(x − y2 )δ(t − τ2 ). appear that sometimes. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . for certain specific problems.6) yields (3. In general [118]. we have to consider some general properties of Green’s functions. ∂t 2 ∂ xi2 (3.7) 2 ∂ xi ∂ xi where the first integral vanishes because for t = −∞ both G1 and G 2 vanish because of the causality condition (3. Before we can discuss this. At t = t the first integral vanishes because −t is earlier than −τ2 (t > τ2 ) and therefore both G2 = G(x. −τ2 ) − G( y2 .3. −τ2 ) = 0 and ∂ G 2 /∂t|t=t = 0 because of causality.5a) by G2 and subtracting (3. −t | y2 . the choice of a Green’s function which is not tailored is more convenient.

τ ). τ ). t| y. τ ) −G d ydτ. ∂τ 2 ∂ yi (3. τ ) d ydτ V RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . −t| y.10). t| y.10) After subtracting equation 3. −t| y. τ ) also satisfies the equation: 2 ∂ 2G 2∂ G − c0 2 = δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ). t) = + t+ t0 t+ t0 q( y.11) yields: ρ (x. multiplied by ρ ( y. −t| y.9) ∂t 2 ∂ xi Using now the reciprocity relation (3. we obtain: ρ (x. multiplied by G(x. and then integration to y over V and to τ between +t0 and t. τ ). τ ) d ydτ V ρ ( y. τ )G(x. −τ ) = δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ).8. −τ ) satisfies (3. τ ) −G d ydτ ∂τ 2 ∂τ 2 ρ ( y. t) = t t0 q( y.8). τ )G(x.8) We first note that because of the symmetry of δ(t − τ ) the time-reversed function G(x.1): 2 ∂2 2 ∂ G(x. t| y. and evanescent waves We now will prove that the Green’s function G(x. τ ) V ∂2G ∂ 2 ρ ( y. −τ ) − c0 2 G(x. impedance. from equation (3.4) and interchanging the notation x ↔ y and t ↔ τ we find (3. (3. t| y.11) ∂ yi2 ∂ yi2 V 2 − c0 t+ t0 Partial integration over the time of the second integral and over the space of the third integral in the right-hand side of (3. (3. τ ) ∂2G ∂ 2 ρ ( y.46 3 Green’s functions. ∂τ 2 ∂ yi (3. We have now all that is necessary to obtain a formal solution to the wave equation: 2 ∂ 2ρ 2∂ ρ − c0 2 = q( y.

50) and the corresponding Green’s function and integral formulation are found in Goldstein [55]. τ ) S   − V ∂G ∂ρ ( y. τ ) −G n i dσ dτ ∂ yi ∂ yi  ρ ( y. Sometimes an expansion in eigenfunction or modes (like in duct acoustics. τ )G(x.13) is only an explicit solution of the wave equation if q is given.3.1 Green’s functions t t0 47 2 − c0 ρ ( y. τ ) ∂G ∂ρ ( y.2 Remarks on finding Green’s functions In general. V (3. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Even in such a case the integral representation is useful because we have split up the problem into a purely linear problem of finding a Green’s function and a second problem of solving an integral equation. it is not possible to give a general recipe how to find a Green’s function for a given problem. Therefore. An integral formula for the convective wave equation (2. a (tailored) Green’s function is only marginally easier to find than the full solution of an inhomogeneous linear partial differential equation. τ )  −G d y ∂τ ∂τ τ =t0 (3.1. we have the superposition principle over elementary sources which we expect intuitively: ρ (x. For a tailored Green’s function. 3. When the sound source q depends on the acoustic field ρ these equations are integral equations rather than an explicit solution. Also as stated earlier the integral equation is most convenient for introducing approximations because integration tends to smooth out the errors of the approximations. τ ) d ydτ. For the present time we should remember that (3.12) where the second integral vanishes for a tailored Green’s function and the third integral represents the effect of the initial conditions at τ = t0 . see chapter 7) is possible.13) In chapter 4 and 6 we will again reconsider the Green’s functions in more detail. t) = t −∞ q( y. t| y. The treatment given here is taken from the textbook of Morse and Feshbach [118]. and if t0 = −∞.12) or (3.

If the medium is uniform in all directions. Examples are given in Appendix C.14) at a point x on a surface S with unit normal vector nS pointing into2 the surface. by using free field Green’s functions.2. However. 2 Note that usually the normal vector of a surface is defined out of the surface.48 3 Green’s functions. It is a measure of the amount by which the motion induced by a pressure applied to a surface is impeded. ω) · n S (x) ˆ (3. the ratio acoustic pressure/velocity is therefore called “impedance per area” or specific impedance. 3. because Z depends also on the acoustic field. this is not the case for the class of so-called locally reacting linear surfaces. the imaginary part is called the reactance. with a ˆ v limited relevance. and its inverse 1/Z is called the admittance. impedance. 1 In mechanics. a natural choice for this measure is the ratio between pressure and velocity1 .7 and section 4. and depend on the initial values of the signal is not very interesting. Furthermore. ω) = p(x. and therefore a property of the surface alone. Since frictional forces are. We cannot consider the impedance Z as a property of the surface S. the Green’s function of the problem without the usually complicating boundaries. Or in other words: a measure of the lumpiness of the surface. the only independent variables are the distance to the source |x − y| and time lag t − τ . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . important to note that very often we can simplify a problem already. that would vary with time. We reserve the nomenclature “specific impedance” to the (dimensionless) ratio of the impedance and the fluid impedance ρ0 c0 . impedance denotes originally the ratio between a force amplitude and a velocity amplitude. however.6. proportional to velocity. In some texts. In the most general situation the ratio Z = p/(ˆ · n S ) is just a number. i.2 Acoustic impedance A useful quantity in acoustics is impedance.e. A quantity. and evanescent waves It is. however. while a table is given in Appendix E. The impedance is a complex number and a function of ω and position. Therefore. The real part is called the resistance. for example by integral representations as above. ω) ˆ v (x. impedance is defined via the Fourier transformed signal as: Z(x. The response of such a surface to an acoustic wave is linear and pointwise. by and large. with the result that the impedance is indeed the same for any solution. the delta-function source may be rendered into a more easily treated form by spatial Fourier transformation.

So for plane waves and in the far field (where the waves become approximately plane) the fluid may be said to have the impedance ρ0 c0 . (u · n)S the equivalent of the electric current. For example. It may be worthwhile to note that for such models many authors find it convenient to divide Z by the surface S of the pipe cross section. ˆ Z (3. with k = ω/c0 and satisfying iωρ0v + ∇ p = 0. a free field plane wave e iωt−ikx . The pressure difference is in linear approximation due to the inertia of the air in the orifice and hence proportional to the acceleration (∂/∂t)(u· n) (section 4. ˆ ∇G · n S + ikρ0 c0 G p dσ. that the presence of the surface would generate the same sound field in region 1 as there exists without surface.3.4. and a tube to ˆ correspond to a transmission line. region 1 and region 2) a fictitious interface. a compact volume is the equivalent of a capacity.15b) ˆ p∇G + ikρ0 c0 v G ˆ · nS dσ (3. z-plane. with an impedance such.2 Acoustic impedance 49 Mathematically it is important to note that an impedance boundary condition is of “mixed type”. and a compact orifice is a self induction. In such a case the impedance is the ratio of the acoustic pressure p and the volume flux (u· n)S leaving the ˆ ˆ control volume. would not be reflected by a screen. In that case we could say that the effect of region 2 onto region 1 is described by this impedance. This inherent impedance of the fluid is used to make Z dimensionless leading to the specific impedance Z/ρ0 c0 . positioned parallel to the y. Further. Suppose we place between these regions (say.3). Many other examples are found in 1-dimensional (pipe-) models of acoustic systems where local 3-dimensional behaviour is “packed” in an effective impedance. if this screen has the impedance Z = ρ0 c0 . The one-dimensional approach then allows the use of all mathematical tools developed for electrical circuits if we assume p to be the equivalent ˆ of the electric voltage. Via the general Green’s function representation p= ˆ S the Helmholtz equation reduces to an integral equation in p if surface S has an ˆ impedance Z: p= ˆ S Sometimes it is instructive to describe the coupling between two adjacent regions of an acoustic field by means of an equivalent impedance.15a) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

50 3 Green’s functions. ˆ ˆ 2 (3.2.2. t) = p(x) e iωt = p+ e iωt−ikx + p− e iωt+ikx ˆ (3. we can write p(x.2 Impedance and reflection coefficient If we consider the acoustic field for x < 0 in a tube at low frequencies. p + is the amplitude of the wave incident at x = 0 from x < 0 and p− is the amplitude of the wave reflected at x = 0 by an impedance Z.17) 1 Re( p∗ v · n S ) dσ.18) where k = ω/c0 .16a) 3.19) If we define the reflection coefficient R0 at x = 0 as: R0 = p − / p + (3.1 Impedance and acoustic energy For a quiescent fluid the acoustic power flow across a surface S is for a timeharmonic field (2. ρ0 c0 (3. the real part of the impedance (the resistance) is related to the energy flow: if Re(Z) > 0 the surface is passive and absorbs energy. 1 Re(Z)|ˆ · n S |2 dσ.16b) ω 2π 2π/ω Re p e iωt Re (ˆ · n S ) e iωt dt dσ ˆ v 0 1 ( p v∗ + p∗ v) · n S dσ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ 4 (3. and evanescent waves 3. impedance.20) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . v 2 (3. Using the linearized momentum conservation law ρ0 (∂v/∂t) = −∂ p/∂ x we find: v(x) = ˆ 1 p+ e−ikx − p− e ikx . if Re(Z) < 0 it is active and produces energy.80) P = S = S = S If the surface has an impedance Z this becomes P = S Hence.

2. and approaching from y < 0 an impedance wall at y = 0. propagating in the direction (sin θ. 0) ˆ = = . Z cos θ + ρ0 c0 (3.2 Acoustic impedance we see that because Z = p(0)/v(0) : ˆ ˆ R0 = Z − ρ0 c0 . The total acoustic field is given for x < 0 by: p(x.21) In two dimensions we have a similar result. 3. y) = e−ikx sin θ p+ e−iky cos θ + p− e iky cos θ .26b) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . with impedance Z(ω).26a) (3. − cos θ). ˆ The y-component of the velocity is v(x. t) = ρ0 c0 (3. t) = f (t − x/c0 ) + g(t + x/c0 ). v(x. 0) ˆ cos θ p cos θ 1 − R0 Z cos θ − ρ0 c0 .3 Impedance and causality In order to obtain a causal solution of a problem defined by boundary conditions expressed in terms of an impedance Z.25) 3.23) (3.22) so we have for the impedance Z= ρ0 c0 p+ + p− ρ0 c0 1 + R0 p(x. Fig. + − p− v(x. p e ρ0 c0 (3.f. Here it reflects into a wave (amplitude p− ) propagating in the direction (sin θ. and reflecting into pr = g(t + x/c0 ) by an impedance wall at x = 0.6). cos θ) where θ is the angle with the y-axis (c. Z + ρ0 c0 51 (3. 1 f (t − x/c0 ) − g(t + x/c0 ) . y) = ˆ cos θ −ikx sin θ + −iky cos θ e − p− e iky cos θ . the impedance should have a particular form. The pressure field is given by p(x. Consider an arbitrary plane wave pi = f (t − x/c0 ) incident from x < 0.24) and for the reflection coefficient R0 = (3. Consider a plane wave (amplitude p+ ).3.

27) More information can be obtained. under conditions as given in theorem (C.32) Z(ω) = A(ω) B(ω) and apply the same arguments to the modified relation B(ω) p(0. and therefore via the Fourier transforms of the p and v. t) = = ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ p(0.28b) leading to the convolution product: p(0. (3. Z(ω) + ρ0 c0 (3. ω) = A(ω)v(0.52 3 Green’s functions. ω) e iωt dω ˆ (3. ˆ ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Z(ω) is analytic in Im(ω) < 0.290). we have for the Fourier transforms fˆ and g: ˆ g(ω) = ˆ Z(ω) − ρ0 c0 ˆ f (ω). however.29) if the Fourier transform z(t) of Z(ω) exists3 : z(t) = ∞ −∞ Z(ω) eiωt dω. τ ) dτ (3. impedance. t) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ z(t − τ )v(0. t) of the past (τ < t).1) (p. and evanescent waves The reflected wave g is determined via the impedance condition. t) should only depend on the values of v(0. ω) e iωt dω ˆ Z(ω)v(0. if we transform the boundary condition back to the time domain p(0.31) which requires.30) Since p(0. (3. we can try to find Fourier transformable A and B (3. As we have seen above (equation 3.28a) (3. 3 If Z is not Fourier transformable. the Fourier transform z(t) of the impedance Z(ω) has to satisfy the causality condition: z(t) = 0 for t < 0. ω).21).

3. g(t) is built up from f (t) and the history of f and g along [0.2 Acoustic impedance 53 Furthermore.4 Impedance and surface waves Part of sound that is scattered by an impedance wall may be confined to a thin layer near the wall. (3. consider an impedance wall of Helmholtz resonator type which is widely used in turbo fan aircraft engine inlets [158].26b) to eliminate p and v: f (t) + g(t) = 1 2πρ0 c0 ∞ −∞ z(t − τ ) f (τ ) − g(τ ) dτ.34) For any incident wave starting at some finite time (t = 0) we have f (t) = 0 for t < 0.36) Note that indeed Z ∗ (ω) = Z(−ω). Examples of these type of solutions are found as RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . From the causality condition it follows that the poles of cot(ωL) belong to the upper half of the complex ω-plane. t].2. t]: f (t) + g(t) = 1 2πρ0 c0 t 0 z(t − τ ) f (τ ) − g(τ ) dτ. As an example. (3.35) shows that g can be expressed as a finite sum.35) For any time t.3. and behave like a surface wave. z has to be real. Substitution of (3. Such a wall is described (see next chapter) by: Z(ω) = ρ0 c0 R + iωm − i cot ωL c0 .37) in (3. (3. so that we can Fourier transform back to the time domain to find: z(t) = Rδ(t) + mδ (t) + δ(t) + 2 δ t− 2πρ0 c0 n=1 ∞ 2nL c0 (3.3.37) where δ (t) denotes the derivative of δ(t).33) Equation (3. similar to the type of evanescent waves discussed in section 3. which implies that Z has to satisfy the reality condition: Z ∗ (ω) = Z(−ω). so that all in all the infinite integral reduces to an integration over the interval [0. (3.26a) and (3. since both p and v are real.29) yields an integral equation for g if we use equations (3.

3). The sign of γ depends of course on our definition of the square root. impedance. . y ≥ 0. or as sound that propagates with less than the usual 1/r 2 -decay along an acoustically coated surface. From the boundary condition it follows that the only solutions that can occur RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 0.1 1 −1 R = 0. it is therefore most convenient to select the branch and branch cuts of γ such that Im(γ ) ≤ 0 everywhere (see equation 3. and evanescent waves 5 4 3 2 1 R= X= −0.0 −1 −2 R= −3 X = 0. which means that ± Im(γ ) ≤ 0. y)e iωt .54 3 Green’s functions. In order to have one and the same expression for all α.e. 1 X= R= 0.0 5 . γ (α) = 1 − α2 where α is to be determined. and k = ω/c0 . i.1:∞ Fixed R & X = 0:−0. a harmonic pressure field p(x.2 irregular modes in lined ducts (section 7. satisfying ∇ 2 p + k 2 p = 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 3. 0) where Z denotes the specific impedance (scaled on ρ0 c0 ) of the wall y = 0. X = 0.2 0 R = 0. y)-space. Consider in (x. with ik p(x.2 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 X= −0. . ∝ e−(ikαx+ikγ y).2 X= −0 . y) = A e−(ikαx±ikγ y).1 Trajectories of α for varying Z = R + iX (no flow).0 0.5). Suitable solutions are p(x. 0) = Z ∂∂y p(x.1:−∞ −0 . Fixed X & R = 0:0. The solutions we are interested in remain restricted to the wall.0 1 R= 0.45 and figure 3.

γ ) such that α = 0 corresponds to S0. The mean flow v 0 is tangent to the steady surface (section A.2. by α = εg(β. of the steady surface S0.38) Trajectories of these wave numbers. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Consider the unsteady surface S(t).1. the linearized condition simply says that acoustic and wall’s normal velocity match. as function of Z. Both the actual normal vector and the mean flow velocity at the actual position differ from the mean values by an amount of acoustic order. where λ = 2π/k.5 Acoustic boundary condition in the presence of mean flow The boundary condition to describe a vibrating impermeable wall is that the fluid particles follow the wall motion. t) + O(ε2 ). (3. In linearized form it is applied at the wall’s mean or unperturbed position. are plotted in figure 3. This was recognized by several authors for various special cases. Associate to S0 an orthogonal curvilinear co-ordinate system (α.3). so v 0 ·∇α = 0 at α = 0. the free field wave length. Without mean flow. Note that un-attenuated waves occur for purely imaginary Z. The thickness of the layer occupied by the wave is of the order y = O(λ| Im(Z)|). With mean flow the situation is more subtle.2 Acoustic impedance have to satisfy γ (α) = −Z −1 . which has to be taken into account. The complex values of scaled wave number α. to leading order. which we will summarize here. 55 It follows that the only impedances that may bear a surface wave have to satisfy Im(Z) ≤ 0. β. we have drawn two fan-shaped families of curves: one for fixed Re(Z) and one for fixed Im(Z). corresponding to these solutions.3. Let S(t) be described. Myers gave in [125] the most general formulation. 3. To include all complex values of Z. which is a perturbation. are given by α = ± 1 − Z −2 . scaling on a small parameter ε. γ .

This appears to be [125] v ·n = ∂ g + v 0 ·∇ − n · (n ·∇v 0 ) ∂t |∇α| at α = 0. the velocity and therefore the position g of S(t) is known in terms of the pressure: g=− 1 |∇α| p iω Z α=0 .e. 161]. O(ε) when ε → 0. the normal vector nS of S0 is now selected to be directed into the wall. An application of this boundary condition (3. where εv is the acoustic velocity. in the lined inlet duct of a turbo fan aircraft jet engine. the pressure at the wall is the same as near the wall in the flow. modelling the boundary layer.14). 3. y ≥ 0. The steady surface S0 coincides with the impedance wall.2. impedance. (3. If Z ≡ 0. (3. This can be found. An important application of this result is an impedance wall (section 3.56 3 Green’s functions. In the mean flow. and a harmonic field ∼ e iωt satisfying (see equation 2.6 Surface waves along an impedance wall with mean flow Consider in (x. i.40) may be found in [159.39) where n is the normal of S0 . the boundary condition is just p = 0. directed away from S0 into the fluid.50) ik + M ∂ ∂x 2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 p=0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂ v +∇p = 0 ik + M ∂x p− RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Since a vortex sheet cannot support a pressure difference.2) with inviscid mean flow. the unsteady surface S(t) is the position of a (fictitious) vortex sheet. a uniform mean flow in x-direction with Mach number M.40) As is usual. If the wall has an impedance Z = 0 for harmonic perturbations ∼ e iωt (see 3. for example. y)-space. the impedance wall is now felt as v · n S = iω + v 0 ·∇ − n S · (n S ·∇v 0 ) p iω Z at S0. The linearization we seek is the acoustic order. and evanescent waves The condition of fluid particles following the surface S(t) becomes ∂ (α − εg) + (v 0 + εv ) ·∇(α − εg) = O(ε 2 ) ∂t at α = εg.

35). No solutions in I. . σ S L ∈ IV . Pressure p is made dimensionless on ρ0 c0 and velocity v on c0 .5 is taken. I Im(Z ) = 2M 1 − M 2 3 −2 2Mi 1 3 (1 − M 2 ) 2 (1 + M 2 ) 2 II III 0 √ 4 2 1+ 3+ 1 1 + 8M 2 2 3 1 + 8M 2 2 1 − M2 −3 2 IV V −i 1 2 √ 2M 3+ 3 1 + 8M 2 2 1 1 + 8M 2 2 3 1 − M2 2 1 + Figure 3. β= 1 − M 2. From the equations and boundary condition it follows that (1 − α M)2 + Z = 0. σ = M + β 2 α. α2 + 2 = (1 − α M)2 . with regions of different numbers of surface waves.3 p(x. σ H I ∈ II . .2 Complex impedance Z-plane.40) ik Zv = − ik + M ∂ p ∂x where Z denotes the constant specific wall impedance and v the vertical velocity. γ =β . In the figure M = 0.3. For further analysis it is convenient to introduce the Lorentz or Prandtl-Glauert type transformation (see 7. . . Solutions that decay for y → ∞ are of the type discussed in section 3.3. V. V. Thick lines map to the branch cuts in figure 3.2 Acoustic impedance 57 2 where k = ω/c0 . γ = 1 − σ2 (3. σ H S ∈ V. y) = A e−ikαx−ik y . σ S R ∈ III . At y = 0 we have an impedance boundary condition given by (see equation 3. . . V.41) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

and evanescent waves no solutions iM −1 σH I σS L − 1+8M 2 +1 2M Re γ <0 Re γ >0 branch cuts (Im γ = 0) no solutions Re γ >0 Re γ <0 1+8M 2 −1 2M M −1 no solutions σS R σH S −iM −1 no solutions Figure 3. As a result (see [157. such that σH S is decaying (stable) and σH I is increasing (unstable).42) By squaring we obtain a 4-th order polynomial equation with 4 complex roots. with regions of existence of surface waves. inside and outside of which we have 4 regions where solutions σ may occur. 162]) it appears that in the Z-plane there are 5 distinct regions with 0. Inside the egg we have acoustic surface waves (a right-running σS R and a leftrunning σS L ).3. with the branch and branch cuts of γ (σ ) selected such that Im(γ ) ≤ 0 (see equation 3. Thick lines map to the imaginary Z-axis in figure 3.58 3 Green’s functions. 3. we analyse in detail the behaviour of possible solutions σ along the branch cuts of γ . 162]) we have the equation for the reduced axial complex wave number σ as a function of Z (1 − Mσ )2 + β 3 γ (σ )Z = 0 (3.5 is taken. because it is there where possible solutions may appear from or disappear to the second Riemann sheet of γ .3 Complex reduced wave number σ -plane. 3.4. 2. M = 0. In the figure. while in the σ -plane we can identify an egg-shaped area. probably both right-running. and figure 3. impedance. and 4 solutions σ . Outside the egg we have hydrodynamic modes (they disappear to infinity with vanishing Mach number) σH S and σ H I . So in our problem we have at most 4 solutions. From a careful analysis (see [157. This unstable RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . See the figures 3. 1.2 (except for the part in region I where no solutions exist). To investigate the occurrence of these solutions.45 and figure 3. of radius M −1 .2.5).

4i 1+i Z =1 1 − 0. M2 σS R .43) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .6i 1 − 3i −3. 1 − 3.2:∞ Fixed R & X = −∞:0. In the limit for hard walls. Fixed X & R = 0:0.2 Acoustic impedance 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 . and can be proven for an impedance of mass-spring-damper type in the incompressible limit [157.6i −2i −3i i 1 − 2i 1 − 3i 1−i 1−i i − −3i −2i i Z =0 −0.2:∞ behaviour depends on the frequency-dependence of Z. 162]. σH S ±i β3 Z. . i.e. the hydrodynamic surface waves σH I and σ H S disappear to infinity while the acoustic surface waves σ S R and σS L approach ±1 in the following way σH I .5. σS L ±1 ∓ (1 ∓ M)4 . 2Z 2 β 6 (3. for |Z| → ∞ while Im Z < 0.4 Trajectories of σ for varying Z = R + iX and M = 0.4i 59 1 − 2i Figure 3.3.

see figure 3. and evanescent waves 3. generated by (say) the surface y = 0. which scales on the size of the object. y. Consider in the 2-D half space y ≥ 0 the harmonic sound field p(x.3 Evanescent waves and related behaviour 3.60 3 Green’s functions. If this is true for all α. This distinction between radiating acoustic and non-radiating near field has far reaching implications. This near field with |α| > k is essentially of hydrodynamic nature.25). and becomes just an incompressible flow field for |α| k. 0) = p0 (x) = ∞ −∞ A(α) e−iαx dα. including the largest α−1 . and is undetectable for y → ∞. The rest decays exponentially with y. We give some examples. (3. with |α| < k. This is seen as follows. is given at y = 0 as the Fourier integral p(x.3.45) We see that only that part of p0 (x) is radiated into y > 0 which corresponds to real positive γ . ω) e iωt satisfying the Helmholtz equation ∇ 2 p + k 2 p = 0. γ (0) = k. and shows that compact sources are acoustically inefficient.44) with the important square root (with branch cuts along the imaginary axis. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . it is equivalent to the condition of compactness (2. Im(γ ) ≤ 0. Outside this regime the generated disturbances are exponentially decaying (evanescent) in y without an associated sound field. impedance. where k = ω/c0 .1 An important complex square root The wave equation in 2-D has the very important property that a disturbance of (positive) frequency ω and wave number α in (say) x-direction is only radiating sound if frequency and wave number satisfy the inequality |α| < ω/c0 (a similar inequality holds in 3-D).e. it is easily verified that the field in y ≥ 0 may be written as p(x. If p.5) γ (α) = k 2 − α2. and the real interval |α| ≤ k. i. y) = ∞ −∞ A(α) e−iαx−iγ y dα (3.

γ (α) −iα sign(Re α) if |α| k. the inverse problem of determining p from 0 a measured far field is very difficult (ill-posed). Therefore.3. 3. Im(γ ) = 0 along the branch cuts. Fine details. with a spatial structure RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The definition of γ (α) adopted here is the branch of the multi-valued complex square root that corresponds to Im(γ ) ≤ 0 for all α. 0) = p0 (x) = ˜ k −k A(α) e−iαx dx produce the same far field. k].5 Branch cuts and signs of γ = k 2 − α 2 in complex α-plane.3. We do. detect the pressure when our ear is in the hydrodynamic near field.3 Evanescent waves and related behaviour 61 α∈ Im(γ ) = 0 ÀÀ À real axis −k • Re(γ ) < 0 branch cut γ (0) = k ¡ ¡ « ¡ Re(γ ) = 0 Re(γ ) > 0 Re(γ ) > 0 k • branch cut Re(γ ) = 0 Re(γ ) < 0 É É É Im(γ ) ≤ 0 everywhere imaginary axis Im(γ ) = 0 Figure 3. 0) = p0 (x) and any other with the same α-spectrum on [−k. 3.3 Ill-posed inverse problem Infinitely many boundary conditions are equivalent in the far field. The above boundary condition p(x. for example p(x.2 The Walkman The low frequencies of a small Walkman headphone are not radiated as sound.3. however.

If a plane wave is incident onto the interface.5 Snell’s law θ2 ØÖ Ò×Ñ ØØ Û Ú Ñ ÒØ Ö ÙÑ ¾ ci sin θi Ò ÒØ Û Ú Ñ ÙÑ ½ Ö ­ Ø Û Ú θ1 Figure 3. say. impedance. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . the smallest frequency that is radiated is given by ωmin = αmin c0 = c0 /L.and supersonic wave crests.6 Reflection and transmission at a discontinuity. bending waves are excited with time. measured along the interface. 3. Indeed. 3. and evanescent waves described by |α| > k. the smallest α occurring is by and large determined by the size of the plate (if we ignore fluid-plate coupling). Now. frequency (ω) and wave number (α) respectively. However. Also the transmission of sound waves across an interface between two media is most directly described via this notion of sub.3.3. for any α only the frequencies larger than αc0 are radiated. not all frequencies will be radiated as sound. 3. Therefore. say 1/L. the point of reflection in medium 1 generates a disturbance in medium 2 (Fig. As seen above. waves are in general more scattered by large than by small objects.and space-spectra depending on.6).62 3 Green’s functions. are essentially not radiating. With soundspeed c1 in medium 1 and angle4 of incidence ϑ1 the disturbance velocity.4 Typical plate pitch If a metal plate is hit by a hammer. (the 4 Traditionally. the angle used is between the propagation direction and the normal vector of the interface.

as the field has to satisfy the vanishing normal velocity condition. possible. apparently from the surface but of course really the vorticity is the source. a propeller blade.6 Silent vorticity The field of a moving point source may be entirely acoustical. from which we can determine the angle θ2 of the transmitted wave with the interface: sin ϑ2 sin ϑ1 = . silent. and physically indeed usual. described by the Kutta condition). usually not included in an acoustic model. This vorticity is generated in addition of the acoustic field and is itself also of acoustic order. Indeed. The amount of generated vorticity is not a priori known but depends on details of the vortex shedding process (e. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . or a flag pole in the wind. however. resulting into so-called total reflection (the transmitted wave is exponentially small). but only indicate the presence of the eigensolution for a distinct source far upstream. See for example [154]. with essentially no other than convection effects. Near a solid surface (typically the surface from which the vorticity is shed) the velocity corresponding to the free vorticity cannot exist. This yields immediately Snell’s law ([39. Examples are the whistling sound produced by a thin pipe or wire in the wind (aeolian sound). resulting into transmission of the wave. c1 c2 (3.3 Evanescent waves and related behaviour 63 phase speed) is c1 / sin ϑ1 .3. but.46) 3. that a fluctuating moving line force generates a surface or sheet of trailing vorticity. It is. In case of transmission the phase speeds of the incident and transmitted wave has to match (the trace-velocity matching principle. Typical examples are (the trailing edge of) a fluctuating wing. 142]). [142]). Although convected vorticity is silent (it exists without pressure fluctuations) its presence may still be acoustically important. Depending on ϑ1 and the ratio of sound speeds c1 /c2 this disturbance moves with respect to medium 2 either supersonically.g. A potential discontinuity corresponds to a vortex sheet. or subsonically.3. this vorticity solution comes into the problem as an eigensolution as soon as continuity of the potential along mean flow streamlines is released as condition. This induces a fluctuating pressure along the surface which radiates out as sound. apart from some coupling effects. We will not consider the generation process here in detail. and the trailing edge noise – as far as it is due to shed-vorticity – from a blunt-edged airfoil.

47c) This may be combined to a wave equation. Possible eigensolutions (solutions without source) for the free field problem (no solid objects) are given by p(x. y.3.48c) for suitable functions f (x. (3. However. and evanescent waves Consider in a 2D medium a uniform mean flow (U. but if we allow f to be discontinuous along. y) ∇ 2 f (x. then we may find with Fourier transformation ϕ(x.47a) (3. T ) with √ X = x/β. say.48a) (3.49) This discontinuity relates to a concentrated layer of vorticity (vortex sheet). a Kutta condition of finite pressure is required and the solution is to be modified to include the field of the shed vorticity (a discontinuous ϕ). and is a typical (hydrodynamic) phenomenon of acoustics with mean flow. y. for example if the edge is a trailing edge and the sound field induces the shedding of vorticity. y = 0 (any surface parallel to the mean flow is possible). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . y. t) = ψ(X. The shedding 5 Equations (3. impedance. y. y). care should be taken. ∂t ∂x ϕ→0 for |y| → ∞. and a pressure given by p = −ρ0 (ψT + U ψ X )/β. (3. of course under the additional conditions at y = 0 of a continuous pressure p and continuous vertical velocity ∂ϕ/∂ y. M = U/c0 . as would occur at a sharp edge. although the hydrodynamic field is more easily recognized in the present form5 . Bernoulli’s equation and the mass conservation equation become then ρ0 ∂ϕ ∂ϕ + ρ0 U + p = 0.64 3 Green’s functions. t) = ∞ −∞ F(α) sign(y) e−α|y|−iα(x−U t) dα. An integrable singularity in ∇ψ. y) = 0. corresponds without flow to a finite pressure.47a. ∂t ∂x ∂p ∂p 2 +U + ρ0 c0 ∇ 2 ϕ = 0.47b) may be combined to the convected wave equation 2 c0 ∇ 2 ϕ − (ϕtt + 2U ϕxt + U 2 ϕx x ) = 0 which reduces under the Prandtl-Glauert transformation (see 7.35) ϕ(x. (3.47b) (3. t) = 0 ϕ(x. In this way we may obtain from any no-flow solution ψ a solution to the problem with flow. 0) with velocity perturbations ∇ϕ and pressure perturbations p small enough for linearization. A non-trivial solution f decaying both for y → ∞ and y → −∞ is not possible if f is continuous. If this is physically unacceptable. With flow it corresponds to a singular pressure (from the ψX -term).48b) (3. T = βt + M x/c0 β. t) = f (x − U t. β = (1 − M 2 ) to the ordinary wave equation for ψ.

. t) = F0 sign(y) exp iωt − i ω ω x − |y| . directed in x-direction. z)-space the plane z = 0.50) This important parameter ω/U is called the “hydrodynamic wave number”. z-plane a distance d from each other. Show that constructive interference in the far field will only occur in directions with an angle θ such that kd cos θ = 2πm. y. modelled as an infinite line source. placed in the x. m = 0. Exercises a) Consider the sound produced by thunder. equal to (note that p ≡ 0) 1 ∂ϕ I · e x = Uρ0 2 ∂x ∞ −∞ 2 = ω2 ω |F0 |2 e−2 U |y| . 57]). 2.3 Evanescent waves and related behaviour 65 of vorticity (on the scale of the linear acoustics) would not occur without mean flow. It may be noted that this hydrodynamic field has an averaged intensity. the vortex sheet y = 0 ([96. 154.3. b) Consider in (x. For a harmonic force (for example.51) In the case of an acoustic field (for example the field that triggered the vortices associated to the hydrodynamic field) the intensity has a non-zero component in ydirection. 70. and in addition to the purely hydrodynamic power (3. 1. or appears from. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . c) Consider an infinite equidistant row of harmonically oscillating line sources iωt n δ(x − nd)δ(y) e .51) some acoustic energy disappears into. U U (3. Explain the typical long decay after the initial crack. Calculate the sound field at some distance away from the plane. . fired impulsively. . Together with a suitable length scale L it yields the dimensionless number ωL/U called “Strouhal number”. a Von Kármán vortex street modelled by an undulating vortex sheet) with frequency ω we have only one wave number α = ω/U in the problem: ϕ(x. where k = ω/c0 . covered uniformly with point sources which are all fired instantaneously at t = τ : δ(t − τ )δ(x − x 0 )δ(y − y0 )δ(z) (z 0 = 0). U (3. U2 The total power output in flow direction is then I · e x dy = ω |F0 |2 .

j) The same question for an ideal closed end defined by v = 0. impedance.33a) and (C. seen from x < 0. Gauss’ theorem v · n dσ.66 3 Green’s functions. Prove. Calculate ˆ reflection coefficient R and impedance Z for such an open end. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . e) What is the dimension of δ(x) if x denotes a physical coordinate with dimension “length”? f) Prove the identities (C. and evanescent waves d) The same question for a row of alternating line sources. the impedance of the plane x = −L. g) Consider a finite volume V with surface S and outward surface normal n. Calculate Z L .37) with m = 0. by using surface distributions. with impedance Z 0 of the plane x = 0 seen from the x < 0 side. On V is defined a smooth vector field v. ˆ k) Given a uniform duct between x = −∞ and x = 0.33b).35) for the reflected wave g in the case of formula (3. ∇ · v dx = S V h) Work out the expression (3. i) We define an ideal open end as a position at which p = 0 in a tube.

As we will see from the discussion in section 6. For simplicity we will also assume that any mean flow u 0 = u 0 (x) is also one dimensional. In order to make a plane wave approximation reasonable 1. for example. t). musical acoustics. . as approximations for spheric waves at large distance from a point source. ρ(x.5 × 10−5 m2 /s while for water a typical value is ν = 10−6 m2 /s. We therefore focus our attention in this chapter on the one-dimensional approximation of duct acoustics. Hence the frequency we should have thin viscous boundary layers: δA /d range in which a plane wave approximation is valid in a pipe is given by: 2ν π d2 f < c0 .1 One dimensional acoustics Plane waves Plane waves are waves in which the acoustic field only depends on the spatial coordinate (say: x) in the direction of propagation: p(x.4 4.. At high frequencies. the (propagating part of the) acoustic field in a pipe consists only of plane waves. t). The exact value of fc depends on the shape of the pipe cross section. etc. . The condition for the validity of a frictionless approximation yields a lower bound for the frequency we can consider. t). or as waves propagating at a frequency lower than a critical frequency fc called the cut-off frequency in a hard-walled pipe. We will assume that the side walls are rigid. 2d For air ν = 1. Such waves may emerge..1 the cut-off frequency f is of c the order of c0 /2d where d is the pipe width (or diameter). then below the cut-off frequency.4 and section 7.) This implies that such an approximation should be interesting when studying pulsations in pipe systems. If we can neglect friction. the effect of viscosity is confined to boundary layers of thickness δA = (2ν/ω)1/2 (where ν = η/ρ is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid) near the walls. speech production. We will consider simple models for the boundary conditions. Hence we see that a plane wave approximation will in air be valid over the three decades of the audio range for a pipe with a diameter d = O(10−2 m). v(x. (Check what happens for larger pipes. This implies that there .

In general the transmission of sound through elastic structures is described in detail by Cremer and Heckl [26]. air bubbles. taking possible three dimensional effects into account.68 4 One dimensional acoustics is no transmission of sound through these walls. turbulence.). The acoustic impedance is a general linear relation in the frequency domain between velocity and pressure. i. a convolution product in the time domain (section 3. This excludes fascinating effects such as whistling. In such cases the transmission of the sound from the internal flow to the environment is a crucial factor.2). This is a drastic assumption which excludes any application of our theory to the prediction of environmental noise induced by pipe flows. We will treat these regions separately. This will in fact exclude the accumulation of acoustic energy and phenomena like resonance. jumps in cross sections. These effects will be discussed in chapter 5.. The boundary conditions for this compact region are related to the plane wave regions by means of integral conservation laws (Appendix A).e. and Junger and Feit [81]. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . A consequence of this assumption is that the acoustic field will not have a large amplitude and that we can usually neglect the influence of the acoustic field on a source. as we will see in section 8. This effect is discussed in the next chapter. we will include this end by a linear boundary condition of impedance type. but we can assume that they are uniform within the bubble. If the end of the pipe is part of the problem. Since pressure cannot depend on 1 For example. In the present chapter we will assume an infinitely long or semi-infinite pipe. The most interesting applications of our apsections (dA/dx proximation will concern sound generated in compact regions as a result of sudden changes in cross section or localized fluid injection.. We further ignore this crucial problem. to pipes with slowly varying cross √ A λ). This is a pipe which is so long that as a result of friction the waves travelling towards the pipe end do not induce significant reflections. The flow is calculated locally with our previously discussed compact region approximation ignoring any acoustical feedback. As we consider low frequencies ( f < c0 /2d) a region with a length of the order of the pipe width d will be by definition compact. the air density fluctuations in an oscillating acoustically compact air bubble in water cannot be neglected.4. The (inner-) solution in the compact region 1 is approximated by that of an incompressible flow or a region of uniform pressure . multiple junctions. A large amplitude in the pipe may be harmless if the acoustic energy stays inside the pipe! Extensive treatment of this transmission problem is given by Norton [133] and Reethof [152]. In principle the approximation we will use is limited to pipes with uniform cross sections A or. In this way we will consider a large variety of phenomena (temperature discontinuities.

2c) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2 Basic equations and method of characteristics 4. If we neglect friction the conservation laws of mass and momentum are for a one dimensional flow given by: ∂ρ ∂u ∂(ρβ) ∂ρ +u +ρ = ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂t ∂u ∂p ∂u +u + = fx ρ ∂t ∂x ∂x (4.1 The wave equation We consider a one-dimensional flow in a pipe with uniform cross section. We assume now that the field consists of a uniform state (ρ0 . p . 4.1b) where ρβ corresponds to an external mass injection in the flow and fx is an external force per unit volume. plus a perturbation (ρ .4. Convective effects on the wave propagation will be discussed in chapter 9. These problems will be reconsidered later for free field conditions in chapter 6. u = u0 + u .2a) (4. We will show how the Green’s function formalism can be used to obtain information on aero-acoustic sound generation by turbulence and to estimate the scattering of sound by a temperature non-uniformity. (4. It will then be interesting to see how strong the effect of the confinement is by a comparison of the results obtained in this chapter and chapter 5 with those obtained in chapter 6. p0 . We restrict ourselves now to very low mean flow Mach numbers outside the source regions. p = p0 + p .2.2). u ) small enough to allow linearization: ρ = ρ0 + ρ.2b) (4.1a) (4.2 Basic equations and method of characteristics 69 the future of the velocity (or vice versa) the discussion of such a linear boundary condition involves the concept of causality (section 3. u 0 ).

2a–4.1b).3b) from the convected time derivative (∂t + u 0 ∂x ) of mass conservation law (4. A one-dimensional wave equation is obtained by subtracting the divergence of the momentum conservation law (4. t) diagram.4) which implies that we assume a homentropic flow.3a) (to eliminate u ): ∂ ∂ + u0 ∂t ∂x 2 2 p − c0 ∂ fx ∂2 p ∂ 2β 2 . Neglecting second and higher order terms we obtain the linearized equations: ∂ρ ∂u ∂β ∂ρ + u0 + ρ0 = ρ0 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂t ∂p ∂u ∂u + ρ0 u 0 + = fx ρ0 ∂t ∂x ∂x We can eliminate ρ by using the constitutive equation: 2 p = c0 ρ (4.70 4 One dimensional acoustics ∂β/∂t and f x . This allows a simple geometrical interpretation of the solution of initial condition and boundary condition problems with the help of a so-called (x.2c) in (4. must therefore by definition be small. However. 93. being the cause of the perturbation. Also the characteristics play a crucial rôle in numerical solutions as they determine optimal discretization schemes. In acoustics this procedure is just equivalent with other procedures.3a) (4. Using the constitutive equation ∂p ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂p +u = c2 +u ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x we can write the mass conservation law (4. We substitute (4. when considering high amplitude wave propagation (non-linear acoustics or gas dynamics) the method of characteristic will still allow an analytical solution to many interesting problems [185. and in particular their conditions of stability.1a) and (4.2. 137].2 Characteristics As an alternative we now show the wave equation in characteristic form.5) 4. = c0 ρ0 2 − 2 ∂x ∂t ∂x (4.3b) (4.1a) as: ∂p ∂u c ∂(ρβ) 1 ∂p +u +c = ρc ∂t ∂x ∂x ρ ∂t RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

ρc γ −1 In linear approximation in the absence of sources we have ± =u ± p dx = u 0 ± c0 . along the lines defined by c± : ρ0 c0 dt 4.8b) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2 Basic equations and method of characteristics 71 by addition. of the momentum conservation law (4. we find the non-linear wave equation in characteristic form: ∂ ∂ + (u ± c) ∂t ∂x u± dp fx c ∂(ρβ) = ± .1b) divided by ρ.8a) (4. ρc ρ ρ ∂t ± In the absence of source terms this simply states that along the characteristics c the Riemann invariant ± is conserved: + =u + =u − − dp dx = constant along c+ = (x.2.4.6b) In the presence of source terms we have: ± − ± 0 = c± 2 ρ0 c0 ∂β ± c0 f x dt ∂t (4. u = ρ0 c0 (4. For an ideal gas with constant specific heat we find by using the fact that the flow is isentropic: 2c dp = .7) where the integration is along the respective characteristic. 1 F (x − (c0 + u 0 )t) − G(x + (c0 − u 0 )t) . t) =u−c ρc dt (4.3 Linear behaviour In the absence of source terms (the homogeneous problem) we can write the linear perturbation p as the sum of two waves F and G travelling in opposite directions (along the c+ and c− characteristics): p = F (x − (c0 + u 0 )t) + G(x + (c0 − u 0 )t). respectively subtraction.6a) (4. t) =u+c ρc dt dp dx = constant along c− = (x.

This solution can be readily verified by substitution into the homogeneous wave equation.1 Solution by means of characteristics. t) diagram (figure 4.1) that there are two regions for x > 0: region I below the line x = c0 t and region II above the line x = c0 t. The characteristic c1 : x = c0 t corresponds to the path of the first disturbance generated at t = 0 by the starting piston. Let us first consider a semi-infinite pipe closed by a rigid piston moving with a 1 we can use an acoustic velocity u p (t) starting at t = 0 and x = 0. Region I is a region in which perturbations induced by the movement of the piston + cannot be present.9) u p dt where we have: (4. − This c1 characteristic will meet the piston path xp (t) = t 0 (4. As an example we consider two simple problems for the particular case of a quiescent fluid u0 = 0. t) te − c1 I ¹ x x p (te ) Figure 4. If u p /c0 approximation to solve the problem. The functions F and G are determined by the initial and boundary conditions.72 4 One dimensional acoustics t x p (t) II + c2 + c1 − c2 (x.10a) u = up RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Hence the fluid in region − I is undisturbed and we can write by considering a c− characteristic (c1 ) leaving this region: p − ρ0 c0 u = 0. Using the method of characteristics we first observe in a (x.

10b) + Now starting from a point x p (t) on the piston. u 0 ) of the uniform quiescent fluid state valid for x > 0 ( p0 . u 0 = 0) (figure 4. We now consider an initial value problem in a semi-infinite pipe.11) we see that along c2 we have: u = u p (te ) p = ρ0 c0 u p (te ).8b). Suppose that the pipe is closed at x = 0 by a fixed rigid wall (u (x = 0) = 0) and that in the region 0 < x < L the fluid is undisturbed while for x > L there is originally a uniform disturbance ( p0 . c0 (4.13a.8a. Hence from (4.13b) We could have obtained this solution directly simply by using (4.9) + is valid.11) (4. At any point (x.13b).14b) Using the boundary condition u = u p at the piston x = x p we find the retarded (or emission) time equation (4.4. we can draw a c+ characteristic (c2 ) along which we have: p + ρ0 c0 u = ( p + ρ0 c0 u ) p = 2ρ0 c0 u p (te ) where te is the retarded or emission time. t) along c+ we 2 − can find a c2 characteristic originating from the undisturbed region for which (4.14a) (4.12) + This is the time at which the disturbance travelling along c2 and reaching an observer at (x.4. Because the tube is semi-infinite and the piston is the only source of sound. t) has been generated by the piston. we have only waves travelling in the positive x direction so that (with u0 = 0): p = F (x − c0 t) u = F (x − c0 t)/ρ0 c0 . (4. (4. We can easily delimit the uniform regions I and II in which the RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4. Combining (4.10a) we have the pressure at the piston for any time: p = ρ0 c0 u p . the general solution of the homogeneous equation.2).9) and because we assume the fluid to stick to the piston (up (4.2 Basic equations and method of characteristics 73 c0 ).13a) (4. implicitly given by te = t − x − x p (te ) .12) and so the solution (4.9) and (4. (4.

16) + In region III we obtain the solution by considering the intersection of the waves c 1 − and c1 emanating from regions I and II respectively: + c1 : p + ρ0 c0 u = 0 (4.2 (x. + − initial state will prevail by drawing the c1 and c1 characteristics emanating from the point (x.19a) (4. 0).15) At the closed pipe end u = 0 so that for t > L/c0 : pIV (x = 0) = p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 (4. t) diagram for the initial value problem.19b) : p − ρ0 c0 u = p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The state in region IV at the closed pipe end is the next easiest one to determine.18a) (4. (4. t) = (L .74 4 One dimensional acoustics t A L c0 + c3 − c2 C IV − c3 + c2 − c1 III + c1 B II L + c1 p =0 u =0 I p = p0 u = u0 x ¹ Figure 4.18b) Finally for any point in the region IV above the line x = c0 (t − L/c0 ) we have: − c3 + c3 : p + ρ0 c0 u = p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 (4.17a) (4.17b) − c1 : p − ρ0 c0 u = p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 . (4. − We draw the characteristic c2 emanating from region II along which we have: − c2 : p − ρ0 c0 u = p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 . Hence: pIII = 1 ( p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 ) 2 u III = − 1 ( p0 2 − ρ0 c0 u 0 )/ρ0 c0 .

u = ρ0 c0 (4. will be discussed in section 4. .20b) as we already found at the closed pipe end (x = 0). we will use Fourier analysis when we consider boundary condition problems. b) Draw the characteristics delimiting the undisturbed regions in which the initial conditions prevail. Of course we could have solved this problem without an (x.) This yields a further subdivision of the (x. From the previous two examples simple rules are obtained to use an (x.4.21b) where p± are amplitudes which are functions of ω. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .21a) (4. e) Determine the state in regions where two characteristics of opposite families c+ and c− emanating from regions where the solution is known meet.4. ρ0 . t) plane in uniform regions.20a) (4. c) Consider reflection of these boundary characteristics at boundary conditions. and k is the wave number (k = ω/c0 ).4.2 Basic equations and method of characteristics so that we have: u IV = 0 pIV = p0 − ρ0 c0 u 0 75 (4. but this requires quite an intellectual effort. t) diagram. c0 .. (Contact surface delimiting regions of different uniform state p0 . d) Determine the state at the boundaries at the moment the first message from the initial conditions arrives.. t) diagram in combination with the method of characteristics: a) Indicate on the x and t axis the initial and boundary conditions.8a. For a steady harmonic perturbation equation (4. While for initial value problems the method of characteristics is most efficient.8b) becomes: p = p+ e iωt−ikx + p− e iωt+ikx 1 ( p+ e iωt−ikx − p− e iωt+ikx ).

Let us for example consider a wave propagating along c+ -characteristics which meets c− -waves emanating from a uniform region.2.24b) Hence. t)-plane.4 Non-linear simple waves and shock waves A general solution of the non-linear one dimensional homentropic flow equations can only be obtained by numerical methods. ρc + + − 0 ). along the c+ . the velocity u is constant along the c+ considered. − 0 ).22) ρc If we now consider a c+ -characteristic in the simple wave. assuming a uniform quiescent fluid (u 0 = 0) with a speed of sound c = c0 for t < 0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The message carried by the c− -characteristics is: dp − − = 0 for all c− . t)-diagram. we have in addition that + is equal to another constant. t) at x = 0.23) Addition and subtraction of (4.23) yields.22) and (4. As an example of an application we consider the simple wave generated for x > 0 by a given boundary condition p(0. t) at x = 0 is calculated by using the equation of state ρ γ p = p0 ρ0 2 For a homogeneous fluid the thermodynamic state is fully determined by two thermodynamic variables. specific to that particular c+ : + =u+ dp . =u− (4.76 4 One dimensional acoustics 4. In particular the speed of sound c = (∂ p/∂ρ)s is constant along a c+ in the simple wave. In the particular case of a wave propagating into a uniform region the solution is considerably simplified by the fact that the characteristics emanating from the uniform region all carry a uniform message. the slope (u + c) of the c+ characteristic is constant. Therefore. We will show that as a consequence of this the other characteristics in this wave are straight lines in the (x. (4. and the characteristic is a straight line in an (x.24a) (4. Such a wave is called a simple wave. we conclude that all thermodynamic variables are √ + constant along the c . The sound speed c(0. the result u = 1( 2 dp = 1( 2 ρc + − (4. As in addition to the thermodynamic quantity (d p/ρc) also the entropy s is constant along the c+ (be2 cause the flow is homentropic).

so that a continuum theory fails.25a) (4.25b) For weak compressions we find the approximation for an ideal gas with constant γ: xs c0 ts = 2γ p0 c0 γ +1 ∂p ∂t −1 x=0 . The approximation on which the equations are based will already fail before this occurs because the wave steepening involves large gradients so that heat conduction and friction cannot be ignored anymore. For large pressure differences across the wave the final gradients are so large that the wave thickness is only a few times the molecular mean free path.4. This results into a gradual steepening of the compression wave. The message from the c− -characteristics implies u= c 2c0 2c0 −1 = γ − 1 c0 γ −1 p p0 γ −1 2γ −1 . t) and u(0. (4. t). x=0 ∂t (4. We can now easily construct the simple wave by drawing at each time t the c+ characteristic emanating from x = 0. This limits the process of wave deformation. The wave structure is in the continuum approximation a discontinuity with jump conditions determined by integral conservation RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . t=0 ∂x ∂(u + c) . As a result. This nonlinear deformation of the wave will in the end result into a breakdown of the theory because neighbouring c+ -characteristics in a compression intersect for travelling times larger than ts or distances larger than xs given by ts = − xs = −ts2 −1 ∂(u + c) . characteristics at the peak of a compression wave have a higher speed (u + c) than those just in front of it. and of course the opposite for a decompression or expansion.2 Basic equations and method of characteristics which implies c = c0 p p0 γ −1 2γ 77 . We see from these equations that a compres∂ sion ∂t p(0.26) For t > ts or x > xs the solution found by integration of the differential equations becomes multiple valued and loses its physical meaning. t) > 0 implies an increase of both c(0.

mezzoforte (mf). Re0.004 in first approximation.78 4 One dimensional acoustics laws. even at apparently modest amplitudes of p/ p0 = O(10−2 ) ˆ horn exit pressure ph shock waves can appear in a ff closed tube driven by a piston 1 at its resonance frequency. Under t (s) such conditions non-linear ef. p The non-linear wave distortion 1 due to the wave propagation 0. for example. When the pipe segment is open at one 0. at least 0 0. the open pipe termination (Disselhorst & Van Wijngaarden [37]) or even turbulence in the acoustical boundary layer ([111]. as there is production of entropy in the shock wave. in the following half period. [3]. the wave is inverted each 0 time it reflects at the open end. We call this a shock wave. occur in a trombone where the pressure at the exit of the horn shows very sharp peaks. t). the wave steepening may lead to a shock wave formation before the open end has been reached. the solution is also dissipative. t) = p cos(ωt).5 end. Therefore.002 0. as shown in figure (4. and fortissimo (ff). a wave travels easily hundreds of wave lengths before it is attenuated significantly by friction. ˆ If the wave is initiated by a harmonic perturbation p (0. closed on both sides by a rigid wall. This may.Figure 4. c0 (γ + 1) p ˆ In a pipe segment. [42]) can appear before non-linear wave distortion becomes dominant. when the pipe is driven by a strongly non-harmonic pressure signal p (0. The RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 ph (kPa) ph (kPa) ph (kPa) .001 0.3). ([136]). the shock ∂ formation distance corresponding to the largest value of ∂t p is given by 2γ p0 xs ω = .5 cent papers discussing such ef0 fects are the review of Crighton ([32]) and the work of Ockmf 1 endon e. [194].3 The pressure signal measured at the exit of the fects due to flow separation at horn for three playing levels: piano (p).5 during half an oscillation pe0 riod is compensated. Apart from discontinuous.a.003 0. However.

When the source region is compact we will be able to find such simple relationships between a simplified local flow model and the corresponding 1-D sources by applying integral conservation laws over the source region and neglecting variations in emission time over the source region. In open-air loudspeaker horns wave propagate in non-linear way. originally harmonic with frequency ω0 . is given by [142]: ˆ x p1 ˆ = p ˆ 2xs (4. When the non-linear deformation is small.27) 4. we RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . In a compact region of length L and fixed volume V enclosed by a surface S. the source term ∂2 (ρβ)/∂t 2 in (4.1a) does not correspond to the creation of mass (because we consider non-relativistic conditions). Hence if we introduce a source term ∂2 (ρβ)/∂t 2 this term will be a representation of a complex process which we include in the 1-D inviscid flow model as a source term. This is only attractive if a simplified model or an order of magnitude estimate can be used. the generation of the first harmonic p ˆ1 at 2ω0 by a signal p. In the case of fx we may also find useful to summarize the effect of a complex flow such as the flow around a ventilation fan by assuming a localized momentum source in a one dimensional model.1b) which can be realized by non-uniform gravitational or electromagnetic forces. This is called an actuator disk model. For example the effect of fluid injection through a porous side wall in the pipe can be considered by assuming a source term in a uniformly filled pipe with rigid impermeable walls. The general treatment of the aero-acoustic sources has already been given in section 2.3 Source terms 79 increase of the wave distortion with the amplitude explains in such a musical instrument the increase of brightness (the higher harmonics) of the sound with increasing sound level (Hirschberg [62]).6. Of course. this kind of representation of a complex process by a simple source is only possible if we can find a model to calculate this source. In mufflers of combustion engines shock waves are also common.4.3 Source terms While f x is a source term in (4. We focus here on some additional features which we will use in our applications of the theory.

However. pipe cross section: L 0 ∂ρ dx + (ρu)2 − (ρu)1 = ∂t L 0 ∂(ρβ) dx. the source term ∂2 (ρβ)/∂t 2 in the one dimensional representation of the mass conservation law is supposed to include the effect of the volume integral (d/dt) ρ dx. Within the volume V we describe the flow here in full three dimensional detail.29) If we assume L to be small compared to the acoustic wave length (compact) and the source term ∂ 2 (ρβ)/∂t 2 to be uniform we can write in linearized form : ∂β = ∂t u δ(x − y) (4.28a) has no source term.28b) ρv · n dσ = 0 (4.30) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . A): d dt V d dt V ρv dx + S ρ dx + S ( P + ρvv) · n dσ = V f dx (4. In order to understand this we compare the actual source region with a 1-dimensional representation of this source region (figure 4.4).4 One dimensional representation of source region. so (4.80 4 One dimensional acoustics will use the conservation laws for mass and momentum in integral form (App.1a) over the source region yields for a uniform S V A n n¹ 1 ϕex ¹ 2 L Figure 4. Integration of (4. ∂t (4.28a) where P is the stress tensor (Pi j ).

we obtain in linear approximation (neglecting ρ u 2 2 and 0 ρ0 u 1 2 ): fx = p δ(x − y). If the volume Vp of the fluid particle is much smaller than the nozzle volume V and if the properties of the fluid particle do not differ much from that of the rest of RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . We will first consider the problem by using the linearized form of the integral conservation laws for small 1 and (c − c0 )/c0 1). If we assume the flow to be uniform at the planes 1 and 2 of cross-section A. 2 dt Aρ0 Aρ0 c0 ρ dx + ϕex . As an example of a sound source we consider now the effect of the convection of a small fluid particle with a density ρ and speed of sound c (different from ρ and 0 c0 ) passing through a sudden change in pipe cross section in which we assume a steady isentropic and subsonic flow u0 (x) (figure 4.3 Source terms 81 for a small source region around x = y. we obtain: A[(ρu)2 − (ρu)1 ] = − d dt V where ϕex is the externally injected mass flux into V through the side walls. differences in density and speed of sound ((ρ − ρ0 )/ρ0 A more formal discussion of this effect is given by Morfey in [115].33) This source term for the 1-dimensional wave equation can be used as a representation of a complex flow such as that around a ventilation fan. We can write for a homentropic flow u =− ϕex V dp + . (4. where it enters and leaves the volume V . density and pressure gradients are negligible and we can replace the volume integral by the averaged value.30) is found by application of (4. (4. if we can neglect the volume contribution (d/dt) ρv dx to the integral conservation law.31) In a similar way.28a) to the actual situation. For identical fluids at both sides and in linearized approximation for a compact source region we have: Aρ0 u = − d dt V Since typical wavelengths are much larger than the compact source region.5). The value of u = (u 2 − u 1 ) to be used in (4.4.32) ρ dx + ϕex (4.

As the particle is small the pressure over the particle will be uniform and in first approximation equal to the main flow pressure p0 (x). additional to that of the mean flow. we can assume that the particle is convected with the undisturbed steady flow velocity u0 (x).34) The variation in pressure p0 (x) will induce a volume variation of the particle. p0 (x) is given by Bernoulli’s equation: p0 (x) + 1 ρ0 u 2 (x) = constant.5 Particle convected with the main flow u0 (x) through a nozzle.36) 1 ∂ρ ρ ∂p S = 1 ρc2 (4. 0 2 (4. Furthermore the particle will exert an additional force on the fluid due to the density difference (ρ − ρ0 ) which implies a force source term: fx = =− p δ(x − y) = − ρ − ρ0 Du p Vp δ(x − y) A Dt (4.37) d p0 (x p (t)) dt (4.35) because we assume that the particle is convected with the mean flow velocity u0 .39) du 0 ρ − ρ0 Vpu0 δ(x − y). which is related to the variation in the fluid compressibility K= by: A u = −(K − K0 )V p which implies a source term: K − K0 d ∂β =− V p p0 (x p (t))δ(x − y) ∂t A dt where: . (4. u p =x p = u 0 (x p ).82 4 One dimensional acoustics A 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 1234567890123 u 0 (x) Figure 4.38) (4. the fluid. A dx RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4. allowing also higher order corrections. With some section area A on sound waves of low frequency (i. In a similar way we can describe the effect of a slow variation of the tube cross √ d A λ).5).4.40) Hence for a small particle in this linear approximation the volume source term (4. The mass conservation law. Note that for an ideal gas the compressibility K is given by: K= 1 .6).41) This can be interpreted as the linearized continuity equation (4. It should be noted that a mathematically more sound derivation.3a) with a volume source term u ∂A ∂β = ∂t A ∂x (4.e. To leading order the momentum conservation law is not affected by the cross section variation.42) 4. however. becomes: ρ0 ∂ Au ∂ρ + =0 ∂t A ∂x (4. 1 and 2. γp (4. in a pipe with uniform cross section (figure 4. is obtained by using the method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. dx A care we can derive a suitable one-dimensional approximation. This term vanishes if we consider the convection of a hot gas particle (not chemically different from the environment) which we call an entropy spot.37) is due to a difference in γ .4 Reflection at discontinuities 4. to describe the wave propagation (see section 8. Howe [66] refers to this as acoustical “Bremsstrahlung”. In that case sound production will be due to the difference of inertia between the entropy spot and the surrounding fluid. We first consider an abrupt change at x = y in speed of sound c and density ρ between two media. called Webster’s horn equation. This will be worked out in more detail in chapter 8.4 Reflection at discontinuities 83 This force is due to the difference in inertia between the particle and its environment.1 Jump in characteristic impedance ρc The procedure described in the previous section to incorporate sources in a compact region into a one dimensional model can also be applied to determine jump conditions over discontinuities in a pipe.

ρ1 c1 ρ2 c2 (4.45b) + c1 (x c2 The factor R between G1 and F1 is called the reflection coefficient and the factor T between F2 and F1 the transmission coefficient. respectively u = u 2 − u 1 = 0. Considering a thin control volume (between the dotted lines 1 and 2).44a.44a) (4. ρ2 c2 + ρ1 c1 ρ2 c2 + ρ1 c1 c1 )y c2 (4.8b) of the homogeneous wave equation. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . (4. we obtain G1 (x + c1 t) = RF1 2y − (x + c1 t) .44b) If. we have a source at x < y generating an incident wave F1 . (4.45a) − c2 t) . respectively: F1 (y − c1 t) + G1 (y + c1 t) = F2 (y − c2 t) + G2 (y + c2 t). Inspection of (4. This corresponds to results obtained already in section 3. p = p2 − p1 = 0.4.43a) (4.84 4 One dimensional acoustics ρ1 c1 1 2 ρ2 c2 x x=y Figure 4.44b) for ρ1 c1 = ρ2 c2 also shows that the only solution is F1 = F2 and G1 = G2 . we find from the laws of mass and momentum conservation. for example. in a tube of infinite length so that G2 = 0. we have at x = y for the jump conditions in the pressure and velocity. F2 (y − c2 t) − G2 (y + c2 t) F1 (y − c1 t) − G1 (y + c1 t) = .8a.2 when considering harmonic waves.6 Jump in acoustic impedance. enclosing the contact surface between the two media and moving with the fluid.4. F2 (x − c2 t) = T F1 (1 − where R = 2ρ2 c2 ρ2 c2 − ρ1 c1 . T = .43b) By using the general solution (4. We observe that if ρ1 c1 = ρ2 c2 the acoustic wave is not reflected at the contact discontinuity.

4 Reflection at discontinuities 85 2 1 A1 A2 L Figure 4.46) where ϕ = ϕ2 − ϕ1 is the potential difference. The pressure difference p is of the order 1 u dx 1.47) For a compact smooth change in cross section as in figure (4.4.48) 4. 2 (4. (4. This condition p = 0 can be combined with the linearized mass conservation law in the low frequency approximation ρ0 A1 u 1 = ρ0 A2 u 2 to calculate the reflection at a pipe discontinuity. this is a stronger result than just a continuity condition (see section 4.7) we have continuity of flux A1 u 1 = A(x)u (x). 1 If the flow is homentropic and there is no flow separation (vorticity is zero) the pressure difference p = p2 − p1 across the discontinuity can be calculated by using the incompressible unsteady Bernoulli equation (1. In linear approximation: p ∂ −ρ0 ∂t ϕ.31b): ∂ p = 1 ρ0 (u 1 2 − u 2 2 ) − ρ0 ∂t ϕ. which is negligible when Lω/c0 over the entire region.4). We then have a pressure uniform of ρ0 ωu 1 L.7 Abrupt cross sectional area change.4.3 Orifice and high amplitude behaviour Instead of a monotonic variation of the pipe area A we consider an orifice placed in the pipe with an opening area Ad and a thickness L (figure 4. while the potential difference can be estimated as ϕ = 2 2 u 1 1 ( A1 / A(x))dx ∼ u 1 L. Note that while this is a very crude approximation.4. We start with RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4. 4. (4.8).2 Monotonic change in pipe cross section We now consider a compact transition in pipe cross sectional area from A to A2 .

77. If we consider a narrow orifice the local velocity ud in the orifice may become quite large.49) where u is the acoustic velocity in the pipe. When the acoustic particle displacement ud /ω becomes comparable to the radius of curvature of the edges at the entrance and the exit of the orifice non-linear effects and friction will result into acoustically induced vortex shedding [76. the problem of acoustic wave propagation through a stagnant fluid (u0 = 0). However. This explains why a thin orifice (L → 0) also affects the propagation of acoustic waves in a pipe. L Ad ∂t (4.47) and (4.86 4 One dimensional acoustics 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 A Ad L Figure 4. This effect can be taken into account by introducing an “end correction” δ on both sides: L eff = L + 2δ (4. In principle. if Ad of such an orifice which is due to the inertia of the air in the opening. Assuming a uniform velocity and an incompressible flow without friction we have from (4. if we use the approximations (4. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . we see that the orifice will be completely “transparent” to the A we find experimentally a significant effect acoustic waves. We could also simply have obtained this result by considering the pressure difference p necessary to accelerate the mass of fluid (ρ0 Ad L) in the orifice and noticing that the particle velocity in the orifice is given by: ud = A u.48) and if we neglect the potential jump ϕ.49) yields a lower bound for the pressure drop across the orifice because we neglected the inertia of the air in the region outside the orifice. For a circular orifice of radius a in a thin plate we have Leff = π a/2 (see [142]).51) where δ appears to be of the order of ( Ad /π )1/2 .8 Orifice. Ad (4.47): p −ρ0 A ∂u .50) In practice (4. Typically (8/3π )(Ad /π )1/2 for a circular orifice and a larger value for a slit [75].

if Ad / A kinetic energy in the flow 1 ρu d 2 is lost upon deceleration of the jet by turbulent 2 mixing with the air in the pipe. These losses are due to the fact that the kinetic energy in the jet is dissipated by turbulence. For a thin orifice with sharp π edges the jet cross section is a factor π+2 narrower than the orifice. by assuming that there is no pressure difference across the boundaries of the jet. however.52) A typical feature of this effect is that the pressure p has now a component 1 ρu d 2 2 which is in phase with the acoustic velocity. Furthermore. neglecting the higher order terms in u: p = −ρ0 A ∂u A − ρ0 L Ad ∂t Ad 2 u0u .4 Reflection at discontinuities 87 37.53) For acoustic velocity fluctuations u we have. (4. The jet contraction by a factor 2 corresponds to the so called vena contracta at an unflanged pipe entrance. (4. We assume a stationary frictionless and incompressible flow. the the wave propagation (u0 /c0 mean flow velocity in the orifice is significant. When the edges are rounded off the contraction effect disappears rapidly. and therefore will involve (acoustic) energy losses that were absent in the situations discussed until now. The shear layers enclosing the jet are not capable 1 we assume that the of sustaining a pressure difference. 34]. This effect can be as much as a factor 2.4. This implies that in addition to the linear terms in Bernoulli we should add the non-linear effects: p = −ρ0 A A ∂u − 1ρ L u 2 Ad ∂t Ad 2 . Assuming further no pressure difference between the jet and its environment we can write for the total pressure difference p0 : p0 = − 1 ρ 2 2 A u0 .54) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . It is interesting to consider now how a mean flow affects the acoustic properties of an orifice. Ad (4. As the orifice has a small aperture (Ad / A). The assumption of a frictionless flow fails. We assume that the mean flow velocity u0 in the pipe is so small compared to the speed of sound c0 that we can neglect all convective effects on 1). When the fluid particle displacement becomes comparable to the diameter of the orifice ( Ad /π )1/2 u d /ω = O(1) the vortex shedding can be described in terms of the formation of a free jet. The model proposed here appears quite reasonable but in many cases the surface area of the jet is smaller than Ad which implies additional losses[34]. to describe the flow at the exit of the orifice where as a result of friction the flow separates from the wall and a free jet of surface area Ad is formed.

13). The consequence of this effect is that an orifice placed in a tube with a mean flow is a very efficient damping mechanism. suppressing low frequency-pulsations (being mechanically dangerous) with an orifice may be paid by the generation of high frequency noise which is an environmental problem. corresponding to a RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 61] (figure 4. This is not the case with the effect of friction and heat transfer which are strongly frequency dependent (equation 3. for any orifice placed at the end of a pipe one can find a Mach number at which the reflection coefficient for long acoustic waves vanishes. This effect is of course a result of the force ρ0 (ω × v) in Howe’s analogy (section 2. however. A generalization of the procedure which we introduced intuitively for the orifice can be obtained for an arbitrary compact discontinuity in a pipe system.1.88 4 One dimensional acoustics We see from this equation that even in the linear approximation energy is transferred (ρ0 ( A/ Ad )2 u 0 u 2 ) from the acoustic field to the flow (where it is dissipated by turbulence). This is an explanation for human whistling [202.9b). The vorticity responsible for this is located in the shear layer that confines the free jet.9a) or when the edges are rounded at the downstream side [202. This occurs in particular if the orifice has sharp edges at the entrance where the vortices are shed [5] (figure 4.6). Hence. In the case of an externally imposed acoustic wave. Whistling corresponds to self-sustained flow instabilities. the periodic vortex shedding is a non-linear phenomenon which will generate higher harmonics. As explained by Bechert [7]. It is interesting. When this sound source couples with a resonator (see next chapter) large amplitudes may be generated. We will describe the formation of a free jet in section 5. The acoustical effect of this discontinuity can be represented in an acoustical model by a pressure discontinuity ( p)source which is calculated by subtracting from the actual pressure difference p the pressure difference ( p)pot . Such an orifice acts thus an anechoic termination for low frequencies! A beautiful property of this damping mechanism is that it is not frequency dependent as long as the frequency is low enough. to note that under special flow conditions an orifice can produce sound as a result of vortex shedding. This device is indeed used downstream of a compressor in order to avoid the low frequency pulsations that may be induced by the compressor into the pipe system. Flow instabilities of this type also occur around pipe arrays such as used in heat exchangers [14]. in a way that at low frequencies friction is quite inefficient. 177]. The frequency of the sound produced by the vortex shedding is such that the period of oscillation roughly corresponds to the travel time of a vortex through the orifice (a Strouhal number Sr = f L/( Au0 / Ad ) = O(1)).

The actual pressure difference p can be measured or calculated as a function of the main flow velocity u0 and the acoustical velocity fluctuation u . We then use the incompressible continuity equation and Bernoulli: Su = constant and p + 1 ρ0 u 2 = constant.4. it appears to be important to define the aeroacoustic source in terms of a discontinuity ( B)source in the total enthalpy rather than in the pressure. to 2 calculate ( p)pot .9 Vortex shedding at an orifice. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . When convective effects are taken into account in the wave propagation. This procedure is in particular powerful when we can use a quasi-stationary flow model. while p is measured in the form p = CD 1 ρu 2 as a function 2 of various parameters. The potential flow difference ( p)pot is calculated.4 Reflection at discontinuities 89 u0 b) u0 a) Figure 4. potential flow with the same velocity boundary conditions: ( p)source = p − ( p)pot .

The conservation of mass for a compact junction yields: A1 u 1 + A2 u 2 + A3 u 3 = 0 while from the equation of Bernoulli we find: p1 = p2 = p3 (4.55) Note that closed side branches are very popular as reflectors to prevent the propagation of compressor induced pulsations. result into pulsation levels of the order of p the amplitude of these pulsations depends crucially on the shape of the edges of the junction. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . We could also have obtained a similar expression by considering the law of energy conservation. respectively (figure 4. the shear layer separating the main flow from the stagnant fluid in the pipe is unstable. It is interesting to note that flow may also drastically affect the acoustic properties of a multiple junction and make the use of this device quite dangerous. 3 A3 ¹ 2 ¹ We define along each pipe a x-coordinate with a positive direction outwards from the junction.56) (4.10 Multiple junction. 204]). Again. in the same way as the shape of the edges was crucial in the orifice problem.10).90 4 One dimensional acoustics 4. In particular if we consider junctions with closed side branches. More about this will be explained in the next chapter. As an example consider a T shaped junction between three pipes of cross-sectional surface A1 . To illustrate this statement we consider the reflection of waves at a multiple junction.4 Multiple junction In the previous sections we used the equation of Bernoulli to derive pressure jump conditions for a discontinuous change in pipe diameter. The use of Bernoulli is a stronger procedure. 1 A1 x3 x1 x2 A2 Figure 4. 89.4. A2 and A3 . Coupling of this instability with a resonant acoustic field may O(ρc0 u 0 ) ([17.

the presence of the bubble results into a volume source term.4. As a first step to the understanding of this effect we now consider the reflection of a harmonic wave on a small air bubble of radius a (Volume Vp = (4π/3)a3 ) placed in a pipe filled with water at a static pressure p0 . Assuming G2 = 0 we find from the continuity of pressure: F1 + G1 − F2 = 0 (4. 4. Tijdeman [187] and Cummings [35]. If the bubble is small compared to the characteristic acoustic wave length we can assume that the pressure pb in the bubble will be uniform.7 because of the velocity defect in the boundary layer relative to the main flow velocity u0 . In the low frequency limit. This effect is discussed by Ronneberger [168].5 Reflection at a small air bubble in a pipe Air bubbles in the water circuit of the central heating of a house are responsible for a very characteristic.4 Reflection at discontinuities 91 For a T-shaped junction of a main pipe with a closed side branch or a grazing flow along an orifice in the wall the quasi-steady theory for a main flow u0 indicates that the shear layer can be represented by an acoustical pressure discontinuity: ( p)source = −Kρ0 u 0 u .4. We neglect surface tension effects and assume that the bubble pressure p is equal to b the surrounding water pressure. Since the airfilled bubble is much more compressible than water. the pressure induced by a passing acoustic plane wave in the water around the bubble will be practically uniform: p = 0. giving rise to a jump in acoustic velocity across a control volume including the bubble: u − Vp d p Aγ p0 dt (4. For an orifice small compared to the boundary layer thickness of the main flow K is of the order of 0. high-frequency sound.57) where we neglected the water compressibility compared to the air compressibility (Kair = 1/γ p0 ) and we assume an adiabatic compression (taking γ = 1 would imply an isothermal compression as we expect for very low frequencies).58) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The reflection coefficient for a wave F1 incident to the bubble can now be calculated from the jump conditions for p and u . when the inertial forces in the flow around the bubble can be neglected. where K is unity for a uniform main flow. The bubble will react quasi-statically to the imposed acoustic pressure variation p .

92 4 One dimensional acoustics and from (4.61) around the equilibrium value a0 will induce a radial flow of the water around the bubble if we assume that the bubble is small compared to the pipe diameter. In the low frequency approximation considered here.62) where we have assumed a/a0 ˆ ˆ pb = p0 + pb e iωt 1. (4. Aγ p0 dt (4.59) By subtraction of (4. The oscillations of the bubble radius: ˆ a = a0 + a e iωt (4.64) Using (4.66) vr dr iωa0 a e iωt ˆ (4.57): F1 − G1 − F2 = ρw cw V p d (F1 + G1 ). If we assume that the acoustic wave lengths in both air and water are very large compared to the bubble radius we still can assume a uniform pressure in the bubble. Hence we have for the radial velocity vr : vr = a r 2 ∂a ∂t iω a0 r 2 a e iωt ˆ (4. ∂t ∂t ∞ a (4.62) we can calculate (ϕ − ϕb ): ϕ − ϕb = so that: ˆ p − pb = ρw ω2 a0 a e iωt . This implies also that the bubble will remain spherical.60) The inertia of the water around the bubble will dramatically influence the interaction between the bubble and acoustic waves at higher frequencies.65) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The pressure variation in the bubble: (4.58) from (4.63) can be related to the incompressible far field (still near the bubble compared to the pipe radius) by applying the linearized Bernoulli equation: p + ρw ∂ϕ ∂ϕb = pb + ρ0 . this flow is incompressible.59) we can eliminate F2 and find: G1 = − ρw cw V p d (F1 + G1 ) 2Aγ p0 dt (4.

4. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .69) where the resonance frequency ω0 (Minnaert frequency) is defined by: 2 ω0 = 3γ p0 .70) The reflection coefficient R = G1 /F1 can now be calculated in a similar way as 2 ˆ from (4. 2 a0 ρw (4. we have: F1 + G1 − F2 = 0 and F1 − G1 − F2 = ρw cw or R= 2 A(ω 2 − ω0 ) G1 =− 1+ F1 2π iωcw a0 −1 (4. The compressibility of the water flow around the bubble yields already such a mechanism which limits the amplitude of the oscillation at the resonance frequency ω0 . we find: 1 ∂ pb 3 ∂a 1 ∂ρb = =− ρb ∂t γ pb ∂t a ∂t or in linear approximation: a ˆ pb ˆ = −3γ . p0 a0 ˆ Combining (4. however. only one of the many amplitude-limiting mechanisms.66) with (4. heat transfer is a significant energy loss [146]. Since p = 0. when the diffusion length for heat transfer into the bubble is comparable to the bubble radius.58) and (4.4 Reflection at discontinuities γ 93 Assuming the air in the bubble to be an ideal gas with pb ∼ ρb and neglecting the dissolution of air in water so that a3 ρb = constant. This is.71b) . (4.68) (4. We have of course obtained such a dramatic result because we have neglected all the dissipation mechanisms which can limit the amplitude of the bubble oscillation. For small bubbles.72) We see that at resonance ω = ω0 the wave is fully reflected by the bubble. and the reflection coefficient is R = −1.59) with the modified source term u = 4π iωa0 a A−1 e iωt .68) and assuming that p = p0 + p e iωt we have: 2 ˆ p = ρw a0 a(ω2 − ω0 ) ˆ (4.71a) 4π iωa0 (F1 + G1 ) 2 Aρw (ω2 − ω0 ) (4.67) (4.

e. (As it is the T work W = p dV = 0 p (dV /dt)dt which determines the losses.4 to 1 does not introduce damping.3 we already considered the low frequency limit for the speed of sound in a bubbly liquid. At each drop size there is one drop velocity where 3 i. 81]. sound that rain is known to generate when it hits a water surface [147]. a volume V T proportional to p implies for a periodic oscillation W ∼ 0 p (d p /dt)dt = 0. It is only in the intermediate range that the heat flux results in a significant rate of volume change in phase with the acoustic pressure. In section 2. in spite of the wide range of velocities and sizes of rain drops that occurs. If a → 0 the ˆ 0 pressure in the bubble increases dramatically ( pb ∼ a −3γ ). For larger bubbles heat transfer is negligible. However. As an isolated air bubble already has a strong effect on the acoustics of a water filled tube. As a result the bubbly mixture will be stiffer than water. First it should be noted that bubble oscillation is such an efficient source of sound that any rain impact sound is dominated by it. On the other hand. This is due to the large compressibility of the air in the bubbles. Above the anti-resonance frequency ω0 cw /cair the bubble movement is in opposition to the applied pressure fluctuations. the change of γ from 1. In the frequency range ω < 0 ω < ω0 cw /cair no wave propagation is possible in an ideal bubbly liquid. As ω reaches ω0 this effect will become dramatic resulting in a full reflection of the waves (speed of sound zero) [32. The radius increases when the pressure increases. the universality of the sound of rain is due to the fact that only bubbles are formed of just one3 particular size.94 4 One dimensional acoustics This occurs for: a = O((Kair /ωρairC P )1/2 ). Linear theory fails and the bubble may start showing chaotic behaviour (referred to as acoustical chaos) [94]. a large amount of bubbles will have a dramatic effect. universal. and c > cw ! Sound speeds of up to 2500 m/s were indeed observed in bubbly water with β = 2 × 10−4 ! Another fascinating effect of bubble resonance is its role in the very specific. This is a result of the following coincidence. This is just opposite to the low frequency behaviour (figure 4. For smaller bubbles the compression occurs isothermally and one should put γ = 1 in the theory. not any combination of drop size and drop velocity generates bubbles upon impact on water.) Another limitation of the amplitude of the oscillation is the highly non-linear behaviour of the pressure for oscillation amplitudes a comparable to a . On the one hand. not any combination of drop size and drop velocity occurs: rain drops fall at terminal velocity (balance of air drag and drop weight) which is an increasing function of the droplet radius.11). We have seen that a small volume fraction of bubbles can considerably reduce the speed of sound. a narrow range RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Now.

t) = 0. The low-frequency limit clow . slightly lower than cw . t) = p+ (0. ρ0 c0 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . is given in equation (2.11 Idealized frequency dependence of the speed of sound in a bubbly liquid.42) or (2.4. 4. with just one bubble size. bubbles are formed. Without visco-thermal losses. the boundary condition of vanishing velocity becomes u(0. Inside the pipe a plane wave p+ (x.5.5 Attenuation of an acoustic wave by thermal and viscous dissipation 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 1 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890 95 c cw clow Ð Ö ÑÔ Ò ω0 ω0 cw /cair ω ¹ Figure 4.43). t) = F (t − x/c0 ) travels in positive direction and reflects into a left-running wave p− (x. Combining these increasing and decreasing functions. closed at x = 0 by a rigid wall. This bubble formation velocity is a decreasing function of the droplet radius.5 Attenuation of an acoustic wave by thermal and viscous dissipation 4.1 Reflection of a plane wave at a rigid wall Consider a pipe −∞ < x ≤ 0. t) − p− (0. we see that they intersect just at one combination of radius and velocity. t).

(Likewise. This heat transfer is a result from the difference between the wall temperature Tw . which varies with the adiabatic pressure fluctuations p = p+ + p− . t) In reality unsteady heat transfer at the wall will act as a sink of sound. complex amplitudes. slightly reducing the reflection coefficient. x-dependent.96 4 One dimensional acoustics This implies a reflected wave p− (x. Hence.73) We will now calculate the temperature profile within the thermal boundary layer.) We define (see also section 8. the characteristic length scale for the thermal boundary layer is δT = 2K 0 . t) = p(x) e−iωt ˆ with amplitude p outside the neighbourhood of the wall being given by p(x) = ˆ ˆ + e−ikx − e ikx +p ˆ . t) = F (t + x/c0 ). which remains practically constant.8) the thermal boundary layer thickness δ as the T width of the region near the wall in which the rate of increase of internal energy is just balancing the net rate of heat conduction (in this region the wave equation is not valid): ρ0 C p ∂ T ∼ ωρ0C p T ∂t K0 ∂2 T T ∼ K0 2 ∂x2 δT . and therefore a reflection coefficient of unity R= p− (0. This velocity u∞ can be interpreted by an obˆ ˆ server. as due to a displacement dT of the rigid wall in RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . We will limit our analysis to small temperature differences (T − Tw ) and small departures from the quiescent reference state. so that we can consider the reflection of a harmonic wave. equal in amplitude and shape to the incident wave. This excess density ρe has to be supplied by a fluid flow towards the wall ˆ at the edge of the boundary layer. t) = 1. ωρ0C p (4. in the following the hatted quantities with “ˆ ” will p ˆ denote their corresponding. denoted in complex form as p(x. and the bulk temperature T of the gas. p+ (0. ˆ ˆ 2 This will allow us to calculate the deviation ρe = ρ − p/c0 between the density ˆ fluctuations in the boundary layer and the density fluctuations p/c2 corresponding ˆ 0 to adiabatic compression of an ideal acoustic flow as found outside the boundary layer. This allows a linearized theory. outside the boundary layer.

74c) Since in a liquid acoustic wave propagation is isothermal we can limit our analysis to a gas. The work performed by this “virtual” wall displacement on the acoustic field corresponds to the sound dissipation by the thermal conduction in the boundary layer.1. After the study of the reflection of a wave at an isothermal wall (Tw = 0) we can use the same theory to calculate the sound generated by fluctuations of the wall ˆ temperature (Tw = 0).1. We assume an ideal gas with: ˆ ρ ˆ T p ˆ = + . The boundary layer flow is described by the one-dimensional conservation laws (1.6) in linearized form: du ˆ .1. ˆ ˆ where we have introduced. is much larger than the thickness δT of the thermal boundary layer: ωδT /c0 In such a case we can assume at the edge of the boundary layer a uniform adiabatic ˆ ˆ flow. we obtain ˆ iω ˆ ˆ ˆ γ −1 p d2 T T − = a0 2 T0 γ p0 dx T0 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . the fluctuation of the wall temperature ˆ ˆ Tw . ˆ dx 3 dx ˆ du ˆ d2 T ˆ + K0 2 .5. The non-uniformity associated ˆ with the acoustic wave propagation is negligible on the length scale we consider. T0 γ p0 ˆ ˆ p(x) → p∞ = p+ + p− (x/δT → −∞). p0 ρ0 T0 The boundary conditions are given by: ˆ ˆ T∞ γ − 1 p∞ ˆ ˆ ˆ = .5 Attenuation of an acoustic wave by thermal and viscous dissipation 97 a hypothetical fluid without heat conduction. After eliminating u from the energy equation by using the mass conservation law. (du/dx)∞ = 0. iωC V ρ0 T = − p0 dx dx iωρ = −ρ0 ˆ (4. for generality.2.1. ˆ and eliminating ρ by means of an ideal gas law.74a) (4.74b) (4. T (0) = Tw . dx d p 4 d2 u ˆ ˆ iωρ0u = − + η0 2 . This approximation is based on the key assumption that the acoustic wave length 1. of a uniform fluid ( p∞ . ρ∞ ). u(0) = 0.4.

with ˆ ˆ 1 p ˆ γ −1 p T p ˆ ρ ˆ ρe ˆ = − = − . because γ − 1 = O(1). dx 2 3 dx Assuming that viscosity is not dominant – which we can check from the solution to be obtained – we see that ˆ ω2 ρ = − p ˆ d2 2 p dx 0 − ω2 γ ρ ˆ ˆ ω2 ρ =− 2 . In terms of the excess density. ˆ 2 2 This implies that if we neglect terms of the order of ω2 δT /c0 . we have iω d2 ρe ˆ ρe ˆ = a0 2 . the velocity u(−δT ) at the edge of the ˆ boundary layer is given by the integral of the density across the boundary layer as follows. 2 p ρ0 dx ρ0 γ dx 0 Combining the momentum and mass conservation laws we have ˆ ˆ d2 p 4 d3 u + η0 3 . ρ0 dx ρ0 This equation has the solution ρe ˆ ρe ˆ = ρ0 ρ0 where ρe ˆ ρ0 exp (1 + i)x/δT = ˆ ˆ γ − 1 p∞ Tw − .73) is of the order of ω2 δ 2 ρ ˆ p − p∞ ˆ ˆ ∼ 2T p0 ρ0 c0 ˆ while ρe /ρ0 is of the same order of magnitude as ρ/ρ0 . ρ− 2 = ˆ ρ0 ρ0 ρ0 γ p0 γ p0 T0 c0 this equation becomes iω d2 ρe γ − 1 d2 ˆ p ˆ ρe ˆ = a0 2 − a0 .) u(0) − u(−δT ) = −iω ˆ ˆ 0 −δT ρ ˆ dx.75) w w Using the equation of mass conservation.98 4 One dimensional acoustics where a0 = K 0 /ρ0 C p is the heat diffusivity coefficient. γ p0 T0 (4. (Note that we have chosen the positive x-direction towards the wall. ρ0 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . p0 c0 ρ0 The relative pressure variation across the boundary layer (4.

4.75) yields ρe ˆ ˆ . defined as the ratio of the acoustic pressure ˆ fluctuations p∞ at the wall and the flow velocity uT directed towards the wall (c. can be interpreted as a fictitious wall velocity uT given by ˆ ˆ u T = iωdT = iω ˆ 0 −δT ρ − ρ∞ ˆ ˆ dx = iω ρ0 0 −∞ ρe ˆ dx. (4.76b) ˆ For an isothermal wall (Tw = 0) these wall effects. We consider first the simple case of a laminar boundary layer in the case of wave propagation in a stagnant and uniform fluid. 3.5 Attenuation of an acoustic wave by thermal and viscous dissipation 99 The difference between this velocity and the velocity −iω(ρ∞ /ρ0 )δT that would ˆ occur in the absence of heat conduction. is then given by ZT = p∞ ˆ p∞ ˆ (1 − i)c0 = = ρ0 c0 ˆ uT ˆ (γ − 1)ωδT iωdT The corresponding time averaged acoustic intensity is found to be IT = p u = Re(1/Z T )| p∞ |2 ˆ ωδT = 1 (γ − 1) | p∞ |2 ˆ 4 2 ρ0 c0 1 2 which indicates an energy flux from the acoustic field towards the wall and therefore an absorption of energy.5. Substitution of solution (4.f.14). ρ0 ˆ where dT is the fictitious wall displacement amplitude. This equivalent impedance ZT . have the same effect to the incident acoustic wave as an impedance of the ˆ wall. ˆ Eq.76a) if Tw = 0 (an isothermal wall). leading to the effective velocity u T .4. dT = 1 (1 − i)δT 2 ρ0 w ˆ γ − 1 p∞ = 1 (1 − i)δT 2 γ p0 (4.2 Viscous laminar boundary layer The viscous attenuation of a plane acoustic wave propagating along a pipe can often be described in a similar way as the thermal attenuation by means of a disˆ placement thickness dV of the wall. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

78) u(y) → u ∞ if y/δV → −∞. The ymomentum conservation law reduces to the pressure being uniform across the viscous boundary layer.77) δV = 2ν0 /ω = δT Pr .1 we have considered the attenuation of an acoustic wave that reflects normally to a wall. In section 4. determined by the pressure fluctuations p∞ in the bulk of the flow.5. (4. where Pr = ν0 ρ0 C p /K 0 is Prandtl’s number.5.2 we have described the laminar viscous boundary layer associated to a plane wave propagating along a duct (parallel to the wall). The boundary conditions are u(0) = u w = 0. The no-slip condition ˆ at the wall. Neglecting terms of the order of (ωδV /c0 )2 we can write the x-momentum conservation law in the boundary layer as ˆ iωρ0u = η0 d2 u ˆ . In the previous section 4. Using the concept of displacement thickness we will calculate the attenuation of a plane wave travelling in x-direction along a pipe of cross-sectional area A and RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . uw = 0.5.100 4 One dimensional acoustics The wave propagates in the x-direction and induces an acoustic velocity parallel to the wall which has an amplitude u∞ in the bulk of the flow.5. ˆ ˆ The displacement thickness dV is defined as the fictitious wall position for which the acoustical mass flux of a uniform flow with the velocity u∞ is equal to the ˆ actual mass flow. In a gas such a propagation will also induce a thermal boundary layer. This viscous boundary layer is usually referred to as the Stokes layer. This implies: ˆ dV = 0 ∞ 1− u ˆ dy = − 1 (1 − i)δV .3 Damping in ducts with isothermal walls. induces a viscous boundary layer of thickness ˆ √ (4. The expression ˆ for the displacement thickness dT derived in section 4. This attenuation was due to the heat conduction in the thermal boundary layer. dy 2 where y is the direction normal to and towards the wall (so y ≤ 0). ˆ ˆ The solution is then u = u ∞ 1 − exp ˆ ˆ (1 + i)y δV .1 can be applied. 2 u∞ ˆ (4.79) 4.

More accurate expressions at low frequencies. 2 and elimination of u∞ by means of the Euler’s equation. dT = 1 (1 − i)δT 2 γ p0 ˆ and dV = − 1 (1 − i)δV . we obtain the result of Kirchhoff k − k0 = 1 (1 − i) 4 Lp δT δV k0 1 + (γ − 1) . Expanding this expression for small δT and δV (using the fact √ that δV /δT = Pr = O(1)) and retaining the first order term.76b) and dV (4. which yields the dispersion relation ˆ A + 1 (1 − i)(γ − 1)L p δT k2 2 = .80) which corresponds to equation (2. 2 k0 A − 1 (1 − i)L p δV 2 where k0 = ω/c0 . where k is a complex wave number (the imaginary part will describe the attenuation).5 Attenuation of an acoustic wave by thermal and viscous dissipation 101 cross-sectional perimeter L p . At high frequencies the viscosity becomes significant also in the bulk of the flow (Pierce [142]).13). are discussed by Tijdeman [186] and Kergomard [85]. Incorporating the displacement thickness to the mass conservation law integrated over the pipe cross section yields (Lighthill [102]) ∂ ∂ ρ∞ ( A + L p dT ) = ρ∞ u ∞ ( A + L p d V ) ∂t ∂x In linear approximation for a harmonic wave this becomes iω p∞ ˆ ˆ ˆ A + ρ0 L p dT = ikρ0 u ∞ ( A + L p dV ) ˆ 2 c0 2 ˆ where we made use of the isentropic relationship p∞ = c0 ρ∞ . when the acoustical boundary layers are not thin.79) ˆ γ − 1 p∞ ˆ .4. The bulk of the flow is described by the following plane wave. we find a homogeneous ˆ linear equation for p∞ . satisfying Euler’s equation in linear approximation: ˆ p∞ = p∞ e iωt−ikx . We assume that the boundary layers are thin compared to the pipe diameter. A δV (4. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . After substitution ˆ ˆ ˆ of the expressions for the displacement thickness dT (4. iωρ0u ∞ = ikp∞ .

Verzicco [194]). Akhavan [3] presents results indicating that a quasi-stationary turbulent flow model provides a fair first guess of the wall shear stress. The transition from When δ L the high frequency limit to the quasi-stationary limit is discussed in detail by Ronneberger [169] and Peters [139]. The formula of Kirchhoff derived above appears to be valid at low Mach numbers 1) as long as the Stokes viscous boundary layer thickness δV remains (U0 /c0 √ less than the laminar sublayer δL 15ν/ τw ρ0 of the turbulent main flow (where 1 2 the wall shear stress τw = c f 8 ρ0U0 ). δV . Note that since (k−k0 ) depends on the 2 amplitude u∞ of the acoustical velocity this model implies a non-linear damping. In the presence of a mean flow various approximations describing the interaction between the acoustic waves and the turbulent main flow have been discussed by Ronneberger [169] and Peters [140]. For smooth pipes. we can use a quasi-stationary approximation. The influence of wall roughness is described in the Moody diagram. Such data are discussed by Schlichting [175].102 4 One dimensional acoustics At high amplitudes (u∞ δV /ν ≥ 400) the acoustical boundary layer becomes turbuˆ lent (Merkli [111].These references also provide information about the Mach number dependence of the wave number. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Akhavan [3]. In such a case the damping becomes essentially non-linear. Prandtl proposed a correlation formula for cf as a function of the Reynolds number of the flow. In the case of a turbulent gas flow the thermal dissipation is rather complex. This makes a low frequency limit difficult to establish. Eckmann [42]. For an isothermal (liquid) flow the quasi-steady approximation yields 2 k 2 − k0 = − 1 ik0 4 Lp c f u∞ ˆ A where the friction coefficient c f is defined (and determined) by cf = − 4A 2 L p 1 ρ0 U0 2 d p0 dx which relates the mean pressure pressure gradient (d p0 /dx) to the stagnation pres2 sure 1 ρ0U0 of a mean flow through the pipe. ˆ The transition from laminar to turbulent damping can therefore be a mechanism for saturation of self-sustained oscillations (see chapter 5).

83) are then obtained by using the method of characteristics (section 4.1) we see that in the low frequency approximation the signal observed at x should also be indifferent for the position of the source in the cross section of the tube at y. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .5) for fx = 0 and: 1 ∂β = H (t − τ )δ(x − y).82) for for x < y. the observer position in the cross section of the pipe is indifferent.1 Infinite uniform tube We consider a one dimensional approximation for the propagation of waves in a pipe.83) x > y.4.6 One dimensional Green’s function 4. This result is obtained intuitively by using (4. τ ) defined by: 2 ∂ 2g 2∂ g − c0 2 = δ(t − τ )δ(x − y).30) which implies that g is the pres2 sure wave generated by a piston moving with a velocity u = (2ρ0 c0 )−1 H (t − τ ) 2 for x = y + ε and a second piston with a velocity u = −(2ρ0 c0 )−1 H (t − τ ) for x = y − ε. τ ) = x−y  1    2c H t − τ − c 0 0 (4. 2 ∂t ρ0 c0 For an infinitely long tube the solution is:  x−y  1    2c H t − τ + c 0 0 g(x.6. t|y.81) is a particular case of (4.2).5) indicates that we can assume that (4. (4.6 One dimensional Green’s function 103 4. ∂t 2 ∂x (4. We therefore look for the corresponding one-dimensional Green’s function g(x. Applying the reciprocity principle (section 3. Hence as the source position within a cross section is indifferent we can consider the source to be smeared out over this cross section resulting in a 1-dimensional source.81) Comparison of this wave equation with the wave equation (4. Equations (4. This approximation will be valid only if the frequencies generated by the sources of sound in the pipe are lower than the cut-off frequency. t|y. As the acoustic field observed at position x far from a source placed at y is induced by a plane wave.5) in the presence of source term ρ0 ∂β/∂t and forces fx : 2 ∂ fx ∂ 2β ∂2 p 2∂ p 2 − c0 2 = c0 ρ0 2 − 2 ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x (4.

in which at the point x = 2L − y a second point source is placed with opposite sign of and synchronous with the original point source at x = y. τ ) = 1 2c0 H t −τ − |x − y| c0 −H t − τ − |x + y − 2L| c0 . and therefore brings into effect the boundary condition at x = L. t|y.6. τ ) = |x − y| 1 H t −τ − . t|y. the above result (4. In such a case we will have to consider the contribution of an infinite number of images corresponding to the reflections of the original waves at the boundaries. This method of images can be generalized to the case of a finite pipe segment (0 < x < L). This time is called the retarded or emission time te : te = t − |x − y| .87) This solution could also have been obtained by assuming the pipe to be part of an infinitely long pipe. This second source.83) is more efficiently written as: g(x. called image source.85) 4. By constructing the wave reflecting at this ideal open end with the method of characteristics we find: g(x. is constructed such that it generates the field due to reflection by the boundary at x = L in the original problem.86) which we can also write for x < L as: g(x. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2 Finite uniform tube We can also fairly easily construct a Green’s function for a semi-infinite pipe (x < L) terminated at x = L by an ideal open end at which by definition g(L . τ ) = 0.104 4 One dimensional acoustics Of course. c0 (4. (4. t) has been emitted by the source at y. 2c0 c0 (4. τ ) = 1 2c0 H t −τ + x−y x−y +H t −τ − c0 c0 x + y − 2L −H t − τ + c0 (4. t|y. t|y.84) The combination t − |x − y|/c0 is the time at which the signal observed at (x.

7 Aero-acoustical applications 4.) This is of particular interest in the 2 time-harmonic case. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ±2L ± y. This comes down to a right-hand-side of equation 4. . τ ) = 2c0 ∞ H t −τ − n=−∞ |x − y − 2n L| c0 |x + y − 2n L| c0 . the addition of mass by the source in the finite volume results into a (roughly) linear growth of g in t. ±4L ± y. the field in a finite pipe with hard walled ends is equivalent with the field in an infinite pipe with equal sources in x = −y.1 Sound produced by turbulence We consider a turbulent jet in an infinitely extended pipe (figure 4.81 of ∞ δ(t − τ ) δ(x − y − 2n L) + δ(x + y − 2n L) n=−∞ and a solution 1 g(x. When the end conditions are such that multiple reflections are physically relevant they imply that constructive and destructive interferences will select waves corresponding to standing wave patterns or resonances of the tube.88) + H t −τ − The Green’s function is clearly more complex now. Furthermore. (4.7. . . (Verify this for x = y = 1 L and τ = 0.12). We suppose S d Figure 4. This problem will be discussed further in the next chapter. . t|y.4. 4.12 Turbulent jet in a pipe.7 Aero-acoustical applications 105 For example.

t|y. assuming that the mean flow in the pipe is negligible.93) 4 While the assumption that friction is a negligible source of sound was already formulated by Lighthill. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .84) we have: ρ (x. ∂y c0 ∂y 2c0 (4. 4.92) We moved the differentiation from the unknown source term towards the known.89) As we use a tailored Green’s function (we neglect the effect of the flow injection device) the density ρ can be estimated by: ρ (x. τ ) d ydτ. If Reynolds number Re = u0 d/ν 1 we can use Lighthill’s analogy in the form4 : M = u 0 /c0 2 ∂ 2 (ρ0 vi v j ) ∂ 2ρ 2∂ ρ − c0 2 = . assuming the source to be limited in space. t) = t t0 V ∂ 2 (ρ0 vi v j ) g(x. t) = t t0 V ∂ 2 (ρ0 vi v j ) G(x. t| y. Green’s function (4. t) = t t0 V ∂2 g(x. We will use the integral formulation of Lighthill to obtain an order of magnitude estimate for the sound pressure level produced by this flow. τ )S −1 d ydτ. We now note that: 1 |x − y| ∂|x − y| ∂g = − 2δ t − τ − . and explicitly available. ∂ yi ∂ y j (4. The exact range of validity is still subject of research.90) Using the approximate Green’s function derived in the previous section (Eq.91) After two partial integrations. We also assume that the jet temperature and density is the same as that of the environment (homogeneous fluid 1 and Mach number and homentropic flow). ∂t 2 ∂ xi ∂ x j ∂ xi (4. ∂ yi ∂ y j (4. ∂ y2 (4. a reasonable confirmation of its validity was only provided thirty years later by the work of Morfey [116] and Obermeier [135]. t|y.84). we obtain: ρ (x. τ )S −1 ρ0 u 2 d ydτ.106 4 One dimensional acoustics that the jet diameter d and the jet velocity u0 are such that the characteristic frequency u0 /d of the sound produced in the pipe is low enough to use a one dimensional approximation.

99) (4. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Since the integration is to the source position g. 2 2Sc0 (4. t) = ∂ ∂x t t0 V ρ0 u 2 δ(te − τ ) sign(x − y) d ydτ. resulting in the expression: ρ (x.4. ∂y ∂x (4. c0 ∂t c0 d d (4. The time integration can now be carried out: ρ (x.95) We substitute this result in (4.100) 5 We assume a jet with circular cross section.7 Aero-acoustical applications so that from: ∂|x − y| ∂|x − y| = − sign(x − y) = − ∂y ∂x 107 (4. Hence we can estimate: ∂ ∂x 1 ∂ u0 M0 ∼ = . Hence we find at large distances: ρ ∼ implying: ρ2∼ 2 1 3 ρ0 M0 d 2 /S . In this region the turbulent velocity fluctuations are of the order of u0 .98) Because the sound production by turbulence decreases very fast with decreasing mean flow velocity. t) = ∂ ∂x 1 [ρ u 2 ]τ =te sign(x − y) d y 2 0 2Sc0 (4. 2 M0 ρ 0 u 2 3 0 d 2 d 2Sc0 (4. At sufficiently large distances the only length scale in the solution is the characteristic wave length c d/u 0 corre0 sponding to the characteristic frequency5 u 0 /d of the turbulence in the jet.92).23) of the δ-function.97) V where we used the property (C. the volume of the free jet contributing to the sound production is limited to a region of the order of d3 .96) with te = t − |x − y|/c0 . we can now remove one of the differentiations to x from the integral.94) we have the following important symmetry in the Green’s function of an infinite pipe: ∂g ∂g =− .

Sato [174]). In 2 2 that case the Mach number is taken from M0 = γ −1 [( p1 / p2 )(γ −1)/γ − 1]. If we assume that the frequencies in the turbulence.6 × 10 (M0 − 1) . This Mach number dependence has indeed been observed in a pipe downstream of an orifice for sufficiently high Mach numbers. The sound produced by the turbulence will.108 4 One dimensional acoustics This is the result obtained by Ffowcs Williams [48]. The Green’s function is calculated by using the reciprocity principle. as is ˆ shown in 5. The dependence of the sound production on the jet geometry is discussed by Verge [193] and Hirschberg [63].2 An isolated bubble in a turbulent pipe flow Consider an isolated bubble of radius a0 small compared to the pipe diameter D. For the sake of simplicity we consider this incident ˆ ˆ wave to be harmonic pin = pin e iωt−ikx . 4.101) Using Bernoulli and the continuity equation we can calculate the pressure distribution around the bubble: p − pb = −ρw iω(ϕ − ϕb ) ˆ ˆ (4. ˆ (4.7.03u0 / h (Bjørnø [11]. This implies that correlations developed for subsonic circular jets are useless for planar jets.72) with pin = F1 and p = F2 ). Reethof finds for subsonic jets 3 (M0 < 1) a ratio of the radiated power to the flow power ηac = 3 × 10−4 M0 . where p1 / p2 is the ratio of the pressure across the orifice.4. typically O(u0 /D). The bubble pressure response pb is. given by: ˆ pb = − ˆ ω0 ω 2 2 ω0 1− ω 2π ia0 cw − Sω pin . For planar jets issued from a slit of height h the typical frequencies are of the order of 0.5 (use (4. are much smaller than the bubble resonance frequency ω0 .102) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . At low Mach numbers the sound production is dominated by the dipole contribution of O(M4 ) due to the interaction of the flow with the orifice [112]. we can calculate the sound produced by the interaction of the bubble with the turbulence. Assume a turbulent pipe flow. be enhanced by the presence of the bubble. 2 −3 1/2 For supersonic jets (M0 > 1) typical values are ηac = 1. We consider the acoustic response of the bubble for a plane wave emitted from the observer position x towards the bubble. locally. A discussion of the sound production by confined circular jets is provided by Reethof [152] for arbitrary jet Mach numbers.

We obtain by partial integration: ρ = t t0 ρ0 vi v j V ∂ 2G d ydτ. τ ): ˆ ˆ G(x|y) = e−iωτ −ik|x−y| 2iωcw S a0 r . we have: a ˆ pb ˆ =− .106) Using Lighthill’s analogy we now can compare the response of the pipe to turbulence.107) If we consider a small turbulent spot in the direct neighbourhood of the bubble the ratio of the responses is given by: ∂ 2Gb ∂r 2 ∂ 2G0 ∂ y2 ∂ 2Gb ∂r 2 ∂ 2G0 ∂x2 2 cw a0 ω 2r 3 = = ω0 1− ω 2 2π ia0 cw − Sω . ∂ yi ∂ y j (4. If r = O(a0 ) we see that the 1 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .104) p = pb 1 − ˆ ˆ 1− a0 r a0 r p .103) Furthermore.108) 2 At the resonance frequency ω0 this yields a factor (a0 S/4πr 3 )(ρw cw /3γ p0 ) 2 while 3 2 for low frequencies we find (a0 /r) (ρw cw /3γ p0 ). ˆ = ω0 2 2π ia0 cw in 1− − ω Sω 1− 2 ω0 ω − (4. a0 3γ p0 so that p(r) is given by: ˆ ω ω0 2 (4.7 Aero-acoustical applications where: ϕ − ϕb = r a0 109 iωaa0 ˆ 2 a0 .105) Taking for pin the Fourier transform of (2c0 S)−1 H (t − τ − |x − y|/c0 ) we obtain ˆ ˆ as p the Fourier transform G(x|y) of the Green’s function G(x. t|y. with and without bubble.4. · ω0 2 2π ia0 cw 1− − ω Sω 1− 2 ω0 ω − (4. (4. dr = iωaa0 1 − ˆ r2 r (4.

Hence. An example of sound production by bubbles in a pipe flow is the typical sound of a central heating system when air is present in the pipes. An important reason for this is that for typical conditions in water flow.111) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . We assume the pipe to be horizontal and that gravity is negligible. The major contribution of the bubble turbulence interaction will be at low frequencies. We now further as1 so that we can use a linear approximation in which we sume that |T − T0 |/T0 assume that the scattered sound wave p is weak compared to the amplitude pi of the incident wave. 4. however. In those cases.7.48): ∂ 2 ∂p ∂2 p c − 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x can be approximated by: 2 ∂ ∂2 p 2∂ p 2 ∂p (c2 − c0 ) in . − c0 = ∂t 2 ∂x2 ∂x ∂x =0 (4.3 Reflection of a wave at a temperature inhomogeneity As a last example of the use of the integral equation based on the Green’s function formalism we consider the interaction of a wave with a limited region in which the gas temperature T (x) is non-uniform (0 < x < L). we have a three-dimensional environment. Also the romantic sound of water streams and fountains is dominated by bubbles. the length scale of vortices corresponding to pressure fluctuations at the bubble resonance frequency ω0 /2π is much smaller than the bubble radius [33].110) where ρ0 . at rest the pressure is uniform.110 4 One dimensional acoustics sound produced by turbulence in the neighbourhood of the bubble will be dramatically enhanced. so that the linearized 1-D wave equation (2.109) (4. The gas density is given by: ρ/ρ0 = T /T0 and the speed of sound c is given by: c/c0 = (T /T0 ) 2 1 (4. In such a case we can write p = pin + p . T0 and c0 are the properties of the uniform region. In such a case these pressure fluctuations are averaged out at the bubble surface and do not have any significant contribution to the spherical oscillations of the bubble.

te ) dy.13) and the one dimensional Green’s function g we find: p = ∞ −∞ 0 L ∂ 2 2 ∂p (c − c0 ) in g dydτ.4. ∂ y in If we take for example ˆ pin = pin H (x − c0 t) 2 and use the relation c2 /c0 = T /T0 .117) otherwise.116) ˆ p = 1 pin 4   1 T ( 1 (x + c0 t)) − 1  p ˆin 2 T0 = 4   0 x + c0 t T − T0 dy δ y− T0 2 if 0 < x + c0 t < 2L (4.7 Aero-acoustical applications 111 The source term has been linearized by assuming that the pressure fluctuations are equal to the (undisturbed) incident wave amplitude. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . It is the source term considered by Powell [145] for the description of sound scattering at entropy spots. Using the integral formulation (3.114) δ(te − τ ) ∂ pin dτ dy ∂y (4.84) we have 1 ∂g = 2 sign(x − y)δ(te − τ ) ∂y 2c0 (with te = t − |x − y|/c0 ) and hence p =− =− 1 2 2c0 1 2 2c0 L 0 L 0 2 sign(x − y)(c2 − c0 ) 2 sign(x − y)(c2 − c0 ) ∞ −∞ (4. then we have for (say) x < 0 L 0 (4. ∂y ∂y (4.112) Partial integration yields p =− ∞ −∞ 0 L 2 (c2 − c0 ) ∂ pin ∂g dydτ.113) From equation (4. ∂y ∂y (4.115) ∂ p (y.

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filled with air at room conditions. What are the conditions for which R = 0 ? What are the conditions for which R = 1 ? What are the conditions for which R = −1? RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . i) Consider a semi-infinite tube closed at x = 0 by a harmonically moving piston ˆ (u p = u p e iωt ).A 2 . Assuming no other incident wave (G 2 = G3 = 0) calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients. Calculate the amplitude of the waves in steady state conditions.7 Aero-acoustical applications 113 g) Same question as f) for a discontinuity in temperature of 30 K in air at atmospheric pressure (corresponding to the temperature difference from inside our mouth to outside in the winter). p) When flow separation occurs as a result of mean flow. while an open end can be approximated by a change with A 2 /A1 → ∞. without sharp edges. assuming linear behaviour and no mean flow. The wave number k is defined as k = ω/c 0 . r) Consider a pipe of cross sectional area A 1 (A 1 = A3 ) with a closed side branch of section A 2 and of length L (figure 4. Assume linear behaviour and no mean flow. Calculate in both cases the reflection coefficient R. of diameter D = 1 cm. (Why can we expect a decrease of δ?) q) Consider a wave G 1 (t + x 1 /c0 ) incident on a junction of three semi-infinite tubes (with cross sections A 1 . The tube is filled with air. h) Calculate the reflected and transmitted acoustic intensities I for questions f) and g). Calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients R = F1 /G1 and T = F3 /G1 for an incident harmonic wave G1 = e iωt+ikx 1 if we assume that G3 = 0. in a pipe. the end correction δ is affected. m) Calculate the reflection coefficient for a harmonic wave at an orifice. At which amplitude (in dB) one would expect non-linear losses due to acoustical flow separation for a harmonic wave (with a frequency of 10 Hz. Such orifices are used in hearing-aid devices for protection. l) A closed pipe end can be considered as a change of area such.4. that A 2 /A1 → 0. 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) if there is no mean flow. and A 3 ). j) Calculate the reflection coefficient R and the transmission coefficient T for a low frequency wave F 1 incident from the left to a stepwise area change from A 1 to A 2 in an infinitely long pipe. n) What are the conditions for which we can neglect friction in the orifice? o) Consider an orifice of d = 1 mm diameter.14). At low frequencies by about a factor 3 compared to high frequencies or the linear behaviour without flow separation. using the result of exercise j). At a distance L from the piston there is a temperature jump of 30 K . Explain qualitatively this effect. k) Same exercise as j) for a combined stepwise change in cross section and specific acoustic impedance jump ρc of the fluid.

Is this a reasonable approximation for an air bubble of 1 mm radius in water up to the resonance frequency ω 0 for p0 = 1 bar? v) In the above model the acoustic pressure imposed on the bubble by the incident acoustic field is assumed to be uniform across the pipe diameter. Estimate ω 0 for a bubble placed at the wall. and far from the walls. w) In the above model we assumed the bubble to be small compared to the pipe diameter.1.84) by Fourier transformation of (4. A3 x3 L ¹ s) Calculate the low frequency limit of the reflection coefficient R = F 1 /G1 for an air bubble of 1 mm in a pipe of 1 cm diameter for a harmonic wave of frequency ω. z) Verify (4. wave pin = pin e iωt−ikx in a pipe of cross section A p u) In the model described above (section 4.81) and then using section C. t|y.) t) Calculate the pressure p b in an air bubble of mean radius a 0 in water for an incident 2 ˆ a0 .81). τ ) = g(x.114 4 One dimensional acoustics A1 x1 x2 A2 Figure 4. √ S in C) Show that for low frequencies G(x. τ )/S for |x − y| a tube of uniform cross section S.5) the pressure in the bubble is assumed to be uniform. A) Construct the Fourier transformed Green’s function for a semi-infinite (x < L) tube terminated at x = L by an impedance Z L . 2 2 2 (Answer: R = −(1 + iω0 A/2πωcw a0 )−1 with ω0 = 3γ p0/ρw a0 . t| y. x) Is the model valid for a bubble which is large compared to the pipe diameter? Why? y) Determine the physical dimensions of the Green’s function by substitution in the wave equation (4. Is this a reasonable approximation for a bubble with a radius a 0 = 1 mm placed in a pipe of diameter D= 1 cm filled with water at ambient pressure? Assume a frequency ω = ω 0 . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4. Assume p0 = 1 bar.14 Tube with closed side branch. B) Construct the Fourier transformed Green’s function for a source placed left from a small bubble placed in an infinite tube.

calculate the bubble radius for which the surface tension becomes important. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . H) In principle the turbulent pressure fluctuations in a pipe have a broad spectrum with a maximum around a characteristic frequency u 0 /D. Figure 4. Are the assumptions valid in this case? Are the assumptions valid if u 0 = 102 m/s ? F) Same question as E) for a jet placed at the end of a semi-infinite pipe closed by a rigid wall. Do you expect the characteristic frequency of turbulence to be large or small compared to the resonance frequency ω 0 /2π of an air bubble with 2a 0 = 1 mm as in question G)? I) For a small bubble the surface tension σ contributes significantly to the internal pressure pb of the bubble. Consider a flow velocity of 1 m/s.95) in terms of the effect of displacement of the source or observer on the Green’s function for an infinite tube. Assume atmospheric conditions and room temperature.15 Exercise F) G) Calculate the amplification factor for turbulence noise at resonance 1 2 2 2 (S/a0 )(ρw cw /3γ p0) 2 .99) the sound pressure level in a tube of 10cm diameter due to the inflow of a air jet of 1 cm diameter with a velocity of 10 m/s.15. For a spherical bubble we have: pb = pwater (a) + 2σ . E) Calculate using (4.4.7 Aero-acoustical applications 115 D) Explain (4. a In equilibrium p water (a) = p0 . and at low frequencies ρ w cw /3γ p0 for an air bubble of diameter 2a0 = 1 mm in a pipe of D = 1 cm diameter filled with water at atmospheric pressure. If we consider the oscillation of such a bubble we find a resonance frequency: ω0 = 3γ p0 4σ + 2 3 ρw a0 ρw a0 1 2 . Derive this formula. as indicated in figure 4. Given the surface tension σ of water is 7 × 10 −2 N/m.

116 4 One dimensional acoustics J) The sound in bubbly liquid is often due to the oscillations of bubbles caused by a rapid local acceleration or to oscillations induced by the coalescence or collapse of bubbles. The bubble will oscillate around its new equilibrium radius. This yields the typical “bubbling” noise of a fountain or brook. The movement will be damped out by radiation. Calculate the amplitude of the acoustic pressure waves generated in a pipe of 1 cm diameter filled with water as a function of time. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Assume that the new bubble is released with a radius a corresponding to the original volume of the two smaller bubbles. As an example consider the difference in volume V between the sum of the volumes of two bubbles of equal radii a 0 = 10−4 m and a single bubble containing the same gas (after coalescence). This difference in volume is due to surface tension effects (see previous question).

1. This assumption was not justified but it seems reasonable if the acoustic velocities in the flow are “small enough”. This can be understood by considering the flow in a pipe at a bend (figure 5.1 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations Self-sustained oscillations. if the flow were frictionless and is described accurately by a potential flow. edge hydrodynamic instability acoustic resonator hydrodynamic feedback acoustic feedback Figure 5. jet-screech and reheat-buzz are examples of such oscillations. In general the maintenance of such oscillations implies the existence of a feedback loop as shown in figure 5. In most cases the acoustic field interacts with an intrinsically unstable hydrodynamic flow (jet. In principle. Whistling. .1 we have assumed that the sound source is independent of the acoustic field. In fact this hypothesis breaks down in a large number of very interesting cases.7.1 Flow-acoustic oscillator. the velocity at an edge would be infinitely large. In many of these cases the acoustic feedback (influence of the sound field on the sound source) results in the occurrence of a sharply defined harmonic oscillation.2). due to the instability of the flow. shear layers and jets When using Lighthill’s analogy to estimate the intensity of the sound produced by a turbulent flow in section 4. We will now consider this interaction in some detail. This separation point appears to be a localized region where the acoustic flow and the hydrodynamic flow are strongly coupled.5 5. shear layer) at a sharp edge where the flow separates from the wall.

v RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The fact that the pressure is larger at the outer wall can also be understood as a consequence of the inertia of the flow which is trying to follow a straight path and “hits” the wall. Even at high Reynolds numbers there is always a thin region at the wall where friction forces are of the same order of magv nitude as the inertial forces.) 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 v r We could also have found this result kinematically by noticing that if a particle in an irrotational flow follows a curved path there should be a gradient ∂v/∂r which “compensates” the rotation which the particle undergoes by following a curved path.4 Ball passing along a well. A particle in the flow close to the inner wall is just like a ball rolling into a well (figure 5. Hence.3 Frictionless flow in a bend. A frictionless flow is only possiv ble far from the wall.2 Flow in a bend.4). which represents in this case the law of conservation of mechanical energy. Using the equation ∂r of Bernoulli for a stationary incompressible flow ( p + 1 ρv 2 = constant) we conclude that the ve2 Figure 5.3. The pressure built up at the wall yields the force necessary to bend the streamlines. tells that the pressure decrease implies a decrease of potential energy p which is compensated by an increase of kinetic energy 1 ρv 2 .118 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations The fluid particles passing the bend feel a centrifuρv 2 2 gal force ρuϑ /r per unit volume. If the flow is star tionary it is obvious that there should be a centripetal force compensating the centrifugal force. In a frictionless flow the only force available is the pressure gradient −∂ p/∂r. cous boundary layer. When leaving the well (bend) the kinetic energy 2 is again converted into pressure as the particle climbs again (the adverse pressure gradient). We call this thin region of thickness δ a vis.Figure 5. Figure 5. The Bernoulli equation. we see that the v pressure at the outer wall in the bend should be ∂p − larger than at the inner wall. locity is larger at the inner wall than at the outer wall! (See figure 5.

5. U0 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678 If we consider now a sharp bend the velocities following potential flow theory should now become infinitely large at the inner edge (figure 5.5).5 Boundary layer velocity profile. This results into a flow separation.1 Self-sustained oscillations. shear layers and jets 119 It can be shown that because the flow is quasiparallel the pressure in the boundary layer is uniform and equal to the local pressure of the y U (y) frictionless flow just outside the boundary layer. δ More accurately: this implies that the normal pressure gradient n·∇ p at the wall is negligible in the boundary layer.6 Sharp bend.6) just behind the bend.6). figure 5.4 in the case of a very deep well and in presence of friction.) The assumptions used to derive the flow pattern break down: the viscous term η∇2 v which we have neglected in the equation of motion becomes dominant near the edge. Taking the circulation along a path enclosing part of such a shear layer clearly shows that the RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The boundary layer is a region of concentrated vorticity. In such a case the ball never succeeds in climbing up the strong pressure gradient just behind the edge.5 the flow in the boundary layer is not irrotational. As is clear from figure 5. In the boundary layer x the friction decelerates the flow to satisfy the “no-slip boundary condition” at the wall: v = 0 Figure 5. a) potential flow. This vorticity is concentrated in the shear layer separating the mean flow from a dead water region (figure 5. verified by integration of the radial momentum conservation law. (This can be 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234 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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678 123456789012345678901234567890 a) b) Figure 5. The flow separation can be understood qualitatively when we think of the ball in figure 5. The separation of the boundary layer at the edge implies an injection of vorticity in the main stream. b) actual flow. (for a fixed wall.

120 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations circulation per unit length (d /d ) in the shear layer is just equal to the velocity jump across the layer: d /d = v (figure 5. Self-sustained oscillations imply an amplification of the acoustic perturbations of the main flow by flow instability (this is the energy supply in the feedback loop). 1 In a two dimensional frictionless incompressible flow Dω/Dt = 0 so that there is no interaction RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . v = U0 e x > d = ¹ ¹ v · ds = −U0 d 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 12345678901234567890123456 d v=0 shear layer Figure 5.7 Circulation in the shear layer This complex process of separation can be described within the frame of a frictionless theory by stating that the velocity at a sharp edge should remain finite.7). It is not surprising therefore that in nature the feedback from the acoustic field on a flow will often be concentrated at an edge. This so-called “Kutta condition” implies that a thin shear layer should be shed at the edge. It can be shown that this condition also implies that the shear layer is shed tangentially to the wall at the side of the edge where the flow velocity is the largest. The shear layer contains a distribution of vorticity such that the velocity induced at the edge by the vorticity just compensates the singularity of the potential flow (which would exist in absence of shear layer). At this moment for a sharp edge this is an accepted principle. The validity of a Kutta condition for an unsteady flow has been the subject of quite a long controversy. Hence if next to a stationary flow we impose an unsteady potential flow (acoustic perturbation) the amount of vorticity shed at the edge will be modulated because we modify the singular potential flow at the edge. between the vortical and potential flow which can change ω within the flow. We see therefore that within a potential flow theory the sharp edges play a crucial 1 rôle because they are locations at which a potential flow can generate vorticity.

Hence.1) where r is the distance between the point at which we consider the velocity and the vortex.8 Instability of a vortex row induced by a non-uniformity of d /d .10). For example a lateral displacement of one of the vortices out of the row is sufficient.8b) that a modulation of the vorticity by acoustic perturbations can induce a roll up of the shear layer into a vortex structure as shown in figure 5.5. A wake appears to be so unstable that when friction forces are sufficiently small (above a certain Reynolds number) it is absolutely unstable [72]. This is.8a a row of vortices is (meta)stable because the velocity induced on a given vortex by the vortices left of the point are just compensated by the velocities induced by the vortices at the right (by symmetry). v= 1 2π + 1 2 + ··· v=− v= 2π + 1 2π + 1 2 + ··· v=− 2π Figure 5.9. a metastable situation as any perturbation will induce a growing flow instability. As we see in figure 5. any perturbation will result in a break up of the wake RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .1 Self-sustained oscillations. The most unstable type of flows is the flow between two shear layers of opposite vorticity: jets and wakes (figure 5. however. shear layers and jets 121 The instability of a thin shear layer can be understood by considering as a model an infinitely long row of line vortices in a 2-D flow (figure 5.8). The velocity induced by a line vortex of strength law: uϑ = 2πr . is calculated using Biot-Savart’s (5. Hence we understand (figure 5.

there are many ways to persuade him to whistle! Extensive reviews of these jet oscillations are given by Blake and Powell [13]. 167]. A jet left alone (free jet) will also exhibit some specific oscillations at moderate Reynolds numbers (Re = O(103 )) [12]. However. As the phase condition in the RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .9 Shear layer instability. however. At low Mach numbers the flow can be described locally as an incompressible flow (compact) and a description of the jet oscillation can be obtained without considering sound propagation or radiation [30].10. periodically shed from a cylinder for Re > 50. kill any clear structure at higher Reynolds numbers. The interaction of the jet with the edge induces a complex time dependent flow. We consider here only two examples: – the edge tone. Rockwell [165. which is known as the Von Kármán vortex street [14]. and Verge [190]. – the jet screech. A typical result of this is the occurrence of vortices. In the first case the jet oscillations are controlled by placing a sharp edge in the jet. This periodic vortex shedding is responsible for the typical whistle of an empty luggage grid on a car. structure shown in figure 5.122 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations Figure 5. A jet needs a little help to start whistling. Turbulence will.

5. It is not able to predict the amplitude of self-sustained oscillations. We assume an instantaneous feedback from the jet-edge interaction towards the separation point from which the shear layers bounding the jet emerge. A major problem of such a linear theory is that it only predicts the condi. jet wake The most reasonable linear theory until now is the one proposed by Crighton [30]. tions under which the system is stable or unstable. The phase shift is therefore determined by the jet. Placing such an edge tone configuration near an acoustic resonator will dramatically influence its behaviour.1 Self-sustained oscillations. 151]. Both models do predict an amplitude for sound production by the oscillating flow.Figure 5. At the end of this chapter we will discuss the model of Nelson [132] for a shear-layer which is very similar to the model of Holger [64] for an oscillating free jet. The sound radiated by the edge-jet interaction RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . just like mechanical energy can accumulate in the oscillations of a mass-spring system. shear layers and jets 123 feedback loop is determined by the travel time of perturbations along the jet. A resonator is a limited region of space in which acoustic energy can accumulate. the crudest models such as proposed by Holger [64] are not less realistic than apparently more accurate models. Actually. Like in the case of many other familiar phenomena there does not exist any simple “exact” theory for jet oscillations. the oscillation frequency will be roughly proportional to the main flow velocity V in 0 the jet. 2 A more accurate estimate can be obtained by considering the propagation of infinitesimal perturbations on an infinite jet as proposed by Rayleigh [12. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the geometry an exact analytical theory of edge tone instabilities is not available yet. As a rough first order estimate the perturbations travel in the shear layer with a compromise between the velocities at both sides of the shear layer (about 1 V0 ).10 Jet and wake. Self-sustained oscillations occur for those frequencies for which the phase of the signal changes by a multiple of 2π as the signal travels around the feedback loop.

Many of the features observed in a jet oscillation can also be observed in a shear layer separating a uniform main flow from a dead water region in a cavity [166] (closed side branch in a pipe system or open roof of a car). A review of some related supersonic flow oscillations is given by Jungowski [82]. We do not always need an edge for jet oscillations. It is rather tragi-comic that one describes a system which we would like to understand in terms of the behaviour of a system which we hardly understand. 167]. The phase change that a signal undergoes as it travels around the feedback loop is now not only determined by the jet but also by the delay in the acoustic response of the participating resonator. 191. 190. As stated by Coltman [23] this is “a rather circular procedure in view of the fact that there are many gaps in the theoretical basis for both”. This reduces the jet oscillations. We will discuss these types of oscillations after we have discussed the acoustics of some elementary type of acoustic resonators. demonstrating that the feedback loop described is the one which controls the jet oscillations. The interaction of acoustic perturbations with the edges at the pipe exit results into the formation of periodically shed vortices. This feedback loop can be blocked by placing a wall of absorbing material around the jet [143. In particular the interaction with the third cell appears to result into a localized periodic source of sound. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . In many textbooks the flute oscillation is described as an acoustically driven edgetone system. When the frequency is close to the resonance frequency of the resonator. It indeed appears that a recorder is not simply an “edge tone” coupled to a resonator. In the jet screech we have a supersonic jet which has a cell structure due to the formation of shocks and expansions when the jet pressure at the exit is not equal to that of the environment (figure 5. The acoustic wave travels back towards the pipe exit via the quiescent environment of the jet. An example of such a system is the flute or the recorder.124 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations results now in a second feedback path through the oscillations of the resonator. a small variation in frequency results into a large phase shift and this easily compensates the change in travel time along the jet. Simplified models of the recorder are proposed by Fabre [44] and Verge [192. The oscillation condition is still that the total phase change should be a multiple of 2π . The vortex interaction with a shock wave appears to generate strong acoustic pulses.11). 193]. In such a case the resonator often imposes its resonance frequency to the system.

The vortex is shed periodically at the nozzle lip. Acoustical feedback has been reinforced in this experiment of Poldervaart and Wijnands (TUE) by placing reflectors around the jet nozzle. We observe acoustic waves generated by the interaction of a vortex with the shock. shear layers and jets 125 Figure 5.1 Self-sustained oscillations. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .5.11 Under-expanded supersonic jet with typical cell structure.

(5.2. The piston starts oscillating at t = 0 and we assume that initially ((ν/ω A)1/2 the fluid in the pipe is quiescent and uniform (u0 = 0). We will describe the calculation in detail.2) where. For this reason we will start our discussion by considering the problem in the time domain. We will see at the end of this section that at critical frequencies the theory does not provide a solution if we neglect friction. We start our discussion with explaining the occurrence of resonance in a duct segment. Furthermore resonators are also used to impede the propagation of sound or to enhance absorption. The most efficient way to do this is to consider this behaviour in linear approximation for a harmonically oscillating piston.5). Consider a pipe segment 0 < x < L closed at x = L by a rigid wall (u· n = 0) ˆ and at x = 0 by an oscillating piston with a velocity up (t): ˆ u p = u p E(t) at x =0 (5.2.126 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations 5. However. in order to simplify the notation. a reader only interested in the final RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . This is an essential step because in many applications the identification of the resonator is sufficient to find a cure to self-sustained oscillations. We then will discuss the behaviour of the Helmholtz resonator. An example of this behaviour is the reflection of acoustic waves by an air bubble in a pipe filled with water (section 4. 5. we introduced in this subsection the auxiliary function E(t) = H (t) e iωt .2 Some resonators 5. In such a case at least for short times the linear (acoustic) approximation is valid.2.2 Resonance in duct segment We will first discuss the behaviour of a pipe segment excited by an oscillating piston.1 Introduction Before considering other types of acoustically controlled flow instabilities we will focus our attention on the acoustic resonator. In the time domain we can understand this so-called resonance behaviour more easily. We conWe assume that u p /c0 ˆ 1) and we neglect friction and heat transfer sider only plane waves (ω A1/2 /c0 1).3) 1 so that an acoustic approximation is valid.4. We can now calculate the acoustic field by using the method of characteristics as described in section 4.

7) − pIII can be determined by application of the boundary condition uIII = 0 at x = L: upE t − ˆ L 1 − p (t) = 0. starting at t = 0.8) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The (x.5.4) In region II we have the c+ waves generated at the piston: + pII = pII t − x . equation (5. (5. c0 c0 (5. c0 (5. In region I we have a quiescent fluid: pI = 0 and u I = 0.16). t) diagram is shown in figure 5.5) Using the boundary condition uII = u p for x = 0 we find: + ˆ pII (t) = ρ0 c0 u p (t) = ρ0 c0 u p E(t).12. (5.6) In region III we have a superposition of the c+ waves emanating from region II and the c− waves generated at the wall x = L: + pIII = pII t − x x−L − + pIII t + .12 Wave pattern induced by a moving piston at x = 0. VI t =(4 L + x ) /c 0 t =(4 L − V x ) /c 0 t IV t =(2 L + x ) /c 0 t =(2 L − III x ) /c 0 II t = x /c 0 I x Figure 5. − c0 ρ0 c0 III (5.2 Some resonators 127 result can jump to the final result.

These original waves have now an additional phase of 2k L. Substituting x = 0 in (5.13) and generalizing the structure of the formula we find for 2N L/c0 < t < 2(N + 1)L/c0 : N ˆ p2N = 2ρ0 c0 u p e iωt n=0 e−2iknL H t − 2n L 1 .9) In region IV we have a superposition of the c− waves from region III and the c+ waves generated at the piston x = 0: − pIV = pIII t + x−L x + + pIV t − . − c0 2 (5.10) + pIV is determined by applying the boundary condition uIV = u p at x = 0: upE t − ˆ and so we find: 2L 1 + p (t) = u p E(t) ˆ − c0 ρ0 c0 IV x x − 2L x + 2L +E t+ +E t− c0 c0 c0 (5. c0 c0 (5. c0 c0 (5. (5.11) ˆ pIV = ρ0 c0 u p E t − .14) If we now limit ourselves to the position x = 0 we see that after each period of time 2L/c0 a new wave is added to the original waves reflected at the wall and piston.13) − As before. where k = ω/c0 .128 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations Hence we have: ˆ pIII = ρ0 c0 u p E t − x x − 2L +E t+ c0 c0 .12) In region V we have the c+ waves from region IV superimposed on the c− waves generated at the wall x = L: + pV = pIV t − x x−L − + pV t + . (5. (5.15) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . pV is determined by applying the boundary condition uV = 0 at x = L. We find: ˆ pV = ρ0 c0 u p E t − x x − 2L +E t+ c0 c0 x − 4L x + 2L +E t+ +E t − c0 c0 .

because for large n the argument of the Heaviside function in E becomes negative. n=1 N if a = 1. 2. so we obtain: p e−iωt = ρ0 c0 u p ˆ  −2ik(N1 +1)L 1 − e−2ik N2 L e−ikx 1 − e  + e ikx−2ik L 1 − e−2ik L 1 − e−2ik L   −ikx e (N1 + 1) + e ikx N2 (5. For k L = π . 2. at least as long as linear theory is valid. We call this the steady state limit. with the resonance frequencies given by 1 c0 /L.2.15). . N2 = . if k L = π .16) we find (5. 3 . Placing image sources in an infinitely extended tube at x = ±2n L/c0 and summing up all the waves generated yields: ˆ p = ρ0 c0 u p E t − ˆ +ρ0 c0 u p n=1 ∞ |x| c0 E t− |x − 2n L| |x + 2n L| +E t− c0 c0 .6. If k L = π for any = 1. We consider the piston as a volume source placed at x = 0+ .16) Note that this series contains always only a finite number of non-zero terms. We call this a resonance of the tube. and allowing for a small amount of damping by giving ω a small negative imaginary part. .   1 − aN  n = a 1−a a  N if a = 1.5. the pressure increases without limit. (5. with N = c0 t/2L .2 Some resonators 129 This structure could also have been obtained by using the method of images described in section 4.. c0 t − x c0 t + x . It may be verified that after substitution of x = 0 in (5. if a = 1. p converges towards a finite value. . So we have (for t > 0) p e−iωt = e−ikx ρ0 c0 u p ˆ N1 e n=0 −2iknL N2 +e ikx n=1 e−2iknL . 3 . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ..17) if k L = π . The geometric series may be summed2 . The resulting 2   1 − a N+1  n = 2 Note that: 1−a a  N + 1 n=0 N if a = 1. where = 1. N1 = 2L 2L where q denotes the integer part of q.

however.2). the power We ˆ corresponding to the energy losses due to the formation of the jet can be calculated RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . such a case flow separation will occur only while the acoustic flow is outgoing (figure 5. (5. When resonance occurs the linearized wave equation is only valid during the initial phase of the build up and if there are no losses at the walls.13 Flow at an open pipe termination at high acoustic amplitudes. In an open tube at high amplitudes vortex shedding at the pipe end will limit the amplitude [36]. 22].13a). Assuming a dominant fundamental harmonic u sin ωt. Let’s assume that the tube is terminated by a horn as shown in figure 5.130 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations equations are p e−iωt ρ0 c0 u p ˆ  −i cos(kx − k L)   sin k L →   cos(kx) c0 t L if k L = π . This extreme behaviour will. Shock waves are very thin regions with large velocity and temperature gradients in which viscous force and heat transfer induce a significant dissipation [4. As a result of the temperature dependence of the speed of sound the compression waves tend to steepen up and shock waves are formed.13.4. This is a model similar to the one discussed for an orifice in section 4. only occur in closed tubes at high pressures or at high amplitude (section 4. In u x =0 x=L u Figure 5.18) if k L = π . If we assume an acoustic particle displacement at the open pipe end which is large compared to the tube diameter d we can use a quasi-stationary model to describe (locally) the flow.3.

We assume also that flow separation occurs at the junction between the pipe and the horn. This is quite pessimistic.24) The model proposed here is valid when the Strouhal number based on the diameter and the acoustical velocity is smaller than 1. that we can represent by a pressure source p = −1 ρ0 u 2 .21) The amplitude of the acoustic field in the tube can now be estimated by assuming that the losses We at the open end balance the acoustic power Wp delivered by the piston: Wp = S T T 0 u p p (x = 0) dt.2 Some resonators from: We = S T T 131 u 0 p dt (5.19) where p = − 1 ρ0 u 2 for 0 < t < 1 T and u > 0 because a free jet is formed 2 2 which cannot sustain a pressure difference3 . i. ˆ 3π (5. Hence: We − 1 ρ u3 S ˆ 2 0 1 2T (5. Hence we find from We + W p = 0: ˆ u ˆ = c0 3π u p . since the separation is expected to be delayed considerably by the gentle divergence of the horn.23) where u is measured at the open pipe exit. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 2 For 1 T < t < T and u < 0 we have: 2 p=0 because we have a potential inflow into the pipe.20) T sin3 ωt dt = − 0 1 ρ0 u 3 S. This is due to the vorticity in the jet which results 2 into a source of sound.e. (5.22) Assuming that friction losses at the pipe wall are negligible we have: Wp 1 Su p ρ0 c0 u.5. ωd < u. ˆ 3 We assume that due to turbulence all the kinetic energy in the jet is dissipated further downstream. In terms of the Vortex Sound theory of Howe we would say that when the jet is formed during the outflow there is a deviation from potential flow resulting into p = pex . while potential flow theory would predict p = pex − 1 ρ0 u 2 . 2 c0 (5. ˆ 2 (5.

5. makes such devices efficient sound absorbers.7. Hence we seek only for a steady state solution and we assume that linear acoustics is valid. The boundary conditions at x = 0 and x = L can be written in terms of equation (5. In many cases the most significant losses are friction losses at the wall.29) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .27) where the sign indicates the direction of the wave propagation (+x or −x) and Z 0 = ρ0 c0 . We will now further limit our discussion to the case of harmonic waves. ˆ As an example we consider a piston with a velocity up = u p e iωt at x = 0 exciting a tube of cross section S closed at x = L by a rigid wall. occurring for example with flow separation. To leading order approximation one finds [102]: Zc = p k0 = ±Z 0 u k (5.) Damping also affects the impedance Zc of an infinite tube. (5. We neglect the radiation losses at x = L (which we will discuss further in section 6. We will discuss the influence of radiation from an open pipe end in section 6.132 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations The non-linear behaviour of resonators.26) where k0 = ω/c0 and α is the damping coefficient given by equation (2. however. derived in section 4.25) as: up = ˆ p+ − p− Zc (5. Sound is “caught” by the resonator and dissipated by vortex shedding. is now complex and is in first order approximation given by: k = k0 + (1 − i)α (5. We further see that wave speed c is affected: c = c0 Re(k) k0 (5. When a plane wave approximation is valid a harmonic acoustic field in a pipe with uniform cross section can in the absence of mean flow still be described by: p = p+ e iωt−ikx + p− e iωt+ikx . (In a liquid one should assume γ 1.13).25) The wave number k.7). in the time domain friction involves a convolution integral which makes the solution of problems more difficult to analyse [22].28) While friction is relatively easily taken into account for harmonic waves.

Re(k) = nπ/L with n = 1.31) In contrast to our earlier example p+ does not become infinitely large with resonance because k is complex.33) When the damping (α L) predicted by laminar boundary layer theory is small the oscillation amplitudes may become so large that the acoustical boundary layers become turbulent.25) imply that the tube length should be of the order of magnitude of the acoustic wave length (k L = O(1)). Furthermore as we have assumed the bottle neck (length ) to RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3 The Helmholtz resonator (quiescent fluid) The resonance conditions for a duct segment (5.3. 3. .2 Some resonators and 0 = p+ e−ik L − p− e ik L so that we find: p+ = Zcu p ˆ .2. we find for the case α L Zp Zc ..30) (5.. If the cross-sectional area Sb of the bottle is large compared to the cross sectional area Sn of the neck. Hence we may in first order approximation assume that the pressure perturbation pin and the potential ϕin in the bottle are uniform (Bernoulli in compact region). When the bottle is small compared to the acoustic wave length (for low frequencies). the body of the bottle acts as an acoustic spring while the neck of the bottle is an acoustic mass (figure 5. The impedance Zp seen by the piston at x = 0 is given by: Zp = p+ + p− = −iZ c cot(k L). the acoustic velocities in the bottle will be small compared to those in the neck. This implies a non-linear energy dissipation as discussed in section 4. αL (5.32) 1: Upon resonance.14).. 1 − e−2ik L 133 (5. 2.5.5. 5. In many technical applications this would imply that resonators used to absorb sound should be large (and expensive). A solution to this problem is to use a non-uniform pipe in the shape of a bottle. up ˆ (5.

given by ϕex − ϕin = ex in u · dx. dt (5. added by a small end correction δ (4.134 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations pex Sn K m un Sb V u in pin 0 Figure 5. assuming the flow to be uniform. frictionless and incompressible in a pipe with uniform cross section.36) will evidently scale on a typical length times a typical velocity. be short compared to the wave length. Hence we have: ϕex − ϕin = ( + 2δ)u n . For an orifice with a circular aperture: δ = 0.e. If we use the neck velocity un . Intermezzo: End correction As in many technical applications an orifice is used instead of bottle neck ( = 0).51) to take into account the inertia of the acoustic flow at both ends just outside the neck (inside and outside the resonator).37) .35) The potential difference ϕex − ϕin .38) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . u2 and u 2ex ) we have: in ρ0 d (ϕin − ϕex ) = pex − pin .34) Neglecting non-linear terms (i. in ex dt 2 dt 2 (5. then the corresponding length will be the neck length . k apply Bernoulli in the form: ρ0 1. (5.85 Sn π 1 2 (5. we can neglect compressibility and 1 dϕin 1 dϕex + ρ0 u 2 + pin = ρ0 + ρ0 u 2 + pex . (5.14 Helmholtz resonator as mass-spring system. the use of a reasonable estimate for δ is important.

(5.2. (5. Flow separation will certainly occur when the acoustic particle displacement RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 2 dt 2 Sn c0 (5.42) Elimination of ρin and u n from (5.37) in Bernoulli (5. Using (5.40) We can find a second equation by applying the integral mass conservation law on the volume V of the bottle. dt (5.40) by using (5.61 Sn π 1 2 135 .35) we find: ρ0 ( + 2δ) du n = pin − pex .5.43) Hence we see that the Helmholtz resonator reacts as a mass-spring system with a resonance frequency ω0 given by: 2 ω0 = 2 Sn c0 .4 Non-linear losses in a Helmholtz resonator The theory described in the previous section assumes that there is no-flow separation. dt (5. ( + 2δ)V (5. In linearized form we find for the density perturbation ρin : V dρin = −ρ0 u n Sn .42) yields: ( + 2δ)V d2 pin + pin = pex .44) 5.41) Assuming an adiabatic compression of the fluid in the bottle we can eliminate ρ in by using the constitutive equation: 2 pin = c0 ρin .7.39) See also section 6.2 Some resonators For an unflanged thin-walled open-pipe end we can use the approximation: δ = 0. Values of δ for various other geometries are given by Ingard [75].41) and (5.

2.45) where we have applied Bernoulli between a point at the entrance of the neck and a point just at the exit and we have neglected the velocities in the resonator (S b Sn ). The Strouhal number 1 flow separaSr = ω(Sn /π )1/2 /u n yields a measure for this effect.15). Furthermore losses occur for an orifice in both flow directions. When Sr tion will only occur locally at sharp edges of the neck (or orifice). Using a quasi-stationary Bernoulli equation this implies an enhancement of the pressure loss p by a factor β −2 . We have assumed that the pressure in the jet is uniform and equal to p .3. neck length and neck surface Sn in which we inject a continuous volume flow Q0 = u 0 Sn (figure 5. A multiplescales solution for this problem may be found in section 8. In principle the effect of flow separation can under these circumstances be described by assuming the formation of a quasi-stationary jet as for the pipe end (section 5.6 [34].15 Helmholtz resonator with a mean flow. the equation of Bernoulli we now find ρ0 ( + 2δ) du n + 1 ρ0 (u 0 + u n )2 + pex = p0 + pin 2 dt (5. one should take into account the fact that the jet diameter tends to be smaller than the orifice diameter by a factor β called the vena contracta factor. while in a pipe with horn we assumed losses to occur only upon outgoing acoustic flow.136 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations has an amplitude comparable to the diameter of the neck. In the case of an orifice with sharp edges. 5.2).2. For a thin orifice β 0. Using V Q0 u in pin 0 u0 + un Sn Figure 5. When Sr = O(1) flow separation will occur even if these edges are rounded off.5 The Helmholtz resonator in the presence of a mean flow We consider a Helmholtz resonator of volume V . (This is a reasonable assumption RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . the ex fluctuations due to an external acoustic source.

on its turn. pex − + 2δ dt ρ0 c0 ρ0 ( + 2δ) dt ω0 is defined by equation (5. which is. 4 A very interesting proof of the fact that a quasi-stationary subsonic free jet cannot sustain any pressure difference with the environment is provided by Shapiro [178].2 Some resonators 137 1 and ω(Sn /π )1/2 /u 0 1). because the flow leaves the exit as a jet4 .47) (5. which implies separation of the flow at the pipe exit and a Kutta condition to be added to an inviscid model (section 5. We see that the mean flow induces a damping factor which we might a priori not have expected because we did not assume friction losses nor heat transfer.49) where ω1 = c0 /( +2δ).47) and (5.46) Using the linearized mass conservation law we have neglecting terms of order (u 0 /c0 )2 : V dρin = −(ρ0 u n + ρex u 0 )Sn . The key assumption which has introduced damping is that we have assumed that the pressure perturbation at the pipe exit is equal to the environment pressure perturbation pex . dt (5. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .5.48) 2 Eliminating ρin by using the constitutive equation pin = c0 ρin and eliminating pin from (5. Separating the zero and first order terms for u 0 /c in the acoustic perturbations and neglecting second order terms we find p0 = 1 ρu 2 0 2 and ρ0 ( + 2δ) du n + ρ0 u 0 u n + pex = pin . This is true.48) we find: d2 u n + dt 2 d pex u 0 du n ω 2 M0 1 2 + ω0 u n = − 0 . This confirms that the Kutta condition is indeed a quite significant assumption [29].1)! This implies that a varying exit velocity un modulates the vorticity shed at the edges of the pipe exit.44) and M0 = u 0 /c0 . a loss of kinetic energy for the acoustic field. For a harmonic excitation pex = pex e iωt we find: ˆ 2 M0 + iω1 ω/ω0 ˆ ρ0 c0 u n =− 2 pex ˆ 1 − (ω/ω0)2 + iM0 ω1 ω/ω0 (5. dt (5.

(5.51) It is clear that such a formal solution has no simple physical interpretation. so that their sum will automatically satisfy these conditions if this sum converges uniformly. 2. (5. t|y.16 Images of source at x = y.. Another representation for the 1-D Green’s function on [0. For a pipe segment 0 < x < L closed by rigid walls a source at x = y in the pipe segment is represented by a row of sources (in an infinitely long pipe) at positions given by (figure 5.52) in a suitable basis { fn }. ∞ g(x. L] that might be useful in some applications is found by a series expansion of the Fourier transform g of ˆ g: ∞ g= ˆ n=0 An f n (x) (5.2)..2. 3.16) xn = ±(2n + 1)L ± y. In this case we will not start from elementary solutions of the wave equation.2 and section 5.50) The Green’s function is the sum of all the contributions of these sources: Figure 5. The functions fn we will consider will (only) satisfy the boundary conditions at x = 0 and x = L. n = 0. . Hence we will construct RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .6. the Green’s function of a finite duct can be obtained if we neglect friction and losses at the pipe terminations by using the method of images (section 4. 1.138 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations 5.3 Green’s function of a finite duct Formally. τ ) = 1 2c0 H t −τ + n=0 x + (2n + 1)L − y c0 x + (2n + 1)L + y c0 x − (2n + 1)L − y + H t −τ − c0 x − (2n + 1)L + y + H t −τ − c0 + H t −τ + .

which disappears to infinity if C → 0. fm (x) .59) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .55) (5.)..5. Note that for n → ∞ (Z L = 0) Kn L (n + 1 )π + 2 ik L + . For example. we note that { fn } is orthogonal to the L2 inner product: ( fn . (n + 1 )π Z L 2 (5. and exactly one solution if −1 < C < 0.54) (5.57) after application of (5. Consider: f n = sin(K n x) with K n determined by the equation ZL tan(Y ) =i Y kL with K n L = Y . and convenient that it is orthogonal to some suitable inner product..56) sin(K n x) sin(K m x) dx = sin(K n L − K m L) sin(K n L + K m L) − =0 2(K n − K m ) 2(K n + K m ) (5. Finally. if Z L /k L = iC and C is real. The number of solutions between 0 and (n + 1 )π (for n → ∞) is not always exactly n.. there is no purely imaginary solution Y = iσ with tanh(σ )/σ = −C if C > 0 or C < −1. which is easily seen by direct integration: If n = m: L 0 L f n (x) fm (x) dx.3 Green’s function of a finite duct 139 now a tailored Green’s function (section 3. defined by: δ(x − y) ˆ d2 g + k2g = − ˆ 2 2 dx c0 (5.53) so that for large n. fn approaches the Fourier-sine series basis. it is evidently necessary that the basis { fn } is complete. Depending 2 on Z L /k L it may differ by 1. Let’s now for simplicity assume that the pipe segment is limited by a rigid wall at x = 0 and an impedance ZL at x = L. If n = m: L 0 sin2 (K n x) dx = 1 L − 2 sin(2K n L) = 4K n n. (5. (5. fm ) = 0 ∗ (Note: not .1).58) We now seek an expression for the Green’s function. Furthermore..54).

1 Introduction The coupling of acoustic oscillations to mechanical vibrations is a technically important problem [198].4. – the temporal simulation. (5.1 (reciprocity). When the frequency ω of the source is close to a resonance frequency this resonance will dominate the response of the pipe segment and we can use a single mode approximation of the Green’s function. section 5.4 Self-sustained oscillations of a clarinet 5.60) Hence we have: g(x.and right-hand side by fm . and ii) any source with a frequency ω = Kn c0 (so that Kn = k) yields an infinite field. Note that in general Kn is complex.5).61) We see explicitly that: i) the Green’s function is indeed symmetric in x and y (source and observation points) as stated earlier in section 3.52). in other words: resonance. Instead of looking at a technical application we are going to consider a musical instrument. In some case such a coupling can cause the failure of a security valve. so that such a source strength increases exponentially in time. and integrating over [0. The model used is very crude and only aims at illustrating the principles of two methods of analysis: – the stability analysis. This is the approximation which we will use when discussing the thermo-acoustic oscillations in a pipe segment (Rijke tube. 5.140 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations in the form (5. 2 (K n − k 2 ) n (5. Substitution of the series. L] yields (because of orthogonality): 2 (k 2 − K m ) m Am 2 = − f m (y)/c0 . y) = ˆ 1 2 c0 ∞ n=0 f n (x) f n (y) . multiplication left. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

We assume that the flow in the reed channel is quasi-stationary and that at the end of the reed channel a free jet is formed. Sr is the surface of the reed and h is the aperture of the reed channel through which the air flows from the mouth to the pipe.2 Linear stability analysis A simplified model of a reed instrument like a clarinet is a cylindrical pipe fed by a pressure reservoir P0 (the mouth) through a valve (reed). u p S p 0 uB mr d2 h dh + K r (h − h r ) = −Sr (P0 − p ) = −Sr p. The aim of the simplification is to allow for a real time simulation of a clarinet! We will restrict our discussion to the principle of the solution of the problem. The flow volume Qr of air into the pipe is given in this approximation (if we neglect friction) by the equation of Bernoulli: Q r = u B hw = hw(2| p|/ρ) 2 sign( p) 1 (5.17 Simplified clarinet. The aperture h of the valve is assumed to be controlled by the pressure difference p = P − p 0 between the mouth pressure P0 and the acoustic pressure p in the pipe just behind the reed (figure 5. The results of the calculations can be found in the literature.17).4 Self-sustained oscillations of a clarinet 141 In the first case we consider a linear model and deduce the minimal blowing pressure necessary to obtain self-sustained oscillations.63) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4.62) γr is the damping coefficient of the reed. The equation of motion of the reed is: Sr h mr Kr L Figure 5. In the second case we consider a simplified non-linear model developed by McIntyre et al. + γr 2 dt dt (5. 5. [107] which can be used for time domain simulation. The reed has a mass mr and is maintained at a rest position hr by a spring of constant Kr .5. Neglecting pressure recovery by mixing of the jet with the air in the pipe we assume the pressure p to be uniform in the jet and equal to the pressure at the pipe inlet.

1 The linear perturbations are governed by the equations: ˆ ˆ (−ω2m r + iωγr + K r )h = Sr p uB = − ˆ u0 p ˆ 2P0 (5. It is clear that the steady state amplitude in a clarinet can only be reached by non-linear saturation of the system because linear theory predicts a monotonically growing or decaying amplitude. it can only be satisfied if the determinant vanishes. K Q 0 = u 0 h 0 w. The acoustic velocity u at the entrance of the pipe (x = 0) is given by: u = Qr S (5.66) becomes an equation for Re(ω) and P0 . u 0 = (2P0 /ρ0 ) 2 .64) where S is the pipe cross sectional area. If we assume Im(ω) = 0 equation (5.65a) (5.65a–5.65b) (5. We further assume that the acoustical behaviour of the pipe is described by an impedance Z p (ω) so that: ˆ p = Z p Q r /S.65c) ˆ ˆ ˆ Q r = w(hu 0 + h 0 u B ).65d is homogeneous. (5. ˆ (5.65d) Since the system of equations 5. This allows to determine the threshold of pressure above which oscillations occur and the frequency of the most unstable mode which starts oscillating. When Im(ω) = 0 the perturbations are neutral. they do not change in amplitude. and if Im(ω) < 0 the perturbations grow in time. A discussion of the solution of this clarinet RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . This condition yields an equation from which we can calculate ω for a given P0 : −ω2 m r + iωγr + K r = Sr u 0 h 0u 0 S + Z pw 2P0 −1 .66) If Im(ω) > 0 the perturbations are damped. If we consider a small perturbation of the P0 ) we can linearize the equations and consider the behaviour rest position ( p of a harmonic perturbation p = p e iωt . ˆ The steady state values of h and Qr are given by: h0 = hr − Sr P0 .142 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations where w is the width of the reed channel and uB the (Bernoulli) velocity of the air in the jet.

4. The criterion p Q r dt > 0 is called the Rayleigh criterion for acoustical instability. Fluctuations Q r = (dQ r /d p ) p in Q r induced by pressure fluctuations in the pipe are negative for p < pcrit and positive for p > pcrit . We will use it again in the analysis of thermo-acoustical oscillations. is given by Gazengel [53] and Kergomard in [61]. This is for example the case in harmonium reeds [181] and for valves in water like river gates [88].3 Rayleigh’s Criterion An interesting analysis of the problem of clarinet oscillation is already obtained by considering the very simple quasi-stationary reed model: h = hr − Sr p K and Q r = hw 2| p| sign( p). 5. When p > hr K /Sr = pmax the reed closes and h = 0. We dt consider here an oscillation period T in order to sustain oscillations. Between these two zero’s of Qr it is obvious that Qr > 0 and should be a maximum at a pressure difference which we call critical pcrit 1 pmax . The acoustical power 3 W= 1 T p dV = 1 T T p 0 1 dV dt = dt T T p Q r dt 0 produced by the fluctuating volume flow Qr = dV should at least be positive. A discussion of the flow through double reeds and the vocal folds is given by Hirschberg [61]. This explains the presence of a blowing pressure threshold below which the clarinet does not play. 5.5.4. including non-linear effects. It is interesting to note that in some cases the inertia of the flow in the reed which we neglected is the main driving force for instability.4 Self-sustained oscillations of a clarinet 143 model. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ρ0 √ When p = 0 there is obviously no flow because u = 2| p|/ρ0 sign( p) vanishes. This implies that the Green’s function 5 was approximated by taking the contribution of a few (one to three) modes into 5 Standing waves in the pipe closed at the reed end.4 Time domain simulation Early attempts to describe the non-linearity of a clarinet were based on a modal expansion of the acoustic field in the pipe.

(5.144 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations account (equation (5.69) If we now define the reflection function r(t) as the acoustic wave p− induced by a pressure pulse p+ = δ(t). (5. 2 However.67): w Sr p hr − u = S Kr 2| p| ρ0 1 2 (5.65d). In fact the most spectacular non-linearity is due to the limited movement of the reed upon closing. and (5. The collision of the reed against the wall of the mouthpiece can result in a chaotic behaviour [53].68)–(5.61)).72) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . we find: p− = r ∗ p+ (5.68) The pipe has a characteristic impedance Zc (= ρ0 c0 when friction is neglected) so that: u = p+ − p− . Elimination of p+ and p− from (5.71) sign( p).64) and (5.63). Zc (5.67) combined with (5. The typical procedure is further to assume a weak nonlinearity which implies that a perturbation method like the method of averaging can be used to calculate the time dependence of the modes [52]. The numerical procedure is further based on the knowledge that the acoustic pressure p at the reed is composed of an outgoing wave p+ and an incoming wave p− (result of the reflection of earlier p+ wave at the pipe end): p = p+ + p− .70) yields: p = Z c u + r ∗(Z c u + p ) where u is calculated at each time step by using (5. As stated by McIntyre [107] the non-linearity in a clarinet is not weak. A full solution is obtained by the method of harmonic balance discussed by Gilbert [54].70) where ∗ indicates a convolution (equation C. the high resonance frequency of the reed ωr = K r /m r suggests that a quasi-stationary model of the reed could be a fair first approximation.63). Hence McIntyre [107] proposes to use the steady approximation of (5.66). (5. (5.62): K r (h − h r ) = −Sr (P0 − p ) = −Sr p (5. The key feature of a clarinet mouthpiece is that this abrupt non-linearity is replaced by a softer non-linearity because upon touching the wall the reed gradually closes as it is bent on the curved wall of the mouthpiece (called the lay) and its stiffness increases because the oscillating part is becoming shorter.10).

The interesting point in McIntyre’s approach is that he uses a reflection function r(t) (which is the Fourier transform of R(ω) = (Z p − ρc)/(Z p + ρc)) rather than z p .72) to find a solution. We will now discuss such effects as an interesting example of self-sustained oscillations in resonators.71) step by step. The reflection function r is in fact calculated in a semi-infinite tube and therefore has not such an oscillatory character (figure 5. the Fourier transform of Z p .5 Some thermo-acoustics 5. however.73) is a numerically slowly converging integral because zp has an oscillatory character corresponding to the response p of a close tube to a pulse u = δ(t) (tube closed at pipe inlet). using the previous value of p to calculate u in the convolution of the right-hand side (5. At low Mach numbers in gases. In section 2.71). function which is not tailored may be more appropriate than a tailored one. 5.5 Some thermo-acoustics 145 The solution is obtained by integrating (5.1 Introduction We have focused our attention until now on wave propagation and interaction of acoustic fields with isentropic flows. that (5.5. It appears.73) which can be combined with (5. Using z p would have given the integral equation: p = z p ∗u (5.18). So it appears that a Green’s u = δ(t) p = zp y=0 p+ = δ(t) b) p− = r p− y=L a) Figure 5. entropy variations due RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .18 Difference between z p and r .5.6 we have seen that variations s in entropy should act as a volume sound source (if we use p as acoustic variable).

The reaction rates depend exponentially on T .2 M2 ). 172. This sound source has the character of a dipole. Morfey [115]). Bayly [6]. Closely related phenomena of acoustical oscillations induced by a temperature gradient in a tube is used by scientists to detect the level of liquid Helium in a reservoir. For ideal gases one can. 205]. This implies a source of sound which. Kwon and Lee [91]. acoustic waves interacting with a wall induce a transfer of heat which can be used to design an acoustically driven cooling machine. and Putnam [148].146 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations to dissipation are negligible (order 0. if it is in phase with the acoustic field. [32]. Convection of entropy spots during the mixing of a hot jet with the environment dominates the low Mach number behaviour (Crighton [32]. however. Heckl [59]. De Rijke considered the use of such a device as an organ pipe. McIntosh [106]. [15]). Radebaugh [149] and Swift [183]. show that this sound source has a vanishing monopole strength (Morfey [115]. Mixing of hot and cold gases results into fluctuations of the entropy caused by the unsteady heat conduction (equation 2. can lead to instability. among which Merk [110]. Even in free space this implies a strong increase in sound production. 170. 171. Such engines have been studied by Wheatley [200]. This phenomenon has been extensively studied by Rott [121. The “singing flame” has already been discussed extensively by Rayleigh [151].85). and Raun [150]. He found that placing an electrically heated gauze in the lower part of a vertical tube open at both ends would induce strong acoustical oscillations. Candel & Poinsot [19]. This experiment was carried our first by De Rijke around 1848 [164]. We will now focus our attention on the effect of unsteady heat transfer at walls. Entropy fluctuations occur mainly as a result of combustion (or vapour condensation) in the bulk of the flow or as a result of heat conduction at the wall. Combustion instability is often triggered by the strong dependence of combustion processes on temperature. This type of interaction has already attracted the attention of Rayleigh [151] in the form of the Rijke tube oscillation. We experience this effect when we ignite the flame of a gas burner. The fascinating aspect of this phenomenon is that it can be inverted. Gervais [141]. Hence temperature fluctuations associated with pressure fluctuations will induce variation in combustion rate. The ultimate engine consists of two thermo-acoustic couples (el- RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . More recent information on the interaction of combustion with acoustic is found in Crighton et al. Obermeier [134]). Bloxsidge et al. 173. Placed in a closed tube a flame can couple with standing waves. This type of instability is known in aircraft engine as a re-heat buzz (Keller [84]. in a very systematic series of papers. The subject has been studied as a model for combustion instability by many scientists.

5. This is a cooling machine without moving parts! driver cooler very hot cold very cold cold Figure 5. Along the strip viscous and thermal boundary layers δV (x) and δT (x) will develop.19) [184]. We will limit our discussion to a simple analysis of the Rijke tube oscillation.74) (5.2 Modulated heat transfer by acoustic flow and Rijke tube We consider a thin strip of metal of temperature Tw and width w aligned along the mean flow direction in a uniform flow u∞ .76) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . For small fluctuations u are small and that ωw/u∞ of u ∞ around an average value u0 the fluctuations in the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated as described by Schlichting [175] for any mean flow of the type u 0 ∼ x n (wedge flow). T∞ − Tw δT u(y) = (5.5. while δV /δT = O(1).5. We now limit ourselves to the flat plate (n = 0) and we use a low frequency limit from which the memory effect will become more obvious than from Schlichting’s solution. corresponding to ωw/u∞ layers the flow is uniform.75) Such an approximation is only valid for low frequencies and small perturbation 1 and u /u 0 1. Outside the boundary amplitudes.19 Heat driven acoustical cooling engine. We assume that δV /w and δT /w 1. In this approximation the viscous stress τw at the wall is given by: τw = η u∞ δV (5. We further approximate the velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layers by: u∞ y δV y T (y) − Tw = .5 Some thermo-acoustics 147 ements with a a temperature gradient): one at the hot side which induces a strong acoustic field and a second at the cold side which is driven by the first (figure 5.

− ∂t 3 ∂x 3 ∂x 3 δ0 u0 ∂ x (5. The stationary solution of (5.78b) δT 2 ∂ 2 2 δT ∂ 2 ∂ + u∞ 1 − δ = 4a − u ∞ − δ for δT > δV ∂t δV ∂x T 3 δV ∂ x V (5.78a) is: 12νx 1 2 u0 while δT can be calculated from (5. (5.148 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations and the heat transfer q at the wall by: T∞ − Tw ∂T = −K .83b) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .78a) ∂t 3 ∂x u ∞ ∂t 2 1 δT ∂ 2 δT 3 ∂ 2 ∂ + u∞ δT = 4a + u ∞ δ for δT < δV ∂t 3 δV ∂ x 3 δV ∂ x V (5. (5.80) In air we have Pr < 1 and hence in general δV < δT . The boundary conditions are: δV (0) = δT (0) = 0 at x = 0. (5. (5. use further the assumption Pr = 1 because we do not expect an essentially different physical behaviour. This is certainly a very crude approximation in a Rijke tube.78b): δV = δT = δ V .79) a= ρC P 1 in order to keep the Note that we have used the assumption (Tw − T∞ )/T∞ equations simple. We will.77) q = −K ∂ y y=0 δT Using an integral formulation of the conservation law in boundary layer approximation we find [175]: 2δ 2 ∂u ∞ u∞ ∂ 2 ∂ + δV = 4ν − V (5.81) (5. however.83a) (5.78c) where a is the thermal diffusivity of the gas: K .82) Using the notation δ0 = δT = δV for the stationary solution we find in linear approximation: 1 ∂ 1 δ0 ∂u u ∂δ0 δ ∂ + u0 δV = − − u0 V + ∂t 3 ∂x u 0 ∂t 3 δ0 u0 ∂ x 2 ∂ 1 1 ∂δ u ∂δ0 δ − δT ∂ + u0 δT = + u 0 V + u 0 V .

83a) 3 and (x = 2 u 0 t) for (5. In the pipe we place a row of hot strips (or a hot gauze). When the tube is vertical a flow u0 will be induced by free convection (the tube is a chimney). As shown in figure 5. Figure 5.83b). When the tube is horizontal we impose u0 by blowing. This corresponds to a single mode expansion of the Green’s function (5. We see that the perturbations 3 in δT move along the strip with a phase velocity 2 u 0 which 3 implies a “memory” of the heat transfer q for perturbations u of the mean flow. We will now explain this. x=L 149 x=0 hot grid It appears that the tube starts oscillating at its fundamental x=−L u0 frequency f0 = c/4L when the heating element is placed 1 at x = − 2 L.21 the acoustic velocity u at x = 0 will vanish for the funda- RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Note that some excitation of higher modes can be obtained but these are weak because of increased radiation losses at high frequencies.61). The Rijke tube is an open pipe of length 2L (figure 5. These equations can be solved by integration along the characteristics: (x = 1 u 0 t) for (5. Hence we will assume that only the fundamental mode can be excited.20 Rijke tube. As proposed by Rayleigh [151] we start our analysis by placing the warming element at the center of the tube (x = 0). This memory is crucial for the understanding of the Rijke tube instability. x=L p = p(x) cos ωt ˆ x =0 u =− x = −L d p sin ωt ˆ dx ρ0 ω u0 Figure 5.21 Pressure p and acoustic velocity u distribution for the fundamental mode.20).5.5 Some thermo-acoustics where u ∞ = u 0 + u . at a quarter of the tube length in the upstream direction (at the lower part of the tube for a vertical tube).

We therefore see that the position x = −1 L is a compromise between 2 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .84) in terms of (5. The rate of volume injection dV /dt corresponds to the volume integral V ∇ · q dx = S q · n dσ which is the integral of the heat transfer from the heating element. as the transfer of heat from the wall to the gas implies an expansion of the gas we can also understand (5.7 the power W produced by the source is (2.68) has been substituted: 1 ∂2 p − ∇2 p 2 c0 ∂t 2 ρ0 ∂ T 2 c0 T0 ∂ρ ∂ ∇· q S ∂t (5.150 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations mental mode.80): W= V p m dV.84) which corresponds to a volume source term ∂2 (βρ f )/∂t 2 in (2.85) This equation can also be derived from the equation for the work A performed by volume variation dV : A= p dV (5. However.86) which can be written as: A= 0 T p dV dt dt (5. If we neglect the “memory” effect of the heat capacity of the boundary layers the heat flux q decreases when p increases because Tw − T is reduced.87). The acoustic effect of the unsteady heat transfer q is given in a quantitative way by the linearized equation 2. As derived in section 2.85) that the source is ineffective at this position. The variation of heat transfer q is only due to the temperature fluctuations T = (γ − 1)γ −1 p of the gas in the main flow.63) or in linearized form ∂(m/ρ0 )/∂t.67 in which (2. Hence we understand that the Rijke tube oscillation is due to modulation of q by the acoustic velocity fluctuations u . An optimal amplitude of q is obtained just at the end of the pipe at x = −L where u has the largest amplitude. at this place p is close to zero so that we see from (5. We now easily understand that as q is opposite in phase with p the presence of a hot element at x = 0 will damp oscillations of the fundamental mode of the pipe. Furthermore.87) where dV /dt = m/ρ0 dV and T = 2π/ω is the oscillation period. ρ0 (5.

As we will explain such a condition implies a 2 very low flow velocity and hence much weaker oscillations. t) Figure 5. We still have to understand why it should be x = − 1 L and not x = 1 L. an optimum of RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . In practice this oscillation mode at low velocities is not observed. The key of this is that for x < 0 the pressure p 2 2 increases when the acoustic velocity u enters the pipe (u > 0) upwards while for x > 0 the velocity is downwards at that time. t) τ ¹ q(x. As we see from the diagram of figure 5. the delayed heat flux q is 2 in phase with p if x < 0.83b) that: τ=O 3w 2u 0 (5. t) È p (x.5. ¡ « u (x > 0. The hot gas remains around the warming element blocking the heat transfer. Pulsations induced by a hot grid placed at x > 0 would involve a larger delay: ωτ = 3 π . It is the part of q which is in phase with p that produces the sound in a Rijke tube.22 for ωτ = 1 π . Hence. Also when π ≤ ωτ ≤ 2π we expect that the oscillations will be damped out. and cannot anticipate on perturbations of u . When we do not blow hard enough the boundary layers δ0 will be very thick. As the delay τ is due to the “memory” of the boundary layer we expect that τ > 0. When we blow very hard the residence time τ of a perturbation δT in the boundary layer on the strip will be very short because we expect from (5. t) È Ã t u (x < 0. Hence the occurrence of oscillations is due to a delay τ in the reaction of q on u .88) where w denotes the length of the heated strip in flow direction. If the heat transfer would react instantaneously on u then q would vary as sin(ωt) while p varies as cos(ωt).5 Some thermo-acoustics 151 an optimum for p and an optimum for q. A memory effect of 1 π will shift the phase of the heat transfer q 2 from that of u (the quasi-steady approximation) toward that of p . As a consequence W integrated over a period of oscillation would vanish. since the boundary layer integrates. The time delay τ is determined by the time that a perturbation in δT remains along the strip.22 Sketch of time dependence of p and u in the upper (x > 0) and lower (x < 0) part of the tube.

why in the experiment one finds typical amplitudes of the order of u = O(u 0 ). this is less critical6 than in a vertical pipe where the temperature element also drives the main flow u0 . one should use a metal gaze made of wires of 0. A comprehensive theory of the Rijke tube oscillation. The proposed saturation model has first been used by Heckl [59]. by combination of (5. the wires being separated by a distance in the order of 1 mm. has not yet been presented. ωw (5. The pipe will produce its sound after the candle is drawn back.5 mm diameter. While we have seen that certain conditions are favourable for an oscillation we did not yet discuss the non-linear effects leading to saturation.5 cm2 . imposed by blowing through the pipe. In experiments with a horizontal pipe it is quite easily observed that blowing too hard reduces τ such.5×2. For a glass pipe of 2L=30 cm length and an inner diameter of d =2.90) back flow will occur from the wake towards the strip.90). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The strip is then surrounded by pre-heated gas and this blocks the heat transfer. 6 Since the design of a vertical Rijke tube driven by natural convection is not easy we provide here the dimensions of a simple tube. We now understand. For a horizontal tube at a fixed u0 . including non-linear effects and the influence of large temperature differences.89) This behaviour is indeed verified by experiments. it is sufficient to isolate the essential limiting non-linearity.152 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations pulsations may be expected for ωτ = 1 π : 2 π wω = . Note that at very large amplitudes (u /ωw > 1) there is a wake upstream of the strip during part of the oscillation period. It is interesting to note that Rayleigh [151] describes this non-linear effect of saturation as a “driving” mechanism. u0 3 (5. that pulsations disappear. The bended corners can be used to fix the gaze at its position (x = − 1 L). We see that such a theory is not necessary to predict the order of magnitude of the oscillation amplitude. The most obvious effect is that when the acoustic particle displacement becomes comparable to the width of the strip: u = O(1).2 mm to 0.89) and (5. A small candle is a very 2 suitable heat source. On the contrary. This gaze can be cut in a square of 2. Of course in order to obtain a stable oscillation the temperature Tw should reach a critical limit.5 cm.

168]. 109. u0 V u0 w V Figure 5. We now ignore these effects for the sake of simplicity and because we do not have available any theory that predicts these corrections. 132. We will now more specifically consider a grazing uniform flow. When ω = ω0 we find a maximum of the pulsation amplitude and the phase condition is entirely determined by the shear layer.23. 18. In principle we should add to the convection time of the perturbation along the shear layer a phase shift at the “receptivity” point upstream and another at the “excitation” point downstream. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Self-sustained oscillations with a frequency ω close to the resonance frequency ω 0 of the resonator occur when the phase condition for a perturbation in the feedback loop (shear layer/resonator) is satisfied and the gain is sufficiently large.23 Helmholtz resonator in a wall with grazing flow.6 Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator In view of the large amount of applications in which they occur. 166. 40. 69. These corrections are either due to “end corrections” or to the transition from a pressure perturbation p in the resonator to a velocity or displacement perturbation of the shear layer. flow induced pulsations of a Helmholtz resonator or wall cavity have received considerable attention in the literature [8.6 Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator 153 5.1. The configuration which we consider is shown in figure 5. 58. 73. We will now discuss models which can be used to predict the order of magnitude of the pulsations. 131.5. 36. In principle the flow instability has already been described qualitatively in section 5. 68.

we found in some experiments that this is no guarantee for stability [17]. 168].92) the flow is linearly stable. Equation (5. It appears from experiment that when the travel time of a perturbation 2 across the opening width w roughly matches the oscillation period 2π/ω of the 0 resonator (or a multiple of 2π/ω0) pulsations occur. It appears that a linear theory is only valid for low pulsation amplitudes. n = 1. 166]. A remarkable exception is the oscillation found inside solid propellant rockets for which 6 ≤ n ≤ 12 [196].91) 0. 131.154 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations In both configurations of figure 5. A currently used cure for pulsations is to place a device called “spoiler” which increases δ just upstream of the cavity [17.. 3. In the experiments one observes in most cases for a grazing uniform flow a spectacular non-linear behaviour of the shear layer [17]. Furthermore when the hydrodynamic wave length (w/n) becomes comparable to the gradient length δ in the grazing velocity profile (boundary layer thickness at the wall) the flow becomes stable and the perturbations are damped.92) imposes an upper bound to the hydrodynamic mode instability.23 in first order approximation perturbations of the shear layer (at the opening of the resonator) propagate with a velocity uc of the order of 1 u 0 .4u 0 . This leads to the model of Nelson [17. A new vortex is generated following Nelson’s experimental observations at the moment that the RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4u 0 across the slot (see figure 5.4u 0 More complex phase condition depending on the geometry and the Mach number has been reported by [12.4u 0 (5. 61. . In most experiments mode numbers higher than n = 5 are not observed. (5. At moderate acoustic amplitude u /u 0 = O(10−1 ) one can assume that the acoustic field only triggers the flow instability but does not modify drastically the amount of vorticity shed at the upstream edge of the slot. Typically one finds a velocity u c 0. Equation (5. . It is often assumed that the perturbations along the shear layer grow according to a linear theory. in the range of u /u 0 ≤ 10−3 . 132] in which one assumes a vortex of strength given by: d dx d = · = u0 · 1 u0 (5. The first hydrodynamic mode (n = 1) is usually the strongest because it corresponds with the highest velocity at which pulsations occur. The vorticity of the shear layer is concentrated into discrete vortices. 166.7).92) can be used to choose a reasonable spoiler height. However. Hence the phase condition for instability is [61]: ω0 w = 2π n.. 2. Typically for: δω0 >2 0.93) 2 dt dx dt travelling at a velocity uc = 0.

the acoustic power W generated by vortices due to instability of the grazing flow along an orifice of area (w × B) is given by W = O(5 · 10−2 ) 1 ρ0 u 2 w Bu 0 2 where u is the amplitude of the acoustic velocity fluctuations through the orifice. p in the resonator is at a minimum).7 one can calculate the acoustic pulsation amplitude. u0 vortex V Figure 5. (ω × v) · u dV. Using Howe’s analogy as described in section 2. This occurs indeed when 0 2 the edges of the slot are sharp. Typically. At a sharp edge u is large because the potential (acoustic) flow is singular. As the source strength ∇· (ω × v) is independent of u we find a finite amplitude by balancing the friction. we would expect from this theory to find pressure amplitudes scaling with the dynamical pressure of the flow p = O( 1 ρu 2 ).6 and 2. Using Howe’s formula: W = −ρ0 V we see that the vortex is initially absorbing energy from the acoustic field (figure 5. Upon formation of a new vortex the acoustic field u is directed towards the interior of the resonator.24 Rounded upstream edge. When an edge is rounded off u is not singular and the initial absorption will be modest. radiation and heat transfer losses with the power generated by the vortices. As friction and radiation losses scale on u 2 . The amplitude of the pulsations depends critically on the shape of the edge at which vortex shedding ocurs. (2. This effect can be understood as follows.25) because −(ω × v) is opposite to u .5.98) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .6 Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator 155 acoustic velocity u is zero and is increasing (directed into the resonator.

If we increase the blowing velocity the sound disappears. u /u 0 > 0.156 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations −(ω × v) W production t v T u absorption Figure 5. Of course.4u0 ) of the vortex across the slot is shorter than half a period (w/0. then only absorption 2 occurs. The net sign of W over a period T = 2π/ω0 of oscillation depends of course also on the amount of energy produced by the vortex in the second half of the acoustic period when the acoustic velocity u is directed outwards from the resonator [17. The main amplitude limitation mechanism at high amplitudes. The discussion given here provides some qualitative indications for various basic phenomena of cavity oscillation. A typical amplitude observed in Helmholtz resonators is u /u 0 = O(10−1 ). the amplitude u scales on u0 .4u0 < 1 T ).2. 89]. This effect can easily be experienced by whistling with our lips. Another possible mechanism at high amplitudes is the transition of acoustical flow from laminar into turbulent (section 4. is the shedding of vorticity by the acoustic flow. In many engineering applications insight is sufficient for taking remedial mea- RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . This behaviour is indeed observed [17. 191]. when those 0 effects balance each other. Models as the one of Nelson [131. Hence. 132] provide insight but are not able to predict accurately the amplitude of the oscillations.5. Self-sustained oscillations are impossible in this case. 89]. At the upstream edge this implies an increase of the shed vorticity with u and a dependence of the initial damping on u 3 . Howe [70] observes that at high amplitudes the vortex sound absorption scales on u 3 whereas the sound production scales on u u 2 .25 Absorption of acoustic energy by vortex shedding. when u0 is so large that the travel time (w/0. This amplitude is also typical of a recorder flute or a whistle [61. In [89] it is observed that at very high amplitudes (u /u 0 = O(1)) in a resonator formed by side branches along a pipe.3). non-linear wave propagation resulting into the generation of non-resonant cavity modes was a major amplitude limiting mechanism.

b) When the impedance Z (L) at a pipe end is small. For Z (L) = ∞ (closed wall) calculate the power generated by the piston. However. one can consider the pipe being terminated at virtual position x = L + δ by a purely resistive impedance Z (L) = Re Z (L). Assume that the two pistons move harmonically with the same velocity u p e iωt . |Z (L)| ρ 0 c0 .6 Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator 157 sures.28a. δ is called the end correction of the pipe. Calculate the amplitude of the acoustic field for Z (L) = ∞. Calculate the amplitude p of the acoustic field at the piston following linear theory ˆ for ωS 1/2 /c < 1 as a function of S1 /S2 and L. Assume that radiation losses at the open ends are negligible. Estimate the largest amplitudes that may be reached before linear theory fails.5. Neglect friction in the tube.26 Two pistons along a pipe. Neglect friction in the pipe. Exercises a) Calculate the impedance seen by a piston placed at the end x = 0 of a tube closed at x = L by an impedance Z (L). Sp S up x =0 Figure 5.26) of cross sectional surface S. when a prediction of the amplitude is required a more detailed flow model is needed. b and c. The edges of the junction at the main pipe are rounded off. e) What is the impedance Z p of the piston for the configurations of figure 5. up x=L x c) Consider two identical pistons of surface S p placed at a distance L from each other along an infinitely extended pipe (figure 5.27). How large is the amplitude of the acoustic field under these circumstances for 0 < x < L? d) Consider a piston placed at the end of a closed side branch of cross sectional surface S1 along a main pipe with a cross sectional surface S 2 (figure 5. Are these configurations at certain critical frequencies equivalent to closed resonators? f) Consider a clarinet as a cylindrical pipe segment of 2 cm diameter and 1 m long driven by a piston with a velocity u p = u p e iωt . Show that ˆ under specific conditions the acoustic field vanishes for x > L and x < 0. The side branch has a length L. Assume that u p = 1 m/s which ˆ ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Such models are not yet available. Derive a relationship between δ and Z (L).

27 T-junction. Assume that the pipe is driven at the first (lowest) resonance frequency.28 Coupled T-junctions.158 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations S2 L up S1 Figure 5. Calculate the pressure at the piston assuming an ideal open RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . L S2 2 3 p 0 a) L 1 up S1 S 2 1 3 S L 5 2L 4 b) L up S S up S p c) 0 1 2 S L p 0 L Figure 5. is a typical order of magnitude.

5. Is a quasi-stationary model reasonable? up S1 S2 S1 L3 p 0 L1 L2 up S1 L1 L2 S2 L3 S1 p 0 Figure 5.6 Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator 159 end behaviour without radiation losses or flow separation. ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The membrane displacement η = η e iωt is driven by (and drives.29a and b). Calculate the same quantities if a quasi-stationary model is used at the pipe end to describe flow separation of the outgoing acoustic flow while friction is neglected. The cavity is hard-walled on all sides (u · n = 0) except one. ˆ ˆ h) Introduction: A possible 3-D model for a kettle drum consists of a cavity in free space. mass density σ ). Calculate the amplitude of the fluid particle displacement at the pipe end. g) A pipe segment with a different cross sectional area S 2 than the cross section S1 of the rest of the pipe can be used as a filter to prevent the propagation of waves generated by a piston. as the air follows the membrane. Assuming an ideal open end at x = L 1 + L 2 + L 3 .) the pressure difference across the ˆ membrane: T ∇ 2 η + ω2 σ η = pupper − plower ˆ ˆ The normal velocity u · n at both sides of the membrane is equal to ∂η/∂t = ˆ iωη e iωt . provide a set of equations from which we can calculate the amplitude of the acoustic velocity u end at the pipe end for a given velocity u p of the piston. Two solutions can be considered S 2 > S1 and S1 < S2 (figure 5.29 Resonators in a pipe. with acoustic perturbations p = p e iωt in. which is closed by an elastic membrane (tension T .. ˆ ˆ iωρ0 u + ∇ p = 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ for k = ω/c0 ..and outside the cavity: ˆ ∇ 2 p + k 2 p = 0.

closed at x = 0. ∞) at x = L at x = 0 at x = L for x → ∞.e.g. Problem: A 1-D variant of the kettle drum problem is a semi-infinite pipe (0 ≤ x < ∞) of typical radius a. Determine the equation for ω. and try to indicate the general solution graphically in the complex ω-plane for dimensionless groups of parameters. j) Assuming that p ex = 0. and (in general) the possible ω n ’s will be complex. ˆ px x + k 2 p = 0 ˆ −8T a −2 η + ω2 σ η = p(L+) − p(L−) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ px = 0 ˆ p x = ω2 ρ0 η ˆ ˆ outgoing waves for x ∈ (0. and kept in position by a spring. solve this for some simple cases. What are the acoustic mass m and the spring constant K of this mass-spring system.30 Helmholtz resonator driven by a piston k) Consider a Helmholtz resonator in a semi-infinite pipe driven by a piston at x = 0 (figure 5. how would the Helmholtz resonator react to a periodic ˆ volume injection Q = Q e iωt into the bottle (e.160 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations A basic musical question is: what is the spectrum of this system. L up Sn V S Figure 5. with Im(ω n ) > 0. and a piston-like element at x = L (modelling the membrane) driven by the pressure difference across x = L. What is the condition for which there is no transmission. a piston moving in the bottom wall). for which (discrete) set {ωn } does there exist a solution without forcing? Note that since the waves radiate away into free space any solution will decrease and die out (called “radiation damping”).30). L) ∪ (L. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . i. Calculate the transmitted acoustic field following linear theory. Are there solutions with Im(ω) = 0? How are these to be interpreted physically? i) Consider the Helmholtz resonator as an acoustic mass-spring system.

1 n) Assuming ρ0 ω u ˆ ˆ2 ˆ 2 ρ0 u . Calculate the transmission coefficient and reflection coefficient following linear theory for an acoustic wave p + e iωt−ikx incident from the left. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .5.12). V air water Sp S Figure 5.6 Flow induced oscillations of a Helmholtz resonator 161 Sp Figure 5. estimate the maximum acoustic velocity u which can ˆ e iωt in a Helmholtz resonator if friction be reached for given volume injection Q and heat transfer are neglected.31 Two orifices V Sd l) Consider the volume V between two orifices of equal aperture surface S d S p in a pipe of surface S p (figure 5. 4 o) Calculate the value of p in / pex at resonance for a Helmholtz resonator in the presˆ ˆ ence of mean flow of velocity u 0 through the neck.73). Derive this equation starting from (3.31). Compare this with the maximum pressure which can be reached in a 1 λ pipe resonator (with one open end). Calculate the reflection and transmission coefficient following linear theory for a wave p + e iωt−ikx incident from the left. L] using the Green’s function g a corresponding to the geometry of figure 5.32). This equation is equivalent to (5.18a (with (∂g a /∂y) y=0 = 0 and (ga ) y=L corresponding to the impedance of the pipe seen from the position y = 0) we find: 2 p = −ρ0 c0 t −∞ ∂ga u (y.12) on [0. τ ) ∂τ y=0 dτ. p) Using the integral formulation (3.32 Exercise m m) Consider a volume V filled with air connected by a short pipe of length to a pipe filled with water (figure 5.

(A car with open roof!). B = 0. Do you expect that at this amplitude vortex shedding at the pipe end will be a significant acoustic energy loss mechanism? r) Consider a Helmholtz resonator with a volume V and a slot aperture w × B placed in a wall with a grazing flow (figure 5. Given that the maximum power is given by W = 0. w = 0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3 m. Assume that the effective neck length is w. s) Give an order of magnitude of the acoustical pressure fluctuations in a clarinet.5 m.05 1 ρ0 u 2 uwB 0ˆ 2 estimate the amplitude of the acoustic pressure p in the resonator for air if: ˆ V = 3 m3 .25 m.23).162 5 Resonators and self-sustained oscillations q) Calculate the expected acoustic optimal amplitude in a vertical Rijke tube of 1 m length and 5 cm diameter in which a gauze with a strip of width w = 1 mm has been placed at x = −0.

6 6. and therefore could be neglected in our analysis. Finally the radiation from an open pipe termination will be discussed (section 6. 6. Two-dimensional acoustic waves have a complex structure as may be seen from the Green’s functions given in Appendix E (see the discussion by Dowling et al. Radiation of sound from such systems was assumed to be a small effect for the internal acoustic field. Note.5) we will consider the radiation of a compact body by using Curle’s formalism (section 6. for the particular case of a spherically symmetric acoustic field the wave equation reduces .7). However.6. However. dipole. for the calculation of environmental noise the radiation is crucial. After a summary of the classical application of Lighthill’s analogy to free jets (section 6. Taylor’s series expansion of G0 will be used to introduce the concepts of monopole. [39]). To keep things manageable we will assume that the vibrating objects are small compared to the wave length (compact bodies) and that we radiate sound into an unbounded homogeneous quiescent fluid (free space).4). the vibration of elastic structures is an essential part of the radiation path. Hence.2) we will derive an expression for the free field Green’s function G0 (6.37). This will be used to get insight into the sound generated by a ventilator. Starting from an exact solution of the acoustic field induced by the pulsation and translation of a sphere (section 6. etc.36.1 Spherical waves Introduction In the previous chapter we have considered the low frequency approximation of the acoustics of pipes and resonators.6). Furthermore. if sound would not escape we would not hear it. The method of images will appear to be a very powerful tool to get insight into the effect of boundaries on radiation (section 6. and multipole expansion (section 6. quadrupole.3).2 Pulsating and translating sphere The wave equation in 3-D allows quite complex solutions. as sound often is transferred through walls.

In three dimensions we have a region with kr 1 called “near field” in which we find a behaviour of v which is close to that of an incompressible flow.1) where r is the distance between the observation point and the origin. We eliminate ρ by using the constitutive 2 equation p = c0 ρ .1).3a) and the linearized mass conservation law: ∂(v r 2 ) ∂(ρ r 2 ) = −ρ0 . and eliminate v by subtracting the time derivative of r2 times the momentum equation (6. ∂t ∂r (6.3b).2) This result can easily be understood because acoustic energy scales with p 2 (equation 2.2) is: rp = F t − r r +G t + . The general.164 to: 6 Spherical waves 1 ∂ 2 ∂p 1 ∂2 p r − 2 2 ∂t 2 r ∂r ∂r c0 =0 (6. 2 ∂r 2 c0 ∂t 2 (6. The key for solving (6.1) is that we can formulate a 1-D wave equation for (r p ): 1 ∂ 2 (r p ) ∂ 2 (r p ) − = 0.78a). This yields the wave equation (6.3b) The mass in a volume shell 4πr2 dr changes as a result of the difference between 4πr 2 v and 4π(r + dr)2 v (r + dr) in flux. as the surface of a spherical wave increases with r2 the amplitude p (r) should decrease as r−1 to keep energy constant as the wave propagates. while for kr 1 we find a “far field” region in which the waves behave locally as plane waves.3a) from the spatial derivative of the mass equation (6. c0 c0 (6. These features may be derived from the radial component of the (linearized) momentum conservation law: ρ0 ∂p ∂v =− ∂t ∂r (6. The radius of curvature of the wave front is large compared to the wave length. Compared to 1-D waves the relationship between pressure p and acoustic velocity v now shows a drastically new behaviour which depends on the ratio of r and the acoustic wave length. formal solution of (6. Hence.4) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

we can use linear acoustics. This may be verified by substitution of a harmonic solution into (6.2 Pulsating and translating sphere 165 combining an outgoing wave F and an incoming wave G. the acoustic velocity v has a rather complex behaviour. Far away there is no incoming wave.3a): ρ0 1 r ∂v 1 = 2F t − F + ∂t r c0 c0r t− r . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2. to an incompressible flow behaviour (r2 v = constant) while the second term corresponds to wave-like phenomena. while the sphere of radius a(t). We find For a compact sphere the first term is dominating (a(∂2 a/∂t 2 )/c0 exactly the result which we could anticipate from (2.4) into the momentum conservation law (6. If (∂a/∂t)/c0 movement of the sphere boundary yields the equation derived from (6.5) corresponds.5) We now observe that the first term of (6.6. This behaviour is found by substitution of (6. Using (6.2.5): ρ0 1 a ∂ 2a 1 F = 2F t − + 2 ∂t a c0 c0 a t− a .21a.8) A very systematic discussion of this fundamental solution is given by Lighthill [102]. the second derivative to time of the volume of the sphere is the source of sound.59).23). Hence: ˆˆ ˆ ˆ p v = 1 (v p∗ + v ∗ p) = 4 p p∗ ˆˆ . c0 (6. 2ρ0 c0 (6. iωρ0r ρ0 c0 ρ0 c0 kr (6. As already stated.21b. This result of a vanishing incoming wave in free space may also be formulated as a boundary condition at r → ∞ (2.5) we can now determine the acoustic field generated by a pulsating 1. for r/c0 much smaller than the typical inherent time scale.9) 2 1). so we define the “free field” as the region for which G = 0.5): ˆ p = p e iωt = we find v= ˆ p ˆ p ˆ i p ˆ + = − +1 .7) A iωt−ikr e 4πr (6. Only the second term does contribute to the acoustic energy flux I = p v . c0 (6. in contrast with the 1-D situation.6) ˆ The first term in v is 1 π out of phase with p and therefore does not contribute to ˆ 2 I = p v .

The most simple example of this behaviour is a translating sphere of constant radius a . ˆ ˆ p(a0 ) = ˆ Hence p(r) = − ˆ ˆ ω2 ρ0 aa0 −ik(r−a0 ) e .6) by substitution of v = iωa in (6. If ϕ is a (spherically symmetric) solution of the wave equation: 1 ∂ 2ϕ − ∇ 2ϕ = 0 2 c0 ∂t 2 (6. ρ0 c0 1 + ika0 1 + (ka0 )2 We see that the real part of the radiation impedance of a compact sphere (ka 0 is very small: Re Z ρ0 c0 (ka0 )2 (6.10) A −ika0 ω 2 ρ0 a ˆ e =− . This effect becomes even more dramatic when we consider the radiation of a compact vibrating object of constant volume.22b). in contrast to the monopole source corresponding to a compact pulsating sphere.14) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The solution of the problem is easily obtained since we can generate from the spherically symmetric solution (6.13) Hence (see (3.12) 1) (6. 4π a0 1 + ika0 We can also determine the acoustic impedance Z Z(ω) = p(a0 ) ˆ p(a0 ) ˆ = v(a0 ) ˆ iωa ˆ (6.4) non-spherically symmetric solutions by taking a spatial derivative (see equation 2. the amplitude A of the radiated field is found from (6. For harmonic oscillations of the sphere ˆ (a = a0 + a e iωt ).9) is dominating for large sphere 2 1).7) at r = a0 .11) Using (6.7) we find: ika0 ika0 + (ka0 )2 Z = = . (1 + ika0 )2 (6.17)) a compact vibrating object in free space will be a very ineffective source of sound. In such a case the action of the wall movement is that radii (a(∂ 2 a/∂t 2 )/c0 of a piston which generates plane waves. This is what 0 we call a dipole radiation source.166 6 Spherical waves A steady expansion of the sphere (∂a/∂t = constant) does not (in this approximation) generate sound. The second term of (6.

ϑ) = v0 · r a0 |r|=a0 = v0 cos ϑ.2 Pulsating and translating sphere then any derivative of ϕ . any derivative of Eq.16) for r = a0 we can now calculate the amplitude A for given v0 : ˆ iωv0 = − A ˆ 2 + 2ika0 − (ka0 )2 −ika0 e 3 a0 (6.18) Using the boundary condition (6.6. This pressure field simply corresponds to ˆ 2 the inertia of the incompressible flow induced by the movement of the fluid from RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . where at its surface the radial flow velocity is given by: v (a0 . (6. is also a solution: 1 ∂ 2 ∂ϕ 2 c0 ∂t 2 ∂ xi − ∇2 ∂ϕ ∂ xi = 0. 1− r kr (6.17) ∂r because ∂ x = cos ϑ. For a harmonic oscillation v = v0 e iωt 0 with (v0 /ωa0 ) ˆ 1 the pressure field p is given by: p=A ˆ ∂ e−ikr ∂x r = A cos ϑ ∂ e−ikr ∂r r (6.20) In the limit of (ka0 ) p ˆ ˆ − 1 (ka0 )2 ρ0 c0 v0 2 Again we observe a near field behaviour with a pressure decreasing as r−2 and ˆ for which p is 1 π out of phase with v0 .17) can be written as: p= ˆ ˆ 3 −iωρ0v0 a0 cos ϑ ∂ e−ik(r−a0 ) . 2 + 2ika0 − (ka0 )2 ∂r r 1 we see that: i a0 cos ϑ e−ikr .3a): ˆ iωρ0v = − A cos ϑ ∂ 2 e−ikr . (6. ∂r 2 r (6.21) (6. such as (∂ϕ /∂ xi ) or (∂ϕ /∂t). This pressure is related to the acoustic velocity v by the momentum conservation law (6.16) ˆ we can use the derivative in the x-direction. So if we try to find the field of a translating sphere with velocity v0 (in x-direction).15) in particular.19) so that the pressure field (6. 167 (6.6) is a solution.

168 6 Spherical waves the front towards the back of the moving sphere.26) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .23) where pr (a0 ) is the acoustic pressure due to the spherical waves generated by the bubble oscillation. While the string is a compact oscillating cylinder (row of oscillating spheres).22) 2 ˆ Hence. We can locally assume the pressure pb in the bubble to be uniform and we assume a spherical oscillation of the bubble of equilibrium radius a0 : ˆ a = a0 + a e iωt . Consider the oscillation of a compact ˆ air bubble in water as a response to an incident plane wave pin = pin e iωt−ikx in free space (deep under water). which is in phase with v0 . This is a factor (ka0 )2 weaker than the already weak radiation power of a compact pulsating sphere. which does not produce any significant sound directly. The pressure in the bubble is given by: pb = pin + pr (a0 ) (6.4.21) for r = a0 with 1 we see that: (ka0 ) p(a0 ) ˆ 1 ρcv ˆ 4 0 0 0 cos ϑ 2ika0 + i(ka0 )3 + (ka0 )4 . which is called for a violin a “wolf tone”. We have neglected surface tension. we will now consider some specific free field effects.24) (6. So we now understand the need of a body in string instruments or of a sound board in a piano. we assume an ideal gas behaviour in the bubble: pb a = −3γ p0 a0 (6.5. In order to provide a stable sound one should avoid in string instruments elastic resonances of the body which are close to that of the string. Note. If this is not the case the two oscillators start a complex interaction. because it has a chaotic behaviour [107]. it induces vibrations of a plate which has dimensions comparable with the acoustic wave length and hence is radiating with an acoustic impedance ρ0 c0 which is a factor (ka0 )4 more efficient than direct radiation by the string. From (6. Having discussed aspects of bubble acoustics in a pipe in section 4. scales as a0 Re[ p(a0 )]. Furthermore. as the drag on the sphere.25) where γ = 1 for isothermal compression and γ = CP /C V for isentropic compresˆ sion. ˆ ˆ2 2 we see that the acoustic power generated by the sphere scales as ρ0 c0 v0 a0 (ka0 )4 . (6. pr (a) is related to a by the impedance condition: ˆ ˆ pr (a) = iωa Z ˆ (6.

Equation (6.24) with (6.28) as: pr (a0 ) = − ˆ pin ˆ (6.30) 3γ p0 .26) we find: − or: 3γ p0 a = pin + iωa Z ˆ ˆ ˆ a0 pin ˆ 3γ p0 1−i ωa0 Z (6.31) It is interesting to note that at resonance (ω = ω0 ) under typical conditions a bubble is compact because: (k0 a0 )2 = ω0 a0 c0 2 = 3γ p0 2 ρ0 c0 (6. 94]. r Using (6. at resonance sound is scattered quite efficiently: pr = −i ˆ pin −ik(r−a0 ) ˆ e .29) ω0 2 1− 1 + ika0 ω where ω0 is the Minnaert frequency defined by: 2 ω0 = (6. sonar detection of fishes by using a sweeping incident sound frequency yields information about the size of fishes because the resonance frequency ω0 of the swim bladder yields information on the size a0 of the fish.2 Pulsating and translating sphere 169 and Z(ω) is given by equation (6.12) we can write (6. Hence combining (6.30) has many interesting further applications [39.12).27) (6. Furthermore. As we know a0 from ω0 the intensity of the scattered field yields information on the amount of fish. k0 r (6.33) Hence the fish scatters sound with an effective cross section of the order of the acoustic wave length at ω0 (an effective increase of the cross section by a factor (k0 a0 )−1 ).32) is small as long as p0 2 ρ0 c0 .25) and (6. 2 For water ρ0 c0 = 2 × 104 bar. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .28) ˆ pr (a0 ) = iωa Z = − ˆ and ˆ pr = pr (a0 ) ˆ a0 −ik(r−a0 ) e . 2 ρ0 a0 (6. For example.6. hence up to p0 = 100 bar one can still assume bubble oscillations at resonance to be compact. Another fascinating effect of bubble resonance is the very specific sound of rain impact on water [147].

34) over a small sphere Bε around y. say. may be found in Appendix E. We start with considering the Fourier transform G 0 of G 0 . but ˆ can be derived as follows. and we used the fact that ε is small. G 0 can only be a function of distance r = |x − y|.6)) A −ikr ˆ e G0 = 4πr (6.23). yields by application of Gauss’ theorem ˆ ∂ 2G0 ˆ + k 2 G 0 dx = ∂ xi2 ˆ ∂ G0 n i dσ + ∂ xi − Bε 1 δ(x − y) e−iωτ dx = 2 2π c0 Bε ˆ k 2 G 0 dx = Bε ˆ 1 −iωτ ∂ G0 e + O(ε 2 ) = − A + O(ε) = − 2 ∂r 2π c0 ∂ Bε 4π ε2 where n i denotes the outward normal of Bε .1) ∂ 2G0 2 − c0 ∂t 2 ∂ 2G0 = δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ) ∂ xi2 (3. Integration of (6. From symmetry arguments.35) where A is to be determined.1) and the Sommerfeld radiation condition (2. So we have: ˆ G0 = e−iω(τ +r/c0 ) e−iωτ −ikr = 2 2 8π 2 c0 r 8π 2 c0 r (6.36) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . given by. with G0 = and satisfying ˆ 1 ∂ 2G0 ˆ + k2G0 = − δ(x − y) e−iωτ . If 2 we let ε → 0 we find that A = (2π c0 )−1 e−iωτ .34) has the form (see equation (6.3 Multipole expansion and far field approximation The free field Green’s function G0 defined by equation (3. 2 ∂ xi2 2π c0 (6.34) ∞ −∞ ˆ G 0 e iωt dω ˆ where k = ω/c0 .170 6 Spherical waves 6. r = ε. so the solution of (6.

6.3 Multipole expansion and far field approximation and, using equation (C.30), G0 = δ(t − τ − r/c0 ) . 2 4πrc0

171

(6.37)

For a given source distribution q( y, τ ) in a compact region of volume V (enclosed by the surface S) we can find a representation based on a Taylor series expansion in which the source q( y, τ ) is replaced by a series of elementary sources (monopole, dipole, quadrupole...) placed at the origin ( y = 0). Of course, to be meaningful such a representation should converge rapidly, which corresponds to the condition that V is compact (k| y| 1). We start from the integral formulation (3.13) for a tailored Green’s function and find:
t

p ρ = 2 = c0

G 0 (x, t| y, τ )q( y, τ ) d ydτ.
−∞

(3.13)

V

The expansion of (3.13) can be obtained by expanding the Green’s function G0 in a Taylor series or by carrying out first the time integral. Using (6.37) we find: ρ = V q( y, t − r/c0 ) d y. 2 4πrc0 (6.38)

By expansion of q/r around y = 0, this formal approach described by Goldstein [55] yields:

ρ (x, t) =
j,k,l=0

∂ j +k+l
k l ∂ x1 ∂ x2 ∂ x3 j

(−1) j +k+l m j kl (t − |x|/c0 ) 2 4π |x|c0

(6.39)

where m j kl (t) is defined by: m j kl (t) = V
k l y1 y2 y3 q( y, t) d y. j ! k! l! j

(6.40)

The ( j kl)-th term of the expansion (6.39) is called a multipole of order 2j +k+l . Since each term is a function of |x| only, the partial derivatives to xi can be rewritten into expressions containing derivatives to |x|. In general, these expressions are rather complicated, so we will not try to give the general formulas here. It is, however, instructive to consider the lowest orders in more detail as follows.

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

172

6 Spherical waves

Starting from the original formula (3.13), we expand the Green’s function: G 0 (x, t| y, τ ) = G 0 (x, t|0, τ ) + yi and write (3.13) in the form:
t

∂ G 0 (x, t|0, τ ) + · · · . ∂ yi

(6.41)

ρ =
−∞

G 0 (x, t|0, τ ) + yi V

∂ G 0 (x, t|0, τ ) + · · · q( y, τ ) d ydτ. ∂ yi (6.42)

The first term corresponds to the monopole:
t

ρ0 =
−∞ t

G 0 (x, t|0, τ )q( y, τ ) d ydτ V G 0 (x, t|0, τ )
−∞

=

q( y, τ )d y dτ. V

(6.43)

This becomes, by using the properties of the delta function in (6.37): ρ0 = V m 0 (t − |x|/c0 ) q( y, t − |x|/c0 ) dy = 2 2 4π c0 |x| 4π c0 |x| (6.44)

where we wrote for brevity m0 = m 000 . We have concentrated the source at the origin and m 0 (t) = V The next term is the dipole term:
t 3

q( y, t) d y.

(6.45)

ρ1 =
−∞

yi V
i=1

∂ G 0 (x, t|0, τ )q( y, τ ) d ydτ. ∂ yi

(6.46)

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

6.3 Multipole expansion and far field approximation Since G 0 is a function of r = |x − y| rather than yi we can write1 :
t 3

173

ρ1 =
−∞ 3

yi − V
i=1

xi ∂ G 0 (x, t|0, τ ) q( y, τ ) d ydτ |x| ∂|x| yi q( y, t − |x|/c0 ) dy 2 4π c0 |x| (6.47)

=−
i=1 3

xi ∂ |x| ∂|x|

V

=−
i=1

xi ∂ m 1,i (t − |x|/c0 ) 2 |x| ∂|x| 4π c0 |x|

where we wrote for brevity: m1,1 = m 100 , m 1,2 = m 010 and m 1,3 = m 001 . If q is a point source this dipole term is easily visualized as shown in figure 6.1.

.....

Figure 6.1 First step in the multipole expansion of a point source.

The dipole of strength m1,i , which we should place at the origin ( y = 0): m 1,i (t) = V is obtained by bringing the (point) source q towards the origin while increasing its strength and that of the opposite (point) source −q at the origin in such a way that we keep | y|q constant. A dipole field is not isotropic because in a direction normal to the vector y the two sources forming the dipole just compensate each other, while in the other directions due to a difference in emission time there is a net acoustic field. This effect of the
1

yi q( y, t) d y,

(6.48)

∂G 0 ∂r ∂G 0 ∂r ∂G 0 ∂G = =− = − 0. ∂ yi ∂ yi ∂r ∂ xi ∂r ∂ xi

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

174

6 Spherical waves

x−y ϑ x y y·x |x|

Figure 6.2 Retarded or emission time difference is ( y · x/|x|)/c0 = (| y| cos ϑ)/c0 .

difference in retarded time (figure 6.2) between the sources in the dipole simplifies in the far field as follows. Writing (6.47) as:
3

ρ1 = −
i=1

xi |x|

V

yi 1 ∂ q( y, t − |x|/c0 ) − 2 c0 |x| ∂t 4π c0 − 1 q( y, t − |x|/c0 ) d y (6.49) |x|2

we see that for large distances (k|x| contribution is given by:
3

1) the acoustic field due to the dipole

ρ1
i=1 3

xi ∂ 3 2 ∂t 4π c0 |x|

yi q( y, t − |x|/c0 ) d y V
te =t−|x|/c0

=
i=1

xi d m 1,i (te ) 3 2 dt 4π c0 |x| e

(6.50)

where m 1,i (t) is the dipole strength. The source term for a force density fi is given by (2.63):
3

q( y, τ ) = −
i=1

∂ fi . ∂ yi

(6.51)

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

6.4 Method of images and influence of walls on radiation Hence, we have by application of (3.13) and partial integration:
t

175

ρ =
−∞ t

q( y, τ )G 0 (x, t| y, τ ) d ydτ V
3

=
−∞

V

i=1

∂ G0 f i ( y, τ ) d ydτ. ∂ yi

(6.52)

The remaining surface integral terms vanish because we assumed a finite source region, outside which f = 0. By comparison of (6.52) with (6.41) and (6.50) we see that the force field fi is equivalent to an acoustic dipole of strength: m 1,i = V which corresponds simply to the total force F on V . In a similar way it is clear that the Lighthill stress tensor Ti j induces a quadrupole field because from (2.63) we have: q= ∂ 2 Ti j . ∂ yi ∂ y j i, j =1
3

fi d y

(6.53)

The strength of the quadrupole is: m 2,i j = V where we wrote for brevity m2,11 = m 200 , m 2,12 = m 110 , m 2,13 = m 101 , etc. . In the far field approximation, where the retarded (or emission) time effect can be −1 estimated by replacing (∂/∂|x|) by −c0 (∂/∂t), we find:
3

Ti j dx,

(6.54)

ρ
i, j =1

xi x j 1 d2 m 2,i j (te ) 2 2 4π c0 |x|3 c0 dte 2

te =t−|x|/c0

.

(6.55)

6.4

Method of images and influence of walls on radiation

Using G 0 we can build the Green’s function in presence of walls by using the method of images as discussed in section 4.6. The method of images is simple for

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

176

6 Spherical waves

a plane rigid wall and for a free surface. In the first case the boundary condition v · n = 0 is obtained by placing an image of equal strength q at the image point of the source position (figure 6.3). For a free surface, defined by the condition p = 0

u’. n = 0

+
a) hard wall p’ = 0

+

+

+

b) free surface

− +

Figure 6.3 Images of sources in plane surfaces

(air/water interface seen from the water side), we place an opposite source −q at the image point. For a rigid wall at x1 = 0 we simply have the Green’s function: G(x, t| y, τ ) = where r= r∗ = (x1 − y1 )2 + (x2 − y2 )2 + (x3 − y3 )2 , (x1 + y1 )2 + (x2 − y2 )2 + (x3 − y3 )2 . δ(t − τ − r/c0 ) δ(t − τ − r ∗ /c0 ) + 2 2 4π c0 r 4π c0 r ∗ (6.56)

We easily see from figure 6.3 that a source placed close to a rigid wall will radiate 1) while a source close to a free surface as a source of double strength (|y1 |k will radiate as a dipole. When more than a wall is present the method of images can be used by successive reflections against the walls. This is illustrated in figure 6.4. When a harmonic source is placed half way between two rigid walls separated by a distance h (at

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

6.4 Method of images and influence of walls on radiation

177

a) corner

h

h θ θ nλ b) duct θ h

Figure 6.4 Application of the method of images.

y = 1 h) the radiated field is equivalent to that of an infinite array of sources placed 2 at a distance h from each other (figure 6.4b). We immediately see from this that there are directions ϑ in which the sources in the array interfere positively. The interference condition is simply: h sin ϑ = nλ; n = 0, 1, 2, ... (6.57)

where λ is the acoustic wave length. For this symmetrically placed source only symmetric modes can occur. When the source is placed at one of the walls (y = 0 or h) we find the interference condition given by h sin ϑ = 1 nλ; 2 n = 0, 1, 2, ... (6.58)

since the source and its images form an array of sources placed at a distance 2h from each other. The condition n = 0 corresponds to plane waves in a tube. The conditions n > 0 correspond to higher order mode propagation in the “duct” formed by the two

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

This explains the difference between condition (6. For a line source near a cylinder we should place an identical line source at the inverse point r ∗ defined by: r ∗ = r (R/|r|)2 (6.178 6 Spherical waves walls.e. A more comprehensive treatment of pipe modes is given in chapter 7. on the other hand. We clearly see from this construction that higher order modes will not propagate at low frequencies because when (h < 1 λ).58). The method of images can also be used for a line source close to a compact cylinder of radius R or a point source near a compact sphere of radius a [113]. r∗ R r Figure 6. This can also be seen for a duct of square cross section for which the image source array becomes two-dimensional. 2 there are no other solutions than ϑ = 0 to equation (6. The first non-planar mode has a pressure node on the duct axis and cannot be excited by a volume source placed on the axis ( p Q dt = 0).57) and (6.5 Image of a line source in a compact cylinder.58) for the excitation of a higher mode.61) (6.59) and an opposite line source (i. This justifies the plane wave approximation used in chapter 4 (see further chapter 7). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .5). the sound field is not uniform in the duct cross section and the source radiation impedance is position dependent. a sink) at r = 0 on the cylinder axis (figure 6.60) while in order to keep the mass balance we place a line of uniformly spaced sinks of total strength q∗ stretching from r∗ to the center of the sphere (r = 0) [113]. For a sphere we should place a source q∗ at r ∗ defined by: q ∗ = q a/|r| and r ∗ = r (a/|r|)2 (6. We see also that at low frequencies (for plane waves) the radial position of a source does not affect the radiation efficiency. For a higher mode.

64) Approaching the source towards the observation point has the same effect as approaching the observation point towards the source. t) = −∞ V ∂ 2G0 Ti j ( y. ∂ yi ∂ y j (6. Hence we can write (6. hence we have replaced the problem of the estimate of a space derivative (∂/∂ yi ) at the source by the problem RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . t) = ∂ xi ∂ x j t G 0 (x. 2 4π c0 r (6. τ ) d ydτ. The c0 and that the entropy is mean flow velocity in the pipe is u0 .6. −∞ (6.13) and using the free space Green’s function G 0 given by (6.65) V The integration variable yi does not interfere with xi . t) = ∂2 ∂ xi ∂ x j Ti j ( y. We assume that u0 uniform (air jet in air with uniform temperature).62) Partial integration (twice) yields: t ρ (x.66) V In the far field the only length scale is the wave length. ∂ yi ∂r ∂ yi r ∂r ∂ xi (6. ∂ yi ∂ y j (6. t − r/c0 ) d y.37) we find: t ρ (x. In such a case combining (2. τ ) d ydτ.63) Because G 0 is only a function of r = |x − y| we have: ∂ G0 ∂ G 0 ∂r xi − yi ∂ G 0 ∂ G0 =− = =− . t) = −∞ V ∂ 2 Ti j G 0 (x.63) with (3. t| y.5 Lighthill’s theory of jet noise Consider a free turbulent jet formed at the exit of a circular pipe of diameter D. τ ) d ydτ.5 Lighthill’s theory of jet noise 179 6. τ )Ti j ( y.37) we can carry out the time integration: ρ (x. t| y. Using now (6.63) as: ∂2 ρ (x. The key idea of Lighthill was that the sound produced by the turbulence was originated from a volume of order D3 and that the influence of the pipe walls on the sound radiation could be neglected.

as associated with noise sources within the engine itself.180 6 Spherical waves of the estimate of the characteristic frequency of the produced sound.c. 0 – the relevant volume V is of order D3 . Equation (6..6.69) or in terms of intensity ρ 2 and Mach number M0 = u 0 /c0 : ρ2∼ ρ0 D 4π |x| 2 8 M0 .). most reports of measured jet noise data gave a U 4 variation. variation of intensity with U8 is now generally accepted as defining jet mixing noise . t) ∼ 1 u0 4 D 4π c0 2 ρ0 u 2 D 3 0 |x| (6. t) xi x j ∂2 2 2 4π c0 |x|2 c0 ∂t 2 Ti j ( y.70) tells us that turbulence in free space is a very ineffective source of sound. represents a triumph of theory over experiment.67) and we find: ρ (x. (6.68) The first estimates of Lighthill for a circular2 free jet are: – the characteristic time scale for large eddy’s in the flow is (D/u0 ). before the publication of U8 . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .66): Ti j ρ0 vi v j . 153]. post U8 .70) This is the celebrated 8-th power law of Lighthill which ".. see figure 6. (6. which was then quickly recognized. – the Reynolds stress scales as ρu2 . 2 See Bjørnø [11] for planar jets. If we assume a homentropic compact flow we have (2. This directivity pattern results from Doppler effects and refraction of the sound waves by the shear layer surrounding the jet. 12.67) V For high Reynolds number we can neglect the effect of viscosity (if it were not small turbulence would not occur!). When a more detailed description of the flow is used to estimate Ti j one can also find the directivity pattern of the radiation field [55." (Crighton. In fact. In the far field approximation we have: ρ (x. rather than with the jet exhaust turbulent mixing downstream of the engine. |x| (6. l. t − |x|/c0 ) d y. Hence we should replace (∂/∂t) by u0 /D in (6.

71) Hence at Mach M0 = 0. This is the key of the problem of calculating the acoustic field from a numerical calculation of the flow pattern at low Mach numbers. In order to achieve this we have to calculate the flow field within an accuracy which is far above the typical score (5%) of turbulence modelling nowadays. Following Goldstein [55] the acoustic power W generated by a subsonic homentropic jet is given by W 1 ρ u3π D2 8 0 0 5 = 8 × 10−5 M0 . These shocks generate noise by interaction with turbulence (random vorticity) and vortices (coherent structures) [51]. There is a natural maximum corresponding to the kinetic energy flux in the jet 1 ρu 3 · π D 2 . As the Mach number approaches unity the character of the sound production changes drastically because the flow is not compact any more (D/λ ∼ M0 ) and because at higher Mach numbers shock waves appear if the jet is not properly expanded. it is obvious that the generated power cannot grow indefinitely with a power M 8 . However.5 Lighthill’s theory of jet noise 181 200 180 160 SPL (dB) 140 120 100 U [m/s] U3 ets rock gines jet en ves cur del mo U8 80 65 140 300 650 1400 3000 Figure 6. The typical fraction of flow power transferred to the acoustic field at high Mach number by a properly expanded supersonic jet is 10−4 (M > 1).6 Sound power generated by a jet. (6.6. the simple scaling law of Lighthill already tells us that RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Moreover.1 we can estimate that only a fraction 10−9 of the hydrodynamic power is transferred to the acoustic field. This natural upper bound prevails above M > 1 and the sound 0 4 2 3 intensity scales above M > 1 as M0 .

Lighthill’s analogy in the form of equation (6.6 Sound radiation by compact bodies in free space 6. Upon increasing the Mach number the turbulent Reynolds stress can become dominant and a transition 8 to the cold jet behaviour (M0 ) can be observed in some cases. Obermeier [135] and Iafrati [74].6). and a typical M4 0 scaling law is found for ρ 2 . In the first case we use a tailored Green’s function which is often easy to calculate in the far field approximation by using the reciprocity principle (3. ∂ yi ∂ xi (6. A very useful result as we will see from exercise k) below.6. In hot jets with combustion. The advantage of the method of Curle is that we still can use the symmetry properties of G0 like: ∂ G0 ∂ G0 =− .12) into account.1 Introduction In principle. This second method is called Curle’s method [55. 6. When a hot gas with constant caloric properties is mixed with the cold environment the monopole sound source is negligible compared to the dipole due to convective effects ([115]). Such calculations can be based on an incompressible model which by itself does not include any acoustic component.4). vapour condensation or strongly temperature dependent caloric gas properties the monopole source dominates ([32]). 12].182 6 Spherical waves in order to reduce turbulence noise we should reduce the Mach number.67) is often used to obtain acoustical information from numerical calculations of turbulent flow. One finds 6 then a sound power which at low Mach numbers scales at M0 . The influence of the viscosity on the sound generation by a free jet has been studied by Morfey [116]. In the second case we can use the free field Green’s function G0 which implies that we should take surface contributions in equation (3. When the jet has a different entropy than the environment (hot jet or different fluid) the sound production at low Mach numbers is dominated by either Morfey’s dipole 2 2 source term (∂/∂ yi )((c2 − c0 )/c0 )(∂ p /∂ yi ) or by a volume source term due to diffusion and heat transfer (entropy fluctuations). when a compact body is present in a flow we have two possible methods to calculate the sound radiation when using Lighthill’s theory (section 2.72) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

7. We will. In the method of images we simply assume that pr comes from an image source. Using the reciprocity principle we send a plane wave pin and look at the resulting acoustic field in the source point y. The method of images discussed in section 6. x pin x pr y y source a) b) image Figure 6. This is obvious when we consider a plane rigid wall.2 Tailored Green’s function The method of tailored Green’s function has of course the nice feature of a simple integral equation (3.13). In this way we can in fact say that if we know the aerodynamic (lift and drag) force on a small propeller we can represent the system by the reaction force acting on the fluid as an aero-acoustic source. we will see that the surface terms have for compact rigid bodies quite simple physical meaning.7).4 is an efficient procedure to construct a Green’s function for simple geometries. 6. ignoring further the presence of the body in the calculation of the radiation.6. in general not have a simple symmetry relation allowing to move the space derivative outside the integral. We will see that the pulsation of the volume of the body is a volume source while the force on the body is an aero-acoustic dipole. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . b) Sound emitted by the source in the same observers direction.6. The acoustic field in y is built out of the incident wave pin and the wave reflected at the surface pr . In applications like the effect of a bubble on turbulence noise we already did this for a bubble in a duct (section 4. as shown in figure 6. however.7 a) Acoustic response to a plane wave. The construction of the tailored Green’s function in the far field approximation is in fact equivalent to considering the acoustic response of the body to a plane incident wave.6 Sound radiation by compact bodies in free space 183 Furthermore.

When considering harmonic waves we have from (6. 55] that turbulence near the edge of 5 a semi-infinite plane produces a sound field for which ρ 2 scales as M0 which −3 1 a dramatic increase (by a factor M0 ) compared to free field implies for M0 conditions.75) Using this procedure one can show [12. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . and assumed that the flow is not influenced by the foreign body (T j = i constant). ∂ yi ∂ y j (6. For compact bodies or sources close to a surface we can neglect the variation in travel time of p over in the source region and we find: pin = δ(−t + τ − |x|/c0 ) 2 4π |x|c0 (6. t) = −∞ q( y.36) that: pin = ˆ e−ikr 2 8π 2 c0 r (6.73) where the signs of t and τ have been changed because of reciprocity relation (3. τ ) d ydτ.74) where in the far field approximation r |x|. ∂2G Ti j d ydτ.13): t ρ (x. The Green’s function is found by ˆ adding the system response pr (or pr ) to the incident wave pin .63) which are limited to a small region of space we find: t ρ (x.184 6 Spherical waves When calculating the Green’s function we should take in free space as amplitude of the incident wave pin the amplitude calculated from (6.76) A= ∂ yi ∂ y j c0 ∂t 2 2 (∂ 2 G 0 /∂t 2 )/c0 in the where we made use of the approximation ∂2 G 0 /∂ xi ∂ x j far field.13) V By partial integration and assuming that the sources are the volume sources ∂ 2 Ti j /∂ xi ∂ x j as defined in (2. Once a tailored Green’s function has been obtained we find by using (3. (3. This contribution to trailing edge noise is very important in aircraft noise and wind turbine noise. 39. t| y. τ )G(x. t) = −∞ V Comparison of the space derivative of the tailored Green’s function with that of the free space Green’s function G0 yields an amplification factor A of the radiated field: 1 ∂ 2G0 ∂2G / 2 (6.4).37).

5 × 10 [12. with an amplitude L per unit length given by L = −ρ0 u 0 . for Re ≤ 2 × 105 (C L )rms for Re ≥ 2 × 105 .78) where is the circulation of the flow around the cylinder.3 Curle’s method When we place a cylinder of diameter d in a turbulent jet with a main flow velocity u 0 . (6. (6. 0. The periodic shedding of vorticity causes an oscillating lift force on the cylinder.6. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .6 Sound radiation by compact bodies in free space 185 6.6. In dimensionless form the lift is expressed as a lift coefficient CL : CL = L 1 ρu 2 d 0 2 . The frequency fV of the vortex shedding is roughly given by: fV d = 0. 60].3 1. By definition the lift force is perpendicular to the mean flow direction (u0 ). The drag force has a fluctuating component corresponding to (CD )rms Elastic suspension of a cylinder enhance considerably the coherence of vortex 1. This results in a CL for a rigid stationary cylinder ranging from (C L )rms to (C L )rms while (C L )peak and (C L )peak 0. 14. The calculation of the sound shedding resulting into a typical value of CL production by vortex shedding when using a tailored Green’s function is possible but is not the easiest procedure. Above a Reynolds number of Re = u0 d/ν = 40 5 the wake structure is dominated by periodic vortex shedding if 40 ≤ Re ≤ 3 × 10 6 and for Re ≥ 3.2. We will now see that Curle’s method relates directly the data on the lift and drag to the sound production. u0 (6.03. the cylinder will not only enhance the radiation by the already present turbulence.1 0. Behind the cylinder at high Reynolds numbers we have an unstable wake. A cylinder will affect the flow. CL is strongly affected by small disturbances and the lift force is not always coherent along the cylinder.79) The lift coefficient of a cylinder is in a laminar flow of order unity. However.0 for Re ≤ 2 × 105 for Re ≥ 5 × 105 .77) Hence the sound produced by vortex shedding has in contrast with turbulence a well-defined frequency.

(6.82) ∂yj t Pi j + ρvi v j −∞ S RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .80) ∂ yi ∂ yi Applying partial integration twice yields: t ρ = −∞ Ti j V ∂ 2G0 d ydτ + ∂ yi ∂ y j t −∞ G0 S ∂ρ ∂ G0 2 ni − ρ ni + c0 G 0 ∂ yi ∂ yi ∂ Ti j ∂ G0 n j − Ti j ni ∂ yi ∂yj dσ dτ.81) Using the definition (2.64) of Ti j and its symmetry (Ti j = T j i ): 2 Ti j = Pi j + ρvi v j − c0 ρ δi j (2.63). τ ) d ydτ ∂ yi ∂ y j t − 2 c0 −∞ ρ S ∂ G0 ∂ρ − G0 n i dσ dτ.64) we find: t ρ = −∞ V ∂ 2G0 d ydτ + Ti j ∂ yi ∂ y j − t G0 S −∞ ∂ Pi j + ρvi v j n i dσ dτ ∂yj ∂ G0 n i dσ dτ.12) combined with Lighthill’s analogy (2. and outer normal n. (6. [39]!) Using equation (3.186 6 Spherical waves Consider a body which. and is enclosed by a control surface S (figure 6. ignoring external mass sources and force fields and taking t0 = −∞ yields t ρ = −∞ V ∂ 2 Ti j G 0 (x. t| y. is allowed to pulsate. for generality. We want n to calculate the field ρ in the fluid and V hence we define the control volume V S at the fluid side of S.8 Control volume V and surface S convention opposite from Dowling et al. (6.8). (Note that we use here the Figure 6. The outer normal n on S is directed towards the body enclosed by S.

(6.84) (The effect of listening later is the same as shooting earlier!) In order to use (6.83) ∂x j + −∞ Pi j + ρvi v j S The spatial partial derivatives (∂/∂ x j ) do not refer to y and can be taken outside the integral. we can carry out the time integrals and we have Curle’s theorem ρ xi x j ∂ 2 4 4π |x|2 c0 ∂t 2 Ti j r V dy − 1 ∂ 2 4π c0 ∂t ρvi n i r S ni r t=te t=te t=te dσ ∂ xj − 3 ∂t 4π |x|c0 Pi j + ρvi v j S dσ (6. we obtain: t ρ = −∞ V ∂ 2G0 d ydτ − Ti j ∂ xi ∂ x j t t G0 S −∞ ∂(ρvi ) n i dσ dτ ∂τ ∂ G0 n i dσ dτ. in the second integral in (6. We finally obtain: ρ xi x j ∂ 2 2 |x|2 c0 ∂t 2 t −∞ Ti j G 0 d ydτ − V xj ∂ − c0 |x| ∂t t ∂ ∂t t −∞ ρvi G 0 n i dσ dτ S Pi j + ρvi v j G 0 n i dσ dτ.71).2) in the absence of external forces ( fi = 0): ∂ ∂ Pi j + ρvi v j = 0 ρvi + ∂τ ∂yj and the symmetry of G0 (6. (6.84) we therefore first move the time derivative (∂/∂τ ) from ρvi towards G 0 by partial integration. ∂t ∂τ (6. Furthermore.83) we can make use of the general symmetry in the time coordinate of any Green’s function: ∂G ∂G =− .6.86) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . In the far field they can be approximated by the time derivatives −1 −(x j /|x|)c0 (∂/∂t).85) −∞ S Using the δ-function in G0 of equation (6.6 Sound radiation by compact bodies in free space 187 Using the momentum conservation law (1.37).

For a compact body we have then a simple volume source term. We are now able to find the radiation behaviour of a pipe end by matching the two solutions in a suitable way. We know the behaviour of sound waves in a duct at low frequencies (chapter 4).188 6 Spherical waves where r = |x − y| and the retarded time te is te = t − r/c0 t − |x|/c0 .88) 6. The second term is the result of movement of the body. If the frequency is low enough compared to the pipe diameter. We use such a device to speak! Without vocal tract the volume source due to the vocal fold oscillation would be a very inefficient source of sound.86) is the momentum flux through the surface and the pressure and viscous forces. and rigid body. This term is important when the body is pulsating. For a rigid body at a fixed position we have vi n i = v · n = 0. We consider now the radiation of sound from such a tube. rather than a mass injection. (6. The instantaneous force Fi of the fluid on the body (lift and drag) is then Fi (te ) S Hence. This term can be used to describe the flow out of a pipe. t − |x|/c0 ) d y V − ∂ xj F (t − |x|/c0 ). (6.86) is simply the turbulence noise as it would occur in absence of a foreign body (except for the fact that the control volume V excludes the body). fixed. For a fixed rigid body ρvi v j = 0 because v = 0 at a surface (“no slip” condition in viscous flow). The last integral in (6. Note that ρ is the fluid density just outside the control surface so that we consider the displacement of fluid around the body. In the case of a compact. for a fixed rigid compact body we have: ρ (x. we can neglect the emission time variation along the body. (6. the flow RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .87) The first term in (6.7 Sound radiation from an open pipe termination Horns and tubes are used as an impedance matching between a volume source and free space.89) 2 c3 ∂t j 4π |x| 0 Pi j t=te n j dσ. We know how sound propagates from a point source in free space. t) = xi x j ∂ 2 4 4π |x|3 c0 ∂t 2 Ti j ( y. and we have r |x|.

This seen as follows. by using (6. we can calculate the radiated power for a harmonic field in. The strength of this monopole is determined by the pipe end velocity v . The imaginary part Im(Z p ) takes into account the inertia of the air flow in the compact region just outside the pipe. ˆ =1 2 4πr 2 4πr 2 (6. where δ is the so-called “end correction”. For convenience. the pressure is a factor ρ0 c0 kr lower than the acoustic velocity.92) From this conservation of energy relation we find for the real part of the radiation impedance Z p of an unflanged pipe: Re(Z p ) = 1 2 k Sρ0 c0 4π (6. in the near field of the monopole. we assume that the pipe end is acoustically described for the field inside the pipe by an impedance Zp .90) The acoustic velocity in the pipe is related to the acoustic pressure in the pipe by: ˆ v = v e iωt = p+ − p− .94) This result is the low frequency limit of the well-known theory of Levine and Schwinger [97].and outside the pipe. 4 (6.93) which is for a pipe of radius a: Re(Z p ) = 1 (ka)2 ρ0 c0 . ρ0 c0 (6. Just outside the pipe end.7 Sound radiation from an open pipe termination 189 near the pipe end is incompressible in a region large enough to allow the pipe opening to be considered as a monopole sound source. It appears that Im(Zp ) is equal to kδ. the outside field forces the inside pressure to vanish at RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The pressure p in the pipe consists of a right-running incident wave and a left-running reflected wave: p = p+ + p− . Therefore.7).91) Assuming a redistribution of the acoustic mass flow v S through the pipe end with cross section S into the surface of a compact sphere of radius r and surface 4πr2 (conservation of mass).6. (6. which is much smaller than the ρ0 c0 of inside the pipe (see equation 6.13): ˆˆ I S = p v S = 1 v v ∗ Re(Z p )S 2 S ∗ 2 2 S v ˆ v (k r ρ0 c0 )(4πr 2 ).

Although the exact position of this fictitious point x = δ (the “end correction”).190 6 Spherical waves about the pipe end. Exercises a) Note that the acoustic field generated by a compact translating sphere is a dipole (equation 6.) b) A vortex ring with time dependent vorticity is a dipole. Hence the radiated I intensity increases by a factor 4.4 2 2 suggests that this would be c 0 fc = h for a source placed in the middle of the duct. . Up to order (ka)2 this impedance can now be expressed as: Z p = (ikδ + 1 (ka)2 )ρ0 c0 4 where it appears that3 : 0. See also section 7. Explain why a body translating in an oscillatory manner close to the floor produces more sound when it moves horizontally than vertically.85a (6.) c) An electrical dipole radiates perpendicularly to the axis of the dipole. Explain the difference.96) (6.848826363 . figure 6. What are the source and the sink forming the dipole? (Explain qualitatively. 1 1 π 0 x2 ∞ 8 2 0 J1 (x) dx = 3π = 0. The lower limit corresponds to an unflanged pipe while the upper limit corresponds to a pipe end with an infinite baffle (flanged). . .2) that a translating sphere induces a dipole field. This implies that the end correction amounts to leading order in ka to nothing but a phase shift of the reflected wave and so to a purely imaginary impedance Z p . depends on geometrical details.612701035 .8. Moving parts of a rigid machine also act as dipoles if they are compact.95) for circular pipes [140]. 2 x RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .61a ≤ δ ≤ 0. f) The acoustic pressure p generated by a monopole close to a wall increases by a factor 2 in comparison with free field conditions. . where the wave in the pipe is assumed to satisfy the condition p = 0. How much does the power generated by the source increase? g) The cut-off frequency f c above which the first higher mode propagates in a duct with square cross section appears to be given by 1 λ = 1 c0 f c = h. 3 − 1 ∞ log(2I (x)K (x)) dx = 0. (Explain qualitatively. . it is a property of the pipe end and therefore δ = O(a). What is the reason for this difference in directivity of electrical and acoustic dipoles? d) Why is the boundary condition p = 0 reasonable for acoustic waves reflecting at a water/air interface (on the water side)? e) We have seen (section 6.21) we find the typical cos ϑ = x i yi /|x|| y| directivity.

Assuming a low Mach number estimate the ratio of the sound power generated by both engines.9). k) Consider two jet engines developing the same thrust with diameters D 1 and D2 = 2D1 . respectively. parallel to the axis of the cylinder (figure 6. (This explains that turbulence near such a cylinder will radiate quite effectively [108]!) Figure 6. Explain this and calculate f c for a square channel cross section h = 3 m.6. will radiate as a line dipole. j) Explain by using the method of images why a line quadrupole placed near a cylinder.9 A line quadrupole near a cylinder. Discuss the radiation as function of the oscillation frequency and the direction of oscillation (along the duct axis or normal to the axis). Relate the dipole strength δ Q to the amplitude of the acoustic waves for f < f c in a pipe of cross sectional area S. h h i) Consider a sphere oscillating (translating periodically) in an infinite duct with hard walls and square cross section.7 Sound radiation from an open pipe termination 191 h) In a water channel with open surface sound does not propagate below a certain cutoff frequency f c . l) Which scaling rule do you expect for the Mach number dependence of the sound produced by a hot steam in cold air? RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

At which Mach leaving correspond to temperature fluctuations T /T0 number do you expect such effect to become a significant source of sound? o) A subsonic jet with M turbulence.2M 2 . What is the effect of having a second blade on the ventilator? (See figure 6.11. How does this affect sound production? RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . which is normal to v eff . Why? 1 is compact if we consider the sound produced by p) Estimate the amplification of turbulence noise due to the presence of a cylinder of diameter d near a free jet of diameter D at a main speed u 0 if we assume that the cylinder does not affect the flow. Assume that u 0 = 0.10). The fan feels at a certain distance r from the axis of the ventilator an effective wind velocity v eff which is a combination of the axial velocity u 0 and the tangential velocity ωr (where we neglect the air rotation induced by the fan) (figure 6.10 The forces on a fan blade (Exercise r) r) Consider a small ventilator rotating at a radial frequency ω in a uniform flow u 0 .192 6 Spherical waves m) Which scaling rule do you expect for the Mach number dependence of the sound produced by a bubbly liquid jet in water? n) Typical entropy fluctuations due to friction at the pipe wall from which the jet is 0. Discuss the contribution of the tangential and axial components of the lift for L on the noise.1 ω R. Typically C L is O(1) for a welldesigned ventilator. The magnitude of L is given by: L= 1 2 ρv DC L 2 eff where D is the width of the profile of the blade. Assume a low frequency response of the bubble. q) Same question for a small air bubble of diameter 2a near a free jet of diameter D and speed u 0 . Consider first a ventilator with a single blade. ωR veff L u0 D Figure 6.) A welldesigned ventilator has many blades. If we concentrate on the tip of the fan (r = R) we have a lift force L. per unit length.

12 Propeller in pusher position (Exercise t) t) Consider an airplane with a rotor placed just behind the wing (figure 6.13 Piston in cylindrical pipe (Exercise x) 2a x) Assuming a low frequency. directivity. Figure 6.6.13).11 Single and dual bladed ventilator (Exercise r) ω s) How does the presence of duct walls influence the low-frequency sound production of an axial ventilator placed in the duct.. u) Can we consider an aircraft propeller as a compact body? v) What is the Mach number dependence of the sound produced by a small (compact) body placed in a turbulent flow? w) Estimate the low frequency impedance Z p of a flanged pipe termination..12). Discuss the sound production (frequency. v p (t) L Figure 6. What is RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .7 Sound radiation from an open pipe termination 193 R D ω Figure 6.). calculate the power radiated in free space by a piston placed at the end of a circular pipe of radius a and length L (figure 6.

Assume a tube radius of 1 cm and a length of 1 m. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . On the other hand.194 6 Spherical waves the ratio between this power at resonance k 0 L = (n + 1 )π. Why is this possible even though the loudspeaker is a miniature device? f0 2 f0 3 f0 4 f0 f0 2 f0 3 f0 4 f0 Figure 6. S1 v p (t) S2 L Figure 6.15).14). Determine the sound field inside the pipe. when using a Walkman we are actually provided with real.15 We hear the missing fundamental! (Exercise z) A) Calculate the friction and radiation losses in a clarinet. What is the difference between the radiation losses of a clarinet and of a flute with the same pipe dimensions. low frequencies. Hint. and the power which 2 would be radiated by the piston without a pipe. We hear low frequencies because our ear is artificially guessing these low frequencies when we supply a collection of higher harmonics (figure 6. Carry out the calculation for the first three modes of the instrument.14 Piston in conical pipe (Exercise y) y) Consider a conical pipe driven by a piston of surface S 1 and with an outlet surface S 2 (figure 6. Use spherical waves centred at the cone top! z) A small transistor radio is not able to produce low frequencies (why?).

placed along each other in such a way that corresponding ends of either pipe just touch each other.6. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . How does the radiation losses of the system scale with L and a. D) Consider two twin pipes of length L and radius a. – in an infinite duct of cross sectional area S = 10 −4 m2 .7 Sound radiation from an open pipe termination 195 B) How far can we be heard when we scream in quiescent air if we produce 10 −5 W acoustic power? C) Calculate the ratio between the acoustic impedance experienced by an air bubble of radius a0 = 1 mm in water at atmospheric pressure: – in free space. Assume that the pipes are acoustically excited and oscillate in opposite phase.

and others) the Helmholtz (and Laplace) equation is separable. These solutions are called modes. ξ2 . unless indicated otherwise. ξ3 ) = F1 (ξ1 )F2 (ξ2 )F3 (ξ3 ). and the resulting field has the property that it retains its shape in a direction ξj . 7. with radius a. time-harmonic acoustic waves of angular frequency ω. 3 3 while intensity scales on ρ0 c0 and power on ρ0 c0 a 2 . elliptic-cylindrical. cylindrical. Consider in a duct. is just the Helmholtz number. For any such coordinates (ξ1 . In the usual complex notation (with +iωt–sign convention) p(x. ω) e iωt 1 in dimensional form better known as ka. r. Mathematically. (7. the equations for Fi may be decoupled. and ω := ωc0 /a. spherical.7 Duct acoustics In the usual coordinate systems (Cartesian. Note that ω. uniform sound speed c0 and mean density ρ0 . these solutions are interesting because (in general) they form a complete basis by which any other solution can be represented as a sum. p := ρ0 c0 p. Physically. When the boundary conditions in p and/or ∇ p · n are to be applied at coordinate surfaces ξi = constant. ρ := ρ0 ρ. they are interesting because the usually complicated behaviour of the total field is easier understood via the simple properties of the elements. the dimensionless frequency or dimensionless free field wave number1 .1) . ξ2 . t) ≡ p(x. ϑ. v := c0 v. To simplify the formula’s we will reduce the problem to dimensionless form. We scale our variables as follows 2 x := ax. t := at/c0 . ξ3 ) there exist solutions of the type p(ξ1 . ϑ. We will consider in some detail here the configuration of a circularly cylindrical duct.1 Cylindrical ducts A practically very important problem of the class discussed above is that of sound propagation in ducts. r. circular.

they form a complete set of building (7. (b) G(r) = Jm (αmµr).5c) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . · · · . αmµ = jmµ is the µ-th nonnegative non-trivial zero of Jm . where in the present polar coordinates ∇ = ex ∇2 = ∂ ∂ 1 ∂ + er + eϑ . + 2+ (7.3b) ∂x2 ∂r r ∂r r ∂ϑ Note that more general solutions may be constructed via Fourier synthesis (equation C. ∂x ∂r r ∂ϑ 197 (7.2a) (7. µ = 1. 2. to satisfy the boundary condition G (1) = 0. where: Jm denotes the ordinary Bessel function of the first kind (Appendix D). solutions of the type p = F(x)G(r)H (ϑ) exist if d2 H /H = −m 2 dϑ 2 m2 1 dG d2 G /G = 2 − α 2 + dr 2 r dr r 2 d F /F = α 2 − ω2 2 dx so that (a) H (ϑ) = e−imϑ . Mathematically.1 Cylindrical ducts the acoustic field satisfies ∇ 2 p + ω2 p = 0.2). iωv + ∇ p = 0. αmµ )} or {(m. ±1. · · · . (c) F(x) = e∓ikmµ x . Im(kmµ ) ≤ 0.3a) 1 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + 2 2. The associated eigensolutions are called modes. kmµ )} are called the eigenvalues. Use is made of the condition of continuity from ϑ = 0 to ϑ = 2π . ±2.5a) (7. m = 0.2b) (7.5b) (7. (7. We start with a hard walled duct: ∂p =0 ∂r at r = 1. with: 2 kmµ = ω2 − αmµ such that Re(kmµ ) ≥ 0.7.4) In the usual way. The sets {(m.

198 7 Duct acoustics blocks suitable for constructing any sound field in a duct. they are particular shape-preserving solutions of the equations. Nmµ = 1 (1 2 2 − m 2 /αmµ ) Jm (αmµ )2 −1/2 (7. form (for fixed x) a complete set (in L2 -norm over (r. square root is such that e−ikmµ x describes a right-running wave and e ikmµ x a leftrunning wave. The branch we selected here of the complex 15 −k05 10 −k04 −k03 −k01 −k02 k02 k03 k04 k05 k01 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Figure 7. kmµ are called the axial wave number (some real.7) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . with easily interpretable properties.6) . ω = 5). r. so by superposition we can write any solution as the following modal expansion: ∞ ∞ p(x. ϑ) = Umµ (r) e−imϑ∓ikmµ x . αmµ are called the radial wave number (all real).1 Complex axial wave numbers (m = 0. r. Physically. These modes (normalized for convenience) pmµ (x. see figure 7. This will be further clarified later. ϑ) = m=−∞ µ=1 ( Amµ e−ikmµ x +Bmµ e ikmµ x )Umµ (r) e−imϑ .1). Umµ (r) = Nmµ Jm (αmµ r). ϑ)). (7.

the smallest being given by j11 = 1.84118 · · · . µ = 1. with imaginary kmµ . they are called cuton. or other scattering objects. considering only the first mode) is applicable if we are far enough away from any sources. are evanescent and therefore called cut-off. ij δi j = 0 if i = j RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Since the zeros of Jm form an ever increasing sequence both in m and in µ (with jmµ (µ + 1 m − 1 )π for µ → ∞) (see Appendix D).1). N01 = 2. p01 = 2 e−iωx . This cut-on and cut-off modes are essentially similar to the radiating and evanescent waves discussed in section 3. for ω < j11 = 1. there are for any ω always 2 4 2 a (finite) µ = µ0 and m = m 0 beyond which αmµ > ω2 . α01 = 0.7.e. and the mode decays exponentially in x. In this case a plane wave approximation (i.84118 · · · all modes are cut-off except for the plane wave. Since they are the only modes that propagate (see below).1 Cylindrical ducts 199 The normalization factor Nmµ is chosen such that a modal amplitude Amµ scales with the energy content of the corresponding mode (see below). this is the only non-trivial eigenvalue equal to zero. i. k01 = ω.e. so that kmµ is purely imaginary.3. So we see that there are always a finite number of modes with real kmµ (see figure 7. From the orthogonality relation2 1 0 0 2π Umµ (r) e−imϑ Unν (r) e−inϑ ∗ r dϑdr = 2π δmn δµν (7. changes in boundary condition. The remaining infinite number of modes. All others are greater. for the generated evanescent modes to become negligible. For low frequency. An important special case is the plane wave m = 0. In fact.8) we find by integration of the time-averaged axial intensity I · e x = 1 ( pu ∗ + p∗ u) 4 2 δ = 1 if i = j. with √ √ j01 = 0.

however. so that φ(x. cut-off modes may transport energy by interaction between right. By taking either Amµ or Bmµ equal to zero.and left-running (Amµ and Bmµ ) modes. or pulse or any other finite wave package.or left-running cut-off modes Amµ or Bmµ are exponentially small. mµ (7. the respective cut-off modes decay in the propagation direction. mµ fc = The phase velocity of a wave is that velocity for which the phase Re(ωt − κ x) = constant. and a cut-on exp(ikmµ x)mode in negative direction (for the present +iωt–sign convention). Indeed.e. t) = ∞ −∞ jmµ c0 f (ω) eiωt−iκ(ω)x dω = ω0 +ε ω0 −ε ω0 +ε ω0 −ε f (ω) e iωt−iκ(ω)x dω (7.13) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . (7.11) vph = kmµ The group velocity is the speed of the energy. i. with Im(kmµ ) ≤ 0.200 7 Duct acoustics over a duct cross section x = constant the transmitted acoustic power P = π ω ∞ ∞  Re(kmµ )(|Amµ |2 − |Bmµ |2 ) m=−∞ µ=1  +2 Im(kmµ ) Im(A∗ Bmµ ).9).9) The summation over Re(kmµ ) contains only a finite number of non-zero terms: the cut-on modes. it is clear that a cuton exp(−ikmµ x)-mode propagates in positive direction. κ0 = dκ(ω0 )/dω. and we can say that a mode propagates or decays exponentially depending on the frequency being lower or higher than the cut-off or resonance frequency .10) 2π a As is clear from the second part of expression (7. For cut-on modes this is (in axial direction) ω (7.12) f (ω0 ) e iω0 t−iκ0 x e i(ω−ω0 )t−i(ω−ω0 )κ0 x dω with κ0 = κ(ω0 ). with a Fourier representation concentrated near a single frequency ω = ω0 : φ(x. For this we have to consider the time dependent problem of an almost harmonic problem. and the product A∗ Bmµ is therefore quickly negligible. It should be noted. that (depending on the choice of the origin x = 0) usually either the right. t) 2 f (ω0 ) sin ε(t − κ0 x) iω0 t−iκ0 x e t − κ0 x (7.

G(x) = cos(βm x). knm = (ω − αn − βm ) .7. (7. a mπ . 7. . 1.7). b 2 n = 0. H (z) = e where Re(knm ) ≥ 0 and Im(knm ) ≤ 0. results into Fx x = −α 2 F.16) 7. 1.15) dkmµ dω −1 = kmµ . with vg < 1 < vph . . and therefore travelling with the velocity 1/κ0 . αn = m = 0. .1 Behaviour of complex modes When the duct is lined with sound absorbing material of a type that allows little or no sound propagation in the material parallel to the wall. z) = F(x)G(y)H (z) applied to ∇2 p + ω2 p = 0 in the duct 0 ≤ x ≤ a. G yy = −β 2 G and Hzz = −(ω2 − α 2 − β 2 )H . but rather follow a longer path. the material is called RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2 Rectangular ducts In a completely analogous way as in the foregoing section 7.3 Impedance wall 7.2 Rectangular ducts 201 which describes a wave package centred around t = κ0 x. 2. with a right-hand rotation for m > 0 and a left-hand rotation for m < 0.14) The axial group velocity is lower than the soundspeed because the modal wave fronts do not propagate parallel to the x-axis. of sound propagation in a rectangular hard walled duct. 2. z) = n=0 m=0 cos(αn x) cos(βm y)( Anm e−iknm z +Bnm e iknm z ). . 0 ≤ y ≤ b. So the general solution is ∞ ∞ nπ . Separation of variables p(x. For a cut-on mode we thus have (in axial direction) vg = Note that vg vph = 1. y. ω (7. can be found as follows. (7. . βm = ∓iknm z 2 2 1/2 . .3. We obtain F(x) = cos(αn x). p(x. y.1. where α and β are eigenvalues to be determined from the hard-wall boundary conditions. similar to (7. spiralling around the x-axis. the general modal solution.

r=1 r=1 (7. The previous concept of a modal expansion. αmµ Jm (αmµ ) ω related to kmµ by the same square root as before: kmµ = 2 ω2 − αmµ . with modes again retaining their shape travelling down the duct. a couple of two modes wander into their quarter of the complex plane in a more irregular way. Only the eigenvalues αmµ are now defined by iZ Jm (αmµ ) = .) More precisely. is also here applicable.19) Qualitatively. with αmµ = jmµ . A typical practical example is: the inlet of an aircraft turbojet engine. If Im(Z) > 0. the behaviour of these modes in the complex kmµ -plane is as follows. However. αmµ varies from its |Z| = ∞-value jmµ to its Z = 0-value jmµ .6) and (7. A normalization that preserves the relation 1 0 ∗ Umµ (r)Umµ (r)r dϑdr = 1 (note that now the modes are not orthogonal) is Nmµ = |αmµ Jm (αmµ )|2 Re(Z) 2 Im(αmµ )ω −1/2 .) These jmµ and jmµ are real and interlaced according to the inequalities jmµ < jmµ < jm.17) the impedance being defined as p/(v · n) with n a normal pointing into the surface. so the corresponding kmµ are also interlaced and shift into a direction of increasing mode number µ.202 7 Duct acoustics locally reacting and may be described by a wall impedance Z(ω) (scaled on ρ c0 ).18) but another normalization may be more convenient. if Im(Z) < 0 (for +iωt-sign convention). ( jmµ is the µ-th zero of Jm . all modes may be found not too far from their hard wall values on the real interval (−ω. and Im(kmµ ) ≤ 0. (7. The general solution has a form similar to (7. (7. and in general quite RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . the hard walled case. ω) or the imaginary axis (that is. if we vary Z from |Z| = ∞ to Z = 0. 0 This gives in the acoustic problem the following boundary condition in the frequency domain: iωp = −Z(ω) ∂p ∂r .µ+1 < etc.7)..

which may be considered as the high-frequency approximation of the duct problem. We will call these irregular modes surface waves: their maximum is at the wall surface.1 of the related 2-D problem. In figure 7. and h(z) ∼ z m m RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . (smaller than. A solution αmµ = i mµ . The group velocity (7.7.3 Impedance wall 203 far away from the others.2). with h(0) = m. described by Jm (αmµ r) = im Im ( mµr). is exponentially restricted to the immediate neighbourhood of r = 1 and indeed shows the surface wave character. say.14) is now larger than the sound speed. See figure 7. since the modified Bessel function Im (x) has exponential behaviour for x → ∞. mµ real. may be found3 satisfying if − ω < X < 0.2 Complex impedance plane. 3 The function h(z) = z I (z)/I (z) increases monotonically in z. 7.4. lining is applied to reduce the sound level by dissipation. and away from the wall they decay exponentially ([157]). Compare this figure with figure 3. 2) we see the first (µ=1) mode being launched into the complex kmµ -plane when Im(Z) is negative. and then returning as a (for example) µ=4 or 2 mode when Im(Z) is positive. It is interesting to note that the corresponding axial wave num2 ber kmµ = (ω2 + mµ )1/2 is now larger than ω. Hence.2 Attenuation Usually.3. m (7.3 this behaviour is depicted by the trajectories of the modes as the impedance varies along lines of constant real part (figure 7. which is indeed to be expected for a non-radiating surface wave.) For small enough Re(Z) Z∈ real axis imaginary axis Re(Z ) =constant Figure 7. This is most purely the case for an imaginary impedance Z = iX. (Note the notation! α in the 2-D problem corresponds to kmµ here.20) X Im ( mµ ) =− ω mµ Im ( mµ ) The modal shape in r. the modal phase velocity is smaller than the sound speed. It is a simple exercise to verify that the time-averaged intensity at the wall directed into the wall as z → ∞.

3 Trajectories of kmµ (m = 0.5. (b) 1. (d) 2. ω = 5) for Im(Z) varying from −∞ to ∞ and fixed Re(Z) = (a) 0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .0.0.204 7 Duct acoustics 15 −k05 10 −k05 −k04 ¹ ¹ −k01 5 −k04 −k03 (a) −k01 k02 k03 −k03 ¹ (b) 0 −k02 −k02 Í Ã k02 k01 -5 k04 ¹ k03 k01 k04 -10 k05 -15 15 k05 −k05 10 ¹ ¹ ¹ −k05 −k04 (c) −k03 −k01 −k02 ¹ ¹ ¹ −k04 −k03 −k01 −k02 (d) 5 0 ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ k02 k01 -5 k02 k01 k03 k04 k05 k03 k04 k05 -10 -15 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Figure 7.5. (c) 1.

Also the geometry may play a rôle.0 (i. and to maximize the decay rate of the least attenuated mode. the optimum will depend on the source of the sound.3 Impedance wall 205 −k05 10 −k04 −k03 surface wave 5 0 −k01 −k02 k02 k01 k03 k04 k05 surface wave ¹ -5 -10 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Figure 7. If more than one frequency contributes.18) vanishes. the one with the smallest | Im(kmµ )|.21) A natural practical question is then: which impedance Z gives the greatest reduction. the net reduction may benefit from reflections at discontinuities in the duct (hard/soft walls. so that a (relatively) large decay rate is obtained if the first and second mode (of the most relevant m) coalesce (Cremer optimum). A further simplification is based on the observation that the decay rate Im(kmµ ) of a mode increases with increasing order. however.e. This is obtained if also the derivative to αmµ of (7. ω = 5) for Im(Z) varying from −∞ to ∞ and fixed Re(Z) = 0. varying cross section). i. we have to include the way Z = Z(ω) depends on ω. the dissipated power density) of a mode is 2 I · er ∝ Im(αmµ ). In general. many answers. (7. This question has. A simple approach would be to look at the reduction per mode.e.7.22) Jm (αmµ )2 + 1 − 2 Jm (αmµ )2 = 0. αmµ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .4 Trajectories of kmµ (m = 0. yielding the additional condition m2 (7. Although it is strictly speaking not dissipation.

23a) (7.5 Trajectories of kmµ (m = 0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Note that no mode is lost.50). αmµ x Jm (αmµ r) − ikmµ r Jm (αmµr) Nmµ e−ikmµ x−imϑ .4165 . -0. An example is given in figure 7.206 6 7 Duct acoustics 4 2 ¿ 0 ° Â Â Â Â ° · -2 -4 -6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 7.4165. we consider an annular duct of (scaled) inner radius h. Im(Z) varies from −∞ to ∞ and Re(Z) is fixed at 1.6082) the first two modes coalesce as k01 =k02 =(4. the modal theory still applies.8857). ω = 5) passing the Cremer optimum.5.-0.3057. (7.4 Annular hard-walled duct modes in uniform mean flow With uniform mean flow (see equation 2. At Z = (1. as the two corresponding modes degenerate into Jm (αmµ r)Nmµ e−ikmµ x−imϑ .23b) 7. In view of applications.

+ 2+ ∂x2 ∂r r ∂r r ∂ϑ (7. θ) e−i M x .25) becomes iω + M ∂ ∂x 2 ω p− 1 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + 2 2 p = 0.29) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . such that ∇ · v = 0 and p ≡ 0.26) The eigenvalue problem can now be solved. equation (7.4 Annular hard-walled duct modes in uniform mean flow 207 Consider the following linearized equations for small perturbations iω + M ∂ p + ∇ · v = 0. (7. however. θ) = m=−∞ µ=1 Amµ e−ikmµ x +Bmµ e−ikmµ x Umµ (r) e−imθ + − (7. and we may expand the general solution in Fourier-Bessel modes ∞ ∞ p(x. Eliminate v to obtain the convected wave equation iω + M ∂ ∂x 2 p − ∇ 2 p = 0. r. Fully written out. the possibility of convective incompressible pressureless disturbances of the form v = F(r. (7.24b) with hard-wall boundary conditions.28a) (7.28c) = −ωM ± 2 ω2 − (1 − M 2 )αmµ 1 − M2 and solution Umµ (r) = Nmµ cos(τmµ ) Jm (αmµr) − sin(τmµ )Ym (αmµ r) . ∂x ∂ v + ∇ p = 0.24a) (7.7.25) Note. iω + M ∂x (7.28b) (7.27) where the radial modes and radial and axial wave numbers satisfy 1 m2 2 Umµ + Umµ + αmµ − 2 Umµ = 0 r r 2 2 αmµ = (ω − Mkmµ )2 − kmµ ± kmµ (7.

they are interesting because they form a complete and orthonormal L2 basis for the solutions of the convected wave equation (except for the pressureless convected perturbations): 2π 0 h 1 Umµ (r)Unν (r) eimθ e−inθ r drdθ = 2π δmn δµν (7.31) Jm (αmµ )2 + Ym (αmµ )2 and τmµ = arctan Jm (αmµ ) . for example without the factor sign(Ym ). γmµ = 1 − σmµ . are also possible.f. αmµ = γmµ ± σmµ − M 2 . ω = β .35) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .32) This implies the following choice of signs cos τmµ = sign(Ym (αmµ )) sin τmµ = sign(Ym (αmµ )) Ym (αmµ ) Jm (αmµ )2 + Ym (αmµ )2 Jm (αmµ ) Jm (αmµ )2 + Ym (αmµ )2 .208 7 Duct acoustics Eigenvalues αmµ are determined via boundary condition Umµ (1) = Umµ (h) = 0 Jm (α)Ym (αh) − Jm (αh)Ym (α) = 0 The normalisation is such that Nmµ = 1 2 h U (r)r 1 2 2 1 − m 2 /αmµ (7. = β (7.34) It is convenient to introduce the Lorentz or Prandtl-Glauert type transformation (see 3.30) dr = 1 (c.41) β= 1 − M 2. Other choices. so 2 π αmµ 2 1 − m 2 /αmµ h 2 1 2 √ (7. (7. The modes are physically interesting because their shape remains the same. ± kmµ x = β X. .33a) (7. Ym (αmµ ) − Jm (αmµ h)2 + Ym (αmµ h)2 (7. Mathematically.33b) with the advantage that it reduces to the expected limit Nmµ Jm (αmµr) for h → 0. [156]).

38a) (7. we can expand these profiles in the following Fourier-Bessel series ∞ ∞ P(0. r. r.40b) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .39a) (7.39b) σmµ − M σmµ + M Amµ − Bmµ 1 − Mσmµ 1 + Mσmµ 2σmµ (1 − M 2 ) 2 (1 + Mσmµ )(σmµ − M)Pmµ − (1 − M 2 σmµ )Vmµ (7. r. θ) = m=−∞ µ=1 ∞ ∞ Pmµ Umµ (r) e−imθ Vmµ Umµ (r) e−imθ (7.37a) V (0. θ)Umµ (r) eimθ r drdθ V (0. the corresponding amplitudes Amµ and Bmµ are found from identifying Pmµ = Amµ + Bmµ Vmµ = leading to Amµ = Bmµ = 2 (1 − Mσmµ )(σmµ + M)Pmµ + (1 − M 2 σmµ )Vmµ (7.37b) where Pmµ = Vmµ 1 2π 1 = 2π 2π 0 2π 0 h h 1 1 P(0.40a) 2σmµ (1 − M 2 ) (7.7. r. r. r.36b) If we have at position x = 0 a given pressure and axial velocity profiles P(0.4 Annular hard-walled duct modes in uniform mean flow 209 then we have for pressure p and axial acoustic velocity v ∞ ∞ p= m=−∞ µ=1 ∞ ∞ Amµ e−i σmµ X +Bmµ ei σmµ X ei MX Umµ (r) e−imθ (7. θ)Umµ (r) eimθ r drdθ (7.38b) If these pressure and velocity profiles satisfy the above propagation model of sound in uniform mean flow.36a) v= m=−∞ µ=1 σmµ − M Amµ e−i 1 − Mσmµ σmµ + M Bmµ ei 1 + Mσmµ σmµ X − ei MX σmµ X Umµ (r) e−imθ (7. θ). θ) = m=−∞ µ=1 (7. θ) and V (0.

Note the coupling between left.35.6).42) + 2πβ 4 m=−∞ µ=µ0 · ∗ 2 ∗ Im( Amµ Bmµ )(1 − M 2 σmµ ) − Re(Amµ Bmµ )2M|σmµ | where µ0 is the number of cut-on modes. 7. although their behaviour with respect to possible surface waves is more complicated [162].36a) for pressure p and radial velocity v p = e−i σ X+i M X Jm ( γ r). where γ 2 + σ 2 = 1 and the sign selected of σ depends (in general) on the direction of propagation. (7. m. and ω (1 − Mσ )2 Jm ( γ ) − iβ 3 Zγ Jm ( γ ) = 0. From the boundary condition (see equation 3.and right-running cut-off modes. We dropped the exponentials with iωt and imθ.41) we obtain the axial power: ∞ µ0 P = πβ 4 m=−∞ µ=1 ∞ σmµ ∞ |Bmµ |2 |Amµ |2 − + (1 − Mσmµ )2 (1 + Mσmµ )2 |σmµ | · 2 (1 + M 2 σmµ )2 +1 (7. and 7.27 with 7.5 Behaviour of soft-wall modes and mean flow Consider a cylindrical duct with soft wall of specific impedance Z and uniform mean flow of Mach number M. We start with modes of the same form as for the hard wall case (equations 7.43) A graphical description of their behaviour as a function of Im Z (from +∞ down to −∞) and fixed Re Z is given in the series of figures (7. For this configuration the acoustic field allows again modes.40) iω Zv = iω + M ∂∂x p we find the equation for reduced axial wave number σ for any given Z. v= iβγ e−i 1 − Mσ σ X+i M X Jm ( γ r). similar to the no-flow situation.210 7 Duct acoustics From the axial intensity in hard-walled flow duct Ix = 1 2 Re (1 + M 2 ) pu ∗ + M| p|2 + M|u|2 (7. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

The 2D surface wave solutions of eqn.42) are included as black lines.5.6 Trajectories of reduced wave number σmµ (m = 1.3+ i⋅↓ 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 Z=2+ i⋅↓ 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 5 4 Z=0.01+ i⋅↓ 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 7.7.5 Behaviour of soft-wall modes and mean flow 211 5 4 Z=3+ i⋅↓ 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 5 4 Z=1+ i⋅↓ 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 5 4 Z=0. for Im(Z) varying from −∞ to ∞ and fixed Re(Z).5+ i⋅↓ 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 5 4 Z=0. (3. ω = 5) where M = 0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

only contribute to higher order modes and do not generate sound if these modes are cut-off. The “egg” (figure 3. indicating the location of possible surface waves in the 2D limit. 7. the behaviour of the modes can be classified as follows. and the mode is radially restricted to the duct wall region. ϑ) produces in a hard walled duct a sound field (7. The 2D surface wave solutions are indicated by black lines. extending radially through the whole duct. 3.1 Modal amplitudes A source at x = 0.44a) (7.44b) (use (7.42). ϑ) x=0 = p0 (r.3.43). Note that.8)). The modes change position with a neighbour. defined by p(x. approximately described by the theory of section 3.3). When σ is near a hard-wall value. However. of two-dimensional nature. For large Re Z. The two hydrodynamic modes disappear to infinity for Im Z → −∞ like is described in equation (3. the imaginary part of γ becomes significant. when σ is far enough away from a hard-wall value.6 (eqn. figures 7. ω. and some become temporarily a surface wave. is drawn in the figures by a dotted line. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . For lower values of Re Z the behaviour becomes more irregular. it has become a surface wave. and the same in x < 0 but with A and B interchanged. details of the source (averaged out for the lower modes in the process of integration). the mode described is really of acoustic nature. the modes remain near their hard-wall values. similar to the evanescent waves of section 3.212 7 Duct acoustics For large enough frequency. In other words. The complex Bessel function Jm ( γ r) becomes exponentially decaying away from the wall. r.6. although the effect of the mean flow is that we have now 4 rather than 2 possible surface waves.1. The behaviour of the modes is to a certain extent similar to the no-flow situation (section 7.3).6 Source expansion 7.7) with modal amplitudes given by (in x > 0) Amµ = Bmµ 1 2π =0 2π 0 0 a p0 (r.2. ϑ)Umµ (r) e imϑ r drdϑ (7.3.

6 Source expansion 213 7.2 Rotating fan Of practical interest. 0) = q(ϑ. r) + · · · + q(ϑ − (B − 1) ϑ. and we may ignore this component. An interesting consequence for a rotor in a duct is the observation that it is not obvious if there is (propagating) sound generated at all: the frequency must be higher than the cut-off frequency. equally spaced ϑ = 2π/B radians apart. Evidently. r) . c0 m (7. r. r) + q(ϑ − B−1 ϑ. Since the plane wave (m = 0) is generated with frequency ω = 0 it is acoustically not interesting. t) = k=0 q ϑ− t− 2πk .6. r. ϑ. especially in aircraft noise reduction [188]. r).47) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . So at a time t t−in Bϑ Since the field is associated to the rotor. and we jump with steps B through the modal m-spectrum.45) ∗ (with q−n = qn because p is real). is the following model of a propeller or fan with B identical blades. periodic in ϑ with period 2π/B. rotating with angular speed .7. t. Note that each frequency ω = n B is now linked to a circumferential periodicity m = n B. the field is built up from harmonics of the blade passing frequency B . = k=0 q ϑ− 2πk . may be expanded in a Fourier series: ∞ p(ϑ.r B = n=−∞ qn (r) e in B (7.r B This function. If at some time t = 0 at a fixed position x the field due to one blade is given by the shape function q(ϑ. it is a function of ϑ − B−1 ∞ p(ϑ. 0) = n=−∞ qn (r) e−in Bϑ . then from periodicity the total field is described by p(r. For any harmonic (n > 0) we have: fm = j c0 m > m1 2π 2π a (7.46) which is for the tip Mach number Mtip the condition Mtip = a j > m1 .

Behind the inlet rotor. ingested turbulence and the turbulent wake of the blades are not periodic and will therefore not follow this cut-off reduction mechanism. Of course. The viscous and inviscid wakes from the rotor blades hit the stator vanes which results into the generation of sound ([176]). and amounts to nothing more than a clever RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .6. It is based on elegant manipulation of Fourier series. 7.7 Sketch of high by-pass turbo fan engine. or fan. 188]).214 7 Duct acoustics Since the first zero of Jm is always (slightly) larger than m (Appendix D). The other compressor stages (intermediate and high pressure) are only indicated. A very simple but at the same time very important and widely used device to reduce this sound is the “Tyler and Soffrin selection rule” ([179. the present result is significant. On the other hand. if the perturbations resulting from blade thickness and lift forces alone are dominating as in aircraft engines. For example. Fan or inlet rotor of low pressure compressor is drawn. and indeed the inlet fan noise level of many aircraft turbo fan engines is greatly enhanced at take off by the inlet fan rotating supersonically (together with other effects leading to the so-called buzzsaw noise ([179])). in practice a ducted fan with subsonically rotating blades will not be entirely silent. acousti c lining stator by-pass duct rotor inlet duct spinner inlet plane (core engine) nacelle Figure 7. it implies that the tip must rotate supersonically (Mtip > 1) for the fan to produce sound. a stator is positioned (figure 7.7) to compensate for the rotation in the flow due to the rotor.3 Tyler and Soffrin rule for rotor-stator interaction The most important noise source of an aircraft turbo fan engine at inlet side is the noise due to interaction between inlet rotor and neighbouring stator.

First. to link the first (few) harmonics of the sound to duct modes that are cut-off and therefore do not propagate. and a stator with V identical vanes.3) n B ≤ |m| = |kV + n B|. The field is periodic in ϑ with the stator periodicity 2π/ V in such a way that when we travel with the rotor over an angle ϑ = 2π/ V in a time step t = ϑ/ the field must be the same: ∞ ∞ p(r. A recent development is that the second harmonic. because most of the m-components are just zero. equally spaced ϑ = 2π/ V radians apart. this component is effectively absent for a long enough inlet duct. is reduced by selecting the mode number m to be of opposite sign of n. t) = n=−∞ Q n (r. However. equally spaced ϑ = 2π/B radians apart. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . it is periodic in ϑ. which means: counter rotating with respect to the rotor. Consider the same rotor as above. ϑ. t) = n=−∞ m=−∞ Q nm (r) e in B (t− t)−im(ϑ− ϑ) . In detail: for a cut-off n-th harmonic (we only have to consider positive n) we need j c0 nB < m1 2π 2π a or n B Mtip < jm1 . ϑ. In this case the rotor itself acts as a shield obstructing the spiralling modes to leave the duct ([176]). This yields for any m the restriction: −in B m = kV + n B t + im ϑ = 2π ik. with B identical blades.7.6 Source expansion 215 choice of the rotor blade and stator vane numbers. we can do better than that. Furthermore. so it may be written as ∞ ∞ ∞ p(r. Since typically Mtip is slightly smaller than 1 and jm1 is slightly larger than |m| we get the analogue of evanescent wave condition k < |α| (section 3. and is therefore built up from harmonics of the blade passing frequency B . In practice. and n the harmonic of interest. rotating with angular speed . which is usually cut-on. By selecting B and V such that the lowest |m| possible is high enough for the harmonic of interest to be cut-off. we observe that the field generated by rotor-stator interaction must have the time dependence of the rotor. or (7. ϑ) e in B t = n=−∞ m=−∞ Q nm (r) e in B t−imϑ .48) where k is any integer. only the first harmonic is reduced in this way.

−33.50) pm (r. α Jm (α) (7. ϑ) = ∞ ∞ −∞ m=−∞ pm (r. r. ϑ) = − ω e−imϑ 4π 2 i m=−∞ ∞ ∞ −∞ (7.6.49) it follows that α Am Jn (α) = −ω/4π 2 i.216 7 Duct acoustics The only values of kV for which this inequality is not satisfied automatically is in the interval −2n B < kV < 0. for n = 2: m = · · · .4 Point source in a duct wall As a last example we consider the field from a source v· er = −δ(x) in the duct wall. The generated m-modes are for the first two harmonics: for n = 1: m = · · · . γ ) e−imϑ−iγ x dγ ˆ (7. −11. r = 1. · · · . 44. the following configuration of a rotor with B = 22 blades and a stator with V = 55 vanes. which indeed corresponds to only cut-off modes of the first harmonic (m = 22 and larger) and a counter rotating cut-on second harmonic (m = −11). p(x. unlike the previous case. γ ) = Am (γ ) Jm (α(γ )r) ˆ α(γ )2 = ω2 − γ 2 . · · · . ϑ = 0.2a) formally via Fourier transformation in x. so that 1 ∂p iω ∂r ∞ = δ(x) r=1 n=−∞ δ(ϑ − 2π n) ∞ −∞ −iγ x 1 = 2π e 1 dγ 2π ∞ m=−∞ e−imϑ .51) Jm (αr) −iγ x e dγ . we avoid it for any k. r. 99. So we have finally the condition: V ≥ 2n B. (7. If we make the step size V big enough so that we avoid this interval for k = −1. Consider. For simplicity we take a point source in x = 0. appear naturally) p(x. 77. as a realistic example.52) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 22. 7. From the (Fourier transformed) boundary condition (7. and Fourier series expansion in ϑ (the modes will.49) We solve equation (7.

mµ is Jm (α(γ )) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .7. Closing the contour via Im(γ ) → −∞ for x > 0 and via Im(γ ) → +∞ yields 5 the solution. −1 5 Near γ = k −(γ − kmµ )kmµ αmµ Jm (αmµ ). × × × × −ω • × × × × × × × • × ×× ω γ ∈ Figure 7.6 Source expansion 217 Evidently. in the form of a series over the residue-contributions in γ = ±kmµ .8. µ = 1 plane-wave mode is 1 −iω|x| e . the poles of the meromorphic4 integrand are found at γ = ±kmµ .53) m=−∞ µ=1 Jm (αmµ r) e−ikmµ |x|−imϑ 1 2 (1 − m 2 /αmµ ) Jm (αmµ )kmµ 2 where the contribution of the m = 0. This is indeed the modal expansion we could have anticipated: p(x.8 Contour of integration in the γ -plane. r. and since the waves must be outgoing the integration contour in the γ -plane must be located as in figure 7. ϑ) = − ω = 4π 1 2π ∞ ∞ m=−∞ ∞ e−imϑ ∞ µ=1 ω Jm (αmµ r) −ikmµ |x| e kmµ Jm (αmµ ) (7. 2π 4 A meromorphic function is analytic on the complex plane except for isolated poles.

7 Reflection and transmission at a discontinuity in diameter One single modal representation is only possible in segments of a duct with constant properties (diameter.e. and the solution is again just a modal sum ˆ of right.g. does not satisfy the boundary condition of the moving wall. We write as a Fourier sum η(x. i. ϑ) = iω2 1 L −L 2 αmµ k α2 m=−∞ µ=1 mµ mµ ··· − m2 Jm (αmµr) −imϑ e ··· Jm (αmµ ) (7. [90]) as r = 1 − η(x. its radial derivative). Pointwise. r. instead of a point. r. This is not the case. by using result (7. ϑ) e iωt ∞ for −L≤x ≤L ∞ ∞ −∞ (7. the remaining integral is just the Fourier transform times exponential. ˆ Similar to above we find the solution p(x. Although in the source region no simple modes can be recognized.6.55) ηm (x ) e−ikmµ |x−x | dx with the plane-wave contribution L iω −L η0 (x ) e−iω|x−x | dx .288). ϑ) as a formal Fourier integral. outside this region. for |x| > L. because the infinite series is not uniformly converging (at least.5 Vibrating duct wall When. while it is only the limit which is physically relevant. a finite part of the wall vibrates (e.or left-running modes. ϑ) = m=−∞ e −imϑ ηm (x) = m=−∞ e−imϑ ηm (γ ) e−iγ x dγ . as ∞ ∞ p(x. wall impedance). 7. however. A naive interpretation of this formula might suggest the contradictory result that the field. which can be rewritten.218 7 Duct acoustics 7. the value at the wall is not equal to the limit to the wall. ηm (±kmµ ) exp(−kmµ |x|). When two segments of different prop- RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . built up from hard-wall modes with vanishing r-derivative at the wall.53) and the Convolution Theorem (C.54) then the solution may be found as follows.10) (p.

ν=1 (7. Because of circumferential symmetry there is no scattering into other m-modes. so we will consider only a single m-mode. or B = R A. Furthermore. (7.7. and a part of the incident field is reflected. The field pin .6) ∞ pin = µ=1 Amµ Umµ (r) e−ikmµ x−imϑ . using conditions of continuity of pressure and velocity. these continuity conditions cannot be satisfied with a transmission field only. but since the modes are different we have to reformulate the expansion of the incident field into an expansion of the transmitted field in the neighbouring segment.56a) is scattered at x = 0 into the reflected wave pref ∞ pref = µ=1 ∞ BmµUmµ (r) e ikmµ x−imϑ . Consider a duct with a discontinuity in diameter at x = 0 (figure 7. with (for definiteness) a > b.56b) Bmµ = RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .9): a radius a along x < 0 and a radius b along x > 0. This is called: mode matching. erties are connected to each other we can use a modal representation in each segment. Each mode is scattered into a modal spectrum of transmitted and reflected modes.7 Reflection and transmission at a discontinuity in diameter 219 r =a r =b Figure 7.9 Duct with discontinuous diameter. Rmµν Amν . incident from x = −∞ and given by (see equation 7.

kmµ = βmµ = jmµ /b. the edge condition is certainly important in the present problem.57) ˆ yields. b]. ∞ Cmµ = ν=1 Tmµν Amν . or C = T A. and using or- RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . This condition is necessary in a geometry with edges because the boundary conditions lose their meaning at an edge. whereas the differential equation is not valid at the boundary. integration from 0 to b. In the context of modal series expansions this condition is related to the convergence rate of the series. Since the problem is linear it is sufficient to determine the scattered field of a single µ-mode.2). 0 ≤ r ≤ b we have continuity of pressure and axial velocity. while αmµ = jmµ /a. after multiplication with Umλ (r)r. section C. It then follows that the continuity of pressure at the interface ∞ ∞ (Rmνµ + δνµ )Umν = ν=1 ν=1 ˆ Tmνµ Umν (7. The matrices R and T are introduced to use the fact that each incident mode reflects and transmits into a modal spectrum. Im(kmµ ) ≤ 0. Im( mµ ) = ≤ 0. When acting on the incident field amplitude vector A. Suitable conditions of convergence of the infinite series are assumed. Although its rôle remains in the usual engineering practice somewhat in the background. 2 ω2 − βmµ . Therefore. At the edges we have the so-called edge condition [114]: the energy integral of the field in a neighbourhood of an edge must be finite (no source hidden in the edge). A δ-function type of a spurious edge source generates a divergent series expansion (to be interpreted as a generalized function. At the interface x = 0. they are called “reflection matrix” and “transmission matrix”. At the walls we have the boundary condition of vanishing normal velocity. ˆ ˆ Umµ (r) and Nmµ are the obvious generalizations of Umµ (r) and Nmµ on the interval [0. (7.220 7 Duct acoustics and into the transmitted wave ptr ∞ ptr = µ=1 ˆ Cmµ Umµ (r) e−i mµ x−imϑ . mµ 2 ω2 − αmµ .56c) ˆ ˆ Umµ (r) = Nmµ Jm (βmµr). they produce the reflection and transmission field amplitude vectors B and C.

52) and (D. So we have formally the solution R = (k − M M)−1 (k + M M) (7. This integral may be evaluated by using equations (D. integration from 0 to a of the left hand side.60) are valid for any λ and µ.7 Reflection and transmission at a discontinuity in diameter thonormality. Umν T . after multiplication with Umλ (r)r. the following relation expressing Rmλµ in the vector Tm·µ : ∞ kmλ (Rmλµ − δλµ ) = − ν=1 ˆ Umλ . (7. 6 δ = 1 if i = j.59) yields.7.60) Both equations (7. The continuity of axial velocity at the interface ∞ ∞ kmν (Rmνµ − δνµ )Umν = − ν=1 ν=1 mν Tmνµ Umν ˆ (7. so we can write in matrix notation M(R + I ) = k (R − I ) = M T.58) and (7. given by ˆ Mλν = Umλ . T. kλν = δλν kmλ .Umν b . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .58) where f .Umν b (Rmνµ + δνµ ) = Tmλµ .g b = b 0 f (r)g(r)r dr. λν = δλν mλ .62) which can be evaluated by standard techniques for any sufficiently large truncated matrices. using px = 0 on b ≤ r ≤ a. (7. ij δi j = 0 if i = j .53).61) for identity matrix I . the following relation6 to express Tmλµ in the vector Rm·µ : ∞ ν=1 221 ˆ Umλ . and diagonal matrices k and . b mν mνµ (7. matrix M and its transpose M . and from 0 to b of the right hand side.

105. physical) solution. we call this an iris. k P×P . This gives truncated matrices MQ×P .60) after Q terms. if we consider the iris as a duct (albeit of zero length) connecting the two main ducts at either side of the iris. P terms and of (7. mode numbers m. because we have not yet explicitly satisfied the edge condition. r.222 7 Duct acoustics A suitable choice of truncation [104. Inside the pipe we have the incident mode with reflected field. the final system of matrix equations may be further simplified [160]. 7.e. and the edge condition is satisfied if their ratio remains: P/Q a/b. however. Since the matrices of each transition are similar. The exact solution (by means of the Wiener-Hopf technique) was first found by Levine and Schwinger (for m = 0) in their celebrated paper [97]. In this case one might be tempted to solve the problem directly by matching the modal expansions at either side of the iris plate. so that we obtain RP×P and T Q×P . 160].8 Reflection at an unflanged open end The reflection at and radiation from an open pipe end of a modal sound wave depends on the various problem parameters like Helmholtz number ω.7. This is not an artefact of the method: the solution is indeed not unique. either not or very slowly converge to the correct (i. allowing for a certain balance between the accuracy in x < 0 and in x > 0. we may converge for P. 123]. µ and pipe wall thickness. and from the iris to duct 2) is to be treated as above. ϑ) = RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . M P×Q . semi-infinite pipe of vanishing wall thickness. The above method of section 7. however. A canonical problem amenable to analysis is that of a hard-walled. with P/a Q/b. Q → ∞ to another solution (7.58) after. This solution will.1 The iris problem When an abrupt contraction of the duct diameter is immediately followed by an expansion to the previous diameter (an infinitely thin orifice plate).7. is well applicable to this problem too. 7. Each transition (from duct 1 to the iris. Generalizations for higher modes may be found in [199] and with uniform [156] or jet mean flow [122. The behaviour near the edge depends on the way we let P and Q tend to infinity. is to include proportionally more terms in the wider duct: a truncation of the series of (7. It should be noted that if we take P/Q very much different from a/b. given by p(x. Q×Q .62) than the physical one. cylindrical. say.

while the reflection coefficient becomes R011 − exp(−i 2δω).6127. Dmµ (ξ ) consists of lobes (maxima interlaced 2 √ by zeros). and tends to zero for 2 ξ → π if m ≥ 1 and to a finite value if m = 0. and Dmµ (ξ ) is called the directivity function. The dimensional distance δa is called the end correction. Near resonance ω ∼ αmµ the modulus |Rmµν (ω)| behaves linearly from the left. r) e−imϑ where pm (x. at which the wave appears to reflect with p = 0. and |Dmµ (ξ )| is the radiation pattern. µ-coefficients: kmν Rmµν = kmµ Rmνµ . r) Dmµ (ξ ) e−iω ω (ω → ∞). In the forward arc. r) = Umµ (r) e−ikmµ x + ∞ 223 Rmµν Umµ (r) e ikmν x . the radiation pattern of the plane wave mµ = 01 becomes spherically shaped and small like O(ω2 ). r = sin ξ . If ω → 0. which have to be evaluated numerically. Some important properties are: • • • At resonance ω = αmµ we have total reflection in itself.5.39). (7.64) where x = cos ξ . and like a square root from the right side. ν and the ν. Rmµν = 0.96. µ=1 (7. the zeros of Dmµ (ξ ) are found at ξ = arcsin(αmν /ω).63) Outside the pipe we have in the far field pm (x. 2 In the rearward arc. 0 < ξ < 1 π . If the mode is cut on. Dmµ (ξ ) is free of zeros. If kmν is real and ν = µ. A reciprocity relation between the µ. and no reflection in any other mode. 1 π ≤ ξ < π . See also (6.8 Reflection at an unflanged open end pm (x. where δ = 0. while D01 (0) = 1 2 iω2 and Dmµ (0) = 0. since x = δa is a fictitious point just outside the pipe. • • • • • RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . the main lobe is located at ξmµ = arcsin(αmµ /ω). The reflection matrix {Rmµν } and the directivity function are both described by complex integrals.7. the behaviour of the phase arg(Rmµν (ω)) is similar but reversed: linearly from the right and like a square root from the left. Rmµµ = −1.

7.5 ×π 0 −0. 2. as a function of ω = 0 . 2.5 1 |R111| |R | 121 |R122| 0.5 −1 1.10 Modulus and phase of reflection coefficients Rmµν for m = 0 .5 |R222| −1 φ222 φ φ212 φ221 211 φ022 φ φ012 φ021 011 |R021| 0.8 0. .2 0 |R | 221 |R012| |R 022 | 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 φ122 φ 111 φ112 φ121 |R112| 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 |R212| 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 7.5 1 0. .5 ×π 0 −0.6 7 Duct acoustics |R011| 1. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2 0 1 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.2 0 1 0.6 0.4 |R211| 0.4 0.5 ×π 0 −0.5 −1 1. .8 0. µ. .5 1 0. ν = 1.224 1 0.

6. while the zeros are found for ω = 4 at ξ = 73. ω = 1.7◦ . 2 and µ.7061 for m = 2. Of the reflection coefficient we have plotted modulus |Rmµν (ω)| and phase φmµν = arg(Rmµν ) as a function of ω = 0 . and ω = 3. For m = 1 we have the main lobe at ξ11 = 67. 6.8412 and 5. plots of Rmµν and |Dmµ (ξ )| may be generated. 4.4◦ . 6. .0156 for m = 0. Furthermore.11 Radiation pattern 20 log10 |Dmµ | + 71.3◦ . dimensionless 1) and the axial phase velocity vph (7.11). and ω = 2. 17. 4. and for ω = 6 at ξ = 39. and the sound radiates more and more like rays [21].10 and 7. For m = 0 the main lobe is at ξ01 = 0. 2.7 for mµ = 01. of the first radial mode (µ = 1) for m = 0 and m = 1. 7.9◦ for ω = 2. 4. the wave front makes an angle ξmµ with the x-axis such that cos(ξmµ ) = 1/vph = kmµ /ω. i. Note that the resonance (cut-off) frequencies are ω = 3.11. = 11 and ω = 2.0542 and 6. ξmµ = arccos(kmµ /ω) = arcsin(αmµ /ω) is the angle at which the mode radiates out of the open end. on dB-scale. . the angle of the main lobe. for m = 0 . The radiation pattern is plotted. 120 90 100 60 120 90 100 60 60 60 150 20 30 150 20 30 180 0 180 0 210 330 210 330 240 270 300 240 270 300 Figure 7. . 27.7. as given in figures 7. As the mode spirals through the duct. Indeed. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ν = 1.0◦ ..e. the trend is clear that for higher frequencies the refraction effects become smaller.8 Reflection at an unflanged open end 225 Based on the method presented in [156]. .8317 and 7.7◦ for ω = 6.3314 for m = 1. The zero is found at ξ = 62. It is instructive to compare the wave front velocity of a mode (the sound speed.

such that the plane wave is detected at least 20 dB louder than the other modes. A harmonic source with frequency f = 500 Hz is positioned at x = 0 half-way the radius. Find analytical approximate expressions of the surface waves.226 7 Duct acoustics Exercises a) Consider a hard-walled duct of radius a = 0.1 m with an acoustic medium with c0 = 340 m/s. ignoring details like r -variation of higher-order modes: what is the necessary distance D? – What is D for frequency f tending to zero ? b) Investigate the behaviour of k mµ (equation 7. by Fourier transformation to x. Verify this by an alternative approach based on representation (D.51). the field of a harmonic point source inside a hard-walled infinite duct.20) for ω → ∞.53). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . – What is the cut-off frequency ? – Assuming that all excited modes have about the same initial amplitude. c) Find in a similar way as for equation (7. A microphone is to be placed an axial distance x = D away from the source.

we do have the possibilities to gradually increase the complexity of a model. Of course. . If we accept approximate solutions. Either explicitly and systematically. But an exact solution of an approximate model is not better than an approximate solution of an exact model. This is. The methods utilizing systematically this approach are called “perturbations methods”. previously absent from our model. So there is absolutely no reason to demand the solution to be more exact than the corresponding model. Examples are numerous: simplified geometries reducing the spatial dimension. zero or infinite lengths rather than finite lengths. applicable in a certain situation. based on the inherent small or large modelling parameters. a distinction is made between regular and singular perturbations. low velocities and long time scales allowing incompressible description. labelling it “valid” or “invalid”. small relative viscosity allowing inviscid models. or necessary extensions. is included in our model. however. but gradual and smooth changes from one form into another. A (loose definition of a) regular perturbation is where the solution of the approximate problem is everywhere close to the solution of the unperturbed problem. the change is abrupt and usually the corresponding equations are more complex and more difficult to solve. It is important to realize that these levels of modelling are not discrete steps. investigating possible reductions or simplifications. only true if we are merely interested in exact or numerically “exact” solutions. Models and theories. or implicitly on a more intuitive basis. and study small but significant effects in the most efficient way. There are always in the higher-level theory one or more inherent modelling parameters which become large or small and hence giving in the limit a simpler description [31]. when a certain aspect or effect. etc. any modelling process consists of selecting a suitable model. Usually. and subsequently moving up or down in the hierarchy. are not “isolated islands of knowledge” provided with a logical flag.8 Approximation methods Almost any mathematical model of a physical phenomenon can be considered as one in a hierarchy of increasing complexity. small amplitudes allowing linearization. The question is: how can we use this gradual transition between models of different level.

where the typical axial length scale is much greater than the transverse length scale. θ). for example a wave propagating through a slowly varying environment. we usually have to resort to numerical methods. (8.1 Regular Perturbations 8. rather than x. X = εx. For an arbitrary non-uniform medium or complex boundary conditions. Analytical approximations and perturbation methods come into play for cases in between where the problem differs only a little from one which allows full analytical treatment. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . we have made our formal assumption of slow variation explicit in a convenient and simple way.228 8 Approximation methods In acoustics we have as typical examples of modelling hierarchies: wave propagation in a uniform medium or with simple boundaries being considerably simpler than in a non-uniform medium or with complicated boundaries. and its axial gradient scales on ε.1 Webster’s horn equation Consider the following problem of low frequency sound waves propagating in a slowly varying duct or horn. The first is the problem of Webster’s horn. and of the same order of magnitude as the sound wave length. many exact analytical results are available. are necessary. Any initial or entrance effects are absent or have disappeared. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to analyse problems in which several approximations. an example of a regular perturbation. k = εκ. The others are examples of singular perturbations. The typical length scale of duct variation is assumed to be much larger than a diameter. As a result the acoustic field p is a function of X. valid in spatially distinct regions. and write for the duct surface and wave number k r = R(X. For a uniform medium and simple boundary conditions. since ∂ R = ε R X = O(ε). 8. We will consider here three methods relevant in acoustical problems.1) By writing R as a function of slow variable X.1. We introduce the ratio between a typical diameter and this length scale as the small parameter ε. rather than x. as ∂∂x p = O(ε). ∂x The crucial step will now be the assumption that the propagating sound wave is only affected by the geometric variation induced by R. The method of multiple scales (related to the WKB method) describes problems in which in the problem several length scales act in the same direction.

3). ∇⊥ p1 ·∇⊥ S = − p0 X S X . while the transverse gradient ∇ S. directed in the plane of a cross ⊥ section X = const. (8. Sθ Rθ eθ . (8.3) (8. so we try to utilize in a systematic manner the small parameter ε. is normal to the duct circumference S(X = c. ε) = p0 (X. (8.7) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . we have p0 = p0 (X). ∇ S = εS X ex + Sr er + eθ = −ε R X ex + er − r r Sθ Rθ eθ .6) This problem is too difficult in general. r.1 Regular Perturbations It is convenient to introduce the following function S and its gradients S = r − R(X. we assume the asymptotic expansion p(X. θ) + O(ε 4 ). Since the solution of the Laplace equation with boundary conditions in the normal derivative are unique up to a constant (here: a function of X).4) At the duct surface S = 0 the gradient ∇ S is a vector normal to the surface (see section A.2) (8. we obtain to leading order a Laplace equation in (r.5) at the solid wall the boundary condition of vanishing normal velocity ∇ p ·∇ S = ε2 p X S X + ∇⊥ p ·∇⊥ S = 0 at S = 0. θ). r. Inside the duct we have the reduced wave equation (Helmholtz equation) 2 ε 2 p X X + ∇⊥ p + ε2 κ 2 p = 0.8. further expansion in powers of ε2 and equating like powers of ε. An obvious solution is p0 ≡ 0.6). Sr er + eθ = er − ∇⊥ S = r r 229 (8. r. θ) = 0.. After substitution in equation (8. θ) 2 ∇⊥ p0 = 0 with ∇⊥ p0 ·∇⊥ S = 0 at S = 0. r. To obtain an equation for p0 in X we continue with the O(ε2 )-equation and corresponding boundary condition 2 ∇⊥ p1 + p0 X X + κ 2 p0 = 0. θ) + ε 2 p1 (X.5) and boundary condition (8. Since the perturbation terms are O(ε2 ). θ.

By integrating equation (8. In the special case m → 0 such that a = 1 ( A0 + A1 /m) and b = 1 ( A0 − A1 /m). for convenience written in the original variables x and k. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . which is.8) This can be solved analytically for certain families of cross sectional shapes A. For example. given by d 1 d A p0 + k 2 p0 = 0. we obtain 2 ∇⊥ p1 + p0 X X + κ 2 p0 dσ = ∇⊥ p1 · n⊥ d + A( p0 X X + κ 2 p0 ) = A p0 X ∂A 2π R R X dθ + A( p0 X X + κ 2 p0 ) = A X p0 X + A( p0 X X + κ 2 p0 ) = 0. and not2π ing that A = 0 1 R 2 dθ. 0 Finally. and if b = a the catenoidal horn. and that a circumferential line element is given by 2 2 d = (R 2 + Rθ )1/2 dθ. For b = 0 we have the exponential horn. using Gauss’ theorem. The parameter m is clearly most important since it determines whether the wave is propagating (m < k) or cut-off (m > k). √ p0 = φ/ A (parameterized by a. and m) the equation (8. 117]. we have obtained for the leading order field p0 the Webster horn equation [142. A dx dx (8. b. with A = a e mx +b e−mx 2 .7) over a cross section A of area A(X). the shape reduces to the conical horn 2 2 A = ( A0 + A1 x)2 .8) simplifies to φx x + (k 2 − m 2 )φ = 0 which can solved by elementary methods.230 8 Approximation methods The boundary condition can be rewritten as ∇⊥ p1 · n⊥ = p0 X R R X p0 X R X = |∇⊥ S| 2 R 2 + Rθ where n⊥ = ∇⊥ S/|∇⊥ S| is the transverse unit normal vector.

and on the other hand two rapidly interacting quantities (kinetic and potential energy) controlling the phase. and works well for certain types of problems. order 1). the multiple scale method is applicable to problems with on the one hand a certain global quantity (energy. The exact solution is readily found to be (8. This small parameter is the ratio between a typical wave length and the length scale over which the medium or duct varies considerably (say. y(0) = 0. but over larger distances it will somehow have to change its shape in accordance with its new environment. 9]). Intuitively. or waves propagating in a slowly varying duct. dy(0) =1 dt (8. utilizing this difference between small scale and large scale behaviour is the method of multiple scales ([129. In both cases there is a small parameter in the problem which is the corner stone of the approximation.8.9) 1. A technique.2 Multiple scales 231 8.10) y(t) = sin( 1 − ε2 t) e−εt / 1 − ε2 A naive approximation for small ε and fixed t would give y(t) = sin t − εt sin t + O(ε2 ) (8. and will propagate approximately as in the constant case. power) which is conserved or almost conserved and controls the amplitude. it is clear that over a short distance (a few wave lengths) the wave only sees a constant medium or geometry. An illustrative example We will illustrate the method by considering a damped harmonic oscillator dy d2 y +y=0 + 2ε 2 dt dt with 0 < ε (t ≥ 0).2 Multiple scales Introduction By means of the method of multiple scales we will consider problems typically of waves propagating in a slowly varying but otherwise infinite medium (ray acoustics).11) which appears to be not a good approximation for large t for the following reasons: RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . As with most approximation methods. Typically. this method has grown out of practice.

dt with y0 (0) = 0. etc. (8. Suppose we can expand y(t. dt dy1 (0) with y1 (0) = 0. Introduce the slow time scale T = εt (8. saeculum = generation. expansion (8. ε) = y0 (t) + εy1 (t) + ε2 y2 (t) + · · · . Apart from being of limited validity. the straightforward.13) and identify the solution y with a suitably chosen other function Y that depends on both variables t and T : y(t. Substitute in (8. (8. 2) if t = O(ε−2 ) the phase has an error of O(1) giving an approximation of which even the sign may be in error. However. ε) = Y (t. the quantity yn is excited (by the “source”-terms −2dyn−1 /dt) in its eigenfrequency. we may then try to avoid them. resulting in resonance. the expansion reveals nothing of the real structure of the solution: a slowly decaying amplitude and a frequency slightly different from 1.9) and collect equal powers of ε: O(ε 0 ) : d2 y0 + y0 = 0 dt 2 d2 y1 dy0 O(ε 1 ) : + y1 = −2 2 dt dt y0 (t) = sin t. ε). knowing the character of the error.232 8 Approximation methods 1) if t = O(ε−1 ) the second term is of equal importance as the first term and nothing is left over of the slow exponential decay. Indeed. dy0 (0) = 1. = 0. In the following we shall demonstrate that this type of error occurs also if we construct a straightforward approximate solution directly from equation (8. perturbation series: secular = occurring once in a century.12) then y1 (t) = −t sin t. Poincaré type. The algebraically growing terms of the type t n sin t and t n cos t that are generated are called in this context: secular1 terms. when εt ≥ O(1).9). T . For certain classes of problems it is therefore advantageous to incorporate this structure explicitly in the approximation. As is seen from the structure of the equations for yn .12) that is generated breaks down for large t.14) 1 From astronomical applications where these terms occurred for the first time in this type of RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

T ) + · · · and substitute this into equation (8.18) which gives a right-hand side for the Y1 -equation of −2 A0 + ∂ A0 cos t. Since the time derivatives of y turn into partial derivatives of Y ∂Y ∂Y dy = +ε . ∂t 2 ∂ 2 Y0 ∂Y0 ∂ 2 Y1 −2 . T )-space. (8. infinitely many functions Y (t. 0) = 0. T ) = A0 (T ) sin t with (8. ∂T No secular terms occur (no resonance between Y1 and Y0 ) if this term vanishes: A0 + ∂ A0 =0 ∂T −→ A0 = e−T . of course. ∂t ∂T A0 (0) = 1. (8. ε) = Y0 (t. T .16) (8. + Y1 = −2 ∂t 2 ∂t ∂t∂ T with initial conditions Y0 (0. There are.17) + ε2 ∂Y ∂ 2Y +2 ∂T 2 ∂T = 0. (8. 0).8. T ) + εY1 (t.2 Multiple scales 233 The underlying idea is the following. dt ∂t ∂T equation (8. With the unwelcome appearance of secular terms in mind it is natural to think of conditions. chosen such that no secular terms occur when we construct an approximation. ∂ Y0 (0. 0) = 1. ∂t ∂ ∂ Y1 (0.9) becomes for Y ∂ 2Y ∂Y ∂ 2Y + + Y + 2ε ∂t 2 ∂t ∂t∂ T Assume the expansion Y (t. 0) = − Y0 (0.15) The solution for Y0 is easily found to be Y0 (t.19) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . T . So we have now some freedom to prescribe additional conditions. 0) = 0. ε) that are equal to y(t. Y1 (0. T ) + ε 2 Y2 (t.16) to obtain to leading orders ∂ 2 Y0 + Y0 = 0. ε) along the line T = εt in (t.

For example. The necessary additional condition is here that the solution of the present type exists (assumption 8.20) ˜ (The need for the 1/ε-factor is immediately clear if we observe that t = ε−1 ωεt = ωt for a constant ω = O(1). 65]) y(t. On a longer time scale (t = O(ε−2 )) we have in Y2 again resonance because of the “source”: e−T sin t. we have not completely got rid of secular terms. Sometimes. like a slowly varying problem parameter. The present approach is by and large the multiple scale technique in its simplest form. ε) = A(T . (8. (8. without having to solve Y1 itself. ε) dτ. that we determine Y0 fully only on the level of Y1 . however. In general. the occurrence of higher order time scales is really an artefact of the fast variable being slowly varying due to external effects.ε) dτ 0 . So much freedom may be left that ambiguities can result. and that each higher order correction is no more secular than its predecessor. the solution is found as the following expansion A(T . With some luck and ingenuity this is just sufficient to determine A and ω.) For linear wave-type problems we may anticipate the structure of the solution and assume the WKB hypothesis (see [9. ε) = A0 (T ) + ε A1 (T ) + ε 2 A2 (T ) + · · · ω(T . ε) = ω0 (T ) + ε 2 ω2 (T ) + · · · .21). +2 ∂T ∂T ∂T 2 ∂T Note that the secular terms are now not explicitly suppressed. this is indeed not completely straightforward. (8. In this case the fast variable is to be strained locally by a suitable strain function in the following way ˜ t= 1 ε εt ω(τ .22) −1 Tω(τ .21) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Variations on this theme are sometimes necessary. (1 − ω2 ) A + iε 2ω Finally. yielding terms O(ε2 t).9) and suppressing the exponential factor yields ∂ A ∂ω ∂A ∂2 A + A + 2ω A + ε 2 = 0.234 8 Approximation methods Note (this is typical). We see that a second time scale T2 = ε 2 t is necessary. ε) e iε We have ∂ A iε −1 Tω dτ ∂y 0 e = iω A + ε ∂t ∂T ∂ω ∂A ∂2y ∂2 A −1 T + iε A + ε 2 2 e iε 0 ω dτ = −ω2 A + 2iεω 2 ∂t ∂T ∂T ∂T so that substitution in (8.

compact). On the other hand. except in the transitional phase (which we will ignore) when the flow turns its direction and the jet isn’t fully developed yet.3 Helmholtz resonator with non-linear dissipation T 235 Note that ω1 may be set to zero since the factor exp(i 0 ω1 (τ ) dτ ) may be incorporated in A. Two points inside and outside may now be connected by Bernoulli’s equation ρ0 dϕin 1 dϕex + 2 ρ0 u 2 + pin = ρ0 + 1 ρ0 u 2 + pex . the velocity uex outside the resonator may now be neglected. and therefore related to the neck flow velocity un by V dρin = −ρ0 u n Sn . and the volume is small compared to a typical wave length (i. while at the same time the neck velocity is equivalent to uin .e. Furthermore. the internal density ρin is practically uniform. For a low enough frequency the flow may be considered quasi-stationary. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . → ω2 = − 1 . the neck velocity un is effectively equivalent to the outside velocity uex . In this way we will be able to investigate the small non-linear terms that will be seen to represent a small damping.41) When the internal pressure is high and the flow is blown outward.4).2. 8. with a jet formed respectively inside and outside the resonator. First we have to describe the model in a bit more detail. Substitute and collect equal powers of ε: O(ε 0 ) : O(ε 1 ) : 2 (1 − ω0 ) A0 = 0 → ω0 = 1.8. ∂ A0 + A0 = 0 ∂T ∂ A1 + A1 = (1 + 2ω2 ) e−T O(ε 2 ) : 2i ∂T The solution that emerges is indeed consistent with the exact solution. The oscillating internal pressure sucks and blows the flow inward and outward through the exit.34). in ex 2 dt dt (5. when the internal pressure is low. 2 A1 = 0. but now without linearization (section 5. → A0 = e−T .34) If the exit is small enough compared to the volume V .3 Helmholtz resonator with non-linear dissipation An interesting application of the multiple scale technique is the Helmholtz resonator. dt (5. as discussed before (5. we may neglect the internal velocity uin .

ε).25) ∂Y ∂Y ∂ 2Y ∂ 2Y + + O(ε 2 ) = 0 +Y +ε 2 2 ∂τ ∂τ T ∂τ ∂τ ∂ ∂ +ε Y (0. dy(0) = 0. 0. +ε dτ 2 dτ dτ with y(0) = 1. equal to the neck length plus any necessary end correction.and outflow to be symmetric. and split up the time dependence in two by introducing the slow timescale T and the dependent variable Y T = ετ.25) V 2 c0 Sn 1 2 τ. and we introduce a length . So we conjecture a slow timescale ετ . dτ (8.43). that relates the potential difference to the neck velocity: ϕex − ϕin = ex in u · dx = u n .236 8 Approximation methods For simplicity we assume the effect of in. and prescribe a (small) pin at t=0. By dividing the damping term by 2 the acceleration term we find the pressure level 2ρ0 c0 Sn / V at which the damping would be just as large as the other terms. y(τ .26) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ∂Y ∂Y dy = +ε . ∂τ ∂T (8. 2 pin = 2ερ0 c0 Sn y V where 0<ε 1. we arrive at V 2 d pin d pin V d2 pin + pin = pex . 0. ε) = Y (t. T . (8. Y (0. dτ ∂τ ∂T and obtain for equation (8.23) As we will only consider the response to a stepwise change of external pressure. + 2 4 2 dt Sn c0 dt 2 2ρ0 c0 Sn dt (8. So for a pressure that is a small fraction of this level we have a problem with only little damping. Following the same lines as for equation (5. For this we need an inherent timescale and pressure. For a proper analysis it is most clarifying to rewrite the equation into non-dimensional variables. we will assume pex = 0.24) By comparing the acceleration y with the damping εy |y | it may be inferred that on a timescale ετ the influence of the damping is O(1). so its period (c Sn / V )1/2 0 is the obvious timescale of the nonlinear problem. So we make dimensionless t= to obtain dy dy d2 y + y = 0. ε) = 0. ε) = 0. For vanishing 2 amplitudes the equation describes a harmonic oscillator.

30) (8. 0 (0) (8. 0) = 0 ∂τ A0 (0) = 1. A0 (T ) = 4 1 + 3π T All together we have finally: pin 2 2ερ0 c0 and (8. T ) + O(ε 2 ) and find for the leading order ∂ 2 Y0 + Y0 = 0. T ) + εY1 (t.1. 0) = 1.32) This approximation happens to be quite good.3) 8 sin τ | sin τ | = − π ∞ n=0 sin(2n + 1)τ (2n − 1)(2n + 1)(2n + 3) d 0 =0 dT (8. ∂τ 2 with solution Y0 = A0 (T ) cos(τ − with Y0 (0. (8. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . where = 0.3 Helmholtz resonator with non-linear dissipation 237 ∂ ∂ ∂ Y . 4 V 1 + 3π ετ with τ = 2 c0 Sn V 1 2 t. T .8. ε) = Y0 (t. and is of The error of O(ε2 ) results from the approximation ∂τ Y + ε ∂T Y ∂τ ∂ course only valid outside a small neighbourhood of the points where ∂τ Y = 0.31) Sn cos τ . Comparison with a numerically ob−4 tained “exact” solution shows a relative error in the amplitude of less then 2 · 10 for ε = 0. For the first order we have the equation ∂ 2 Y0 ∂Y0 ∂Y0 ∂ 2 Y1 − + Y1 = −2 ∂τ 2 ∂τ T ∂τ ∂τ =2 dA0 sin(τ − dT 0) − A0 d 0 cos(τ − dT 0 )| sin(τ 0) (8. ∂ Y0 (0. The secular terms are suppressed if the first harmonics of the right-hand side cancel. For this we use the Fourier series expansion (section C. We expand Y (t.29) and we obtain the equations 8 2 dA0 + A =0 2 dT 3π 0 with solution 0 = 0 and 1 .27) 0 (T )).28) 0 )| + A2 sin(τ − 0 − with corresponding initial conditions.

(where a (z) = da(z)/dz) this is ∂p ∂p − εa (εx) =0 ∂r ∂x at r = a(εx). (8.f. [161.33) with ε a dimensionless small parameter. 159. and we assume for the present problem. (8. so n ·∇ p = 0 Since (section A. following the previous section.238 8 Approximation methods 8. 163. Sound waves of circular frequency ω are described by a variant of the Helmholtz equation ∇· 1 ∇p + p = 0 k2 (8. We introduce the slow variable X = εx RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . described in polar coordinates (x. r. 130]). In this duct we have an acoustic medium with constant mean pressure and a slowly varying sound speed c0 = c0 (εx) (for simplicity no variation in r and θ is assumed). αmµ = jmµ /a. (8. θ) as r = a(εx) (8. with boundary condition a vanishing normal velocity component at the wall.37) Re(kmµ ) ≥ 0.34) where k = k(εx) = ω/c0 (εx).4 Slowly varying ducts Consider a hard-walled circular cylindrical duct with a slowly varying diameter (c.35) We know that for constant a and constant k the general solution can be built up from modes of the following type (chapter 7) p = AJm (αmµr) e−imθ−ikmµ x . 2 2 kmµ = k 2 − αmµ .3) n ∝ ∇ r − a(εx) = er − εa (εx)e x .36) at r = a(εx). that there are solutions close to these modes. Im(kmµ ) ≤ 0.

r.8.ε) dξ 0 239 (8.39) where we introduced for short the Bessel-type operator (see Appendix D) L( A) = m2 ∂2 A 1 ∂ A + k2 − γ 2 − 2 A + ∂r 2 r ∂r r and rewrote the right-hand side in a form convenient later. and we seek a solution of slowly varying modal type: p = A(X. r) + ε A1 (X. ε) = A0 (X. this is up to order O(ε) L(A) = iε k 2 ∂ γ A2 . ε) = γ0 (X) + O(ε 2 ) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .38) = 0. A ∂ X k2 at r = a(X).4 Slowly varying ducts so that k = k(X). r) + O(ε 2 ) γ (X. After suppressing the exponential factor. r. Expand A(X.34) after multiplication with k2 : −γ 2 A − 2iεγ ∂γ ∂A ∂A 1 ∂k ∂2 A − iε A + ε 2 2 − 2ε −iγ A + ε ∂X ∂X ∂X k ∂X ∂x + ∂ 2 A 1 ∂ A m2 − 2 A + k 2 A exp · · · + ∂r 2 r ∂r r −1 Xγ (ξ . ∂a ∂A + iε γA=0 ∂r ∂X (8. ε) e−imθ e−iε Since ∇· 1 ∂2 p 1 ∂p 1 ∂2 p ∂ 1 ∂p 1 + 2 + 2 2 ∇p = + k2 ∂ x k2 ∂ x k ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ ∂A ∂p = −iγ A + ε exp · · · ∂x ∂X ∂2 A ∂γ ∂A ∂2 p − iε A + ε 2 2 exp · · · = −γ 2 A − 2iεγ ∂x2 ∂X ∂X ∂X we have for (8.

42) The amplitude P0 is still undetermined. amplitude P0 is determined at the level of A1 . γ02 (X) = k 2 (X) − α 2 (X). we have for A0 the “almost-mode” A0 (X. dr − i 2 2 k k ∂X 0 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . (8. and collect like powers of ε. Im(γ0 ) ≤ 0. For the left-hand side we utilize the self-adjointness of L. and follows from a solvability condition for A1 . Multiply left. a 0 1 r A0 L( A1 ) dr = 2 2 k k = a 0 r A0 L(A1 ) − r A1 L(A0 ) dr a 0 ∂ A1 ∂ A0 1 − r A1 r A0 2 k ∂r ∂r γ0 a ∂a 2 A . without A1 necessarily being known.and right-hand side of (8. r) = P0 (X) Jm (α(X)r). (8. k2 ∂ X 0 = −i For the right-hand side we apply Leibnitz’s rule a i 0 ∂ γ0 A2 d 0 r dr = i 2 ∂X k dX a 0 γ0 a ∂a 2 rγ0 A2 0 A .41) at r = a(X). O(1) : L( A0 ) = 0 ∂ A0 =0 ∂r L( A1 ) = i k 2 ∂ γ0 A2 0 A0 ∂ X k 2 ∂a ∂ A1 = −i γ0 A0 ∂r ∂X (8. O(ε) : Since variable X plays no other rôle in (8. Re(γ0 ) ≥ 0.240 8 Approximation methods substitute in (8.40) at r = a(X). As before. α(X) = jmµ /a(X).41) with r A0 /k 2 and integrate to r from 0 to a(X).40) than that of a parameter.39).

44) This is for propagating modes (γ0 real) constant: P = m2 π 1 γ0 |P0 |2 2 a 2 1 − 2 Jm ( jmµ )2 ωρ0 jmµ γ0 k 2 2 1 a = const.43) for P is that it becomes invalid when 0 γ0 = 0.5 Reflection at an isolated turning point As a result a 0 241 rγ0 A2 γ0 2 2 m 2 0 dr = P r − 2 Jm (αr)2 k2 2k 2 0 α = γ0 P02 2 a 2k 2 1− 2 a 0 m Jm ( jmµ )2 = constant 2 jmµ or: P0 (X) = const. k(X)α(X) k(X) √ = const. So when the medium and diameter vary in such a way that at some point X = X 0 wave number γ0 vanishes. 2 = constant ρ0 a 2 γ0 ρ0 c0 = const. 2 since ρ0 c0 is.5 Reflection at an isolated turning point An important property of expression (8. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . The trans- It is not accidental that the above integral mitted power of p is to leading order P = 0 2π 0 a 1 2 Re( pu ∗ )r drdθ = a 0 π ωρ0 a Im p 0 ∂ ∂x p∗ r dr = π −1 X Re(γ0 ) e 2ε 0 Im(γ0 ) dξ ωρ0 |A0 |2r dr. 8. the present method breaks down.43) is constant. apart from a factor. √ a(X) γ0 (X) γ0 (X) a 2 2 0 (rγ0 A0 /k ) dr (8. In a small interval around X0 the mode does not vary slowly and locally a different approximation is necessary. equal to the constant mean pressure. (8.8.

it is clear that 0 no power is transmitted beyond X0 (Re(γ0 ) = 0 in (8.8.8. Consider an incident. reflected and transmitted wave of the type found above (equations 8. where γ0 is imaginary 2 As is explained in section 8. a turning point region is a boundary layer and the appropriate analysis is that of matched asymptotic analysis (section 8. so ∂∂X γ02 < 0 or c0 (X 0 ) a (X 0 ) − > 0.242 8 Approximation methods X0 Figure 8. where a mode changes from cut-on to cut-off.43).8. If X0 is isolated. θ) = √ γ0 (X) +R e iε −1 X X 0γ0 (X ) dX (8. Therefore. and the wave has to reflect at X 0 .42.44)). and usually too lengthy to present in detail. r. However. Therefore. When γ02 changes sign. are very much coupled. So in X < X0 . we have the incident and reflected waves X k(X)α(X) −iε −1 X γ0 (X ) dX 0 Jm (α(X)r) e−imθ e p(x. the mode is split up into a cut-on reflected part and a cut-off transmitted part.38. a point where wave number γ0 vanishes is called a “turning point”. we will present the pertaining results here . in the context of the WKB method (see [9. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Assume at X = X 0 a transition from cut-on to cut-off. since the physics of the subject is most relevant in 2 this section on slowly varying ducts. and finally the matching. such that there are no interfering neighbouring points of vanishing γ .8). we will present the results with a limited amount of explanation. Asymptotically.45) with reflection coefficient R to be determined. c0 (X 0 ) a(X 0 ) or α (X 0 ) − k (X 0 ) > 0. where γ0 is real positive. to keep the present example concise. and γ0 changes from real into imaginary.1 Turning point X 0 . the steps in the process of determining the boundary layer thick- ness and equations. 65]). In X > X0 .

47) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . we have the transmitted wave X k(X)α(X) −iε −1 X γ0 (X ) dX 0 Jm (α(X)r) e−imθ e . while be taken. etc. we have 1 ε X X0 γ0 (X ) dX = ¯ − 2 |ξ |3/2 = −ζ. θ) = T √ γ0 (X) 243 (8. where k0 = k(X 0 ).34) it transpires that the turning point boundary layer is of thickness X − X0 = O(ε 2/3 ). the appropriate local coordinate). valid outside the turning point region. From the limiting behaviour of the outer solution in the turning point region (see below).34). because neglected terms of equation (8. √ γ0 = e− 4 πi √ |γ0 | will This set of approximate solutions of equation (8. and another approximate equation is to be used. To determine the unknown constants (here: R and T ).34) are now dominant. and the boundary layer thickness (i. k0 = k (X 0 ). From a balance of terms in the differential equation (8. The approximation is invalid here. if ξ < 0 3 ¯ −i 2 ξ 3/2 = −iζ. Inside the turning point region this approximation breaks down. constitute the outer solution. if ξ > 0 3 where we introduced ¯ ξ = {2k0 (α0 − k0 )}1/3 ξ and ¯ ζ = 2 |ξ |3/2 .8. inner and outer solution are asymptotically matched. leading to a boundary layer variable ξ given by X = X 0 + ε 2/3 ξ. 3 The limiting behaviour for X ↑ X0 is now given by p k 0 α0 Jm (α0r) e−imθ e iζ +R e−iζ . For the matching it is necessary to determine the asymptotic behaviour of the outer solution in the limit X → X0 . r. Since for ε → 0 γ02(X) = γ02(X 0 + ε 2/3 ξ ) = −2ε2/3 k0 (α0 − k0 )ξ + O(ε 4/3 ξ 2 ).. ¯ {2εk0 (α0 − k0 )}1/6 |ξ |1/4 (8. p(x.46) 1 with transmission coefficient T to be determined. we can estimate the order of magnitude of the solution.e.5 Reflection at an isolated turning point negative. This will give us the inner or boundary layer solution.

we can only have b = 0. r. equation (8. Using ¯ the asymptotic expressions (D.48) matches the inner solution if with 1 ξ ε e 4 πi k0 α0 a b e−ζ . we have 1 ∂2 p ∂2 p 1 ∂p + 2 2 + k 2 p = γ02 p = O(ε 2/3 ) p.48) Since the boundary layer is relatively thin. + ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ Hence. also compared to the radial coordinate.74) ∂ 2ψ ¯ − ξ ψ = 0. and thus √ 1 2 π T k0 α0 e 4 πi a= .34) yields k 2∇· 1 ∇ p + k2 p k2 ∂2 p + γ02 p = ∂ξ 2 ∂ 2ψ − 2k0 (α0 − k0 )ξ ψ = 0 ε 2/3 Jm (α(X)r) e−imθ ∂ξ 2 ε2/3 ¯ which is. θ) = Jm (α(X)r)ψ(ξ ) e−imθ . written in variable ξ .1). √ 1/4 e−ζ + √ 1/4 e ζ ∼ T 1/6 ξ 1/4 ¯ ¯ ¯ 2 πξ πξ {2εk0 (α0 − k0 )} 1 Since e ζ → ∞.244 8 Approximation methods while it is for X ↓ X 0 given by p e 4 πi k0 α0 Jm (α0r) e−imθ e−ζ .2) ¯ ¯ ψ(ξ ) = a Ai(ξ ) + b Bi(ξ ). parallel with R and T . the behaviour of the incident mode remains rather unaffected in radial direction. and we can assume in the turning point region p(x. equivalent to Airy’s equation (D.75.D. From the properties of the Bessel equation (D. where a and b. ¯ ∂ξ 2 This has the general solution (see figure 8. T ¯ {2εk0 (α0 − k0 )}1/6 ξ 1/4 1 (8.76) for Airy functions. equation (8. we find that for ξ large −2/3 ¯ . are now determined from matching. {2εk0 (α0 − k0 )}1/6 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

In contrast to the duct. or wind with shear). but only the tangents of the intensity vectors of a sound field.34). the same ideas of multiple scales may be applied.8.2 Bi(x) Ai(x) 0 2 4 Airy functions ¯ ¯ If −ξ is large with 1 −ξ ε −2/3 we use the asymptotic expression (D. where the wave is confined by the duct walls. finally. so that we have again equation (8. the waves may now freely refract and follow curved paths.5 0 0.47) matches the inner solution if k 0 α0 a cos(ζ − 1 π ) ∼ (e iζ +R e−iζ ).5 2 1. (8. These paths are called rays.75). and find that equation (8.5 1 0. R = i.49) 1 1 1 8. √ 4 1/4 ¯ ¯ π |ξ | {2εk0 (α0 − k0 )}1/6 |ξ |1/4 or T e 4 πi (e iζ − 4 πi + e−iζ + 4 πi ) = T e iζ +T i e−iζ ∼ e iζ +R e−iζ . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . This means that rays are not localized “beams” of sound.6 Ray acoustics in temperature gradient When a sound wave propagates in free space through a medium that varies on a much larger scale than the typical wave length (typically: temperature gradients.5 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 Figure 8. we have T = 1.6 Ray acoustics in temperature gradient 245 2. Consider an infinite 3D medium with varying temperature (typical length scale L) but otherwise with a constant mean pressure. So.

∇ 2 p := ε 2 ∇ A − 2iε∇ A · ∇τ − iε A∇ τ − A|∇τ |2 e−iτ/ε . The surfaces τ (X) = εωt (8.3).52) describe the propagating wave front. 2 A k k (8.e. ε) e−iτ (X.54a) (8.55) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .ε)/ε where X = εx the slow variable. k2 A2 ∇τ 1 ∇· + ε 2 k 2 ∇ · 2 ∇ A = 0. to scale the problem on L and to consider the wave length “short” or the frequency “high”. 2 2 (8. ε) = τ0 (X) + O(ε 2 ) 3 It should be noted that our point of view here is to think of the problem as a wave in a slowly varying medium. equally valid point of view is to think of a medium with a high frequency wave.50) (8.52) in (8. i. so ε ∼ λ/L.246 8 Approximation methods but now k varying more generally3 : ∇· 1 ∇p + p = 0 k2 ω k = k(εx) = c0 (εx) (8. ε) = A0 (X) + ε A1 (X) + O(ε 2 ) τ (X. The small parameter ε relates the typical wave length λ ∼ 2π c0 /ω to L. ∂ X ∂Y ∂ Z so that ∇ = ε∇. Note that the vector field ∇τ is normal to the surfaces τ = constant (section A.e.51) for a time harmonic sound field p ∝ e iωt . Define the operator ∇= ∂ ∂ ∂ . . to consider L “large”.50): ∇ p := ε∇ A − iA∇τ e−iτ/ε . Assuming the field to be locally plane we try an approximate solution having the form of a plane wave but with slowly varying (real) amplitude A and phase τ p(x) = A(X. Substitute (8. Another. i.53) (8.54b) to obtain (k 2 − |∇τ |2 ) A − iε Expand A(X.

1) (p. This is summarized by the following theorem ([201. Note that since λ is only an auxiliary variable. In general the characteristic depends on the solution. q x ∂qi RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .247). It relates the amplitude variation to diverging or converging rays. dλ ∂H dq = −q − ∇x H. other equivalent forms of the solution q(x) exist. p. τ. The characteristics are here identical to the rays.6 Ray acoustics in temperature gradient and collect like powers in (8.57) Equation (8.56) as 1 2 ε(c0 /ω)|∇τ0 |2 − 1 εω = 0 and using theorem (8. x) = 0. is called a characteristic. of hyperbolic type. dλ ∂τ where the curve x = χ(λ). Theorem 8. The eikonal equation is a nonlinear first order partial differential equation. A characteristic forms a path along which the information of the boundary values on S is transferred to the point of observation.8. dλ dτ = q ·∇q H. By rewriting equation (8. 201]. which determines the wave fronts and the ray paths. If more than one characteristic passes through a point. the characteristic 2 2 4 ∇ H denotes the gradient in q: ( ∂ H ). with consistent boundary conditions on a surface S.56) is the eikonal equation. is given by the system of ordinary differential equations4 dχ = ∇q H. q = ∇τ. and in general inconsistent.57) is called the transport equation and describes the conservation of wave action. k2 247 (8. which is here equivalent to conservation of energy [101. and both characteristic and solution are to be determined together. with parameter λ. We find to leading order τ0 and A0 : |∇τ0 |2 = k 2 ∇· A2 ∇τ0 0 = 0.56) (8.55). If more than one point of a characteristic is part of S. the boundary conditions are not independent. which can always be reduced to an ordinary differential equation along characteristics [25].1 (General solution of 1st order PDE) The solution of the first-order partial differential equation H (q. Equation (8. the solution is not unique. similar for ∇ H .65]).

and we have the expected τ0 (X(t)) = εωt along a ray X = X(t) given by dX c2 ∇τ0 . a name that might well refer to this acoustic effect. When the surface is cold there is a positive soundspeed gradient which causes the sound waves to bend downwards to the surface.59) tube S2 S1 If we associate to a ray X(t) a ray-tube with cross section S = S(X). the amplitude varies according to the relation A2 (X) 0 S(X) = constant k(X) along a ray tube. Once we know the rays. k (8. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .248 8 Approximation methods variable is just the time t. except for S1 and S2 where it is just ∇τ0 = kn.59) it can be inferred that a ray (with direction ∇τ0 ) bends away from regions with higher sound speed. and connect the points of S1 via the rays (following the vector field ∇τ0 ) with the corresponding area S2 on the surface τ0 = C2 . When the surface is hot there is a negative soundspeed gradient which causes the sound to bend upwards and so to disappear into free space 5 . = ε 0 ∇τ0 = εc0 dt ω |∇τ0 | ω d ∇τ0 = −ε ∇c0 . 5 In the north of Mexico.58) (8. Then the volume of rays connecting S1 and S2 is called a ray-tube. Since ∇τ0 = 0 along its surface. This explains why sound is carried far along a cold surface like water or snow. and not at all along for example hot sand.59) are called: the “ray-tracing equations”. dt c0 Equations (8.60) From equation (8. the transport equation (8.58) and (8. In combination with reflection at the surface the sound is trapped and tunnels through the layer adjacent to the surface. we have ∇· A2 ∇τ0 0 dX = k2 A2 0 ds − k A2 0 ds = 0. in Chihuahua. Consider a small area S1 of the surface τ0 = C1 . there is a desert area called “Zona del Silencio”.57) can be solved as follows. (8.

7 Refraction in shear flow 249 We can make this more explicit when the sound speed varies in only one direction. dX ∂τ0 /∂ X ∂τ0 = constant. dt ∂Y c0 dY Since we have from equation (8. ∂X ∂τ0 ∂X 2 + ∂τ0 ∂Y 2 = ω2 . Furthermore.7 Refraction in shear flow The propagation of sound waves in the atmosphere is greatly affected by wind. The one upstream is easier to understand for the one downstream than the other way around.61c) and (8. So rays in a linear sound speed medium follow circular paths. so that dc0 /dY is constant.8.63) which corresponds with a circle in the (x.56) ∂τ0 /∂Y dY = . 2 c0 it follows that the angle θ with the vertical satisfies the relation 1 sin θ = c0 c0 dY dX 2 +1 −1 2 = 1 ∂τ0 (0) = constant ω ∂X (8. Then rays in the (X. with the result 2 c0 + dc0 dY 2 (X − X 0 )2 = 1 ∂τ0 (0) ω ∂X −2 = constant (8.61a) (8. 8. This is not because the wind “carries the RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . say c0 = c0 (Y ).61b) (8.61d) d ∂τ0 = 0 dt ∂ X εω dc0 d ∂τ0 =− . one downstream and one upstream. is not symmetric.61a-8. the communication between two people. if c0 varies linearly. For example. Y )-plane satisfy d X dt d Y dt = = 2 εc0 ∂τ0 ω ∂X 2 εc0 ∂τ0 ω ∂Y (8.61c) (8.62) which is just Snell’s law. y)-plane. then dX/dY can be integrated with respect to Y .

64) This equation is similar to equation (8.64) as 1 2 c |∇τ |2 /(1 − v 0 ·∇τ ) − 1 (1 − v 0 ·∇τ ) = 0 and using theorem (8. R(1 − v 0 ·∇τ ) = ρ0 V ·∇τ. 2 P(1 − v 0 ·∇τ ) = c0 R(1 − v 0 ·∇τ ).247). This is seen as follows ([101]). 2 0 2 the characteristic variable is just the time t. We assume the sound field to be time harmonic with a frequency high enough to adopt a ray approximation. with L a typical length scale for variations in the mean flow velocity v0 .49d) for sound in an arbitrary mean flow.1) (p. ρ. S(x) × e iωt−iωτ (x) which are substituted in (2.56). The small parameter is now the ratio c0 /ωL.250 8 Approximation methods U (z) Figure 8. Similar to the foregoing chapter we introduce p.49d). to obtain to leading order ρ0 V (1 − v 0 ·∇τ ) = P∇τ. waves faster”. Consider the acoustic wave equations (2. R(x). v. (8. V (x). S(1 − v 0 ·∇τ ) = 0.49a-2. and an eikonal equation for the phase function τ : |∇τ |2 = 1 1 − v 0 ·∇τ 2 c0 2 . By rewriting equation (8.49a-2. 2 yielding S = 0. and we have τ (x) = t RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . s = P(x). but it is due to refraction by the wind gradient (the atmospheric boundary layer).3 Refraction in shear flow. P = c0 R.

8.8 Matched asymptotic expansions along the ray x = x(t), given by6 dx ∇τ = v0 + c0 , dt |∇τ | d ∇τ = −∇v0 ·∇τ − |∇τ |∇c0 . dt For a simple parallel flow in x-direction, varying only in z: v 0 (x) = (U0 (z), 0, 0) this becomes d ∂τ dt ∂ x d ∂τ dt ∂ z = d ∂τ = 0, dt ∂ y dU0 (z) ∂τ . dz ∂x

251

(8.65a) (8.65b)

(8.66a) (8.66b)

=−

So, if we start with for example a vertical wave front τ ∝ x, then a positive wind shear (dU0 /dz > 0) will decrease the z-component ∂τ/∂ z. In other words, the rays will bend towards the low wind-speed regions. Propagating with the wind, the waves bend down and remain near the ground; against the wind they bend up and disappear in the free space.

8.8

Matched asymptotic expansions

Introduction
Very often it happens that a simplifying limit applied to a more comprehensive model gives a correct approximation for the main part of the problem, but not everywhere: the limit is non-uniform. This non-uniformity may be in space, in time, or in any other variable. For the moment we think of non-uniformity in space. This non-uniformity may be a small region near a point, say x = 0, or it may be far away, i.e. for x → ∞, but this is of course still a small region near the origin of 1/x, so for the moment we think of a small region. If this region of non-uniformity is crucial for the problem, for example because it contains a boundary condition, or a source, we may not be able to utilize the
6

∇v ·∇τ = (

∂v j ∂τ j ∂ x i ∂ x j ).

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8 Approximation methods

pursued limit and have to deal with the full problem (at least locally). This, however, is usually not true. The local nature of the non-uniformity itself gives often the possibility of another reduction. In such a case we call this a couple of limiting forms, “inner and outer problems”, and are evidence of the fact that we have apparently physically two connected but different problems as far as the dominating mechanism is concerned. (Depending on the problem) we now have two simpler problems, serving as boundary conditions to each other via continuity or matching conditions. Suppose we are interested in the solution of ε dy + y = sin x, dx y(0) = 1, x ≥0

for small positive ε, and suppose for the moment that we are not able to find an exact solution. It is natural to try to use the fact that ε is small. For example, from the structure of the problem, where both the source and the boundary value are O(1), it is very likely to conclude that y = O(1). If also the derivative y is not very large (which is true for the most, but not, as we will see, everywhere), then a first approximation is clearly y0 sin x.

We could substitute this into the original equation, and find a correction y1 sin x − εy0 = sin x − ε cos x.

We can continue this indefinitely, and hope for a better and better approximation of the real solution. However, this can not be true: the approximate solution found this way is completely determined without integration constants, and we cannot apply anywhere the boundary condition y(0) = 1. In fact, the value at x = 0 that appears is something like −ε . . . , and quite far away from 1. What’s happening here? The cause of this all, is the fact that in the neighbourhood of x = 0, to be exact: for x = O(ε), the solution changes its character over a very short distance (boundary layer), such that the derivative y is now not O(1), but very large: O(ε−1 ). Since equation and solution are evidently closely related, also the equation becomes essentially different, and the above approximation of the equation is not valid anymore. The remedy to this problem is that we have to stretch the variables such that the order of magnitude of the solution is reflected in the rescaling. In general this is far

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8.8 Matched asymptotic expansions

253

from obvious, and certainly part of the problem. In the present example it goes as follows. We write x = εξ and y(x) = Y (ξ ), so that dY + Y = sin(εξ ), dξ Y (0) = 1,

Now we may construct another approximation, locally valid for ξ = O(1) dY0 + Y0 dξ 0, Y0 (0) = 1,

with solution Y0 (ξ ) = e−ξ . We may continue to construct higher order corrections. Then we will see that for ξ large, respectively x small, this inner solution Y 0 smoothly changes into the above outer solution y0 (matching), and together they form a uniform approximation.

General methodology
In the following we will describe some of the mathematical methodology in more detail ([129, 9, 41, 95, 32, 65, 92, 86]). We are interested in the limiting behaviour for ε ↓ 0 of a sufficiently smooth function (x; ε) with, say, 0≤x≤1, 0<ε≤ε0 . has a regular asymptotic approximation on [0, 1] if there exists a gauge-function µ0 (ε) and a shape-function 0 (x) such that
ε→0

lim

(x; ε) − µ0 (ε)

0 (x)

=0

uniform in x

or: (x; ε) = µ0 (ε)
0 (x)

+ o(µ0 )

(ε → 0, uniform in x).

A regular asymptotic series expansion, with gauge-functions µn (ε) and shapefunctions n (x) is defined by induction, and we say
N

(x; ε) =
n=0

µn (ε)

n (x)

+ o(µ N )

(ε → 0, uniform in x).

(8.67)

Note that neither gauge- nor shape-functions are unique. Furthermore, the series is only asymptotic in ε for fixed N. The limit N → ∞ may be meaningless.

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8 Approximation methods

The functions that concern us here do not have a regular asymptotic expansion on the whole interval [0, 1] but say, on any partial interval [A, 1], A > 0, A fixed. We call this expansion the outer-expansion, valid in the “x = O(1)”-outer region.
N

(x; ε) =
n=0

µn (ε)ϕn (x) + o(µ N )

ε → 0, x = O(1).

(8.68)

The functions do not have a regular expansion on the whole interval because the limit ε → 0, x → 0 is non-uniform and may not be exchanged. There is a gaugefunction δ(ε), with lim δ(ε) = 0, such that in the stretched coordinate
ε→0

x ξ= δ(ε) the function (ξ ; ε) = (δ(ε)ξ ; ε) has a non-trivial regular asymptotic series expansion on any partial interval ξ ∈ [0, A], A > 0, A fixed. The adjective nontrivial is essential: the expansion must be “significant”, i.e. different from the outer-expansion in ϕn rewritten in ξ . For the largest δ(ε) with this property we call the expansion for the inner-expansion or boundary layer expansion, the region ξ = O(1) or x = O(δ) being the boundary layer with thickness δ, and ξ the boundary layer variable. A boundary layer may be nested and may contain more boundary layers. Suppose, (x; ε) has an outer-expansion
n

(x; ε) =
k=0

µk (ε)ϕk (x) + o(µn )

(8.69)

and a boundary layer x = O(δ) with inner-expansion
m

(ξ ; ε) =
k=0

λk (ε)ψk (ξ ) + o(λm )

(8.70)

and suppose that both expansions are complementary, i.e. there is no other boundary layer in between x = O(1) and x = O(δ), then the “overlap-hypothesis” says that both expansions represent the same function in an intermediate region of overlap. This overlap region may be described by a stretched variable x = η(ε)σ , asymptotically in between O(1) and O(δ), so: δ η 1. In the overlap region both expansions match, which means that asymptotically both expansions are equivalent and reduce to the same expressions. A widely used and relatively simple procedure is Van Dyke’s matchings rule [189]: the outer-expansion, rewritten in the

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8.8 Matched asymptotic expansions

255

inner-variable, has a regular series expansion, which is equal to the regular asymptotic expansion of the inner-expansion, rewritten in the outer-variable. Suppose that
n m

µk (ε)ϕk (δξ ) =
k=0 m k=0 n

λk (ε)ηk (ξ ) + o(λm ) µk (ε)θk (x) + o(µn )
k=0

(8.71a) (8.71b)

λk (ε)ψk (x/δ) =
k=0

then the expansion of ηk back to x
n n

λk (ε)ηk (x/δ) =
k=0 k=0

µk (ε)ζk (x) + o(µn )

is such that ζk = θk for k = 0, · · · , n. The idea of matching is very important because it allows one to move smoothly from one regime into the other. The method of constructing local, but matching, expansions is therefore called “Matched Asymptotic Expansions” (MAE). The most important application of this concept of inner- and outer-expansions is that approximate solutions of certain differential equations can be constructed for which the limit under a small parameter is apparently non-uniform. Typical examples in acoustics are small Helmholtz number problems where long waves are scattered by small objects or are otherwise connected to a small geometrical size. The main lines of argument for constructing a MAE solution to a differential equation + boundary conditions are as follows. Suppose is given by the equation D( , , x; ε) = 0 + boundary conditions, (8.72)

= d /dx. Then we try to construct an outer solution by looking for where “non-trivial degenerations” of D under ε → 0, that is, find µ0 (ε) and ν0 (ε) such that
ε→0 −1 lim ν0 (ε)D(µ0 ϕ0 , µ0 ϕ0 , x; ε) = D0 (ϕ0 , ϕ0 , x) = 0

(8.73)

has a non-trivial solution ϕ0 . A series ϕ = µ0 ϕ0 + µ1 ϕ1 + · · · is constructed by −1 repeating the process for D − ν0 D0 , etc. Suppose, the approximation is non-uniform (for example, not all boundary conditions can be satisfied), then we start looking for an inner-expansion if we have

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8 Approximation methods

reasons to believe that the non-uniformity is of boundary-layer type. Presence, location and size of the boundary layer(s) are now found by the “correspondence principle”, that is the (heuristic) idea that if behaves somehow differently in the boundary layer, the defining equation must also be essentially different. Therefore, we search for “significant degenerations” or “distinguished limits” of D. These are degenerations of D under ε → 0, with scaled x and , that contain the most information, and without being contained in other, richer, degenerations. The next step is then to select from these distinguished limits the one(s) allowing a solution that matches with the outer solution and satisfies any applicable boundary condition. Symbolically: find x0 , δ(ε), λ(ε), κ(ε) with x = x0 + δξ, such that B0(ψ0 , ψ0 , ξ ) = lim κ −1 D(δ −1 λ
ε→0

(x; ε) = λ(ε) (ξ ; ε) , λ , x0 + δξ ; ε)

has the “richest” structure, and there exists a solution of B0(ψ0 , ψ0 , ξ ) = 0 satisfying boundary and matching conditions. Again, an asymptotic expansion may be constructed inductively, by repeating the argument. It is of practical importance to note that the order estimate λ of in the boundary layer is often determined a posteriori by boundary or matching conditions.

Simple example
A simple example to illustrate some of the main arguments is D(ϕ , ϕ, x; ε) = ε d2 ϕ dϕ − 2x = 0, + dx 2 dx ϕ(0) = ϕ(1) = 2. (8.74)

The leading order outer-equation is evidently (with µ0 = ν0 = 1) D0 = dϕ0 − 2x = 0 dx

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8.8 Matched asymptotic expansions with solution ϕ0 = x 2 + A

257

The integration constant A can be determined by the boundary condition ϕ (0) = 2 0 at x = 0 or ϕ0 (1) = 2 at x = 1, but not both, so we expect a boundary layer at either end. By trial and error we find that no solution can be constructed if we assume a boundary layer at x = 1, so, inferring a boundary layer at x = 0, we have to use the boundary condition at x = 1 and find ϕ0 = x 2 + 1 The structure of the equation suggests a correction of O(ε), so we try the expansion ϕ = ϕ0 + εϕ1 + ε 2 ϕ2 + · · · . This results for ϕ1 into the equation dϕ1 d2 ϕ0 + = 0, dx dx 2 which has the solution ϕ1 = 2 − 2x. Higher orders are straightforward: dϕn = 0, dx with ϕn (1) = 0 with ϕ1 (1) = 0 (the O(ε)-term of the boundary condition),

leading to solutions ϕn ≡ 0, and we find for the outer expansion ϕ = x 2 + 1 + 2ε(1 − x) + O(ε N ). (8.75)

We continue with the inner expansion, and find with x0 = 0, ϕ = λψ, x = δξ λ dψ ελ d2 ψ − 2δξ = 0. + 2 dξ 2 δ δ dξ Both from the matching (ϕouter → 1 for x ↓ 0) and from the boundary condition (ϕ(0) = 2) we have to conclude that ϕinner = O(1) and so λ = 1. Furthermore, the boundary layer has only a reason for existence if it comprises new effects, not described by the outer solution. From the correspondence principle we expect that

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00

A1 = −2. So εδ−2 must be at least as large as δ−1 . from matching with the outer solution: ϕouter → 1 + 2ε + ε2 (ξ 2 − 2ξ ) + · · · (x = εξ. ψ1 (0) = 0 + dξ 2 dξ d2 ψ2 dψ2 = 2ξ . it must be exactly as large. since the equation for this order would be the same as for the leading order. From the principle that we look for the equation with the richest structure.75) for x → 0 : 1 + x 2 + 2ε − 2εx + · · · must be functionally equal to inner expansion (8. A1 . This is RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . implying a boundary layer thickness δ = ε. ψ2 (0) = 0 + dξ 2 dξ (8. So we substitute the series expansion: ψ = ψ0 + εψ1 + ε 2 ψ2 + · · · .76) for ξ → ∞: 2 − A0 − ε A1 + x 2 − 2εx − ε2 A2 + · · · . For example. A2 = 0. without free constants.76) → → → ψ0 = 2 + A0 (e−ξ −1) ψ1 = A1 (e−ξ −1) ψ2 = ξ 2 − 2ξ + A2 (e−ξ −1) where constants A0 . the coefficients of the x and x2 terms are already equal. Thus we have κ = ε−1 . ξ = O(1)) we see that an additional O(ε)-term is to be included. It is important to note that a matching is possible at all! Only a part of the terms can be matched by selection of the undetermined constants. + 2 dξ dξ From this equation it would seem that we have a series expansion without the O(ε)term.258 8 Approximation methods new effects are only included if (d2 ψ/dξ 2 ) is included. It is a simple matter to find d2 ψ0 dψ0 = 0 . and the inner equation dψ d2 ψ − 2ε2 ξ = 0. A2 . · · · are to be determined from the matching condition that outer expansion (8. the largest of δ−1 and δ. A full matching is obtained if we choose: A0 = 1. However. ψ0 (0) = 2 + dξ 2 dξ d2 ψ1 dψ1 = 0 .

cross section A2 for x > 0. 8. giving us confidence in the correctness. and is therefore a good illustration. no matching couple of inner and outer solutions is possible at all. in some (here rather irrelevant) way joined together at x = 0 (figure 8. Introduce dimensionless variables RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . However. ii) it allows us to determine unknown constants of integration. (8.9 Duct junction 259 an important consistency check on the found solution. Consider two straight hard walled ducts with cross section A1 for x < 0. Even for such a simple (looking) problem as that of a plane wave scattered by a static compact sphere a careful approach is necessary to get the right results ([28]).9 Duct junction A very simple problem that can be solved with matched asymptotic expansions is the reflection and transmission of low-frequency sound waves through a junction of two ducts with different diameter. at least as long as no real proof is available. A sound wave with potential ϕin = e iωt−ikx is incident from x = −∞. allows any extension to higher orders. almost certainly one of the assumptions made with the construction of the solution have to be reconsidered. probably related to exceptional physical phenomena. Apart from a region near this junction. Particularly notorious are logarithmic singularities of the outer field. A1 = A2 . not uncommon in 2D acoustical radiation problems ([95]). we assume that in terms of ε the ratio A / A2 1 is not close to 1 or 0: A1 / A2 = O(1). only in rather rare cases.77) To avoid uninteresting complications.and outer expansion plays an important rôle in the following ways: it provides information about the sequence of order (gauge) functions {µ } k and {λk } of the expansions. If no matching appears to be possible. Summarizing: matching of inner. i) iii) it provides a check on the consistency of the solution. The wavelength is large compared to the duct diameter: k A1 = ε 1. On the other hand.8.4). the ducts have a constant cross section with a wall normal vector nwall independent of the axial position. the method is completely analogous in many other duct problems. The problem will appear to be so simple that the apparatus of MAE could justifiably be considered as a bit of an overkill.

78b) ∇ϕ · nwall = 0 In the outer region x = (X.4 Duct junction. ε) = ϕ0 (x) + εϕ1 (x) + ε2 ϕ2 (x) + · · · (8. ∂ 2 ϕ2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 ∂ 2 ϕ0  + + + ϕ0 = 0  2 2 2 ∂y ∂z ∂X −→ 2 ∂ ϕ0   + ϕ0 = 0.78a) to find that all terms are function of the axial coordinate X only: O(1) :  ∂ 2 ϕ0 ∂ 2 ϕ0  + = 0 2 2 ∂y ∂z −→ ϕ0 = ϕ0 (X). √ √ X := kx.   ∇ϕ1 · nwall = 0 (8. z) = O(1) we expand in powers of ε (not ε2 as will be clear in the end) ϕ(x. (8.78a) (8.80b) O(ε 2 ) :  ϕ2 = ϕ2 (X).260 8 Approximation methods incident A1 reflected x <0 x =0 transmitted x >0 A2 Figure 8.80c) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . y. Then for a uniform acoustic medium we have for a time harmonic scattered field ϕ ε2 ∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ + 2 + 2 + ε2ϕ = 0 ∂ X2 ∂y ∂z at the wall.80a) O(ε) : (8.   ∇ϕ0 · nwall = 0  ∂ 2 ϕ1 ∂ 2 ϕ1  + = 0 ∂ y2 ∂ z2 −→ ϕ1 = ϕ1 (X). ∇ϕ2 · nwall = 0 ∂ X2 (8. z := z/ A1 . y := y/ A1 .79) and substitute in (8.

81a-8. and we introduce x = X/ε. and applying Gauss’ theorem ∂ 2 ϕ2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 ∂ 2 ϕ0 + + + ϕ0 ds ∂ y2 ∂ z2 ∂ X 2 = ∂A def A (∇ϕ2 · nwall ) d + ∂ 2 ϕ0 + ϕ0 |A| = 0. The region X = O(ε) appears to be a boundary layer. z.9 Duct junction 261 = This last result is obtained from integration over a cross section A = {X = constant} with surface |A|. but now with matching conditions for x → −∞ and x → +∞. = ϕ(εx. The equation for becomes =0 (8.81b): x → −∞ : x → +∞ : 1 + R0 + ε(R1 − ix + ix R0 ) +ε 2 (R2 + ix R1 − 1 x 2 − 1 x 2 R0 ) + · · · .82) (8. this process can be continued and we obtain ϕ0 = ϕn = e−iX +R0 e iX T0 e−iX Rn e iX Tn e−iX (X < 0) (X > 0) (X < 0) (X > 0) (8.83) ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + + 2 + ε2 ∂x2 ∂ y2 ∂z ∇ · nwall = 0 at the wall. i. 2 2 T0 + ε(T1 − ix T0 ) + ε 2 (T2 − ix T1 − 1 x 2 T0 ) + · · · .8. X ↑ 0 and X ↓ 0 of the outer solution (8. 2 Guided by the behaviour under matching we assume the expansion = 0 +ε 1 + ε2 2 ··· .e.81a) (8.81b) (where n ≥ 1). ∂ X2 Evidently. y. ε). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

At x = x1 the surface of V consists of a cross section A1 .84) In general. The size of V is denoted by |V |.85) which. However. reaching from x = x1 large negative. the solution 1 is difficult to obtain. so that we can use the matching conditions). Consider a large volume V . to obtain arguments as for ∇2 2 2 =− 0. together with equation (8. but if we follow the same 1 we find ∇2 V 2 dx = − 0 |V | = − A1 ∂ 2 ds + ∂x A2 ∂ 2 ds = ∂x −|A1 |(iR1 − x1 − x1 R0 ) +|A2 |(−iT1 − x2 T0 ) = −T0 (x2 |A2 | − x1 |A1 | + θ1 ) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .262 then 8 Approximation methods O(1) : O(ε) : ∇2 ∇2 0 1 = 0 −→ = 0 −→ 0 1 = constant −→ 1 + R0 = T0 = not necessarily constant. (8. we can again make use of Gauss’ theorem. determines R0 and T0 fully. and at x = x2 a cross section A2 . is difficult in a general situation. We integrate over this volume to obtain: ∇2 V 1 dx = − A1 ∂ 1 ds + ∂x A2 ∂ 1 ds ∂x = −(−i + iR0 )|A1 | − iT0 |A2 | = 0 so that: 1 − R0 = T0 |A2 | |A1 | (8. the sizes of A1 and A2 by |A1 | and |A2 |. if we are for the moment only interested in the global effects on reflection and transmission. We continue with the O(ε2 ) term: O(ε 2 ) : Again. to x = x2 large positive (large in variable x but small in variable X.84).

For example. between |V | and the sum of the two duct parts x2 |A2 | − x1 |A1 |. however. For a physically consistent problem (it is not possible in an inviscid medium to change the total amount of circulation) we position at the common centre a third vortex with a double but opposite vortex strength.e.86) This process can be continued. due to obvious details of the junction geometry. the next step for 3 gives a relation for R1 and T1 . For each n-th step more and more information of solution n−2 is needed. this field will be practically incompressible. 27]. in terms of the integral (check yourself!) θ2 = V 1 dx − 0 x1 (R1 − ix + iR0 x) dx − 0 x2 (T1 − iT0 x) dx = i|A1 |R2 + i|A2 |T2 . absolute value) are given by R0 and T0 up to O(ε2 ). 8. Two equally strong and equally orientated vortices rotate around a common centre. Note that the corrections R1 and T1 are imaginary and therefore appear as a phase shift in the reflected and transmitted (outer-) waves.10 Co-rotating line-vortices 263 where θ1 denotes the difference. move in each others velocity field. y = r sin θ and RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . By symmetry this vortex will not move but of course will contribute to the rotating motion of the other two. Inviscid compressible irrotational flow depending on x = r cos θ. at least formally. If the velocities are relatively low. however. and produce a fluctuating velocity and pressure field (for a fixed observer). The above identity results into |A1 |R1 + |A2 |T1 = −iT0 θ1 . will radiate away as sound [120. Two of such vortices.8.10 Co-rotating line-vortices In an inviscid infinite 2D medium a stationary line vortex produces a time-independent velocity and pressure field. and R2 and T2 . A small fraction of the energy. So the reflection and transmission amplitudes (i. (8.

Hence c2 ∂ρ ∂Q + = 0. sound speed c and gas constant γ .87a) (8. Introduce the auxiliary quantity (c.31b)) Q= then 2 (γ − 1)Q + c2 = c0 ∂ϕ + ∂t 1 2 ∇ϕ 2 (8. positioned opposite to each other on the circle r = a. y := y/a. velocity potential ϕ.88) (constant) (8. (8. dρ ρ ρ p = p0 ρ0 . ∂t ρ ∂t and so 2 c0 − (γ − 1)Q ∇ 2 ϕ = ∇Q + c2 ∇ρ = 0 ρ ∂Q + ∇ϕ ·∇ Q. (1. ϕ := ϕ/ .87c) ∇ϕ γ 2 + ∇ p = 0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .90) We will consider two vortices with vortex strength − . c2 = with density ρ. x := x/a. pressure p.264 8 Approximation methods t is described by ∂ρ + ∇ϕ ·∇ρ + ρ∇ 2 ϕ = 0. Their motion around each other will be incompressible as follows. ∂t ρ∇ ∂ϕ + ∂t 1 2 (8. ∂t (8. Q := Qa2 / 2 .89) where under the assumption that ϕ → 0 for r → ∞ the constant c0 is the far field sound speed. and we assume this to be small enough compared to the sound speed for locally incompressible flow: ε= ac0 1. Typical induced velocities are of the order of /a.91) Introduce dimensionless variables (where we keep for convenience the same notation): t := t /a 2 . γp dp = .f.87b) (8. and a vortex of strength 2 at the origin r = 0.

∂t 265 (8.95a) (8. 2 y1 = sin( 1 ωt). 2 where ω= 3 .97) For matching with the outer field we need the behaviour of inner solution ϕ for r → ∞: ϕ sin(ωt − 2θ) + ··· 2πr 2 (r → ∞).10 Co-rotating line-vortices Equation (8. 2π (8.93) is linear.90) is then in dimensionless form 1 − (γ − 1)ε2 Q ∇ 2 ϕ = ε 2 ∂Q + ∇ϕ ·∇ Q .94) (8. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . (8. 2 2 2 + (y − y )2 dt 2π (x1 − x2 ) π x1 + y1 1 2 (8. π x 2π x − x1 (t) 2π x − x2 (t) (8. π 2π r cos 2θ − cos ωt (8. Apart from an irrelevant phase shift the solution along the circle |x| = 1 is given by x1 = cos( 1 ωt).98) 7 Equation (8.96) Solution (8.95b) From symmetry x 2 = −x 1 . we have to leading order the Laplace equation for incompressible potential flow ∇ 2ϕ = 0 with solution the sum7 of the contributions of the three co-rotating vortices ϕ= y 1 y − y1 (t) 1 y − y2 (t) 1 arctan − arctan − arctan .94) can now be written as ϕ= 1 r 2 sin 2θ − sin ωt 1 θ− arctan 2 .8.92) In the inner region r = O(1). x 1 (t) must be equal to the induced velocity of the other vortices at x = x1 : 1 y1 − y2 y1 1 dx1 = − 2 2 2 + (y − y )2 dt 2π (x1 − x2 ) π x1 + y1 1 2 1 x1 − x2 1 x1 dy1 =− + .93) The position vector x1 (t) = (x1 (t). y1 (t)) (and similarly x2 (t)) is determined by the observation that a vortex is just a property of the flow and therefore the velocity .

with properties to be determined.99c) (8. A significant degeneration of (8. and hence A = −1 ω2 . so this is the same everywhere.98): ε 2 Re − A (n − 1)! 2 iπ ωr ˜ n e iωt−inθ ∼ sin(ωt − 2θ) 2πr 2 (8. 8 Note that this order 2 indicates an acoustic field equivalent to that of a rotating lateral quadrupole. when ∇2 ϕ and ∂ 2 ϕ/∂t 2 balance each other.101) with outward radiation conditions for r → ∞ (no source at infinity).98) that ϕ = O(δ2 ). 4 (8. the inner solution behaves like a harmonic point source ˜ ∝ e 2iωt at r = 0. This matching condition says that.102) (2) with Hn a Hankel function (Appendix D).99a) (8.92) is obtained if δ = ε. and order n and amplitude A to be determined. Then. Clearly. Relevant point source solutions are (2) ˜ ϕ = Re AHn (ωr) e iωt−inθ ˜ (8.99b) ∂ϕ 1 4 ˜ ˜ + 2 ε ∇ϕ ˜ ∂t 2 ˜ = ε2 Q (8. ϕ satisfies the wave equation ˜ 2 ˜ ˜ ˜ ∂ ϕ ∇ 2ϕ − 2 = 0 ∂t (8.104) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .100) (8. on the ˜ scale of the outer solution. there is no other possibility than n = 2. In dimensional variables the acoustic far field is given by ϕ M 3/2 a 2 πr 1/2 cos (t − r/c0 ) − 2θ + 1 π . Together we have: r = r /ε ˜ ˜ ϕ = ε2 ϕ Q = ε2 which gives ˜ ∂Q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ + ε4∇ ϕ · ∇ Q 1 − (γ − 1)ε4 Q ∇ 2 ϕ = ∂t To leading order. For matching it is necessary that the behaviour for r ↓ 0 coincides ˜ with (8. if we scale r = δ(ε)r. and a condi˜ tion of matching with (8.266 8 Approximation methods For the outer region we first observe that the time scale is dictated by the source. it follows from match˜ ing with equation (8.103) (if n ≥ 1).98) for r ↓ 0.

and at a fixed time 2 t the wave crests are localized along spirals (r + 2θc0 / constant). with p(0) = p0 . but we will limit ourselves to the present one. The outward radiating time-averaged energy flux or intensity is found from equation (8. This may be compared with a rotating lawn sprinkler. The mouth of the man and the ears of the audience are at a height of y = h = 1. Exercises a) Determine (using Webster’s horn equation) the right-running wave p(x). a man is giving a speech to an audience. For higher orders more and more equivalent far fields of higher order multipoles will appear.105) 2 − This functional dependence on U7 in 2D is to be compared with the U 8 -law of Lighthill for turbulence noise (equation 6. structed in a similar fashion. Strictly speaking.104) to be a 8 3 I = πρ0 c0 M 7 . this amount of energy per time leaks 9 away from the total energy of the system of vortices (which scales on ρ0 2 ). in an exponential horn with radius a e mx . Higher orders may be conFigure 8. and forms a confirmation of the estimates for turbulence in the Lighthill analogy. and we could try to include a small decay in time of the vortex strength . impossible in the present model. − We have now obtained the solution to leading order. 2 a 2π a 2 We see that for fixed θ the waves radiate outwards (r − c0 t constant).8. for fixed r the waves rotate with positive orientation (θ − 1 t constant). 9 r (8. 2c0 267 3 ω = .5 Three co-rotating vortices.10 Co-rotating line-vortices where frequency = and vortex Mach number M are given by M= a . ˆ b) In a hot desert.5 m above the flat ground. however. This is.70). given RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . We finally note that from a simple calculation the outward radiated 2D power is 3 equal to 16 π 2 ρ0 c0 a M 7 .

and that we only consider rays that skim along the ground. that a typical wave length is small enough for ray acoustics to be applicable.106) A (ρ0 A)−1 d d dφ Aρ0 − iω + U dx dx dx (8. The sound speed 1 profile is given by: c(y) = c 0 (1−εy). what is the largest distance over which the man can be heard? c) Determine the suitable modelling assumptions and derive from the wave equations (F. Under the assumptions that the man speaks loud enough. The ground is so hot compared to the air that a vertically stratified uniform temperature profile is established in the air.24) the following generalised Webster equations A−1 d dx c2 dσ dp + ω2 p = 0. dx (8.268 8 Approximation methods by y = 0.19) and (F. We assume for the region relevant here that this profile corresponds to a sound speed which is linear in y. Since the sound speed gradient is negative the sound waves are refracted upwards and will disappear into the air. dx c−2 iω + U d φ = 0. where c0 = 360 m/s and ε = 250 m−1 .107) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

25) ∞ −∞ δ(h(τ ))g(τ ) dτ = i h(τi ) = 0 (C. moving subsonically along the path x = xs (t) in a uniform acoustic medium. . p. is given by 4π ϕ(x. scattering by turbulence. − ∇ 2 p = ρ0 2 ∂t 2 ∂t c0 R(t) = x − x s (t). t) = − ∞ −∞ R(τ ) Q(τ ) δ t −τ − dτ. We will briefly consider here some of these effects. (9.721] for the less general problem of a point source moving with constant speed along a straight line.127]) 1 To appreciate the elegance the reader might compare it with the more traditional derivation as found in [119. p.1 Moving point source and Doppler shift Consider a point (volume) source of strength Q(t) (the volume flux). (9.9 Effects of flow and motion Being a fluid mechanical phenomenon itself. 9. coupling with vorticity. τ ) = 1 2 4π c0 |x − y| δ t −τ − |x − y| . an acoustic wave may be greatly affected by mean flow effects like convection. and many others. R(τ ) c0 g(τi ) . c0 ∂ the solution for potential ϕ.1) Using the free field Green’s function (equation (6.2) Using the δ-function integral (C.25) this representation is very elegantly1 [39] reduced to the Liénard-Wiechert potential ([80. The generated sound field is described by ∂ 1 ∂2 p Q(t)δ(R(t)) .37) or Appendix E) G(x. t| y. with p = −ρ0 ∂t ϕ. refraction in shear. |h (τi )| R = |R|.

Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) (9. seen from the source. t) = − Qe . (9. The combination M cos ϑ is often also denoted by Mr . It is important to note that by its implicit definition (9.4) is entirely natural and to be expected. By applying the chain rule to equation (9. ∂t 1 − Me cos ϑe After differentiation of equation (9. according to (C. If we trace the observed acoustic perturbation back to its origin.3) with respect to time.4) we obtain the identities 1 ∂te = . we will find2 it to be created at time te by the source at position x s (te ) and strength Q(te ).4).3) where the subscript e denotes evaluation at time te . the scalar and vectorial Mach number of the source. t) = Re · M e + c0 Me (cos ϑe − Me ) ρ0 Q e + ρ0 Q e .25). 2 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe )2 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe )3 (9. Other convenient notations used here and below are M = x s /c0 . or retarded time. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . given by the equation c0 (t − te ) − R(te ) = 0.4) Absolute values are suppressed because we assumed |Me | < 1. ∂t 1 − Me cos ϑe 2 Re · M e − c0 Me ∂ (Re Me cos ϑe ) = .270 9 Effects of flow and motion 4π ϕ(x. ∂t 1 − Me cos ϑe c0 Me cos ϑe ∂ Re =− . te is a function of both t and x. respectively. M = |M|. A typical effect of motion is that both the pressure and the potential fields are increased by the “Doppler factor” (1 − Me cos ϑe )−1 . we finally have 4π p(x. te is usually called emission time. while the O(Re )-part dominates the near field [103]. Therefore. but not with the 2 A generalization to supersonic motion of the source involves in general a summation. where M and M are. over more than one solution of equation (9. R M cos ϑ = R · M.4).5) −1 −2 The O(Re )-part dominates the far field. Restriction (9. while ϑ is the angle between the source velocity vector and the observer’s position.

Expression (9. v. Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) Re · M e Re 2 − Me .1 Moving point source and Doppler shift 271 same power. since te = te (x. we can deduce the field of a moving point force. Assume Q(t) = Q 0 e iω0 t with frequency ω0 so high that we can define an instantaneous frequency ω for an observer of (9. Furthermore. and eliminate ρ and v to obtain: 1 ∂2 p − ∇ 2 p = −∇ · F(t)δ(R(t)) . 0) in which case Me is constant and xs = 0.) The name “Doppler factor” is due to its appearance in the well-known frequency shift of moving harmonic sources. t) = 2 Re · M e + c0 (1 − Me ) Re · F e − c0 M e · F e + (Re · F e ) . By application of the chain rule to equation (9. ∇(Re Me cos ϑe ) = M e − Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) c0 ∇ Re = −c0 ∇te = so that we have the general expression for a moving point force: 4π p(x.8) (9. 2 c0 ∂t 2 Following the same lines as in the monopole problem we have the solution 4π p(x.9) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . or dipole.6) This describes the Doppler shift of frequency ω0 due to motion. or monopole. 0. more Doppler factors appear for higher order multipole sources. t). For this we return to the original linearized gas dynamics equations in ρ.4) we derive: Re . Analogous to the above point volume source.5) at position x: ω(t) = ω0 d (ω0 te ) = . and p with external force F(t)δ(x − xs (t)). (See Crighton [28]. dt 1 − Me cos ϑe (9.9. 2 3 c0 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe )2 c0 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe )3 (9.7) Here we see that a rotating force is not the same as a rotating ∇· F -field. t) = −∇ · Fe Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) (9.5) is quite general. The more common forms are for a straight source path with constant velocity xs (t) = (V t.

The formulas are laborious.) By discretizing the propeller blade volume by an equivalent collection of volumes V j . is given by x s (t) = (a cos ωt.2 Rotating monopole and dipole with moving observer An application of the previous section is a model for (subsonic) propeller noise.1). with forward speed U t. 182]. and the moving lift force distribution leading to loading noise. with solution the time derivative of equation (9.17) that a compact moving body of fixed volume V generates a sound field. we start with the field of the source. A description of the loading noise is obtained by representing the propeller blade force by an equivalent distribution of point forces Fj . It can be shown (equation 9. Therefore.272 9 Effects of flow and motion −1 −2 The O(Re )-part dominates the far field. a sin ωt. and translating along the z-axis with constant velocity U (figure 9.9). see for example [16.3. followed by a summation over j of the respective sound fields given by equation (9. equation (9. In any real situation Q and F are coupled. we will work out here the related problems of the far field of a subsonically rotating and translating monopole Q = q0 and dipole f0 . given in RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . however. See the next section 9. due to Succi and Farassat [46. ∂t 2 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) (Equivalent forms in terms of spatial derivatives are also possible. Therefore. to illustrate the method. U t). It should be noted that the above distinction between a point source Q and a point force F is rather idealized. while the O(Re )-part dominates the near field [103]. 46]. t) = ρ0 V ∂2 1 . The position of the point source. The method is attractive in its relative simplicity. and easy programming. since in general a real mass source also produces a momentum change (see [39]). 4π pth (x.1) while Q = V .5). It is practically of most interest to consider an observer moving with the source. given by the time derivative of equation (9. due to its displacement of fluid. 9. y-plane along a circle of radius a with frequency ω.13). Two main sources of sound may be associated to a moving propeller blade: the displacement of fluid by the moving body leading to thickness noise. the thickness noise is found by a summation over j of the respective sound fields. The thickness noise is a bit more involved. rotating in the x.

1 Trajectory of point. With R(o) = x o (t) − x s (te ) we obtain the relations e 2 (o) R(o) · M e = M R r sin ϑ sin(φ − ωte ) + M F r sin ϑ + M F Re . we have for a/r → 0 r ˜ a ˜ + sin ϑ cos(φ − ωt + k r) + .5). given in spherical coordinates by x o (t) = (r cos φ sin ϑ. e r 2 R(o) · M e = c0 M R 1 − sin ϑ cos(φ − ωte ) . ˜ c0 c0 where k = ω/c0 and te = t − r =r ˜ M F cos ϑ + 1− 2 1 − M F sin2 ϑ 2 MF . a=a ˜ 1 2 1 − M F sin2 ϑ . the stationary medium by equation (9. r cos ϑ + U t). . . moving along helical path xs (t). and substitute for position vector x the position of a co-moving observer xo = (xo . The “far field” denotes the asymptotic behaviour for (a/r) → 0. M F = U/c0 . Since 2 (o) c0 (t − te )2 = (Re )2 = r 2 − 2ar sin ϑ cos(φ − ωte ) + a 2 + 2Ur(t − te ) cos ϑ + U 2 (t − te )2 and noting that asymptotically t − te = O(r/c0 ).9. e a 2 2 2 Me = M R + M F .2 Rotating monopole and dipole with moving observer x 273 z y Figure 9. where M R = ωa/c0 . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . yo . r sin φ sin ϑ. z o ).

e. a nearly harmonic signal. 2 maxima perpendicular to the axis of rotation where sin ϑ = 1. q0 = 1. ωa) (9. t) = − ρ0 c0 q0 ar (R(o) · M e ρ0 c0 q0 e 2 + Me cos ϑe − Me 2 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe )3 c0 2 2 (1 − M F )2 M R sin ϑ cos(φ − ωt + k r ) ˜ M F cos ϑ + 2 1 − M F sin2 ϑ 2 1 − Me cos ϑe 3 (9. and in spite of the dQ(t)/dt = 0.274 9 Effects of flow and motion With this we find: (o) Re r − a sin ϑ cos(φ − ωt + k r) ˜ ˜ ˜ 2 (1 − M F )M R sin ϑ sin(φ − ωt + k r) + MF cos ϑ ˜ 2 2 +M F 1 − M F sin2 ϑ Me cos ϑe M F cos ϑ + 2 1 − M F sin2 ϑ Altogether in equation (9. f 0 = 700 N. ρ0 = 1. No far-field approximation is made. We assume the propeller to be concentrated in one point (this is a plausible approximation for the lowest harmonics) by a point force equal to the blade thrust force (the pressure jump across the blade integrated over the blade). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .11) In figure 9. the blade surface will practically coincide with the screw plane described by the effective velocity field V = U ex − ωa eθ . −U cos ωt. for an observer moving with and in the plane of the source at a distance x0 = 2.5 m. The rotating point force will portray a very simple propeller model.2 plots are made of the time history of the sound pressure generated by the above point source and point force. a = 1.28 m. i. So we have a force F(t) = f0 U 2 + (ωa)2 (U sin ωt. c0 = 316 m/s. in a direction perpendicular to the blade. ω = 17 · 2π /s.8 m3 /s. and minima in the direction of the axis where sin ϑ = 0.10) We do have a O(1/r) decay. for the following parameters: U = 145 m/s. Note the 2-lobe radiation pattern.2 kg/m3 . Furthermore.5): 4π p(x.

9.06 0. This approach has been generalized by Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings who derived [50] a very general formulation valid for any moving body.04 0.08 0.86) showed that the effect of a rigid body can be incorporated in the aeroacoustical analogy of Lighthill as additional source and force terms Qm and F.9. There is no unique relation between a source and its sound field.8) is an example of elegance and efficiency. because a given field can be created by infinitely many equivalent but different sources (section RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .12 -30 0 0.1 0. enclosed by a surface S(t). even when turbulence noise is of little or no importance. it is now a widely used starting point for theories of noise generation by moving bodies like propellers.2.12 Figure 9.1 0.04 0.3 Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings equation for moving bodies Curle (6.3 Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings equation for moving bodies 275 30 30 20 20 10 Pa sec. Their derivation by means of generalized functions (surface distributions. section C.06 0.08 0.02 0.2 Time history of sound pressure generated by spiralling point source (left) and point force (right). ¹ 10 0 0 -10 -10 -20 -20 -30 0 0. Although originally meant to include the effect of moving closed surfaces into Lighthill’s theory for aerodynamic sound.02 0.

and H ( f ) = 0 inside V. however. moving with velocity U = x S . but that will appear to be of no importance. t) such that  < 0 if x ∈ V(t). there is no unique way to describe the effect of a surface S(t) in terms of an acoustic source distribution. We now start the derivation by multiplying the exact equations (1.1. t) = 0 for all t.  f (x. by coordinates3 (t.6. λ. A surface point xS (t) ∈ S (consider λ and µ fixed). the outward normal n of S is given by (section A. Therefore.276 9 Effects of flow and motion 2. and therefore ∂f . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . n(x. If we multiply any physical quantity by the Heaviside function H ( f ) – such as ρ H ( f ) – we obtain a new variable which vanishes identically within V because H ( f ) = 1 in the fluid. not necessary. t) = ∇f |∇ f | .2) of motion for the fluid by H ( f ): H( f ) H( f ) ∂ρ + ∇ · (ρv) = 0. ∂t 3 When S(t) is the surface of a solid and undeformable body. but otherwise arbitrary. The resulting equations are automatically valid everywhere. and a simple and transparent choice is preferable. = − x S ·∇ f = −(U · n)|∇ f |. and use can be made of the free field Green’s function.   > 0 if x ∈ V(t). t) = 0 if x ∈ S(t). µ). Since ∇ f |f =0 is directed normal outwards from V. it is natural to assume a spatial parametrization which is materially attached to the surface. moving continuously in space. . Consider a finite volume V = V(t) with sufficiently smooth surface S = S(t). The choice put forward by Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings was both simple and transparent: just force any flow variable to vanish inside the enclosed volume. f =0 Let the surface S(t) be parametrized in time and space. this parametrization is not unique. ∂t It is important to note that the normal velocity (U · n) is a property of the surface. ∂t ∂ (ρv) + ∇ · ( P + ρvv) = 0. and is independent of the choice of f or parametrization. so f (xS (t).1. Introduce a (smooth) function f (x.3). Like the auxiliary function f .1). remains at the surface for all time. This is.

and in principle this equation (9.13) The first source term is of purely geometrical nature.12) − ∇· ρv(v − U) + p I − τ The sources at the right hand side consist of the double divergence of the common quadrupole-type Lighthill stress tensor. and describes the noise generated by the fluid displaced by the moving body. which is widely used for subsonic propeller and fan noise (no shocks) [46] ∂ 1 ∂2 ρ0 U · n|∇ f |δ( f ) − ∇ · p n|∇ f |δ( f ) . ∂ and using the identity ∂t H ( f ) = −U ·∇ H ( f ).9. However. the source terms are of aerodynamic nature. Lighthill’s stress tensor ρvv − τ + ( p − c0 ρ ) I and the shear stresses at the surface are negligible.63). 2 Very often. ∂ [ρ H ( f )] + ∇ · [ρv H ( f )] = [ρ0 U + ρ(v − U)] ·∇ H ( f ). and we change from density to pressure as our field variable. p − ∇2 p = ¯ ¯ 2 ∂t 2 ∂t c0 (9. The associated field is called RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . without including the very small acoustic back-reaction. and can be solved separately. Of course. and so they are valid everywhere.12) is not simpler to solve than the original Navier-Stokes equations. ∂t Using the same procedure (subtracting the time-derivative of the mass equation from the divergence of the momentum equation) as for Lighthill’s analogy (2. and a time derivative and divergence of sources only present at the surface f = 0. Although the original equations were only valid outside the body. and define p = p H ( f ). the right hand side contains all the unknowns. ∂t ∂ [ρv H ( f )] + ∇ · [(ρvv + P)H ( f )] = [ρv(v − U) + P] ·∇ H ( f ). if the surface S is solid such that v· n = U · n. as with Lighthill’s analogy. (9. the equations can be rewritten as equations for the new variables ρ H ( f ) and ρv H ( f ) as follows. the new equations are trivially satisfied inside V. we find the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations [50]: ∂2 2 ρ H ( f ) − c0 ∇ 2 ρ H ( f ) = ∂t 2   2 ∇ · ∇ · ρvv − τ + ( p − c0 ρ ) I H ( f )  + ∂ ∂t ρ(v − U) + ρ0 U ·∇ H ( f ) ·∇ H ( f ) .3 Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings equation for moving bodies 277 where ρ = ρ − ρ0 and ρ0 is the mean level far away from the body. Moreover. we have a reduced form of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equa¯ tion. By reordering the terms.

Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) (9. the distance between observer’s and source’s position.15) As before. and M cos ϑ is the component of the vectorial Mach number of the source in the direction of the observer (in some literature also denoted by Mr ). R The integral over τ can be evaluated by noting that any contributions come from the solution τ = te of the emission-time equation (the zero of the argument of the remaining δ-function). The associated field is called loading or lift noise. in a way similar to the problem of the moving point source of section 9. t)|∇ f |δ( f ).35).1. and describes the noise generated by the moving force distribution. t) = Q( y. 2 c0 ∂t 2 By using the free field Green’s function we can write 4π ϕ(x.34 or C. τ )-space. given by c0 (t − τ ) − R = 0. symbolically denoted by S(te ). Let us consider first the following prototype problem 1 ∂2 ϕ − ∇ 2 ϕ = Q(x. τ ) δ(t − τ − R/c0 )|∇ f |δ( f ) d y dτ. t) a surface in ( y. subscript e denotes evaluation at emission time te . we can integrate δ( f ) (equation C.36) and write 4π ϕ(x. we can in principle solve this equation.14) where R = |x − y(τ )|. t) = S(te ) Qe dσ.278 9 Effects of flow and motion thickness noise. Analogous to the point source field (9. The second part depends on the normal surface stresses due to the pressure distribution. which describes (for given x. R (9. Noting that |∇ f |δ( f ) is just equivalent to the surface distribution of S(t) (equation C. t) = S(t) Q( y.3) we have then 4π ϕ(x. τ ) δ(t − τ − R/c0 ) dσ dτ. If we know the pressure distribution along the surface. From this auxiliary solution we can RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ∂t 2 Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) (9. ∂t Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) ∂t Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) S(te ) V(te ) Since the volume integral of the constant 1 is just V . It is therefore interesting to consider the compact limit. Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) 279 (9.16) (see also section 9. we have for the thickness noise component of equation (9. Farassat [45.17) p · n dσ. t) = ¯ ρ0 U e · ne ∂ dσ ∂t Re (1 − Me cos ϑe ) S(te ) − ∇· S(te ) pe ne dσ.2).16) ρ0 U e · ne ρ0 ∂2 ∂ dσ = 2 d y. Using ρ0 U · n|∇ f |δ( f ) = ∂ ρ0 (1 − H ( f )).2) 4π p (x. see e. The emission time does not vary significantly over the source region.1. in which case the typical wave length is much longer than the body size. for example the centre of gravity. ∂t and noting that the function 1 − H ( f ) equals unity inside the body V and zero elsewhere.g. A particularly interesting form (Farassat [46]) for the thickness noise component is found by writing the surface integral as a volume integral. The source becomes equivalent to a point source (section 9.9. while at the same time the source varies its position! Other forms of the solution are available which might be easier to handle in certain applications.16) Extreme care should be taken in interpreting this equation. because for any x and t the emission time te varies over the source region. and denoting the total force of the fluid on the body by F(t) = S(t) we have the compact limit of equation (9.3 Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings equation for moving bodies now formulate a solution for p as follows ¯ 4π p (x. 46]. and Re and Me cos ϑe refer only to a single typical source coordinate xs . the volume of V.9. t) ¯ ∂2 ρ0 V Fe − ∇· .

280 9 Effects of flow and motion Exercises a) Evaluate the expressions for the acoustic field of the propeller of equation 9. What can you tell about the typical lobes in the radiation pattern? b) Evaluate the expressions for the acoustic field of a moving point volume source (9.11 without forward speed (U = 0) and find the approximation for the far field.5) and point force (9.9) for the windtunnel situation: a moving source x s = V t e x and a moving observe x = a + V t e x . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

momentum. is used to translate integral conservation laws into differential conservation laws. but small compared to the macroscopic scales in the problem. A. We call this a material volume. The concept arises when considering a fluid particle which is large in number of molecules. Mass conservation (F = ρ): d dt V ρ dx = 0. For an arbitrary single-valued scalar function F = F(xi .1) This theorem. We will give here a summary of the basic formulae.1 Reynolds’ transport theorem Conservation laws such as mass conservation are understood most easily when they are applied to a volume V = V (t) (enclosed by the surface S = S(t)) which is contained in the fluid. (A. t) (denoting any property of the fluid) with continuous derivatives the following integral relation holds: d dt V = V F dx = V DF + (∇ · v)F Dt ∂F dx + ∂t S dx Fv · n dσ.2) . For a certain –diffusion controlled– period of time the particle keeps its identity.A Integral laws and related results A. energy) in integral form are more general than in differential form because they can be applied to flows with discontinuous properties.2 Conservation laws The conservation laws (mass. known as Reynolds’ Transport Theorem (see equation C. (A. and can be labelled.37). A detailed derivation may be found in [137] or [185].

6) to obtain: d ρ dx = ρ(bi − vi )n i dσ. hence (A.6) ρvi n i dσ.4) For an arbitrary control volume V (t) with surface S (t).9) ρvi (v j − b j )n j dσ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .7) can be used to eliminate the first integral on the right-hand side of (A.7) (A. (A. (A. (A. v 2 = vi vi ): 2 d dt V = V ∗ ρ(e + 1 v 2 ) dx 2 f i vi dx − S ∗ Pi j v j n i dσ − S qi n i dσ. and where b is the local velocity of S∗ . (A.2) and (A. In a similar way we have for the momentum: d dt ρvi dx + V∗ S∗ = V∗ f i dx − S∗ Pi j n j dσ (A. Reynolds’ theorem becomes: ∂F d dx + F dx = Fbi n i dσ.3) Energy conservation (F = ρ(e + 1 v 2 ). At a given instant V ∗ coincides with a given material volume V .5) with F = ρ we find: d dt ρ dx = V∗ V∗ ∂ρ dx = − ∂t V S ∂ρ dx + ∂t ρbi n i dσ S∗ (A.282 A Integral laws and related results Momentum conservation (F = ρvi ): d ρvi dx = f i dx − dt V V S Pi j n j dσ.8) dt ∗ ∗ V S This can be applied to any volume V ∗ and in particular to a fixed volume (bi = 0).5) dt ∂t V∗ S∗ V∗ Applying (A.

A. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . where x = (x. y. both on the surface S. If we expand S(x) near x0 ∈ S we have S(x) = (x − x0 ) ·∇ S(x 0 ) + . . A. . S(x) varies. z). Since in the limit for |h| → 0 the vector ∇ S(x0 ) is normal to the tangent vector ∇S h. S ∗ (A.10) For the entropy s we further find: d dt ρs dx + V∗ S∗ ρs(vi − bi )n i dσ + S∗ 1 qi n i dσ ≥ 0 T (A. the unit normal vector nS = |∇ S| (at S = 0) is directed from the S < 0-side to the S > 0-side. . We then obtain S(x 0 + h) = S(x 0 ) + h ·∇ S(x 0 ) + O(h 2 ) h ·∇ S(x 0 ) = 0. only in the coordinate normal to the surface. So S(x) = 0 if and only if x ∈ S.3 Normal vectors of level surfaces and for the energy: d dt ρ(e + 1 v 2 ) dx + 2 V∗ = V ∗ 283 ρ(e + 1 v 2 )(vi − bi )n i dσ 2 S∗ Pi j v j n i dσ − S ∗ f i vi dx − qi n i dσ. Expand S(x 0 + h) into a Taylor series in h. so. to leading order. near the surface. it is normal to the surface S. Consider a point x0 and a neighbouring point x0 + h.3 Normal vectors of level surfaces A convenient way to describe a smooth surface S is by means of a suitable smooth function S(x).11) where the equality is valid when the processes in the flow are reversible. Furthermore. chosen such that the level surface S(x) = 0 is just equivalent to S.

then f (x) = O(g(x)). For this we have the order symbols O and o. that there is a constant C and an interval (a − h.2 If lim f (x) = 0. a + h): | f (x)| ≤ C|g(x)|. similarly for x ↑ a. x → ∞. and is finite. then f (x) = o(g(x)).B Order of magnitudes: O and o. In many cases it is necessary to indicate in a compact way the behaviour of some function f (x). a + η): | f (x)| ≤ δ|g(x)|. g(x) Note that f = o(g) implies f = O(g).1 f (x) = O(g(x)) as x → a means. we have Definition B. The usual way to do this is by comparing with a simpler function g(x). as x tends to some limit (finite or infinite). When f is comparable with or dominated by g. etc. Theorem B.2 f (x) = O(g(x)) as x → ∞ means. of variable or parameter x. For the behaviour at infinity we have Definition B. a + η) such that for all x ∈ (a − η. . ∞): | f (x)| ≤ C|g(x)|. Similarly for x → −∞. a + h) such that for all x ∈ (a − h.4 f (x) = Os (g(x)) means: f (x) = O(g(x)) but f (x) = o(g(x). and not as informative as the “sharp O”. When x ↓ a the interval is one-sided: (a. with obvious generalizations to x ↓ a. that there is a constant C and an interval (x0 . defined by Definition B.3 f (x) = o(g(x)) as x → a means. that for every positive δ there is an interval (a − η.1 If lim f (x) g(x) exists. Theorem B. ∞) such that for all x ∈ (x0 . in which case the estimate O(g) is only an upper limit. a + h). When f is essentially smaller than g we have Definition B.

(C. and physically. The most important example is the reduction into time harmonic components. 79. frequency ω = 2π f . 100. Mathematically. because the equation simplifies greatly if the coefficients in the wave equation are time-independent.1 Fourier transforms The linearity of sound waves allows us to build up the acoustic field as a sum of simpler solutions of the wave equation. .2) The Fourier transform and its inverse are closely related. 138. it is the same operation: Fp−1 (t) = 2π F p (−t). Then the Fourier transform p(ω) of p(t) is defined as the complex function ˆ = p(ω) = F p (ω) = ˆ def 1 2π ∞ −∞ p(t) e−iωt dt. 2 – | p(t)| and | p(t)|2 are integrable. except for at most a finite number of discontinuities where p(t) = 1 [ p(t + 0) + p(t − 0)]. It is important to ˆ ˆ note that slight differences with respect to the factor 1/2π . 203].1) while according to Fourier’s inversion theorem. Especially the prevailing e±iωt -convention should always be checked when referring or comparing to other work. ˆ (C. p(t) is equal to the inverse Fourier transform = p(t) = F p−1 (t) = ˆ def ∞ −∞ p(ω) e iωt dω. This is attractive in several respects. and the sign of the phase iωt are common in the literature. Apart from a sign change and a factor 2π . not necessary) conditions [20. because the Fourier spectrum represents the harmonic perception of sound. or Fourier analysis. – p is continuous. Consider a function p(t) with the following (sufficient.C Fourier transforms and generalized functions C.

So we have on the one hand the “real” p(t) which is Fouriertransformable.g. not depending on the arbitrary choice of the interval size. also depending on N.3a) (C. Although it may seem to be no serious restriction to assume that a physically relevant signal p(t) vanishes at t = ±∞. 2π(α + iω) (C.286 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions Some examples of Fourier transforms are: 1 2π 1 2π 1 2π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ H (t) e−αt e−iωt dt = 1 . the ordinary square root is taken. the real Fourier transform. and on the other hand the approximate “model” p(t). 2π −∞ where α > 0. will be introduced later in terms of generalized functions. which is H (t) = 1 for t > 0 and H (t) = 0 for t < 0. we deal in practice with simplified models. This is too vague and too arbitrary for general use. N].3c) (C. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3b) (C. sin(ω0 t)). a constant.26). and H (t) denotes Heaviside’s unit step function (C. and for the other frequencies an oscillatory behaviour.3d) 1 H (t) −αt −iωt . dt = √ √ √ e e t 2 π α + iω 1 1 e−iωt dt = e−|ω| . which is not always Fourier-transformable. Is there a way to approximate. 2 1+t 2 1 1 2 1 2 e− 2 t e−iωt dt = √ e− 2 ω . using the approximate p(t)? One way is to assume p to vanish outside a certain large interval [−N. that is difficult to interpret. as for example: 1 2π 1 2π N −N N −N e−iωt dt = sin ωN πω sin(ω0 − ω)N i sin(ω0 + ω)N − 2π ω0 + ω ω0 − ω sin(ω0 t) e−iωt dt = We see a large maximum (∼ N/π ) depending on N near the dominating frequencies. Therefore. or at least get an idea of. yielding expressions for p(t) which do not decay at infinity (e. a mathematically more consistent and satisfying approach.

ˆ (C. ρ) = 0 ∞ φ(r) Jm (ρr)r dr (C.8) where x = (r cos ϑ.57).C. ρ) of a function φ(r). f (x) = 1 2π ∞ m=−∞ f m (r) e−imϑ and use is made of equation (D. ˆ c2 (C. r sin ϑ).T. ρ cos α). fˆ(k) = f (x) e ik·x ∞ Ê 2 dx = m=−∞ eimα Hm ( f m . given by Hm (φ.5) Further reduction is possible by Fourier transformation in space variables. k = (ρ sin α. (2π )n Ê n (C. ∇ 2ϕ + ˆ ω2 ϕ = 0.4) the wave equation reduces to the Helmholtz equation ∇ 2ϕ − 1 ∂ 2ϕ =0 c2 ∂t 2 =⇒ F. ρ) (C.7) arises naturally when the 2D Fourier transform of a function f (x) is re-written in polar coordinates. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .1 Fourier transforms 287 Derivative Since a derivative to t corresponds to a multiplication by iω as follows d p(t) = dt ∞ −∞ iω p(ω) e iωt dω.6) The Hankel transform Hm ( f . f (x) = 1 fˆ(k) e−ik·x dk. More dimensions and Hankel transform Fourier transforms in n space dimensions is usually denoted as fˆ(k) = Ê n f (x) e ik·x dx.

λ (C. to be introduced below. ˆ Therefore. obtained by taking1 q(t ) = p∗ (−t ) and t = 0: ∞ −∞ | p(ω)|2 dω = ˆ 1 2π ∞ −∞ | p(t )|2 dt (C. not any p(ω) can occur. dt n (C. the corresponding p(t) is in any physical context real.9) for the product with ωn is a special case of the convolution theorem.10) ˆ ˆ Note that in terms of generalized functions. result (C. A given p(ω) corresponds to a real signal p(t) ˆ ˆ 1 z ∗ = x − iy denotes the complex conjugate of z = x + iy. it is clear that the high frequencies relate to the short time behaviour. Reality condition Although p(ω) is complex. A particular case is Parseval’s theorem. ∞ p(λn) = n=−∞ 2π λ ∞ p ˆ n=−∞ 2π n .288 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions Multiplication and convolution Fourier transformation is basically a linear operation and little can be said about other than linear combinations of transformed functions. also known as the Convolution Theorem ( p∗q)(t) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ p(t )q(t − t ) dt = ∞ −∞ p(ω)q(ω) e iωt dω.9) For multiplication with a general q(ω) we find the convolution product of p(t) and ˆ q(t).11) which is in a suitable context a measure of the total energy of a signal p(t). (C. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Poisson’s summation formula Intuitively. and the low frequencies to the long time behaviour.12) Sampling with large steps (λ large) of p yields information about the low part of the spectrum and vice versa. An elegant result due to Poisson is making this explicit. Only for multiplication with powers of ω we have ∞ −∞ (iω)n p(ω) e iωt dω = ˆ dn p(t).

2). The problem is simple for an initial value problem. A process p(t) that starts by some cause at some finite time t = t0 . switched on at t = 0. 2 Infinitely often differentiable in the complex variable ω.e. while it vanishes before t0 .C. if dissipation effects are neglected. where it suffices to require a zero field before the switchon time.3b). is not readily clear. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . but are indeed analytic in the half-plane Im(ω) < α. (C. being identically equal to its complex conjugate. It is therefore of interest to investigate conditions for the Fourier transform that guarantees a causal signal. C. the difference between cause and effect. if p(t) = O(e−αt ) for t → ∞. is called causal. p(ω) is analytic2 in the lower complex half-space Im(ω) < α. Stationary means that it exists forever and has always existed. The fact that the sound should be produced before we observe it (causality) is not a property automatically implied by our equations. i.1. In such a case causality. or in general based on Fourier analysis.13) This is just the consequence of p(t).15) Examples are the exponentially decaying functions. However.1 Causality condition The wave equation and the equation of motion do not impose a direction for the time. and it should be imposed to the solution. given by equation (C.14) ˆ has the property that. of equations (C.3a) and (C. No physical process can exist for all time.1 Fourier transforms if it satisfies the reality condition p(−ω) = p(ω)∗ . ˆ ˆ 289 (C. when we consider a time-harmonic solution. The Fourier transforms are non-analytic in the upper halfplane (singularities at ω = iα and a branch cut from iα up to i∞). The corresponding Fourier transform p(ω) = ˆ 1 2π ∞ t0 p(t) e−iωt dt (C. it is not obvious any more because we assume the solution to be built up from stationary oscillations.

3a) and (C. The integral is to be interpreted via a suitable deformation of the contour. ˆ 4 If z =z is a simple pole of f (z). is equal to zero. which is on the real axis. then the residue of f at z is: Res (z ) = lim z→z 0 (z−z 0 ) f (z). this is just p(t).3b) at ω = iα moves to ω = 0. ˆ ˆ there is a real t0 such that e iωt0 p(ω) → 0 for ω → −i∞. without further information this would leave us with two possible but different answers! 3 Cauchy’s theorem [87] for analytic functions says that if f is analytic in the inner-region of a closed contour C in the complex plane.1 (Causality Condition) If: p(ω) is analytic in Im(ω) ≤ 0. The factor e iωt = e i Re(ω)t e − Im(ω)t decays exponentially fast to zero in the lower complex ω-plane because − Im(ω)t < 0. Let R → ∞ while t < 0 (= t0 . ∞ −∞ e iωt e−αt dω = 2π(α + iω) 0 if t > 0. ˆ | p(ω)|2 is integrable.1) (p. This is a bit of a problem if we are interested in the inverse transform5 . then: p(t) is causal. Under the conditions stated in theorem (C. resulting in 2π i times the residue4 of the pole in iα. the contribution from the large semi-circle becomes exponentially small and vanishes. but this is either over or under the singularity. −π < θ < 0. 6 The integral of an analytic function does not change with deformation of the integration contour within the region of analyticity. So the part along the real axis is also zero. because the real ω-axis is just the contour of integration. Theorem C. However. R] and the semi-circle ω = R e iθ . When t > 0 the exponential factor e iωt = e i Re(ω)t e − Im(ω)t decays in the upper half plane. 0 0 f 0 5 We ignore for the moment the problem that for α = 0 the original time signal is only Fourier transformable in the context of generalized functions. the case of a general t0 is similar). Hence. It should be noted that in the limit of no damping (α ↓ 0) the singularity of (C. with zero result because the integrand is analytic there: causal as it should be. So. Consider as a typical example the inverse transform of equation (C. So its integral along the closed contour consisting of the real interval [−R. and a pole there would make the result of the 6 integral ambiguous.3a). and vanishes for t < t0 . When t < 0 the contour can be closed via the lower half plane. if t < 0. the integral of f along C is equal to zero: C f (z)dz = 0. so the contour can be closed via the upper half plane. and the results are not the same. the inverse Fourier transform of p.290 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions This leads3 [138] to the following theorem. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .290) the function p(ω) exp(iωt) is analytic in the ˆ lower-half complex ω-plane.

The result is then ω∈ real axis −ω0 • ω0 • imaginary axis Figure C. p(x. This is exactly in agreement with the argument of causality: a causal signal has a Fourier transform that is analytic in the lower complex half-plane. t) = ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ p(k. dealing with complicated manipulations in two complex planes. however. this Fourier transform has singularities along the real ω axis. so we have to indent the contour under the pole.1). ˜ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ω) e iωt−ikx dkdω. This example is typical of the more general case of a signal p(t).C.and the t-dependence. is the following. Therefore. described via a Fourier integral for both the x. the causality condition tells us how to deal with this problem. The singularity is to be considered to belong to the upper half-plane. described via the inverse transform of its Fourier transform. The transformed harmonic-like signal p(ω) = − ˆ 1 ω0 2 − ω2 2π ω 0 has to be analytic in the lower half plane. p(t) = H (t) sin(ω0 t). the contour must be indented in Im(ω) < 0 around ω = ω0 and ω = −ω0 (figure C. so it is safe to indent the contour into the lower half-plane.1 Fourier transforms 291 We do know. due to inherent idealizations of the model. so that the integration contour can be closed with zero result if t < 0. Consider the following example. t).1 Integration contour in complex ω-plane. If it occurs that. A more subtle example. that this singularity comes from the complex upper half. Consider the field p(x.

is given by: ˜ p(k. when ω moves in its complex ω-plane from the negative imaginary half onto the real axis. as Im(ω) ↑ 0. we have to take the ˆ limit Im(ω) ↑ 0. 2 2 2 4π 2 c0 k − ω2 /c0 1 2 4π 2 c0 ∞ −∞ (C. The result is e−iω|x|/c0 . −ω/c0 real axis k∈ • ´ ´ • ω/c0 imaginary axis Figure C. ω) = ˜ 1 1 . ω) is not analytic for any ±ω/c0 on the contour. here. ω) = ˆ 4π ic0 ω RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . p(x. C. Since causality requires that p(x. (C. This means that the contour in the complex k-plane (the real axis) must be indented up-around k = ω/c0 and down-around k = −ω/c0 (figure C. 2 k 2 − ω2 /c0 must be analytic in Im(ω) ≤ 0. ω) jumps discontinuously by an amount of the residue at that pole.2). and thereˆ fore p(x. Since a deformation of the integration contour for an analytic function does not change the integral. ω).e.16) then the time-Fourier transformed p(x. ω) = ˆ e−ikx dk.292 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions If p(k.17) p(x.2). i.2 Integration contour in complex k-plane. the integral exists and can be differentiated to ω any times. when a pole k = ω/c0 or k = −ω/c0 crosses the contour. the value of ˆ the integral may be either the limit from above or from below. ω). This is seen as follows. so p(x. from below for the pole k = ω/c0 and from above for the pole k = −ω/c0 . given by ˆ p(x. ω) is the analytic continuation from Im(ω) < 0. the time. ω) is anaˆ lytic in ω. these limits are most conveniently incorporated by a small deformation of the contour. t). For any value of ±ω/c0 not on the k-contour. However. The arrows indicate the path of the poles ±ω/c0 in the k-plane. So.and space-Fourier transformed p(x. in a direction opposite to the limit (Fig.

1 Introduction In reality dissipative effects will cause any discontinuity to be smooth and any signal to decay for t → ∞. t) = ∞ iω(t−|x|/c0 ) e 1 dω 4π ic0 −∞ ω 1 H (t − |x|/c0 ). Technically speaking. This is. For example. 79.2 Generalized functions 293 As before. even vital for a lucid theory. There are many definitions and terminology7 of generalized function spaces.2. consisting of two isolated peaks at ω and −ω. mathematically not equivalent. Only our mathematical apparatus of functions is too restricted. It is therefore convenient. Another example is a non-decaying signal. however. not at all. and we have (c. which (classically) cannot be Fourier transformed: for some frequencies the Fourier integral is not defined and for others just infinitely large. where it is infinitely large. etc. or too restricted to be useful? No. is almost a prototype! Does that mean that our idealized models are wrong. 203.84)) p(x. 47]. generalized functions or tempered distributions are not functions with a pointwise definition. 83. (4. but all containing the elements most important in applications (delta function. (See also below). C. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .C. to extend our meaning of function to the so-called generalized functions [100. not the case in most of our idealized models. See for example [47]. while any signal can be regarded to be absent for t → −∞. Heaviside function.18) If we read x − y for x and t − τ for t. the pole ω = 0 belongs to the upper ω-half plane. Their meaning is always defined in an integrated sense. a point source of vanishing size but finite source strength cannot be described by any ordinary function: it would be something that is zero everywhere except in one point. even as common as sin(ωt). Still.). weak functions and distributions when derivatives are guaranteed. the spectrum of sin(ωt). So the classical concept of (smooth) functions is more than adequate to describe any property of a real sound field.2 Generalized functions C. = 2c0 (C. this is just the one-dimensional Green’s function.f. 7 For example: generalized functions and tempered distributions when Fourier transformation is guaranteed.

We start with the space of the real. such that derivatives and Fourier transforms are always defined.21) 8 Technically termed: closure of. . and write for a generalized function f defined by the sequence ( fn ) and any g ∈ G ∞ −∞ f (x)g(x) dx = lim = def ∞ −∞ n→∞ f n (x)g(x) dx. It is only defined by the way its corresponding sequence ( fn ) acts under integration. k ≥ 0 . −n d where f (k) (x) = dx k f (x). a generalized function may be defined by many equivalent regular sequences because it is only the limit that counts. In particular. On the other hand.294 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions C. it is not a function with a pointwise and explicit meaning. . Furthermore. It can be shown. that any reasonably behaving ordinary function is equivalent to a generalized function. we retain the symbolism for integration. A sequence ( fn ) ⊂ G defines a generalized function if for every testfunction g ∈ G the sequence of real numbers ∞ n→∞ lim −∞ f n (x)g(x) dx (C. ∞) and f k (C. generalized functions really extend our definition of ordinary functions. and may be identified to it. smooth.2 Formal definition In the present context we will follow the definition that is intuitively most appealing: the limit8 in a suitable function space G. This definition is analogous to the definition of real numbers by convergent sequences of rational numbers. Therefore. a generalized function is not an ordinary function.20) exists as a real number (depending on g.19) (k) = O(|x| ) (|x| → ∞) for any n.2. and very fast decaying good functions = G= def f : Ê → Ê | f (k) ∈ C ∞ (−∞. (C. of course). Care is to be taken: although it is the limit of a sequence of ordinary functions. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

such that ∞ −∞ δ(x)g(x) dx = g(0). for a sufficiently smooth function h with h = dh = 0 at any zero of h.22) In the limit for n → ∞ all contributions in the integral except from near x = 0 are suppressed. (C. as it has the inverse dimension of its argument (or put in another way: δ(x)dx is dimensionless). If the Heaviside generalized function is used as an ordinary function it has the pointwise definition  (x < 0) 0  1 (x = 0) (C. A useful identity is δ(ax) = 1 δ(x). |a| (C. near a zero xi .22) illustrates that it is not necessary for a representation of δ(x) to vanish pointwise outside x = 0.3 The delta function and other examples A very important generalized function is the delta function δ(x). equivalent to δ(h (xi )(x − xi )). defined (for example) by δn (x) = n π 1/2 e−nx . This result may be derived from the fact that δ(h(x)) is locally. 2 or δn (x) = sin nx −x 2 /n2 e . the following result: dx ∞ −∞ δ(h(x))g(x) dx = i g(xi ) . πx (C. A generalization of this identity yields.25) where the summation runs over all the zeros of h.23) The second expression of (C.2 Generalized functions 295 C. |h (xi )| h(xi ) = 0 (C. so that δ(h(x)) = δ(x − xi )/|h (xi )|.2.C.26) H (x) = 2   1 (x > 0) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .24) which at the same time shows that a delta function is not necessarily dimensionless. The sequence Hn (x) = 1 2 tanh(nx) + 1 2 e−x 2 /n 2 defines the Heaviside stepfunction H (x). Highly oscillatory behaviour outside the origin may be sufficient for the integral to vanish.

RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . the equation x f (x) = 0 has a meaning in generalized sense.2. is that there exist a continuous function h(x) and positive numbers r and k such that f (x) is a generalized r-th order derivative of h(x) f (x) = dr h(x) dx r while h(x) has the property that h(x) (1 + x 2 )k/2 is bounded on Ê .4 Derivatives Every generalized function f defined by ( fn ) has a derivative f defined by ( fn ). Theorem C. We have the general form given by the following theorem.2 (General representation) A necessary and sufficient condition for f (x) to be a generalized function. Any C ∞ –function h with algebraic behaviour for |x| → ∞ multiplied by a good function is a good function. with algebraic behaviour for |x| → ∞ (for example. so that the product of such a h with a generalized function f is well-defined. (C. defines a generalized function (also called f ) via the sequence fn (x) = f (x) exp(−x 2 /n 2 ).27) C.296 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions Any C ∞ -function f . and also satisfying ∞ −∞ f (x)g(x) dx = − ∞ −∞ f (x)g (x) dx. up to the multiplicative constant C. they are not arbitrarily wild. polynomials). (C. For example. with the solution f (x) = Cδ(x) which is unique. since for any good g ∞ n→∞ lim −∞ f n (x)g(x) dx = ∞ −∞ f (x)g(x) dx.28) Although generalized functions do not have a pointwise meaning.

V. The notation ω − i0 means that the pole ω = 0 is assumed to belong to the complex upper half plane. dx δ(x) = 1 d2 |x|.5 Fourier transforms Every generalized function f defined by ( fn ) has a Fourier transform fˆ defined by ˆ ( fˆn ) which is itself a generalized function. Examples of Fourier transforms are 1 2π ∞ −∞ δ(x) e−iωx dx = ∞ −∞ 1 2π (C. since the Fourier transform g of a good function g is a good function.V. C. 2 2 ∞ −∞ 1 2π H (x) e−iωx dx = P.V.C. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . −∞ = −ε ∞ limε↓0 −∞ + ε . denotes “principal value”. Indeed.29) f (x)g(−x) dx. 2 dx 2 297 By differentiation of the equation xδ(x) = 0 we obtain for the n-th derivative δ (n) (x) the identity x n δ (n) (x) = (−1)n n!δ(x).2 Generalized functions For example: sign(x) = 1 + 2H (x) = d |x|. we have using the convolution theorem a well-defined ∞ −∞ fˆ(ω)g(ω) dω = lim ˆ = = ∞ −∞ n→∞ ˆ fˆn (ω)g(ω) dω ∞ −∞ 1 lim 2π n→∞ 1 2π ∞ −∞ f n (x)g(−x) dx (C. which means that under the integration sign ∞ the singularity is to be excluded in the following symmetric way: P.2. 1 1 + 1 δ(ω) = 2 π iω 2π i(ω − i0) where P.30) 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 2π e−iωx dx = δ(ω) cos(ω0 x) e−iωx dx = 1 δ(ω − ω0 ) + 1 δ(ω + ω0 ). similar to (C.17).

δ(t − τ )δ(τ ) dτ = δ(t). is not always defined. which is to be interpreted as a multiplication of the integrand with suitable Heaviside functions. t) dt dx =  δ(t) f (x. and many results are fairly straightforward after an obvious introduction of multi-dimensional good functions. Some results are δ(x)H (x + 1) = δ(x).24). C. For example. or as a direct product when they depend on different variables. the poles ω = nπ belong to the complex upper half plane.2. t) dt dx. provided δ (r) is considered to be an odd function in r. x0 −x 0 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ δ(x) f (x) dx = ∞ −∞ δ(x) f (x) dx ∞ −∞ if x0 > 0. and we have for the back transform in time domain ∞ ∞ iωt ∞ −∞ −i cot(ω) e dt = 2π n=−∞ e inπt = 4π n=−∞ δ(t − 2n) (C.6 Products Products of generalized functions are in general not defined. we may get δ(x)H (x) = Cδ(x) for any finite C.  δ(x) ∞ −∞ δ(x)δ(t) f (x. Therefore.2. C. For the delta function in Ê3 this leads to δ(x) = δ(x)δ(y)δ(z) Care is required near the singular points of a coordinate transformation. integration along a semi-infinite or finite interval.31) where we used (C.298 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions If −i cot(ω) is a causal Fourier transform.7 Higher dimensions and Green’s functions A generalization to several dimensions is possible [167]. depending on the defining sequences of δ(x) and H (x). we may define a new generalized function f (x)g(y) in Ê2 by the direct product of f (x) and g(y). the 2-D delta function RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Two generalized functions may be multiplied only when either of the two is locally equivalent to an ordinary function. For example. For example.41a) and (C.

y)ez . wave. after the described transformation back into space and time domain.2-. y).33b) v = (− sin θ.81)) 2 ∂ 2G 2∂ G − c0 2 = δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ). The line source is a delta function source term in the mass equation: 1 v = (cos θ.8 Surface distributions Of particular interest are the so-called surface distributions δ (x) defined by the surface integral Ê 3 δ (x)φ(x) dx = φ(x) dσ (C. and heat equations. ∂t 2 ∂x After Fourier transformation to t and x we obtain 2 ˜ ˜ −ω2 G + c0 k 2 G = 1 −iωτ iky e e 4π 2 which yields equation (C. r0 δ(x − x 0 ) = n=−∞  δ (r)  − (r ≥ 0) if r0 = 0.34) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . sin θ. cos θ.2. π 299 (C. the Green’s function given by expression (C. Classically. C.C.33a) 1 (C. (4.2 Generalized functions δ(x − x 0 ) may be written in polar coordinates ([79. Consider for example the one dimensional wave equation (c. the Green’s function G is defined in a rather complicated way.306]) as  ∞  δ(r − r0 )   δ(ϑ − ϑ0 − 2π n) if r0 = 0.16) (apart from the amplitude) and then. but in the context of generalized functions it appears to be just the field resulting from a delta function source. r The line vortex is a delta function type vorticity field: (C.32) Relevant in the theory of 2-D incompressible potential flow are the following identities. and 3-D.f.18). Helmholtz. 0) satisfies ∇ × v = 2π δ(x. r A most important application of (more-dimensional) delta functions in the present context is that they allow a very direct definition of Green’s functions. for the Laplace. 0) satisfies ∇· v = 2π δ(x. See Appendix E for a table of free field Green’s functions in 1-. p.

the coordinate normal to the surface. For sufficiently smooth h we have Ê 3 δ(h(x))g(x) dx = i g(x) dσ Si |∇h(x)| (C. moving continuously in space. we have δ (x) = δ(ν) = |∇ S0|δ(|∇ S0|ν) = |∇ S0 |δ(S). λ. S(x) = (x − x 0 ) ·∇ S0 + · · · |∇ S0 |ν. and Reynolds’ Transport Theorem (section A. We show it for Reynolds’ Theorem and leave Gauss’ theorem as an exercise. This concept of surface distributions has numerous important applications. For example. and denotes a smooth surface in Ê3 with surface element dσ .  f (x.25).1) may be derived very elegantly and efficiently. t) = 0 if x ∈ S(t). (C. In practice. the outward normal nS of S is given by (section A. t) = − ∇f |∇ f | . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .35) Note that this result is in fact a generalization of formula (C. after a suitable rotation and transformation of coordinates. f =0 Let the surface S(t) be parametrized in time and space.   < 0 if x ∈ V(t). but that will appear to be of no importance. this parametrization is not unique. A surface point xS (t) ∈ S (consider λ and µ fixed).3) n S (x. Introduce a (smooth) function f (x. Consider a finite volume V = V(t) with sufficiently smooth surface S = S(t). by coordinates (t. but otherwise arbitrary. Since δ is locally. integral theorems like that of Gauss or Green [83]. where ν = (x − x 0 ) · eν and S0 indicates evaluation at x0 . Near a point x0 on the surface. µ). Like the auxiliary function f .36) where the summation runs over all the surfaces Si defined by the equation h(x) = 0.300 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions where φ is an arbitrary test function. Since ∇ f | f =0 is directed normal inwards into V. equivalent to a onedimensional delta function in ν. t) such that  > 0 if x ∈ V(t). a surface is often defined by an equation S(x) = 0 (section A. S(x) varies to leading order only in the direction of the surface normal eν = ∇ S0/|∇ S0 |.3).

integrated over V. t) dσ. is now given by d d F(x. f is periodic with period L. remains at the surface for all time. defined by the infinite sequence {cn }∞ n=−∞ . and use is made of equation (C. (C.3 Fourier series 301 . A generalized function f is said to be periodic. in particular it is independent of the selected function f and parametrization. t) = 0 for all t. moving with velocity b =x S . however. t). in the following sense. ∂t The variation of a quality F(x. For sufficiently well-behaved functions f the coefficients are given by cn = 1 L L 0 f (x) e−2πinx/L dx.38) If the series converges. if a coordinate shift x + L yields the same generalized function f (x) = f (x + L). ∞ f (x) = n=−∞ cn e 2πinx/L .39) Classically. (C.3 Fourier series A Fourier series (in complex form) is the following function f (x). with period L. so f (xS (t). t) dx = H ( f )F(x. (C. Fourier series appear to have a much simpler structure when they are embedded in the generalized functions. t)dx = 3 ∂t ∂t Ê ∂ F(x. t) dx dt V dt Ê 3    H ( f ) ∂ F(x. The classic theory is. rather complicated. Note that. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . t) + δ( f ) ∂ f F(x. t) dx + (b · n S ) F(x.35). although in general b is not unique.37) = S V ∂t where H denotes the Heaviside function.C. On the other hand. Fourier series are equivalent to the Fourier transform of periodic generalized functions. and therefore also its time-derivative. the Fourier series precedes both the Fourier transform and generalized functions. = − x S ·∇ f = |∇ f | b · n S . its normal component b· n S is unique. C. and so ∂f .

38) converges9 to a generalized function if and only if the coefficients cn are of slow growth.40a) (C.39). n=m cn e (C. U (x) + U (x − 1) = 1 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. and the Fourier series is still to be interpreted in a generalized sense. 203]). Theorem C. f (x) = exp(−x 2 /m 2 ) m RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .3 (From Fourier series to generalized function) A Fourier series (C. L 1 L −∞ f (x)U Any Fourier series can be differentiated and integrated term by term. The generalized function it defines is periodic and unique.40b) (C. Theorem C.41a) 9 As the generalized limit of. L x −2πinx/L e dx. and the expression for c n simplifies to the classical form (C. but otherwise arbitrary. U is necessary because a generalized function may not be integrable along a finite interval (for example. for example. telling us when a Fourier series is a generalized function. while the Fourier transform is a periodic array of delta functions: ∞ f (x) = fˆ(ω) = cn = n=−∞ ∞ cn e 2πinx/L . cn δ(ω − n=−∞ ∞ (C. Examples are the “row of delta’s” ∞ ∞ ∞ δ(x − n) = n=−∞ n=−∞ e 2πinx =1+2 n=1 cos(2π nx). If we are dealing with a generalized function defined by a periodic absolutelyintegrable ordinary function. U ∈ C ∞ is an auxiliary smoothing function with the following properties: U (x) = 0 for |x| ≥ 1. This means. and vice versa. Although in such a case the Fourier series may converge in ordinary sense.302 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions We have the following couple of theorems ([100. this is not guaranteed.4 (From generalized function to Fourier series) The most general periodic generalized function is just the Fourier series: any periodic generalized function can be written as a Fourier series with Fourier coefficients cn . that there is a constant N such that cn = O(|n| N ) for |n| → ∞.40c) 2π n ). when singularities coincide with the end points). then U is not necessary. m 2πinx/L .

2 (2π in) 2π 2 n 2 n=−∞ n=1 ∞ ∞ (C.41d) is the first integral and (C.41c) Furthermore. otherwise. is the (N + 2)-th derivative of a continuous function. πn (C. (C.3 Fourier series with its Fourier transform 1 2π ∞ 303 e n=−∞ −iωn ∞ = n=−∞ δ(ω − 2π n).41e) is 2 the second integral of the row of delta’s of (C. This shows that there is a limit to the seriousness of the singularities that these functions can have [100]. L]: ∞ f (x) L = n=−∞ x B( L − n) f (x − n L).41e) denotes a sum excluding n = 0.41a).41b) and its N-th derivative ∞ δ n=−∞ (N) ∞ (x − n) = n=−∞ (2π in) N e 2πinx . with coefficients cn = O(|n| N )(|n| → ∞). (C. (C. continuous at x = n 1 2 x − x2 − 1 6 1 = e 2πinx cos(2π nx) =− . Apart from an additional x and 1 x 2 . and B denotes the unit block function B(x) = H (x) − H (x − 1) ≡ 1 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. In general it is true that any generalized Fourier series. [ · ]L denotes the L-periodic continuation of a function f (x) defined on the interval [0. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .41d) and a sequence of parabola’s. the sawtooth with simple discontinuities at x = n 1 2 −x 1 e 2πinx = = 2π in n=−∞ ∞ ∞ n=1 sin(2π nx) .C.

L] if there are a finite number of open subintervals RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . f (L−) exist. ∞ π | sin x| = 2 − n=1 cos 2nx .e. No attempt must be made to sum such a series numerically term by term! Numerical evaluation is only possible for classically convergent Fourier series. For a given Fourier series we have the following theorem.41e) and (C. . . . n sin(2π nx). such that f (x) = 1 [ f (x+) + f (x−)].5 (Existence of ordinary Fourier series) If a function f is piecewise smooth10 on the interval [0. then the Fourier series of f converges for every x to the L2 periodic continuation of f . .6 (Continuity of ordinary Fourier series) If a Fourier series is absolutely convergent.42a) just falls outside this category. 10 f is piecewise smooth on [0. when dealing in practice with divergent series. Theorem C. 0 < x < x1 . (C. however.42b) (C.42d) cot(π x) = n=1 ∞ − 1 tan(π x) = 2 n=1 (−1)n sin(2π nx). . Theorem C. . then it converges absolutely and uniformly to a continuous periodic function f . Some of the most important results are the following.42a) (C. |cn | < ∞. such that c are just n f ’s Fourier coefficients. i. Examples of the second are (C.42c) (C. Note that the similar looking (C.41d).42d). L]. f (x1 ±). An example of the first theorem is (C. . x N−1 < x < L on which f is continuous. For a given function f we have the following theorem. n2 − 1 4 Until now we have considered only generalized Fourier series because of their more transparent properties. We have to be very cautious. while the limits f (0+). .304 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions Related examples of some interest are: ∞ − log |2 sin π x| = n=1 ∞ 1 2 cos(2π nx) .

. j= 1 N 2 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 2 2 for k = − 1 N. . . N − 1. Restrict the infinite integral to a large enough finite interval [−1 T. −1T 2 T 1 2T p(t) e−iωt dt + 0 If we finally discretize the integrals 2π k p ˆ T T 2π N + 1 2 N−1 p( j T /N) exp(−2π i j k/N) j =0 N−1 T 2π N p( j T /N − T ) exp(−2π i j k/N). . k = 0.1) is determined as follows.3.C. . This algorithm calculates for a given complex array {xj }.1 The Fast Fourier Transform The standard numerical implementation of the calculation of a Fourier transform or Fourier coefficient is the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm [24]. Then we have 2 2 1 p(ω) = ˆ 2π 1 = 2π ∞ −∞ 1 2T p(t) e −iωt dt 1 2π 1 2π 1 2T p(t) e−iωt dt p(t − T ) e−iωt dt. .39) is calculated by discretizing the integral 1 cn = L L 0 f (x) e −2πinx/L dx 1 N N−1 f ( j L/N) exp(−2π i j n/N) j =0 and identifying x j = f ( j L/N) and cn = X n /N. . 1 N − 1. 1 T ]. . . j = 0. .43) A Fourier coefficient (C. and consider only the values ω = 2π k/T . . . (C.3 Fourier series 305 C. N − 1 very efficiently (especially if N is a power of 2) the Discrete Fourier Transform N−1 Xk = j =0 x j exp(−2π i j k/N). A Fourier transform (C.

2 if 0 ≤ k ≤ 1 N − 1. p ˆ T 2π k = T 2π N if − 1 N ≤ k ≤ −1. 2 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 2 1 N 2 ≤ j ≤ N − 1.306 C Fourier transforms and generalized functions we obtain the required result by identifying xj = p( j T /N) p( j T /N − T ) X k+N Xk if if 0 ≤ j ≤ 1 N − 1.

3) Ym (x) = − − 1 π 1 π k=0 2 (m − k − 1)! 1 −m+2k ( 2 x) + log( 1 x)Jm (x) 2 k! π (−1)k ( 1 x)m+2k 2 k!(m + k)! 1 . m-th order ordinary Bessel function of the 2nd kind. k ∞ ψ(k + 1) + ψ(m + k + 1) k=0 n−1 with ψ(1) = −γ . 56]. ψ(n) = −γ + k=1 γ = 0. 43. (D. Y−m (x) = (−1) Ym (x). J−m (x) = (−1)m Jm (x). m-th order ordinary Bessel function of the 1st kind. Ym (x). m (D. (D. 1.6) (D. Standardized forms are Jm (x).577215664901532 Jm (−x) = (−1)m Jm (x).7) . for m ≥ 0 is: ∞ Jm (x) = k=0 (−1)k ( 1 x)m+2k 2 k!(m + k)! m−1 (D.5) (D.4) 0<arg(x)≤π.2b) Jm is regular in x = 0.  (−1)m Ym (x) − 2iJm (x) . −π<arg(x)≤0.D Bessel functions 1 m2 y + 1− 2 y =0 x x The Bessel equation for integer m y + (D.1) has two independent solutions [197. Ym is singular in x = 0 with branch cut along x < 0.2a) (D. Ym (−x) = (−1)m Ym (x) + 2iJm (x) .

. Km is singular in x = 0 with branch cut along x < 0.15) (D. m (D. Wronskians (with prime denoting derivative): Jm (x)Ym (x) (1) (2) Hm (x)Hm (x) − Ym (x) Jm (x) − (2) (1) Hm (x)Hm = 2/π x (D.19) (x) = −4i/π x = −1/x = −2/π x 1/x Im (x)K m (x) − K m (x)Im (x) Jm (x)Ym+1 (x) − Ym (x) Jm+1 (x) Im (x)K m+1 (x) + K m (x)Im+1 (x) = Jm (x) and Jm (x) have an infinite number of real zeros. 2 (D.8b) Related are the modified Bessel functions of the 1st and 2nd kind Im (x) = i−m Jm (ix).9a) −π <arg(x)≤ 1 π..18) (D. (D.12) (D. 2 1 π 2 .9b) 1 (2) π(−i)m+1 Hm (−ix). (D.14) (−1) K m (x) − π iIm (x). The µ-th positive (= 0) zeros are denoted by j µ m RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . I−m (x) = Im (x). K m (x) = = satisfying y + 1 m2 y − 1+ 2 y =0 x x (D. −2π i(−1)m Im (x). (D. −π <arg(x)≤− 1 π. Im (−x) = (−1)m Im (x) K m (−x) = (−1)m K m (x) + π iIm (x).13) (D. 2 (D. all of which are simple with the possible exception of x = 0. 2 − 1 π <arg(x)≤ π.11) 0<arg(x)≤ π.16) (D.8a) (D.. 2 +2π i(−1)m Im (x).10) 1 (1) π im+1 Hm (ix).17) (D.308 D Bessel functions Other common independent sets of solutions are the Hankel functions (1) Hm (x) = Jm (x) + iYm (x). K −m (x) = K m (x). −π <arg(x)≤0. <arg(x)≤ π.9c) Im is regular in x = 0. (2) Hm (x) = Jm (x) − iYm (x).

−(m − 1)! ( 1 x)−m /π. Asymptotic behaviour for x → 0: Jm (x) Y0 (x) Ym (x) (1. 2 (| arg(x)| < 3 π ). 2 2 4 (2π x)− 2 e x .µ = j1.23) (D. 2 Asymptotic behaviour for |x| → ∞: Jm (x) Ym (x) (1.22) (D. 2 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .2) Hm (x) ( 1 π x)− 2 cos(x − 1 mπ − 1 π ). 2 ( 1 x)m /m! . 2 − log(x).20c) Not only asymptotically but in general it is true that jm1 ≥ m. 2 2 4 ( 1 π x)− 2 exp[±i(x − 1 mπ − 1 π )].25) (D. 2 2 log(x)/π.20a) (D. (D.2) H0 (x) (1. Asymptotically the zeros behave like jmµ jmµ jm1 (µ + 1 m − 1 )π + O(µ−1 ) 2 4 (µ + 1 m − 3 )π + O(µ−1 ) 2 4 m + 0.8086 m 1/3 + O(m −1/3 ) (µ → ∞) (µ → ∞) (m → ∞).2) Hm (x) ( 1 x)m /m! .32) (D.µ−1 . 2 ±2i log(x)/π.31) (D. 1 (m 2 (D.26) (D. 1 1 1 1 1 (D.29) (D. 0 It follows that j0.24) (D. (2x/π )− 2 e−x . 2 2 4 ( 1 π x)− 2 sin(x − 1 mπ − 1 π ).30) (D.21) (D. except that x = 0 is counted as the first zero of J : j01 = 0.28) Im (x) K 0 (x) K m (x) − 1)! ( 1 x)−m .27) (D. ∓i(m − 1)!( 1 x)−m /π.33) Im (x) K m (x) (| arg(x)| < 1 π ).20b) (D.309 and jmµ respectively.

3 1 1 1 ( 1 π mζ+ )− 2 sin(mζ+ − m arctan ζ+ − 1 π ). x (D.46) (D. valid for 0 < x < 1. 2 3 /(3 3 ( 2 )m 3 ). x 2Ym (x). Y0 (x) = −Y1 (x).45) (D.42) (D.41) (D. 2 m Ym (x). x In particular: J0 (x) = − J1 (x).38) (D. Important recurrence relations are Jm−1 (x) + Jm+1 (x) = Jm−1 (x) − Jm+1 (x) = Ym−1 (x) + Ym+1 (x) = Ym−1 (x) − Ym+1 (x) = Im−1 (x) + Im+1 (x) = Im−1 (x) − Im+1 (x) = 2 m Jm (x).35) (D.37) (D.39) cos(mζ+ − m arctan ζ+ − 1 π ).48) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .40) (D. K m−1 (x) − K m+1 (x) = −2 m K m (x).43) (D. and ζ− = √ 1 − x 2 .47) K m−1 (x) + K m+1 (x) = −2K m (x). 3 1 ( 1 π mζ+ )− 2 2 1 (2π mζ− )− 2 1 1 2 1 1 (D. 2 −2 3 /(3 6 ( 2 )m 3 ). 1 −( 1 π m)− 2 (ex/2m)−m .34) (D. 4 exp(mζ− − m artanh ζ− ). I0 (x) = I1 (x). x 2 − 1. 2 m Im (x). 2Im (x).44) (D. 2 4 1 − 1 −( 2 π mζ− ) 2 exp(−mζ− + m artanh ζ− ). (D.36) (D.310 D Bessel functions Asymptotic behaviour for m → ∞: Jm (x) Jm (m) Jm (mx) Ym (x) Ym (m) Ym (mx) where ζ+ = √ (2π m)− 2 (ex/2m)m . x 2Jm (x). K 0 (x) = −K 1 (x). valid for x > 1.

49) (D.311 Some useful relations involving series are e ix cos ϑ = J0 (k R) = m=−∞ ∞ im Jm (x) e imϑ . r0 < 1).52) ˜ x Cm (αx) C m (αx) dx = 1 2 (x 2 (D.54) −x ˜ ˜ βDm (αx)D m (βx) − αDm (αx)D m (βx) . (D.51) (D.55) ˜ − 1 x 2 Dm (αx)D m (αx).  1  2 µ=1 2 (1 − m 2 /jmµ ) Jm ( jmµ )2 1 δ(r − r0 ) = ∞  Jm ( jmµr0 ) Jm ( jmµr) r0   (0 < r. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .56) (D.57) e−imϑ+ix sin ϑ dϑ = Jm (x). m2 ˜ )Cm (αx) C m (αx) α2 ˜ xDm (αx)D m (βx) dx = α2 (D. − β2 (D. C m is any linear combination of Jm . m=−∞ ∞ (D. Hm and Hm . r0 < 1). π 0 1 2π π −π m2 ˜ )Dm (αx)D m (αx) α2 e ix cos ϑ cos(mϑ) dϑ = 1 2 π −π e ix cos ϑ+imϑ dϑ = π im Jm (x).53) ˜ + 1 x 2 Cm (αx) C m (αx) .  1  J ( j )2 2 m mµ µ=1 Relations involving integrals: ˜ x Cm (αx) C m (βx) dx = α2 x ˜ ˜ β Cm (αx) C m (βx) − α Cm (αx) C m (βx) .50) e im(ϑ−ϕ) Jm (kr) Jm (k ). ∞ Jm ( jmµr0 ) Jm ( jmµr)   (0 < r. 2 − (1) (2) ˜ where Cm . where: R 2 = r 2 + 2 − 2r cos(ϑ − ϕ). 2 ˜ xDm (αx)D m (αx) dx = 1 2 (x 2 + ˜ where Dm . − β2 (D. Dm is any linear combination of Im and K m . Ym .

α (α.58) (D. k>0. r= x 2 + y 2 . dαdβ = 2π −ir r= x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .  γ = k 2 − α 2 − β 2 . k>0.71) K 0 (αx) cos(βx) dx = 1 π 2 α2 + β2 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . (Im(k) < 0).69) (D. √ γ = k 2 − α 2 . β 2 − α2 0 ∞ 1 K 0 (αx) sin(βx) dx = arsinh( β ).63) x Jm (αx) Jm (βx) dx = δ(α − β) √ αβ (D.   (D.70) (D.68) β 2 − α2 H (β − α) Y0 (αx) cos(βx) dx = − . . k>0.67) 1 2 xYm (αx) Jm (βx) dx = 2 − β2 πα J0 (αx) sin(βx) dx = J0 (αx) cos(βx) dx = H (β − α) β 2 − α2 α2 − β 2 1 . J0 ( α) dα = γ −ir (1. α arcosh( β ) (0<α<β). (Princ. β > 0) (D. β > 0) (α. Im(γ )≤0. β > 0) (α.59) (D. r= 2 + z 2 . (α.2) e±ix cosh y dy = ±π iH0 (x). β α m (D.64) (D. γ 1 −iαx−iβ y−iγ |z| e γ ∞ −∞ √ γ = k 2 − α 2 . Val.312 D Bessel functions ∞ 0 ∞ e−ikr α −iγ |z| e .). β > 0). (D. β > 0) (α. (α. β > 0) H (α − β)  2  π 2   π ∞ 0 ∞ Y0 (αx) sin(βx) dx = α2 − β 2 −1 arcsin( β ) (0<β<α).60) −∞ ∞ −∞ 1 −iαx−iγ |y| (2) e dα = π H0 (kr).65) (D. t2 − r2 −∞−i0 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 (1) 1 π iH0 (kr) x J0 (xr) 2 dx = (2) x 2 − k2 − 1 π iH0 (kr) 2 ∞−i0 (D. α 2 + β2 α 0 ∞ 0 (D.61) H (t − r) (2) H0 (ωr) e iωt dω = 4i √ . Im(γ )≤0.62) (Im(k) > 0).   −ikr e . Im(γ )≤0.66) (D.

(D. (x → −∞). (D. (D.74) Ai(x) Bi(x) 1 0. given cos( 1 t 3 + xt) dt 3 exp(− 1 t 3 + xt) + sin( 1 t 3 + xt) dt 3 3 (D.1 Bessel function Jn (x) as function of order and argument.73) ∞ 0 They are solutions of y − x y = 0. with the following asymptotic behaviour (introduce ζ = 2 |x|3/2 ) 3  1  cos(ζ − 4 π )  √  π |x|1/4  e−ζ  √  2 π x 1/4  1  cos(ζ + 4 π )  √  π |x|1/4 ζ  √e  π x 1/4 (x → −∞).313 Related to Bessel functions of order by Ai(x) = 1 π 1 Bi(x) = π ∞ 0 1 3 are the Airy functions Ai and Bi [1].75) (x → ∞).72) (D.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Figure D.76) (x → ∞). RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

2-. The boundary conditions applied are (depending on the equation): symmetry. the reduced wave equation (Helmholtz equation). outward radiating (assuming a e iωt convention) and causality (vanishing before t = 0). . the function or its derivative vanishing at infinity. r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2.E Free field Green’s functions Some relevant Green’s functions for the Laplace equation. Equation ∇ 2 G = δ(x) ∇ 2 G + k 2 G = δ(x) 1-D 1 |x| 2 i −ik|x| e 2k 2-D 1 log R 2π i (2) H (k R) 4 0 3-D − − 1 4πr e−ikr 4πr ∂2G 1 1 H (t − R/c) H (t − |x|/c) − c2 ∇ 2 G = δ(x)δ(t) 2 ∂t 2c 2π c2 t 2 − R 2 /c2 ∂G − α∇ 2 G = δ(x)δ(t) ∂t H (t) e−x /4αt (4π αt)1/2 2 δ(t − r/c) 4π c2r H (t) e−r /4αt (4π αt)3/2 2 H (t) e−R /4αt 4π αt 2 Notation: R= x 2 + y2. and 3-dimensional infinite space. the wave equation. and the diffusion equation (heat equation) are summarized in the table below for 1-.

The flow is described by a stationary mean flow and small perturbations.2) (F.4) ∂ ρ ∂t ∂ (ρv) ∂t ∂ (ρ E) ∂t + ∇ · (ρv) + ∇ · (ρ Ev) = −∇ · q − ∇ · ( pv) + ∇ · (τ v) + ∇ · (ρvv) = −∇ p + ∇ · τ =0 (F. momentum and energy conservation. internal energy e. Further simplifications are considered based on axi-symmetric geometry and mean flow. scalar velocity v = |v|.F Summary of equations for fluid motion For general reference we will describe here a large number of possible acoustic models.3) or entropy s and temperature T via the fundamental law of thermodynamics for a reversible process T ds = de + pdρ −1 = dh − ρ −1 d p. viscous stress tensor τ .6) . systematically derived from he compressible Navier-Stokes equations. are given by mass: momentum: energy: while E = e + 1 v2. velocity vector v.1) (F. and the fluid being a perfect gas. ρ (F. 2 It is often convenient to introduce enthalpy or heat function h =e+ p . (F. written in terms of pressure p. density ρ. and heat flux vector q. upon which linearization and Fourier time-analysis is possible. under the assumptions of absence of friction and thermal condition.5) (F. F.1 Conservation laws and constitutive equations The original laws of mass.

(F.b) From equation (F. s = C V log p − C P log ρ.b. the specific heats are constant (independent of T ).b.9a. the above conservation laws may be reduced to mass: momentum: energy : d ρ dt d ρ dt v d ρ dt e d ρ dt h d ρT dt s = −∇ p + ∇ · τ = d dt = −ρ∇ · v (F.12a. For acoustic applications the entropy form (F. For an ideal gas we have the following relations p = ρ RT.73 J/kg K.316 F Summary of equations for fluid motion d ∂ With dt = ∂t + v ·∇ for the convective derivative. γ = CP = 1. de = C V dT. and we can integrate (apart from an immaterial integration constant) e = C V T.c) where C V is the heat capacity or specific heat at constant volume.11) s For a perfect gas.402 CV (F. dh = C P dT (F.7a) (F.6) it then follows for an ideal gas that ds = C V dp dρ − CP p ρ (F. which are practically constant and given by (the figures refer to air) R = C P − C V = 286.7b) (F. like sound.8a.10) while isentropic perturbations (ds = 0).7d) (F. CV = C V (T ) and C P = C P (T ) are in general functions of temperature.7e) = −∇ · q − p∇ · v + τ :∇v p − ∇ · q + τ :∇v = −∇ · q + τ :∇v.c) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . R is the specific gas constant and γ the Poisson ratio.7c) (F. h = C P T. ρ (F. CP is the heat capacity or specific heat at constant pressure [93]. propagate with the sound speed c given by c2 = ∂p ∂ρ = γp = γ RT.7e) is the most convenient.

2 Acoustic approximation F. while any perturbation is too fast to be affected by thermal conduction.13b) (F.15b) (F.F.13a) (F. given by v = v0 + v . 2 c0 = (F. for the applications of acoustic propagation we will ignore viscous shear stress (τ ) and thermal conduction (q).1 Inviscid and isentropic In the acoustic realm we will consider.15c) γ p0 ρ0 (F.13c) which means that entropy remains constant. Therefore. s = s0 + s (F.2 Perturbations of a mean flow When we have a stationary mean flow with instationary perturbations.2. p = p0 + p . we obtain for the mean flow ∇ · (ρ0 v 0 ) = 0 ρ0 (v 0 ·∇)v 0 = −∇ p0 (v 0 ·∇)s0 = 0 while s0 = C V log p0 − C P log ρ0 . along streamlines. such that we have d ρ dt d ρ dt v d s dt = −ρ∇ · v = −∇ p =0 (F. ρ (F.14) and linearize for small amplitude. the viscous or turbulent stress terms will be assumed to play a role only in an aerodynamic source region.2 Acoustic approximation 317 F.13d) F. with the following thermodynamical closure relations s = C V log p − C P log ρ. we will assume the gas to be perfect. and thus dh = ρ−1 d p. c2 = γp .15d) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . ρ = ρ0 + ρ .2.15a) (F. Furthermore.

16b) (F.16c) p ρ − p0 ρ0 while s = CV CP CV 2 p − ρ = p − c0 ρ . ˆ p0 (F. If the mean flow is homentropic (s0 = constant).16a) (F. and pressure and density are related by ∂ ∂t 2 + v 0 ·∇ p = c0 ∂ ∂t + v0 ·∇ ρ (F. p0 ρ0 p0 c = 1 c0 2 (F.17) If the perturbations are entirely isentropic (s ≡ 0). for example when v0 = 0 and s0 = constant. the pressure and density perturbations are related by the usual 2 p = c0 ρ .20) we have in the usual complex notation ˆ ˆ iωρ + ∇ · v 0 ρ + v ρ0 = 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ρ0 iω + v 0 ·∇ v + ρ0 v ·∇ v 0 + ρ v 0 ·∇ v 0 = −∇ p ˆ ˆ iω + v 0 ·∇ s + v ·∇s0 = 0 s= ˆ Cv 2 ˆ p − c0 ρ . ρ = Re(ρ eiωt ).21b) (F. (F.2. p = Re( p eiωt ).21d) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .16d) where the expression for c usually serves no purpose.4 Time harmonic When the perturbations are time-harmonic.19) F.3 Zero mean flow Without mean flow. (F.2. for example when p0 and ρ0 are constant. s = Re(ˆ eiωt ). (F. the equations may be reduced to ∂2 ∂t 2 2 p − ∇ · c0 ∇ p = 0. the perturbations are isentropic along streamlines.318 F Summary of equations for fluid motion and the perturbations ∂ ρ0 ∂t + v 0 ·∇ v + ρ0 v ·∇ v 0 + ρ (v 0 ·∇)v 0 = −∇ p ∂ ( ∂t + v 0 ·∇)s + v ·∇s0 = 0 ∂ ρ ∂t + ∇ · (v 0 ρ + v ρ0 ) = 0 (F.21c) (F.18) F.21a) (F. given by ˆ ˆ ˆ s v = Re(v eiωt ). such that v0 = ∇ p0 = 0.

where φ = φ0 + Re(φ eiωt ).6 Uniform mean flow The simplest. and express p as a function of ρ only. (F.22) ˆ For mean flow with harmonic perturbation. we have then for the mean flow 2 c0 = constant. such that we can integrate the momentum equation. 2 ∂t γ −1 p = constant. ˆ ˆ ρ0 iω + v 0 ·∇ φ + p = 0. so we have ˆ ˆ iω + u 0 ∂∂x ρ + ρ0 ∇ · v = 0.23b) These last equations are further simplified if we eliminate p and ρ. ˆ ˆ (F. ρ0 iω + u 0 ∂∂x v + ∇ p = 0. density ρ0 and sound speed c0 are constants. ργ (F.2 Acoustic approximation 319 F.2.F. mean pressure p0 . is the one with a uniform mean flow. γ = constant ρ0 1 2 v 2 0 + (F. ˆ ˆ 2 ˆ p − c0 ρ = 0. γ −1 p0 ∇ · (ρ0 v 0 ) = 0. ˆ (F. we can introduce a potential for the velocity.25a) (F.5 Irrotational isentropic flow When the flow is irrotational and isentropic everywhere (homentropic).23a) and for the acoustic perturbations ˆ ˆ ˆ iω + v 0 ·∇ ρ + ρ∇ · v 0 + ∇ · ρ0 ∇ φ = 0. and use the fact ˆ ˆ that ∇ · (ρ0 v 0 ) = 0. and obtain the important simplification c2 ∂ φ + 1 v2 + = constant.24) F.2.25c) iω + u 0 ∂∂x RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . but therefore probably most important configuration with mean flow. to the rather general convected wave equation −1 −2 ˆ ˆ ρ0 ∇ · ρ0 ∇ φ − iω + v 0 ·∇ c0 iω + v 0 ·∇ φ = 0. 2 p = c0 ρ. Axial mean velocity u0 . where v = ∇φ.25b) (F.

the field is isentropic if we start with zero entropy. Indeed.28) This shows that vorticity perturbations are just convected by the mean flow. vorticity and pressur/density perturbations are decoupled.32) 1 − M 2. u0 x = β X. this equation may be transformed to the ordinary reduced wave equation 2 c0 ∇ 2 p + 2 p=0 (F. ) exp(i ˆ where X). ∇· v = ∇ · (∇×ψ + ∇ φ) = ∇ 2 φ.25a.25a) becomes ˆ ˆ iω + u 0 ∂∂x ρ + ρ0 ∇ 2 φ = 0 (F.26) ˆ If desired.27) By taking the curl of equation (F. since ∇×∇ f ≡ 0) may be ˆ removed by adding the gauge condition ∇· ψ = 0. the arbitrariness in ψ (we may add any ∇ f . ω) = p(X.25c) shows that entropy perturbations are just convected by the mean flow. r.29) By taking the divergence of equation (F. ω = β . r.22) by introducing the vector potential (stream function) ψ and ˆ as follows scalar potential φ ˆ ˆ v = ∇×ψ + ∇ φ. we note that we did not assume isentropy or irrotationality. the field is irrotational if we start without vorticity. v (F. Without sources of entropy. we can eliminate φ and ρ to obtain the convected reduced wave equation for the pressure 2 ˆ c0 ∇ 2 p − iω + u 0 ∂∂x 2 p = 0. (F. especially taking due notice of any singular edge behaviour. M = .25b) we can eliminate p and φ to produce an equation for the vorticity: ˆ ˆ − iω + u 0 ∂∂x ∇ 2 ψ = iω + u 0 ∂∂x ξ = 0. equation (F.320 F Summary of equations for fluid motion Equation (F.30) Again. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . such that the vorticity is given by ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ξ = ∇׈ = ∇(∇ · ψ) − ∇ 2 ψ = −∇ 2 ψ. Since the diverˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ gence of a curl is zero. θ.31) by introducing p(x.25b). We may split the perturbation velocity into a vortical part and an irrotational part ˆ (see equation 1. ˆ (F. β = c0 M c0 (F. ˆ (F. θ. With some care. Without sources of vorticity.25c). and using equations (F.F.

ρ0 A2 2 A2 At t = 0 we have a ratio of the pressure drop.43) we have a speed of sound of 75 m/s. p1 − p2 1 A1 2 A =a 1+ 1 2 + − 1 (at)2 . Hence. determined by the ratio of the potential difference. . d) Not necessarily. e) The pressure on the piston p1 can be related to the atmospheric pressure p2 in the free jet by using the unsteady Bernoulli equation (1. Note that ρg cg = γ p so that c depends only on γ and not on other gas properties. h) No. g) Yes. Using the mass conservation law (1. v2 2 A2 2 Chapter 2 a) A depth of 100 m corresponds to a pressure of 10 bar. Following (2. √ i) No. hence an air density ρg which is ten times 2 higher than at 1 bar.31b) applied to an incompressible fluid (ρ = ρ0 ): ∂ φ 1 2 p − p1 2 + (v2 − v1 ) + 2 = 0. In an isentropic flow is Ds = 0. Chapter 1 d) Only if thermodynamic equilibrium prevails.G Answers to exercises. p is more appropriate. but the simple physical meaning only appears when we choose the value that prevails at the listener’s position. of A v1 1 = 1 1. with v1 = at. any sound speed can be used. e) No. ∂t 2 ρ0 By neglecting the non-uniformity of the flow we have φ= 2 1 v·d v1 1 + v2 2 .18) for an incompressible fluid we find by continuity of the volume flux A 1 v1 = A 2 v2 . but ∇· (vρ0 )) vanishes only for an homentropic Dt flow. the equation of Bernoulli becomes. c) Mathematically. f) Certainly not. ρc2 = γ p so that ρc depends also on the temperature because c = γ RT . The fluid should be stagnant and uniform (quiescent).

The outward normal n is then given by n = −(∇ f/|∇ f |) f =0 . ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 2 Integrate over all x0 . we have δ(x) = δ( L L) = L δ( L ). f) Multiply by a test function φ(x. such that f (x) > 0 if and only if x ∈ V . y. If p(x0 ) = 0. ˆ ˆ ˆ Since p(x0 ) = 0 and v(x0 ) = 0 we have simply Z = 0. Note the tail of the 2-D wave-equation Green’s function (Appendix E) (2πc2 )−1 H (t− R/c)/ t 2 − R 2 /c2 . we have R = − e−2ikx 0 . Since H ( f )v vanishes outside V . 0). or kd cos θ = (2m + 1). b) The field P of one point source is given by (see Appendix E) Ptt − c2 ∇ 2 P = δ(t − τ )δ(x − x0 )δ(y − y0 )δ(z) with solution P = δ(t − τ − r 0 /c)/4πc2 r0 where r0 = {(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 + z 2 }1/2 . Consider the sources satisfying −r nd r . or kd cos θ = 2πm. y0 . y) and integrate ··· = − 2π ∞ 1 φr dr dθ = 2πφ(0. c) From Appendix E we find the total field p(x. i) p(x) = e−ikx +R e ikx . Chapter C a) Every point of the line source has a different distance. V S h) Only the terms contribute which satisfy 0 < 2n L ≤ c0 t. introduce x0 = x + {r0 − z 2 }1/2 cos θ0 and 2 − z 2 }1/2 sin θ . d) The condition is now exp(−iπn + iknd cos θ) = 1. φr dx dy = − r 0 0 g) Let S be given by an equation f (x) = 0. and therefore different travel time. to the observer. such that Rn ··· r − nd cos θ 1i 4 1 (r → ∞). we have   0 = ∇ · H ( f )v dx =  H ( f ) ∇ · v + δ( f ) v ·∇ f dx ∇ · v dx − v · n dσ. 4πc This could have been anticipated from the fact that the problem is really one dimensional.322 G Answers to exercises. x 1 x e) If we make x dimensionless by a length scale L. so we obtain = c0 t/2L (2 + R)g(t) = R f (t) + 2 n=1 f t − 2nL − g t − 2nL c0 c0 . This part of the series looks like ( 1 πkr )− 2 exp( 1 πi − ikr + iknd cos θ) 2 4 and grows linearly with the number of terms if exp(iknd cos θ) = 1. z) = 1 i 4 ∞ H0 (k Rn ) 1 (2) n=−∞ ∞ 1 1i ( 1 πk Rn )− 2 exp( 1 πi − ik Rn ) 4 2 4 n=−∞ 1 where Rn = ((x − nd)2 + y 2 ) 2 = (r 2 − 2r nd cos θ + n2 d 2 ) 2 . So the dimension of δ(x) is (length)−1 . and obtain the total field y0 = y + {r0 0 ∞ p= P dx0 dy0 = 2π 2 |z| δ(t − τ − r0 /c) dr0 = (2c)−1 H (t − τ − |z|/c).

air = −0. ˆ ˆ ˆ Since v(x0 ) = 0 and p(x0 ) = 0 we have simply Z = ∞. Rwater. Integration with respect to time yields: ρ0 u = − p /c0 . d) v j = 2cw (A/S)(1 − 1 − (u 0 /cw )) u 0 A/S.99945.2 = −0. R1. Rair. we have R = e−2ikx 0 .15 N. + − + − + − + + + − + ( p1 + p1 )( p1 − p1 )/ρ1 c1 = I1 − I1 = I2 .II u . A2 / A1 →0 A2 / A1 →∞ − + 2 h) (I1 /I1 ) = R1. k) T1. so e ik L +R e−ik L Z + iρ0 c0 tan(k L) Z L = ρ0 c0 ik L = ρ0 c0 0 .water = 1.97. −ik L ρ0 c0 + iZ 0 tan(k L) e −R e Chapter 4 a) For a wave p = G(x + c0 t) corresponding to a C − characteristic propagating in a uniform region with (ρ0 .03. Otherwise it is limited to the vapour pressure of the water.2 = 2A1 /(A 1 + A 2 ).2 e−2ik L ). For u 0 = 0.II c0. ρ1 c1 /ρ2 c2 = T2 /T1 = 1. As pI − pII = 915 Pa linear theory. f) R1.2 . b) The piston induces the pressures pI = ρ0.99945.2 = −1. ˆ + + e−ik L − e ik L p2 = p1 + p1 .5 × 104 Pa.2 = 2ρ2 c2 A 1 /(ρ1 c1 A 2 + ρ2 c2 A 2 ). l) lim R1.5 × 106 Pa. Twater. The pressure p2 can reach −15 bar if there is no cavitation.0256.9989.water = 0. Hence we have p1 = −ρw cw u = ρw cw u 0 and p1 = − p2 . R1. √ g) T1 − T2 = 30 K.2 = 1. p1 = R1. while mass conservation implies: A1 u 1 = A 2 u 2 . + − + i) R1.01 m/s we find p1 = − p2 = 1. c0 ) and u 0 = 0 the C + characteristics carry the message: p + ρ0 c0 u = 0 in the entire wave region. RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .0011. p1 = (ρ1 c1 u p )/(1 − R1. Tair. we have from the momentum conservation law: ρ0 ∂t u = − ∂∂x p = − c0 ∂t p because p is a function of (x + c0 t) along a C − characteristic. This implies that p = −ρ0 c0 u along any C − characteristic.2 = 1 − T1. Substitution of the mass conservation law in the energy conservation law yields: p1 = p2 . where k = ω/c0 . δ 3π A d /π. (I2 /I1 ) = 1 − (I1 /I1 ).I c0.2 = T1. ˆ ˆ k) With p(x) = e−ikx +R e ikx and v(x) = (ρ0 c0 )−1 (e−ikx −R e ikx ) we have R = (Z 0 − ˆ ρ0 c0 )/(Z 0 + ρ0 c0 ). c) The flow perturbation u is such that the total flow velocity u0 + u = 0 at the closed valve.2 = (ρ1 c1 − ρ2 c2 )2 /(ρ1 c1 + ρ2 c2 )2 . lim R1.2 p1 e−2ik L . If v(x 0 ) = 0. R1.323 j) v(x) = (ρ0 c0 )−1 (e−ikx −R e ikx ). m) For an orifice with wall thickness L and cross-sectional area Ad in a pipe of cross-sectional area − + A p we have: R = p1 / p1 = 8 √ ik(L + 2δ)A p /[2Ad + ik(L + 2δ)A p ].2 = 0.2 = 1 − T1.2 − 1 = (ρ2 c2 − ρ1 c1 )/(ρ2 c2 + ρ1 c1 ).air = 0. The force amplitude 2 ˆ ρ0 c0 105 Pa we can use a is: F = S(ρ I cI + ρ II cII )ωa = 9. For u 0 = 1 m/s we find p1 = 1.05. 2 e) Energy conservation implies: A1 p1 u 1 = A 2 p2 u 2 . 1 ∂ ∂ Alternatively.I u and pII = −ρ0.2 = 0.2 = (A 1 − A 2 )/(A 1 + A 2 ). j) T1. p 1 ρw (u 0 A/S)2 . T1.

5). sound is transferred from the amplifier (at the back of the ear) to the ear-drum by means of a pipe of D = 1 mm. Flow separation is induced • At large amplitudes. At p0 = 1 bar. u) ω0 a0 /cl = 3ρl /ρw d ˆ ˆ ˆ [ dx g]± = ∓ik g ± . At 1000 Hz this corresponds to SPL = 150 dB. ρl /ρw = O(10−3 ). With mean flow (u 0 = 0). At 100 Hz this corresponds to SPL = 130 dB. We have reached a high Reynolds number limit. 2 /ω2 A ≥ 1. 1. At 10 Hz this corresponds to SPL = 110 dB. . pb / p0 = −3γ a/a0 . y) [g] = s/m. Peters [140]). The first intuitive guess for a quasi-stationary theory is to assume that the inertial effects upstream of the orifice remain unchanged. In the pipe we have: u D = u d (d/D)2 . will protect the ear by limiting sound level around 1 kHz to SPL = 130 dB. Such devices are indeed in everyday use. − + r) R = p1 / p1 = [(A 1 − A 3 ) cos(k L) − iA 2 sin(k L)]/[(A 1 − A 3 ) cos(k L) + iA 2 sin(k L)]. dx d ˆ 2 Integration around x = y yields: −[ dx g] y − = e−iωτ /2πc0 . p) In a stationary subsonic free jet induced by a mean flow we expect a uniform pressure. friction is negligible when δv = 2ν/ω Ad . The critical level is given by p ∼ ρ0 c0 ωd(d/D)2 . p) Without mean flow (u 0 = 0): 2 • At low amplitudes. R = 0 for A2 = 0 when A1 = A 3 and R = 1 for A3 = 0 when k L = nπ (n = 0. . ˆ 2 v) 3γl p0 /ρw cw = O(10−4 ) hence a0 ω/cw < 10−2 . RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . when linear theory is valid. o) Flow separation always occurs when the particle displacement is of the order of the diameter of the orifice: u d ∼ ωd. Within a hearing-aid device.1 mm placed in this pipe. R = −1 for k L = π(n + 0. At x = y we have g± = e−iωτ /4πiωc0 . − + q) R = p1 / p1 = [A 1 − (A 2 + A 3 )]/[A 1 + (A 2 + A 3 )]. .324 G Answers to exercises. ˆ+ + 2ˆ ˆ− ˆ+ ˆ+ ˆ− ˆ+ A( p1 − p1 ) = A p2 − (ρw cw )iω4πa0 a. y+ ω t) pb / pin = [1 + ( ω )2 ( 2πia0 − 1)]−1 . x) When a0 = O(D) we do not have a radial flow around the bubble. Indeed the theory for open pipe termination of Rienstra [155] indicates that we cannot predict end corrections intuitively. ˆ ˆ Ak 0 2 2 2 1. Experiments by Ajello [2] indicate a much stronger reduction of the end-correction. R = −[1 + A(ω2 − ω0 )/2πiωa0 ]−1 . An orifice of d = 0. p1 + p1 = p2 . 2 2 2 w) ω0 3γl p0 /2ρw a0 . 2 2 ˆ ˆ z) ω2 g − c0 d 2 g = e−iωτ δ(x − y)/2π. The approximation used for small bubbles fails. ˆ− ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ s) p1 + p1 = pb + ρw ω2 a0 a. 2. If δv separation. In some circumstances negative end corrections are found ( Ajello [2]. 3. This leads to the common assumption that the end correction of a thin orifice with a mean flow is at low frequencies half of the end correction in the absence of mean flow. ). we have the same answer as for large amplitudes. flow separation will occur. while the inertial effects in the jet are negligible. u d 2 A d then the exact value of the viscosity is not important to predict flow by viscosity.

τ ) = ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ G(x. 1. i. Chapter 5 (Z L + ρ0 c0 ) + (Z L − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L (Z L + ρ0 c0 ) − (Z L − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L For Z L = ∞ we have Z(0) = iρ0 c0 cot(k0 L). k0 L = (n + 1 )π. 2. ˆ ˆ ρ0 c0 u p (S + 2S p ) S − 2S p + ˆ += .4. τ ). . ∂y Hence: 2 2 ρ c0 ∼ M0 1 ρ0 U0 (d 2 /S) = 2 × 10−2 Pa. Z L + ρ0 c0 g (L) ˆ Furthermore: ˆ g + (L) + g − (L) ˆ ZL = + . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ This corresponds to the waves generated by the original source at y and an image source at 2L − y. D) Moving the source towards the observer by a distance y should induce the same change g in g(x. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The amplitudes p+ and p− are calculated from the piston velocity u p by using: ρ0 c0 u p = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ p+ − p− . t| y. ˆ d) p = p+ e ik0 L + p− e−ik0 L . t| y. where ˆ n = 0. τ ) dy2 dy3 = SG(x. 1 SPL = 60 dB. . B) The same answer as the previous exercise with (section 4. Z(0)u p = p+ + p− . p− = 1 (Z(0) − ρ0 c0 )u p . ˆ ˆ± Therefore: g = e−iωτ e−ik|x−y| /4πiωc0 .4 × 103 or 75 dB.1 kHz. √ 2 S| and k0 S 1 the Green’s function is independent of the position C) For |x 1 − y1 | (y2 .e. t|y1 . 2 ˆ The acoustical field in the pipe is given by: p = p+ e−ik0 x + p− e ik0 x .5): 2 R = −1/[1 + A(ω2 − ω0 )/(2πiωcw a0 )] where A is the pipe cross-sectional area. . ρ0 c0 g (L) − g − (L) ˆ ˆ g(x|y) = g+ + g − = g0 (x|y) + R g0 (x|2L − y). ˆ A) Using the result of exercise z) we find: ˆ g + (L|y) = g0 (L|y) ˆ with g0 (x|y) = e−iωτ e−ik|x−y| /4πiωc0 . and p− = ˆ p . is obtained for: k0 L = (2n + 1)π.5 kHz. p− = 0. ∂g This implies that: g = ∂g y = − ∂ x x. a0 the bubble radius and ω0 the Minnaert frequency of the bubble. E) p 2 F) SPL = 63 dB. y3 ) of the source in the cross section of the pipe. ω0 /2π = 6. 2 ρw cw /3γ p0 = 5. ˆ 2 The condition that there is no radiation. b) Z L a) Z(0) = ρ0 c0 ˆ ˆ c) For x < 0 we have p+ = 0 while: p− = 1 ρ0 c0 (S p /S)u p (1 + e−ik0 L ). ˆ R= g − (L) ˆ Z L − ρ0 c0 = + . τ ) as a displacement x = − y of the observer in the direction of the source.325 Hence g± = gx=y e∓ik(x−y) with “+” for x > y and “-” for x < y. ˆ with: p ˆ S + 2S p (S + 2S p ) − (S − 2S p ) e−2ik0 L RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . t|y. . Hence we have: g(x1 . ˆ Hence: p+ = 1 (Z(0) + ρ0 c0 )u p . 2 2 G) (S/a0 )(ρw cw /3γ p0 ) 2 = 2. As Re Z(0) = 0 for Z L = ∞ the piston does in general not generate any acoustical power unless there is resonance.3 × 104 or 87 dB. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 2 Z L + iρ0 ωδ. The distance |x − y| is in both cases reduced by the same amount. H) f ∼ U0 /D = 0.

The amplitude of the second harmonic p1 . . . λ = ρ0 L/σ .)..24) u = ( 3 π u p c0 ) and p ˆ 2 ˆ losses are comparable and the acoustical fluid particle displacement is of the order of the pipe diameter. Configuration b): Z p = ρ0 c0 1 (Z 1 + ρ0 c0 ) − (Z 1 − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L where: Z 1 = S1 Z 2 Z 3 (0)/(S2 Z 3 (0) + S3 Z 2 ). where the propagation speed of transversal waves in the √ membrane c M = T/σ is introduced. Z 4 = iρ0 c0 cot(k0 L). while p = B e−ikx for x > L. The system is not a closed resonator because the condition of zero pressure at the junction is never satisfied. ˆ ˆ+ ˆ− p3 ˆ λ → 0 when the air density becomes negligible or when the membrane becomes very heavy. ˆ+ + e−ik0 L 3 − e ik0 L 3 + p3 ˆ = 0. ρ0 c0 u ex = p3 e−ik0 L 3 − p3 e ik0 L 3 . . (Z + ρ0 c0 ) + (Z 1 − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L . The system is in resonance for k0 L = (n + 1 )π. ˆ If we assume non-linear losses at the open pipe termination to be dominant we have (equation √ ˆ ρ0 c0 u ˆ 1.027 m−1 . p1 e−ik0 L 1 + p1 e ik0 L 1 = p2 + p2 . . ˆ ˆ e) Configuration a): Z p = ρ0 c0 f) At the mouthpiece we have: ρ0 c0 u p = p+ − p− . Flow separation becomes √ dominant at the junction when: 2 ˆ ˆ ( p+ − p− )/ρc0 = O(k0 S1 ). ˆ+ ˆ− ˆ+ ˆ− + e−ik0 L 2 − e ik0 L 2 + − p2 ˆ + p2 ˆ = p3 + p3 . Z 5 = ρ0 c0 . modes z nπ + 2 nπ−8α /nπ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . Z 2 = ρ0 c0 . Z 2 = ρ0 c0 . 3. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Hence we find: p+ 7. ˆ The corresponding fluid particle oscillation amplitude at the open pipe termination is: p/(ρ0 c0 ω) 7 × 10−2 m. (n = 1.6 × 104 Pa. √ In that case we have the membrane-in-vacuum vibration z α 8 + . (Z 3 (2L) + ρ0 c0 ) + (Z 3 (2L) − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L Z 3 (0) = ρ0 c0 . 2. . generated by nonˆ linearities. 2 Configuration c): Z p = 1 ρ0 c0 i tan(k0 L). Friction losses and flow separation 5. where: α = 1+ √ D c0 L ν/a (Z 1 + ρ0 c0 ) + (Z 1 − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L . and the closed pipe λ + .6 × 103 Pa. ˆ+ ( p1 e−ik0 L 1 − p1 e ik0 L 1 )S1 = ( p2 − p2 )S2 . Suitable dimensionless groups are ˆ ˆ z = k L. and p = p+ + p− 2 p+ . (Z 3 (2L) + ρ0 c0 ) − (Z 3 (2L) − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L Z 3 (2L) = S3 Z 4 Z 5 /(S4 Z 5 + S5 Z 4 ). (Z 1 + ρ0 c0 ) − (Z 1 − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L where: Z 1 = S1 Z 2 Z 3 /(S2 Z 3 + S3 Z 2 ). α = c M L/c0 a. ˆ ˆ ˆ− ˆ+ ˆ− ( p2 e−ik0 L 2 − p2 e ik0 L 2 )S2 = ( p3 − p3 )S3 . 2 The system is resonant for k0 L = (n + 1 )π. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ If we assume friction losses to be dominant we have: p− = p+ e−2α L ˆ 1 πν γ −1 0. can be estimated from: 2 ˆ ( p1 / p+ ) ∼ k0 L( p+ /ρ0 c0 ). 2 h) p = A cos(kx) for x < L. ˆ− ˆ ˆ+ ˆ− ˆ+ ˆ− g) p1 − p1 = ρ0 c0 u p . Z 3 = iρ0 c0 tan(k0 L).326 G Answers to exercises. The resonance equation is then (z − 8α 2 z −1 ) sin z = λ e iz .

S Other contributions from the surface integral vanish if we assume that G has the same boundary conditions as the acoustic field on these surfaces. τ ) − ga (x. y=0 ∂ yi ∂ yi where ga (x. The final result is obtained by partial integration. with ω0 = c0 Sn /( V ) and ω1 = c0 / . τ ) dS( y). t|y. 2 l) Transmission and reflection coefficient: = . R = T − 1. t) = −c0 −∞ ρ (y. where we assumed that pin and Q are in 2 ˆ T = p2 ˆ+ 1 phase and that vortex shedding at the neck can be described by means of a quasi-stationary ˆ model. K = ρ0 c0 Sn /V . 2 p1 ˆ+ (1 + ik0 S p /Sd )[1 − (ω2 /ω0 ) + (ik0 V /2S p )] p− ˆ (ik0 S p /Sn ) − 1 R= 1 =T+ . u/(ωw) 1 m/s. 2 Sn 1 − ω2 ω0 k) 2 2(1 − ω2 /ω0 ) − (iωV /c0 S) ptransmitted ˆ = . or: 2 0ˆ |u| 0. 2 V ρw S p (γ p0 /V )(1 − ω2 /ω0 ) 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ n) An energy balance yields: 1 pin Q = 3π ρ0 u 3 Sn . ˆ ˆ ˆ q) f c0 /(2L). ω2 p ˆ ω u − c0 2 2 o) in = 1 + 0 0 + i 1 + 0 . τ ) n i dτ .6 Sd /π Sd . (ik0 S p /Sn ) + 1 p1 ˆ+ √ √ 2 2 where: ω0 = c0 2Sd /( V ).05 1 ρ0 u 2 u B × w ρ0 u 3 B × w. 2 ) − (iωV /c S)] e ik0 L −(iωV /c S) e−ik0 L ρ0 c0 u p ˆ [2(1 − ω2 /ω0 0 0 There is no transmission when both ω = ω0 and k0 L = (n + 1 )π. ˆ iωρ0 ( + 2δ) Q j) pin = ˆ . 2 2 i) m = ρ0 Sn ( + 2δ). t|y. At y = 0 we have (∂ga /∂ yi )n i = 0. The ratio of acoustical particle displacement to pipe diameter is w/D = 2 × 10−2 . We expect vortex shedding at the pipe ends to be a minor effect in a Rijke tube. and: 1. r) Using an energy balance between sound production and dissipation by vortex shedding we have: ˆ 0. t| y. The internal pressure pin is related to the acoustical velocity u through the neck by the ˆ ˆ momentum conservation law: pin = ρ0 iω u. τ ) ∂τ u dτ . and n 1 = −1 at y = 0. 2 pex ˆ ω1 u 0 ω1 p) As there are no sources q = 0. τ ) = G(x.327 So when λ = 0 (no energy is radiated) there are indeed undamped solutions with Im(z) = Im(ω) = 0. which yields: p = c0 ρ = ∂ 2 t ρ0 c0 −∞ ga (x. ω0 = . τ ) ∂ga ρ (y. p ρ0 c0 u 4 × 102 Pa. ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . −1 iωρw cw γ p0 S 2 m) T = 2 2 − . we have: t 2 ρ (x. Fur∂ 2 2 thermore we have: ρ0 ∂τ u = −c0 ∂∂y ρ .22u0 . t|y. ˆ √ √ ˆ This yields: u = (3πω Q/4Sn ) which is a factor (2Sn k0 /S p ) smaller than for a 1 λ open ˆ 4 pipe resonator.

ˆ ˆ For a slit-like orifice we have ∼ w. g) The first transverse mode of the duct has a pressure node in the middle of the duct.4 combined with the acoustic resonance √ √ condition 2π f = c0 (w B/ V ) and the order of magnitude estimate ∼ 2 (Bw/π) = 0. c) Electromagnetic waves are transversal to the direction of propagation like shear-waves. ρwater cwater = 1. e) A dipole placed normal to a hard wall will radiate as a quadrupole because the image dipole is opposite to the original dipole. | p| = ρω |u| 43 Pa. ˆ j) Assume that the quadrupole is approximated by two dipoles (1 and 2).328 G Answers to exercises. b) Qualitatively we find that the streamlines as observed in the reference frame moving with the vortex ring are very similar to those generated by a dipole or a translating sphere. The fluid sucked by the rear of the sphere corresponds to the sink. when placed along the axis the dipole will very efficiently radiate plane waves at low ˆ frequencies. The hydrodynamic resonance condition f w/u0 0. s) The blowing pressure p0 is a fair estimate. surface of the cylinder (r1 R) and one far away (r2 the dipole at the surface forms a quadrupole with its image (r1 = R 2 /r1 R). Assuming the dipole layer to consist out of a layer of sources at the front separated by a distance δ from a layer of sources at the rear. If the dipoles are directed radially. The amplitude of these waves are: | p| = ωρ0 Qδ/S. i) A dipole placed normal to the duct axis will not radiate at frequencies below the cut-off frequency of the first transverse mode in a duct with hard walls. A dipole placed parallel to a hard wall will radiate as a dipole of double strength because the image has the same sign as the original. which provides a non-linear amplitude saturation mechanism.44m yields: f 18. 1 + R = 10−4 . This is explained by the destructive interference of the images of the dipole in the direction of the axis. Such a discontinuity can be generated by a dipole layer on this surface which replaces the vortex ring [reference Prandtl]. Acoustical waves are compression waves and hence longitudinal. while the image RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . d) R = (ρair cair − ρwater cwater )/(ρair cair + ρwater cwater ). we can represent in first approximation the dipole layer by a single dipole of strength u Sδ placed at the center of the ring and directed in the direction of propagation of the vortex ring. The velocity u is the flow velocity between the two surfaces forming the dipole layer. The first propagating mode has a cut-on frequency fc = 1 c0 / h corresponding to a quarter 4 wave length resonance. Taking the projection S of the surface on a plane normal to the direction of propagation of the vortex ring. one very close to the R). h) The vanishing acoustic pressure at the water surface p = 0 precludes any plane wave propagation. ρair cair = 4 × 102 kg/m2 s.5 × 106 kg/m2 s. the potential difference is given by φ = uδ. Chapter 6 a) The fluid pushed ahead of the sphere in the direction of the translation can be considered as generated by a source. It cannot transfer energy to this mode. On the other hand. When p reaches p0 the flow velocity through the reed vanishes at high pressures. however.5 Hz and u0 14 m/s = 50 km/h. Quantitatively the circulation = v · d of the vortex corresponds to a discontinuity φ of the flow potential across a surface sustained by the vortex ring. Hence a volume source placed on the axis of the duct experiences a zero impedance for this first mode. f) The radiated power increases by a factor two because the intensity is four times the original intensity but the radiation is limited to a half space.

where. F j ∼ ρ0 u 2 d D. Hence: I /I = D 6 /D 6 = 26 or a subsonic free cold jets we have: I ∼ u 1 2 2 1 difference of 36 dB. q) Sound production due to volume fluctuations V of the bubble is given by: 2 ρ = (4π|x|cwater )−1 (∂ 2 /t 2 )V . t − V ∂ and ∂t ∼ u 0 /D. The large contrast in compressibility K between the bubbly liquid and the surrounding water results into a monopole type source (fluctuating volume). 2 2 Equal thrust implies: ρ1 u 2 D1 = ρ2 u 2 D2 . Hence a subsonic free jet is a compact flow region with respect to sound production by turbulence. A very similar behaviour is found when the dipoles forming the quadrupole are normal to the radius of the cylinder (in tangential direction). Using Curle’s formula: ρ = xi x j ∂2 4 4π|x|3 c0 ∂t 2 k) l) m) n) o) p) Ti j y. 3 D 4π|x|c0 c0 ρ0 u 3 D 0 xj ∂ |x| |x| dy + Fj t − 3 c0 c0 4π|x|2 c0 ∂t The cylinder induces an enhancement of turbulence sound production by a factor (1+dc0 /Du 0 ).329 of the other dipole is very close (r2 = R 2 /r2 R) to the axis of the cylinder and very weak. Note: for a free jet with a rectangular cross section w×h and w h the characteristic frequency of the turbulence is 0. In practice a low sound production does also correspond to a lower power 1 ρu 3 D 2 ∼ 2 (u D)3 /D. The sound is produced [115. while that of the other dipole is not affected. If ρ1 = ρ2 we have u 1 D1 = u 2 D2 . assuming isentropic oscillations of the bubble of initial 3 volume V0 = 4πa0 /3 at p0 . This effect is not significant in subsonic free jets. Therefore the radiation scales in a subsonic case at I ∼ M6 . Then the radiation of the dipole close to the surface is enhanced by a factor two. As the compressibility of an ideal gas is determined by the mean pressure there appears to be no monopole sound production upon mixing of a hot jet with a cold gas environment with equal Poisson ratio γ . The distance between the source and sink forming the second dipole is reduced by a factor 2 (R 2 /r2 ) while the strength of each image is equal to that of the original source. and V ∼ D 3 . Blowing on a finger we indeed observe a significantly larger sound production than blowing without finger. As a result the dipole far away from the cylinder radiates independently of the dipole close to the cylinder. we have: V /V0 = − p /γair p0 . Assuming ∂/∂t ∼ u 0 /D we find 0 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .03u0 / h. Ti j ∼ ρ0 u 2 . The typical pressure fluctuations in a free jet are of the order p ∼ ρw u 2 . The introduction of high bypass jet engines was aimed to reduce the propulsion costs. 134] by the difference in acceleration between neighbouring particles experiencing the same pressure gradient but having different densities. we obtain: 0 0 ρ ∼ u0 d + . This corresponds to a force in terms of the analogy of Lighthill and a dipole source of sound. The characteristic frequency for turbulence in a free jet with circular cross section is u0 /D which implies that: D/λ = D f /c ∼ u 0 /c0 . Assuming 1 2 8 D 2 = (u D)8 /D 6 . but it appeared to be also a very efficient noise reduction method. This corresponds to a scaling rule I ∼ M 4.

The tip Mach number ωR/c0 = k0 R is of order unity. Z p = ρ0 c0 L 4 (Z L + ρ0 c0 ) − (Z L − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L I = 1 [ p∗ u + p u ∗ ] = 1 Re(Z p )|u|2 . With two opposite blades. and certainly not at the higher harmonics. given by CD 2 ρ0 u 2 . The Walkman loudspeaker acts almost directly onto the eardrum. and W = πa2 I . when compared to no bubbles. so r = L/(1 − S /S ). 1 The dominant contribution is from the unsteady force. This 0 results into a sound production scaling as (u0 /c0 )3 (see Curle’s formula). Further sources of flow non-uniformity are the air intake or bends. The sound produced by the axial component is a factor u0 /c0 weaker. 4 3 4π|x| cwater D p0 ∼ r) s) t) u) v) w) x) The enhancement in sound production. (Z + ρ0 c0 ) + (Z L − ρ0 c0 ) e−2ik0 L . is by a factor (1 + 2 (a0 /D)3 (ρwater cwater / p0 )). The effect of the tangential forces is compensated by images in the walls while the pressure difference p induced by the axial force is constant. In a hard walled duct an ideal low speed axial ventilator will not produce any sound. ˆˆ ˆ 4 ˆ ˆ 2 1 )π we find: Z = ρ c (ρ c /Z ) At resonance k0 L = (n + 2 p 0 0 0 0 L (see previous exercise). The sound production will be dominated by the interaction of the rotor blades with the thin wake of the wing. The sound production in a ventilator is actually dominated by non-ideal behaviour such as the non-uniformity of the incoming flow. A) Friction losses are given by: (1 − | p− / p+ |) f = 1 − e−2α L 2αL. Non-uniformity of the incoming flow will induce fluctuations in the pressure difference p which are very efficiently radiated away. e−ik y) pr = A+ e−ik0 r +A − e ik0 L . even a small bubble will already enhance the sound production considerably. As the ear is quite sensitive to relatively high frequencies an increase of the wake thickness can result into a significant reduction of noise (dBA). there is no radiation into free-space. Especially the supports of the ventilators are to be placed downstream of the fan. This corresponds to an enhancement Z p /Z L = [4/(k0 a)2 ]2 of the radiated power. Z L = ρ0 c0 1 (k0 a)2 . The rotor is therefore not compact at the rotation frequency. ρ ρwater 3 2 u 4 a0 ρwater cwater D 0 . iωρ0 ur = p + ik0 [A + √ 0 r −A − e ik0 L ]. With a single blade the sound production as a result of the tangential component of the lift force (in the plane of the rotor) scales as: ρ /ρ0 ∼ C L D(k0 R)3 /8π|x|. 2 Since ρwater cwater / p0 = O(104 ). on the body. The thinner the waker the higher the generated frequencies. ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 = S /S and r = r − L.330 G Answers to exercises. the lift forces in tangential direction form a quadrupole which result into a factor k0 R weaker sound radiation than in the case of the single blade. The resulting abrupt changes in lift force on the blades of the rotor induce both radial and axial sound radiation. (r1 /r2 ) 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 A + = ρ0 c0 u p r1 / [1 − i/(k0r1 )] e−ik0 r1 −R[1 + i/(k0r1 )] e ik0 r1 ˆ R= 1− A− =− + A 1− 1 (k a )2 [1 − i/(k r )] 0 2 4 0 2 e−2ik0 r2 1 (k a )2 [1 + i/(k r )] 0 2 0 2 4 z) Except for the highest frequencies. Hence the size of the loudspeaker compared to the acoustical wave-length is not relevant for the sound transfer from loudspeaker to eardrum. where α can be calculated ˆ ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

3 Hz. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ for f 2 = 5 f 0 : (1 − | p− / p+ |) f = 1. we have p(x) = p0 e−i k −m x−mx .93 i. D) As the twin pipes oscillate in opposite phase the radiation has a dipole character and is a factor (k0 2a)2 weaker than for an individual pipe. ˆ RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . m=−∞ µ=1 Chapter 8 √ 2 2 a) Since A(x) = πa 2 e 2mx . In a similar way such modes can occur in rotors or stators of turbines. Im /Im → 1 and αmµ = iσmµ −ikρ0 c0 / X. In such a case the oscillation of the system is called a Parker mode and does not radiate because the oscillation frequency is below the cut-off frequency for the first transverse mode. ϑ) = ωQ 4π ∞ 1 δ(r − r0 ) r0 ∞ δ(ϑ − 2πm) m=−∞ ∞ Jm (αmµr0 )Jm (αmµr ) e−ikmµ |x|−imϑ 1 (a 2 − m 2 /α 2 )J (α 2 mµ m mµ a) kmµ 2 . so 20 log10 | e−ik11 D | = −20|k11 |D log10 e = −138. so D = 12. and are proportional to ω2 . In a flute of the same size as a clarinet the radiation losses are increased by a factor eight (two radiation holes and twice the fundamental frequency). C) In free space the bubble experiences the impedance of a compact sphere: 2 Re(Z) = ρwater cwater (k0 a0 )2 . For r a Jm (αmµr ) −ikmµ x e Jm (αmµ a) 2 a 1/2 −σmµ (a−r) −i k 2 +σmµ x e e .5 cm. (ii) k 11 = −15. b) Since σmµ a → ∞.4 i.2 · 10−4 . B) Assuming a perfectly reflecting ground surface. The friction is proportional to ω.84118. where we take x0 = 0. ϑ0 = 0. so fc = 996. In fact the twin pipes forms with its images an infinite row of pipes. r c) A simple point mass source Qδ(x − x0 ) e iωt . Such systems are therefore acoustically almost closed. This kind of oscillations have been reported by Spruyt [180] for grids placed in front of ventilators. In a pipe we have: Re(Z) = ρwater cwater 8πa0 /S. (1 − | p− / p+ |)r = 1 · 10−3 . gives rise to the equation ∇ 2 p + k 2 p = −iωQδ(x) with solution p(x. Using Radiation losses are given by: (1 − | p ˆ r ˆ 2 0 the results of exercise (5. and D = 14.5 cm. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ for f 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ for f 1 = 3 f 0 : (1 − | p− / p+ |) f = 9 · 10−2 . Chapter 7 a) (i) kc a = 2π f c a/c0 = j11 = 1. t. (1 − | p− / p+ |)r = 1.3D = −20.331 √ by using the formula of Kirchhoff.f) we find : (1 − | p− / p+ |) f = 5 · 10−2 . (1 − | p− / p+ |)r = 3 · 10−3 . (iii) k 11 = −18.2 · 10−1 . As Imin = 10−12 W/m2 . The friction losses increase by a factor √ 2 due to the higher frequency. − / p+ |) = 1 (k a)2 . In a duct a wall placed along the duct axis can form such a system of twin pipes if it is longer than the duct width. the energy is distributed over a semi-sphere: I = Wr /(2πr 2 ). we find for Wr = 5 × 10−5 W that r 4 km.

t) = 2 a(1 − M cos α) a (1 − M cos α)3 a · Fe 1 (1 − M 2 )(a · F e ) 4π p(x. Using the results of section 9. and cos α − M ρ0 Q e + ρ0 Q e V 2 . such that x0 = 1 L. b) R = a. so te = t − a/c0 . b) Use the relation (8. t) = 2 − M · Fe + 3 .63) 2 2 c0 (1 − εy)2 + c0 (εx − εx0 )2 = constant with y = h at x = 0 and L. 4π p(x.2 we find . to obtain 2 2 L= 8hε−1 (1 − 1 εh) = 54. c0 a (1 − M cos α2 ) a (1 − M cos α)3 p(x. and R · M = Ma cos α.7 m. while it has its main directions of radiation in (near) the conical surfaces θ = 45◦ and 135◦ . 4πar (1 − M R sin θ cos(φ − ωt + kr ))3 The radiation pattern has zeros in the directions θ = 0◦ . 90◦ . and y = 0 at x = 1 L. 2 Chapter 9 a) With the propeller in vane position (no angle of attack) the lift force as defined in (9. and 180◦ . R = a. and Me = M R .11) is directed in z-direction only.332 G Answers to exercises. t) − 2 f0 M R sin θ cos θ cos(φ − ωt + kr ) RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 .

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13. 76. 79–81. 126. 259 modal amplitude. 106. 269–271 duct acoustics. 289 FFT. 21 enthalpy. 36. 198. 49. 4 Bessel function. 39. 236 energy. 34. 47. 6. 67. 220. 19. 138. 36. 244. 25. 223. 6. 244 Hankel function. 140–144 compact. 242 cut-on. 64. 187. . 3. 88. 104. 77. 44. 281–283 density. 283 homentropic. 85. 199–201. 74. 38. 168. 205 Crocco. 266. 200. 78. 109. 21 branch cut. 46. 60. 212–216. 279 constitutive equations. 289 bubble. 93. 44. 289–294. 245. 52. 37. 230. 25. 48. 51–53. 237. 145. 81. 138. 39. 303 generalized function. 70. 225. 50. 196 cylindrical. 103. 58. 39. 231. 21. 99. 44. 126. 299. 289–292. 122. 68. 36. 188. 275. 267. 182. 305 law. 12. 199. 30. 139. 169. 146 evanescent waves. 285–287. 239. 216. 216. 3. 218. 212 Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. 75. 12. 287 Biot-Savart law. 22–24. 171. 37. 139. 197. 7. 267 Avogadro number. 307 Airy function. 67. 247 clarinet. 308 Hankel transform. 9. 65. 43. 133. 103. 163. 35. 41. 215. 29. 65. 60. 87. 180. 172. 54. 275 cut-off. 196 open end. 96. 203. 213. 189. 34. 301–304 transform. 19. 185. 163. 164. 34. 164 convolution. 121 blade passing frequency. 242 delta function. 38. 70. 298. 21 barotropic. 218 Webster’s horn. 41 Curle. 222 rectangular. 259. 14. 101. 183 causality. 35. 15. 200. 228 end correction. 89 entropy. 293 surface distribution. 105–109. 297 Cremer optimum. 201 slowly varying. 32 spot. 8. 199. 275 Fourier analysis. 218. 218. 169. 169. 52. 203. 4. 165 internal.Index acoustic intensity. 181 isentropic. 68. 9. 85. 39. 108–110. 49. 299 Green’s function. 86. 168 non-isentropic. 40. 214. 91–95. 184. 298. 3 number. 111. 146. 111. 199. 81. 38. 1. 68. 103. 178. 189. 302 Doppler. 16. 200. 60. 297. 3. 288. 99. 165. 295. 314 characteristics. 247. 83. 37 flux. 238 vibrating wall. 32. 97. 197. 272. 170. 70–72. 90. 135. 33. 213. 137. 145. 220. 8. 45. 71. 43. 196 junction. 199. 215 Boltzmann constant. 83. 144. 4. 75. 179. 166. 299. 212 modes. 40. 180–182. 168. 14. 235. 134. 14 series. 189. 180. 31. 180. 182. 68. 24. 149. 33.

131. 48 causality. 106. 53 wall. 220. 94 ray acoustics. 222 Kármán. 215 Snell’s law. 176. 83. 75. 136. 243. 238. 104. 109. 180 temperature gradient. 129.Index 345 170. 248 wind shear. 22. 63. 144. 133. 267. 146–150. 263–265. 182 transport theorem. 130. 223. 295. 53. 178 reactance. 263 trombone. 249 Sommerfeld’s condition. 134. 153. 48 reflection. 298. 68. 13. 61 images. 155. 314 number. 220. 286. 125. 171. 175–178. 97. 250 resonance. 105. 234. 163. 133. 293. 61 RienstraHirschberg 11th November 2001 12:00 . 180. 34. 201–203. 225. 144. 140. 34. 188–190 admittance. 52 characteristic. 88. 122 Kirchhoff. 63. 218. 275. 301 Helmholtz equation. 136 Parseval’s theorem. 135. 48 specific. 154–156 line. 34–36. 118. 144. 93. 248. 88. 20. 185 sheet. 27 vortex. 71 Rijke tube. 78. 136 acoustical. 135. 241 refraction. 168. 156. 63. 200. 205. 222. 269 Lighthill. 170 Strouhal number. 91. 29. 90. 152 rotor-stator interaction. 51. 180. 121. 53. 205. 65. 220. 50 radiation. 108–110. 185 stress. 78 uniqueness. 42. 108. 166. 242. 288 Poisson ratio. 101. 262 coefficient. 51 resistance. 49. 22 summation. 95. 232–234 Reynolds number. 86–89. 102. 56. 259 Minnaert frequency. 299. 210. 49. 29–31. 132. 139. 62. 117. 65. 91. 175. 140. 183 impedance. 21. 99. 84. 93. 212. 138. 13 surface distributions. 55–59. 62. 229. 214. 267. 50. 218 iris. 133. 49 surface wave. 48. 203. 63–65 sound. 226 transmission. 132. 50. 249. 145. 222. 278 surface wave. 243. 223. 40–42. 43. 242. 299. 250 reflection. 68. 129. 235 ill-posed. 130. 255 resonator. 124. 41. 168. 68. 169. 23. 184. 122 vorticity. 218. 169 multiple scales. 121. 56. 131 street. 93. 277 matched asymptotic expansions. 102 Liénard-Wiechert potential. 300 Riemann invariant. 65. 96. 163. 225 shear layer. 83 energy. 276. 60. 104. 235. 121 Walkman. 14. 153. 84. 110. 49. 288 rain. 19. 62. 245. 262 coefficient. 299 shedding. 30. 33. 13. 126. 106. 94. 287. 48. 156. 179–182. 122. 124. 186. 245 orifice. 231. 263 turning point. 34. 49. 314 Heaviside function. 259. 187. 39. 196. 129. 259. 53. 142. 85–91. 88.

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