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HEDWIG

 AND  THE  ANGRY  INCH  


 
Dramaturgy  Packet  
 
 
 
The  Creators

 
John  Cameron  Mitchell:    An  American  actor,  playwright,  screenwriter,  and  director.    
Mitchell  was  born  in  El  Paso,  Texas  and  raised  as  a  Roman  Catholic.    His  father,  John  
H.  Mitchell,  was  a  U.S.  Army  major  general,  and  Mitchell  grew  up  on  army  bases  in  
the  U.S.,  Germany,  and  Scotland,  attending  Catholic  schools,  including  St.  Xavier  High  
School  (Junction  City,  Kansas)  and  St.  Pius  X  High  School  (Albuquerque,  NM),  
graduting  from  the  latter  in  1981.    His  mother  is  a  native  of  Glasglow,  Scotland,  who  
immigrated  to  the  United  States  as  a  young  schoolteacher.    His  first  stage  role  was  
the  Virgin  Mary  in  a  Nativity  musical  staged  at  a  Scottish  Benedictine  boys  boarding  
school  when  he  was  11  years  old.    He  studied  theater  at  Northwestern  University  
from  1981-­‐85.    His  brother,  Colin,  is  an  actor,  writer,  and  filmmaker.    Mitchell’s  first  
professional  stage  role  was  Huckleberry  Finn  in  a  1985  Organic  Theater  adapation  
of  Chicago’s  Goodman  Theatre.    His  first  New  York  acting  role  was  Huck  Finn  in  the  
Broadway  musical  BIG  RIVER  (1985).    He  originated  the  role  of  Dickon  on  Broadway  
in  THE  SECRET  GARDEN,  and  appeared  in  the  original  cast  of  the  Off-­‐Broadway  
musical  HELLO  AGAIN.    He  received  Drama  Desk  nominations  for  both  roles,  and  
can  be  heard  on  the  original  cast  recording  for  each.    He  appeared  in  the  original  
cast  of  John  Guare’s  SIX  DEGREES  OF  SEPARATION  (both  off-­‐Broadway  and  on  
Broadway)  and  starred  in  Larry  Kramer’s  Off  Broadway  sequel  to  THE  NORMAL  
HEART,  THE  DESTINY  OF  ME,  for  which  he  received  an  Obie  Award  and  a  Drama  
Desk  nomination.    Mitchell’s  early  television  work  includes  guest-­‐starring  roles  in  
DAYBREAK,  MACGYVER,  HEAD  OF  THE  CLASS,  LAW  &  ORDER,  THE  NEW  TWILIGHT  
ZONE,  FREDDY’S  NIGHTMARE,  THE  EQULIZER,  OUR  HOUSE,  THE  DREAMER  OF  OZ:  

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THE  L.  FRANK  BAUM  STORY,  and  THE  STEPFORD  CHILDREN.    He  was  a  regular  cast  
member  on  the  1996  Fox  sitcom  PARTY  GIRL,  and  was  the  long-­‐running  voice  for  
“Sydney”,  an  animated  kangaroo  that  appeared  in  commercials  for  Dunk-­‐a-­‐roos  
cookies.    Starring  and  co-­‐starring  film  roles  include  a  homicidal  new  waver  in  BAND  
OF  THE  HAND  (1986),  a  Polish  immigrant  violinist  in  MISPLACED  (1990),  and  a  teen  
Lotario  poet  in  BOOK  OF  LOVE  (1990).    Mitchell  had  a  single  line  (“Delivery!”)  in  
Spike  Lee’s  GIRL  SIX  (1996)  as  a  man  auditioning  for  a  pornographic  film.    Mitchell  
is  a  founding  member  of  the  Drama  Department  Theater  Company,  for  which  he  
adapted  and  directed  Tennessee  Williams’  KINGDOM  OF  EARTH  starring  Cynthia  
Nixon  and  Peter  Sarsgaard.    In  1998,  Mitchell  wrote  (along  with  composer  Stephen  
Trask)  and  starred  in  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  INCH,  an  Obie  Award-­‐winning  Off-­‐
Broadway  rock  musical  about  an  East  German  rock  musician  chasing  after  an  ex-­‐
lover  who  plagiarized  her  songs.    Three  years  later,  he  directed  and  starred  in  the  
feature  film  version  of  the  play  for  which  he  won  Best  Director  at  the  2001  
Sundance  Film  Festival.    His  performance  was  nominated  for  a  Golden  Globe  as  Best  
Actor  in  a  Musical  or  Comedy.    Both  the  play  and  the  film  were  critical  hits  and  have  
spawned  cult  followings  around  the  world.    The  2014  Broadway  production  of  
HEDWIG  starred  Neil  Patrick  Harris  and  Lena  Hall,  was  directed  by  Michael  Mayer,  
and  won  four  Tony  Awards,  including  Best  Actor  in  a  Musical  (Harris),  Best  
Featured  Actress  in  a  Musical  (Hall),  and  Best  Revival  of  a  Musical.    Mitchell  reprised  
his  performance  in  the  role  of  Hedwig  on  Broadway  for  a  limited  run  in  early  2015,  
opposite  Lena  Hall  as  Yitzhak.    He  received  a  2015  Special  Tony  Award  for  his  return  
to  the  role.    After  the  success  of  HEDWIG,  Mitchell  expressed  interest  in  writing,  
directing,  and  producing  a  film  that  incorporated  explicit  sex  in  a  naturalistic  and  
thoughtful  way,  without  using  “stars”.    After  three  years  of  talent  searches,  improv  
workshops  and  production,  SHORTBUS  premiered  in  May  2006  at  the  2006  Cannes  
Film  Festival.    The  film  garnered  many  awards,  at  venues  such  as  the  Athen,  Gijón  
and  Zurich  international  Film  Festivals.    He  directed  the  2010  film  RABBIT  HOLE,  
starring  Nicole  Kidman  (in  an  Oscar-­‐nominated  performance)  and  Aaron  Eckhart,  
adapted  from  David  Lindsay-­‐Abaïre’s  Pulitzer  Prize-­‐winning  play  of  the  same  name.    
The  film  debuted  at  the  Toronto  Film  Festival.    Mitchell  was  the  executive  producer  
of  the  2004  film  TARNATION,  a  documentary  about  the  life  of  Jonathan  Caouette  
whom  he  met  when  the  latter  auditioned  for  SHORTBUS.    TARNATION  won  2004  
Best  Documentary  from  the  National  Society  of  Film  Critics,  the  Independent  Spirit  
Awards,  and  the  Gotham  Awards.    He  directed  videos  for  Bright  Eyes’  “First  Day  of  
My  Life”  (featuring  SECRET  GARDEN  co-­‐star  Alison  Fraser)  and  the  Scissor  Sisters’  
“Filthy/Gorgeous”;  the  latter  was  banned  from  MTV  Europe  for  its  explicitly  sexual  
content.    In  2012,  Mitchell  wrote  and  produced  a  narrative  short  film  for  Sigur  Rós  
titled  “Seraph”,  directed  by  animator  Dash  Shaw.    He  appeared  as  a  recurring  
character,  e-­‐book  editor  David  Pressler-­‐Goings,  on  the  2013  and  2014  seasons  of  
HBO  series  GIRLS,  and  as  Andy  Warhol  in  the  2016  season  of  HBO’s  VINYL.    Mitchell  
appeared  in  the  2016  documentary  DANNY  SAYS  alongside  Danny  Fields,  Alice  
Cooper  &  Iggy  Pop.    He  has  appeared  as  a  character  based  on  Milo  Yiannopoulos  on  
CBS  All  Access’s  THE  GOOD  FIGHT  opposite  Christine  Baranski  and  appears  as  the  
character  of  Egon  in  Season  4  of  Amazon  Studios’  MOZART  IN  THE  JUNGLE  opposite  
Gael  García  Bernal.    In  2015  he  directed  an  unaired  pilot  of  Showtime  series  

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HAPPYISH  starring  Philip  Seymour  Hoffman  in  his  last  role.    John’s  film  HOW  TO  
TALK  TO  GIRLS  AT  PARTIES,  a  screen  adaptation  of  Neil  Gaiman’s  punk-­‐era  short  
story  of  the  same  title  starring  Elle  Fanning,  Alex  Sharp,  and  Nicole  Kidman,  was  
released  by  A24  in  Spring  2018.    He  is  a  series  regular  in  Hulu’s  SHRILL  staring  Aidy  
Bryant  based  on  Lindy  West’s  memoir  of  the  same  name.    He  is  currently  touring  
THE  ORIGIN  OF  LOVE:  THE  SONGS  AND  STORIES  OF  HEDWIG  featuring  the  songs  of  
Stephen  Trask  as  well  as  releasing  his  new  musical  co-­‐written  with  Bryan  Weller  as  
a  fictional  podcast  series  entitled  ANTHEM  HOMUNCULUS  starring  himself,  Glenn  
Close,  Patti  Lupone,  Cynthia  Erivo,  Denis  O’Hare,  Nakhane,  Laurie  Anderson,  Alan  
Mandell,  Marion  Cotillard,  Ben  Foster,  and  Madeline  Brewer,  presented  by  Luminary  
Podcast  Network.    In  1985,  aged  22,  Mitchell  came  out  as  gay  to  his  family  and  
friends.    He  came  out  publicly  in  a  NEW  YORK  TIMES  profile  in  1992.    His  
subsequent  writing  has  often  explored  sexuality  and  gender.    he  is  a  Radical  Faerie,  
which  was  influential  in  Mitchell’s  making  of  SHORTBUS.    Along  with  SHORTBUS  
stars  PJ  DeBoy  and  Paul  Dawson  and  performance  artists  Amber  Martin  and  Angela  
Di  Carlo,  he  is  a  co-­‐founder  and  DJ  of  the  long-­‐running  monthly  part  “Mattachine”.      
Stephen  Trask:    An  American  musician  and  composer  who  graduated  from  
Wesleyan  University.    He  was  the  music  director  and  house  band  member  (Cheater)  
at  the  New  York  club  SqueezeBox!,  where  he  performed  with  stars  such  as  Debbie  
Harry,  Lene  Lovich,  and  Joey  Ramone.    Trask  composed  the  music  for  the  stage  
musical  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANRY  INCH  (also  a  2001  film),  about  a  struggling  rack  
star  named  Hedwig.    Trask’s  real-­‐life  band  Cheater  performed  as  Hedwig’s  band  
“The  Angry  Inch”.    He  received  an  Obie  Award  for  the  play  and  a  Grammy  Award  
nomination  for  the  movie.    In  2014,  the  show  saw  its  first  Broadway  incarnation,  
opening  that  April  at  the  Belasco  Theatre  and  winning  the  year’s  Tony  Award  for  
Best  Revival  of  a  Musical.    The  production  closed  on  September  13,  2015.    A  national  
tour  of  the  show  began  at  San  Francisco’s  Golden  Gate  Theatre  on  October  2,  2016.    
He  has  done  five  films  with  filmmaker  Paul  Weitz.    He  composed  the  score  for  
2004’s  IN  GOOD  COMPANY  and  AMERICAN  DREAMZ,  for  which  he  co-­‐wrote  the  
numerous  songs  the  contestants  sing,  as  well  as  the  2009  film  CIRQUE  DU  FREAK:  
THE  VAMPIRE’S  ASSISTANT.    Trask  also  scored  the  2003  movies  CAMP  and  THE  
STATION  AGENT,  as  well  as  DREAMGIRLS  (2006),  IN  THE  LAND  OF  WOMEN  (2007),  
THE  SAVAGES  (2007),  and  THE  BACK-­‐UP  PLAN  (2010),  among  other  works.  He  
scored  the  2010  film  LITTLE  FOCKERS,  a  sequel  to  both  MEET  THE  PARENTS  
(2000)  and  MEET  THE  FOCKERS  (2004).    Recent  work  includes  the  2013  films  
LOVELACE,  directed  by  Rob  Epstein  and  Jeffrey  Friedman  and  ADMISSION,  directed  
by  Paul  Weitz.    He  resides  in  Lexington,  Kentucky,  with  his  partner  Michael  Trask,  
who  is  a  professor  at  the  University  of  Kentucky.    He  grew  up  in  Connecticut,  in  a  
Jewish  household.    He  also  went  to  Hebrew  school,  had  a  Bar  Mitzvah,  and  both  his  
parents  were  involved  in  the  synagogue  –  his  father  was  head  of  the  youth  program  
there.      
 
The  Form  
 

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Glam  Rock:    A  style  of  rock  music  that  developed  in  the  United  Kingdom  in  the  early  
1970s  performed  by  musicians  who  wore  outrageous  costumes,  makeup,  and  
hairstyles,  particularly  platform  shoes  and  glitter.    Glam  artists  drew  on  diverse  
sources  across  music  and  throwaway  pop  culture,  ranging  from  bubblegum  pop  and  
1950s  rock  and  roll  to  cabaret,  science  fiction,  and  complex  art  rock.    The  
flamboyant  clothing  and  visual  styles  of  performers  were  often  camp  or  
androgynous,  and  have  been  described  as  playing  with  nontraditional  gender  roles.  
“Glitter  rock”  was  another  term  used  to  refer  to  a  more  extreme  version  of  glam:  T.  
Rex  frontman  Marc  Bolan,  Mott  the  Hoople,  Sweet,  Slade,  Mud,  Roxy  Music,  Lou  
Reed,  Alice  Cooper,  New  York  Dolls,  Iggy  Pop,  Jobriath,  and  Gary  Glitter.    Others  that  
adopted  the  style  include  Elton  John,  Freddie  Mercury,  Def  Leppard,  Cheap  Trick,  
Poison,  Kiss,  Bon  Jovi,  Quiet  Riot,  W.A.S.P.,  Mötley  Crüe,  Twisted  Sister,  and  Rod  
Stewart.  
• A  rejection  of  the  false  sincerity/simplicity  of  folk/protest  rock.      

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• Admits  falseness  
• Spits  on  authenticity  
• Form  over  Content  
• Erased  the  line  between  the  sexes.    The  only  time  this  has  occurred  in  rock  
history.  
• Hollywood  glamour,  1950s  pin-­‐up  sex  appeal,  pre-­‐war  cabaret  theatrics,  
Victorian  literary  and  symbolist  styles,  science  fiction,  to  ancient  and  occult  
mysticism,  and  mythology.      
• Prefigured  by  the  flamboyant  English  composer  Noêl  Coward.  

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Punk  Rock:    A  rock  music  genre  that  emerged  in  the  mid-­‐1970s  in  the  United  States,  
United  Kingdom,  and  Australia.    Rooted  in  1960s  garage  rock  and  other  forms  of  
what  is  now  known  as  “proto-­‐punk”  music,  punk  rock  music,  punk  rock  bands  
rejected  perceived  excesses  of  mainstream  1970s  rock.    They  typically  produced  
short,  fast-­‐paced  songs  with  hard-­‐edged  melodies  and  singing  styles,  stripped-­‐down  
instrumentation,  and  often  political,  anti-­‐establishment  lyrics.    Punk  embraces  a  DIY  
ethic;  many  bands  self-­‐produce  recordings  and  distribute  them  through  
independent  record  labels.    It  spawned  a  punk  subculture  expressing  youthful  
rebellion  through  distinctive  styles  of  clothing  and  adornment  (such  as  deliberately  
offensive  T-­‐shirts,  leather  jackets,  studded  spike  bands  and  jewelry,  safety  pins,  and  
bondage  and  S&M  clothes)  and  a  variety  of  anti-­‐authoritarian  ideologies.    Bands  
included  Television,  Patti  Smith,  Iggy  Pop,  the  Ramones,  the  Sex  Pistols,  the  Clash,  
the  Damned,  and  the  Saints.    Pop  punk  bands  include  Green  Day,  Rancid,  the  
Offspring,  and  Blink-­‐182.  
 
Memory  Play:    A  play  in  which  a  lead  character  narrates  the  events  of  the  play,  
which  are  drawn  from  the  character’s  memory.    The  term  was  coined  by  playwright  
Tennessee  Williams,  describing  his  work  THE  GLASS  MENAGERIE.    In  his  
production  notes,  Williams  says,  “Being  a  ‘memory  play’,  THE  GLASS  MENAGERIE  
can  be  presented  with  unusual  freedom  of  convention.”    In  a  widening  of  the  
definition,  it  has  been  argued  that  Harold  Pinter’s  plays  OLD  TIMES,  NO  MAN’S  
LAND,  and  BETRAYAL  are  memory  plays,  where  “memory  becomes  a  weapon”.    
Brian  Friel’s  DANCING  AT  LUGHNASA  is  a  20th-­‐century  example  of  the  genre.    From  
Tom  Wingfield’s  first  lines  in  THE  GLASS  MENAGERIE:    “The  play  is  a  memory.    
Being  a  memory  play,  it  is  dimly  lighted,  it  is  sentimental,  it  is  not  realistic.    In  
memory  everything  seems  to  happen  to  music.    That  explains  the  fiddle  in  the  wings.    
I  am  the  narrator  of  the  play,  and  also  a  character  in  it.    The  other  characters  are  my  
mother  Amanda,  and  my  sister  Laura  and  gentleman  caller  who  appears  in  the  final  
scenes.”      
 
Comedy:    In  a  modern  sense,  comedy  (from  the  Greek)  refers  to  any  discourse  or  
work  generally  intended  to  be  humorous  or  amusing  by  inducing  laughter,  
especially  in  theater,  television,  film,  stand-­‐up  comedy,  or  any  other  medium  of  
entertainment.    The  origins  of  the  term  are  found  in  Ancient  Greece.    In  the  Athenian  
democracy,  the  public  opinion  of  voters  was  influenced  by  the  political  satire  
performed  by  the  comic  poets  at  the  theaters.    The  theatrical  genre  of  Greek  comedy  
can  be  described  as  a  dramatic  performance  which  pits  two  groups  or  societies  
against  each  other  in  an  amusing  agon  (struggle  or  conflict)  or  conflict.    Northrop  
Frye  depicted  these  two  opposing  sides  as  a  “Society  of  Youth”  and  a  “Society  of  
Old.”    A  revised  view  characterizes  the  essential  agon  of  comedy  as  a  struggle  
between  a  relatively  powerless  youth  and  the  societal  conventions  that  pose  
obstacles  to  his  hopes.    In  this  struggle,  the  youth  is  understood  to  be  constrained  by  
his  lack  of  social  authority,  and  is  left  with  little  choice  but  to  take  recourse  in  ruses  
which  engender  very  dramatic  irony  which  provokes  laughter.      
 

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Carnival:    A  Western  Christian  festive  season  that  occurs  before  the  liturgical  season  
of  Lent.    The  main  events  occur  during  February  or  early  March,  during  the  period  
historically  known  as  Shrovetide  (or  Pre-­‐Lent).    Carnival  typically  involves  public  
celebrations,  including  events  such  as  parades,  public  street  parties  and  other  
entertainments,  combining  some  elements  of  a  circus.    Elaborate  costumes  and  
masks  allow  people  to  set  aside  their  everyday  individuality  and  experience  a  
heightened  sense  of  social  unity.    Participants  often  indulge  in  excessive  
consumption  of  alcohol,  meat,  and  other  foods  that  will  be  forgone  during  upcoming  
Lent…Other  common  features  of  carnival  include  mock  battles  such  as  food  fights;  
expressions  of  social  satire;  mockery  of  authorities;  costumes  of  the  grotesque  body  
that  display  exaggerated  features  such  as  large  noses,  bellies,  mouths,  phalli,  or  
elements  of  animal  bodies;  abusive  language  and  degrading  acts;  depictions  of  
disease  and  gleeful  death;  and  a  general  reversal  of  everyday  rules  and  norms.  
 
The  Character  /  The  Play  
 
HEDWIG,  as  a  musical  changing  the  form:  
• Rejection  of  spectacle  
• Rejection  of  overearnestness  
• Rejection  of  pretention/self-­‐awareness  
• Rejection  of  mind-­‐numbing  music  
• Rejection  of  boy  gets  girl  storylines  
• Real  Rock  Musical  
• Stand-­‐up  Comedy  
• First  transgendered  character  treated  seriously.  
• Still  follows  traditional  structure:    First  half  =  Comedy,  Second  half  =  Tragedy  
• Received  as  too  rock  ‘n’  roll  for  the  uptown  theater  crowd,  Too  rock  ‘n’  roll  
for  the  gay  community,  and  not  rock  ‘n’  roll  enough  for  the  rock  audiences.  
• Has  a  reprise  of  a  song  because  the  song  wasn’t  finished  upon  its  first  hearing  
(“Wicked  Little  Town”)  
• All  songs  are  in  the  past  except  the  last  three.  
• Rules  of  the  Evening  in  the  first  10  minutes  of  the  show?  
 
Hedwig  =  Head  with  a  wig  (literal)  
• Cycle  of  Patriarchal  female  co-­‐dependency:    First  was  Hansel  (an  effeminate  
girlyboy),  then  was  Hedwig  the  bride  (a  botched  sex  change  woman  
assuming  the  identity  of  her  mother  to  escape  East  Berlin  and  marry  an  
American  G.I.),  Hedwig  the  woman  alone,  Hedwig  the  lover/music  tutor,  
Hedwig  left  a  third  time  (first  the  father,  then  the  husband,  and  finally  the  
soul  mate)  is  alone  again  living  a  revenge/stalker  rock  ‘n’  roll  life  (the  rock  ‘n’  
roll  narrative  stereotype:  betrayed  by  love,  the  down  on  her  luck  singer  plays  
every  backroad  and  backwater  bar,  diner,  café,  Laundromat  and  even  
Chinese  buffet  restaurant  to  keep  herself  and  her  story  going  –  the  road  
becomes  her  lover  –  and  its  countless,  arduous  and  often  humiliating  one-­‐
nigh-­‐gigs  leave  a  trail  of  waste,  damage  and  potential  self-­‐destruction  in  its  

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wake)  /  the  restless  warrior,  the  moment-­‐of-­‐grace-­‐stripped-­‐of-­‐all-­‐masks-­‐
supreme-­‐goddess,  and  ?.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    The  societal  codes  and  images  of  what  it  means  to  be  a  feminine  
woman  –  including  how  to  lash  out  at  her  twinned  feminine  Yitzhak  –  have  
been  learnt  by  her  well.    Too  well.      
• Jesus  Christ  Superstar  

• Toni  Tenille:     An  
American  singer-­‐songwriter  and  keyboardist,  best  known  as  one-­‐half  of  the  
1970s  duo  Captain  &  Tennille  with  her  former  husband  Daryl  Dragon;  the  
signature  song  is  “Love  Will  Keep  Us  Together”.  

• Debby  Boone:     An  
American  singer,  author,  and  actress.    She  is  best  known  for  her  1977  hit,  
“You  Light  Up  My  Life”,  which  spent  ten  weeks  at  No.  1  on  the  Billboard  Hot  
100  chart  and  led  to  her  winning  the  Grammy  Award  for  Best  New  Artist  the  
following  year.    Boone  later  focused  her  career  on  country  music  resulting  in  
the  1980  No.  1  country  hit  “Are  You  on  the  Road  to  Lovin’  Me  Again”.    In  the  
1980s,  she  recorded  Christian  music,  which  garnered  her  four  top  10  
Contemporary  Christian  albums  as  well  as  two  more  Grammys.    Throughout  
her  career,  Boone  has  appeared  in  several  musical  theater  productions  and  
has  co-­‐authored  many  children’s  books  with  husband,  Gabriel  Ferrer.  

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• Anne  Murray:     A  Canadian  singer  
in  pop,  country,  and  adult  contemporary  music  whose  albums  have  sold  over  
55  million  copies  worldwide  during  her  40  year  career.    Murray  was  the  first  
Canadian  female  solo  singer  to  reach  No.  1  on  the  U.S.  Charts,  and  also  the  
first  to  earn  a  Gold  record  for  one  of  her  signature  songs,  “Snowbird”  (1970).    
She  is  often  cited  as  one  of  the  female  Canadian  artists  who  paved  the  way  for  
other  international  Canadian  success  stories.    Murray  has  received  four  
Grammys,  a  record  24  Junos,  three  American  Music  Awards,  three  Country  
Music  Association  Awards,  and  three  Canadian  Country  Music  Association  
Awards.    She  has  been  inducted  into  the  Canadian  Country  Music  Hall  of  
Fame,  the  Juno  Hall  of  Fame,  The  Canadian  Songwriters  Hall  of  Fame,  and  
Canadian  Broadcast  Hall  of  Fame.    She  is  a  member  of  the  Country  Music  Hall  
of  Fame  Walkway  of  Stars  in  Nashville,  and  has  her  own  star  on  the  
Hollywood  Walk  of  Fame  in  Los  Angeles  and  on  Canada’s  Walk  of  Fame  in  
Toronto.    In  2011,  Billboard  ranked  her  10th  on  their  list  of  the  50  Biggest  
Adult  Contemporary  Artists  Ever.  

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• Lou  Reed:    An  American  
musician,  singer,  songwriter  and  poet.    He  was  the  lead  guitarist,  singer  and  
principal  songwriter  for  the  rock  band  the  Velvet  Underground  and  had  a  
solo  career  that  spanned  five  decades.    The  Velvet  Underground  were  not  a  
commercial  success  during  their  existence,  but  are  now  regarded  as  one  of  
the  most  influential  bands  in  the  history  of  underground  and  alternative  rock  
music.    After  leaving  the  band  in  1970,  Reed  released  twenty  solo  studio  
albums.    His  second,  Transformer  (1972),  was  produced  by  David  Bowie  and  
arranged  by  Mick  Ronson,  and  brought  mainstream  recognition.    After  
Transformer,  the  less  commercial  Berlin  reached  No.  7  on  the  UK  Albums  
Chart.    Rock  n  Roll  Animal  (a  live  album  released  in  1974)  sold  strongly,  and  
Sally  Can’t  Dance  (1974)  peaked  at  No.  10  on  the  Billboard  200;  but  for  a  long  
period  after,  Reed’s  work  did  not  translate  into  sales,  leading  him  deeper  into  
drug  addiction  and  alcoholism.    Reed  cleaned  up  in  the  early  1980s,  and  
gradually  returned  to  prominence  with  New  Sensations  (1984),  reaching  a  
critical  and  commercial  career  peak  with  his  1989  album  New  York.    Reed’s  
distinctive  deadpan  voice,  poetic  lyrics  and  experimental  guitar  playing  were  
trademarks  throughout  his  long  career.  
 
• David  Bowie,  David  Robert  Jones  was  an  English  singer-­‐songwriter  and  actor.    
He  was  a  leading  figure  in  the  music  industry  and  is  considered  one  of  the  
most  influential  musicians  of  the  20th  century,  acclaimed  by  critics  and  
musicians,  particularly  for  his  innovative  work  during  the  1970s.    His  career  
was  marked  by  reinvention  and  visual  presentation,  with  his  music  and  

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stagecraft  having  a  significant  impact  on  popular  music.    

 
• Ziggy  Stardust:    A  character  created  by  David  Bowie  in  1971,  and  first  
featured  in  the  album  The  Rise  and  Fall  of  Ziggy  Stardust  and  the  Spiders  from  
Mars,  released  on  16  June  1972.    The  character  was  retired  on  3  July  1973,  at  
a  performance  at  the  Hammersmith  Odeon,  which  was  filmed  and  released  
on  Ziggy  Stardust:  The  Motion  Picture.      
• Frank  N.  Furter:    

A  character  from  the  musical  productions  of  THE  ROCKY  HORROR  SHOW  

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since  1973,  from  the  1975  movie,  from  the  2015  tribute  production  
celebrating  40  years,  from  the  2016  reimagining  movie,  and  from  the  never  
made  sequels  ROCKY  HORRY  SHOWS  HIS  HEELS  and  ROCKY  HORROR:  THE  
SECOND  COMING.    He  was  portrayed  by  Tim  Curry  in  the  1973  Original  
London  Production,  in  the  1974  Roxy  Production,  in  the  1975  Broadway  
Production,  and  in  the  1975  film  adaptation;  by  Tom  Hewitt  in  the  2001  
Broadway  Revival,  by  David  Bedella  in  the  2015  live  tribute  production,  and  
by  Laverne  Cox  in  the  2016  reimagining  movie,  where  he  is  presented  as  a  
female.    When  it  was  released  in  1975,  the  movie  did  so  poorly  that  the  New  
York  run  was  cancelled  before  it  began.    And  then  someone  noticed  that  “The  
Rocky  Horror  Picture  Show”  had  all  the  ingredients  of  a  midnight  movie  –  it  
was  risqué,  raucous  and  a  little  bit  trippy.    The  film  was  installed  as  the  late  
show  at  the  Waverly  Theater  in  Greenwich  Village,  and  something  
unexpected  happened:  people  started  talking  back  to  the  movie,  shooting  
water  pistols  and  throwing  toast,  and  even  dressing  up  like  the  characters  
and  shadowing  their  moves  in  front  of  the  screen.    Thanks  to  Tim  Curry’s  
gloriously  over-­‐the-­‐top  portrayal  of  Frank  N.  Furter,  the  film’s  seductive,  
pansexual  lead,  those  midnight  screenings  became  a  sanctuary  for  people  
who  saw  themselves  as  outsiders,  especially  queer  and  gender-­‐
nonconforming  people.    No  longer  mere  movie-­‐goers,  they  became  a  tribe  
and  kept  coming  back,  week  after  week.  
• Iggy  Pop:  

 
James  Newell  Osterberg  Jr.  is  an  American  singer,  songwriter,  musician,  
record  producer,  and  actor.    Designated  the  “Godfather  of  Punk”,  he  was  the  
vocalist  of  influential  proto-­‐punk  band  The  Stooges,  who  were  formed  in  
1967  and  have  disbanded  and  reunited  multiple  times  since.    He  began  a  solo  
career  with  the  1977  albums  The  Idiot  and  Lust  for  Life,  recorded  in  

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collaboration  with  David  Bowie.    He  is  well  known  for  his  outrageous  and  
unpredictable  stage  antics.  
• Immanuel  Kant:    

An  influential  German  philosopher  in  the  Age  of  Enlightenment.    In  his  
doctrine  transcendental  idealism,  he  argued  that  space,  time,  and  causation  

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are  mere  sensibilities;  “things-­‐in-­‐themselves”  exist,  but  their  nature  is  
unknowable.  In  his  view,  the  mind  shapes  and  structures  experience,  with  all  
human  experience  sharing  certain  structural  features.    He  drew  a  parallel  to  
the  Copernican  revolution  in  his  proposition  that  worldly  objects  can  be  
intuited  a  priori  (‘beforehand’),  and  that  intuition  is  therefore  independent  
from  objective  reality.    Kant  believed  that  reason  is  the  source  of  morality,  
and  that  aesthetics  arise  from  a  faculty  of  disinterested  judgment.    Kant’s  
views  continue  to  have  a  major  influence  on  contemporary  philosophy,  
especially  the  fields  of  epistemology,  ethics,  political  theory,  and  post-­‐
modern  aesthetics.    In  one  of  Kant’s  major  works,  the  CRITIQUE  OF  PURE  
REASON  (1781),  he  attempted  to  explain  the  relationship  between  reason  
and  human  experience  and  to  move  beyond  the  failures  of  traditional  
philosophy  and  metaphysics.    Kant  wanted  to  put  an  end  to  an  era  of  futile  
and  speculative  theories  of  human  experience,  while  resisting  the  skepticism  
of  thinkers  such  as  David  Hume.    Kant  regarded  himself  as  showing  the  way  
past  the  impasse  between  rationalists  and  empiricists  which  philosophy  had  
led  to,  and  is  widely  held  to  have  synthesized  both  traditions  in  his  thought.    
Kant  was  an  exponent  of  the  idea  that  perpetual  peace  could  be  secured  
through  universal  democracy  and  international  cooperation.    He  believed  
that  this  would  be  the  eventual  outcome  of  universal  history,  although  it  is  
not  rationally  planned.    The  nature  of  Kant’s  religious  ideas  continues  to  be  
the  subject  of  philosophical  dispute,  with  viewpoints  ranging  from  the  
impression  that  he  was  an  initial  advocate  of  atheism  who  at  some  point  
developed  an  ontological  argument  for  God,  to  more  critical  treatments  
epitomized  by  Nietzsche,  who  claimed  that  Kant  had  “theologian  blood”  and  
was  merely  a  sophisticated  apologist  for  traditional  Christian  faith.      
• Florence  Nightingale:  

 An  English  social  reformer  and  statistician,  and  the  founder  of  modern  
nursing.    Nightingale  came  to  prominence  while  serving  as  a  manager  and  
trainer  of  nurses  during  the  Crimean  War,  in  which  she  organized  care  for  

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the  wounded  soldiers.    She  gave  nursing  a  favorable  reputation  and  became  
an  icon  of  Victorian  culture,  especially  in  the  persona  of  “The  Lady  with  the  
Lamp”  making  rounds  of  wounded  soldiers  at  night.    Recent  commentators  
have  asserted  Nightingale’s  Crimean  War  achievements  were  exaggerated  by  
media  at  the  time,  but  critics  on  the  importance  of  her  later  work  in  
professionalizing  nursing  roles  for  women.  In  1860,  Nightingale  laid  the  
foundation  of  professional  nursing  with  the  establishment  of  her  nursing  
school  at  St.  Thomas’  Hospital  in  London.    It  was  the  first  secular  nursing  
school  in  the  world,  and  is  not  part  of  the  King’s  College  London.    In  
recognition  of  her  pioneering  work  in  nursing,  the  Nightingale  Pledge  taken  
by  new  nurses,  and  the  Florence  Nightingale  Medal,  the  highest  international  
distinction  a  nurse  can  achieve,  were  named  in  her  honor,  and  the  annual  
International  Nurses  Day  is  celebrated  on  her  birthday.    Her  social  reforms  
including  improving  healthcare  for  all  sections  of  British  society,  advocating  
for  better  hunger  relief  in  India,  helping  to  abolish  prostitution  laws  that  
were  harsh  for  women,  and  expanding  the  acceptable  forms  of  female  
participation  in  the  workforce.    Nightingale  was  prodigious  and  versatile  
writer.    In  her  lifetime,  much  of  her  published  work  was  concerned  with  
spreading  medical  knowledge.    Some  of  her  tracts  were  written  in  simple  
English  so  that  they  could  easily  be  understood  by  those  with  poor  literary  
skills.    She  was  also  a  pioneer  in  the  use  of  infographics,  effectively  using  
graphical  presentations  of  statistical  data.    Much  of  her  writing,  including  her  
extensive  work  on  religion  and  mysticism,  has  only  been  published  
posthumously.    Nightingale  felt  that  genuine  religion  should  manifest  in  
active  care  and  love  for  others.    She  wrote  a  work  of  theology:  SUGGESTIONS  
FOR  THOUGHT,  her  own  theodicy,  which  develops  her  heterodox  ideas.    
Nightingale  questioned  the  goodness  of  a  God  who  would  condemn  souls  to  
hell,  and  was  a  believer  in  universal  reconciliation  –  the  concept  that  even  
those  who  die  without  being  saved  will  eventually  make  it  to  Heaven.    She  
would  sometimes  comfort  those  in  her  care  with  this  view.    Nightingale  
believed  that  religion  helped  provide  people  with  the  fortitude  for  arduous  
good  work,  and  would  ensure  the  nurses  in  her  care  attended  religious  
services.      

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• Femme  Fatale  (Marlene  Dietrich)

 
An  attractive  and  seductive  woman,  especially  one  who  will  ultimately  bring  
disaster  to  a  man  who  becomes  involved  with  her:  Marlene  Dietrich  
(German-­‐American  actress  and  singer)  is  unmistakable.    From  the  tone  of  her  
voice  –  deep  in  the  lower  registers,  distinctive  with  its  Bavarian  rhotacism  –  
to  the  arch  of  her  brow,  framing  alluringly  languid  lids,  the  late  actress  is  an  
icon  of  cinema,  fashion  and  politics  alike.    Far  from  the  archetypal  screen  
siren,  Dietrich  began  to  redefine  gender  constructs  in  the  mainstream,  
alongside  her  staunch  opposition  to  Nazism  and  her  contribution  to  20th  
century  cinema  and  LGBTQ+  culture.    Renowned  for  attending  underground  
drag  balls  in  1920s  Berlin,  later  in  life,  the  actress  would  use  the  phrase  
‘sewing  circle’  to  refer  to  the  closeted  lesbian  and  bi-­‐sexual  scene  in  
Hollywood,  of  which  she  was  a  member.    The  late  actor  Klaus  Kinski  
described  Dietrich’s  conquest  of  his  girlfriend  Edith  Edwards,  in  his  
autobiography:  “Marlene  tore  down  Edith’s  panties  backstage  in  a  Berlin  
theater  and,  using  just  her  mouth,  brought  Edith  to  orgasm”.  In  the  1930  film  
MORROCCO,  a  tuxedo-­‐clad  Dietrich  in  the  role  of  Amy  Jolly,  gave  cinema  one  
of  its  first  on-­‐screen  lesbian  kisses,  securing  her  status  as  an  LGBTQ+  icon.    
She  also  defied  conventional  gender  roles  through  her  boxing  at  Turkish  

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trainer  and  prizefighter  Sabri  Mahir’s  boxing  studio  in  Berlin,  which  opened  
to  women  in  the  late  1920s.      

• German  Hausfrau:    
German  housewife  stereotype  who  spends  her  days  working  hard  to  keep  
Home,  Garden  and  Family  all  running  smoothly.    Rather  than  purchasing  
flashy  (and  cheap)  items  with  bells  and  whistles,  the  hausfrau  makes  
purchases  based  on  quality.    She  asks:  Can  I  maintain  that  product?    Will  it  
last  20  years  or  more?    What  is  the  use  of  a  kitchen  appliance  that  breaks  
after  18  months?    Can  the  parts  be  replaced?    How  can  it  be  cleaned?    The  
Hausfrau  cooks  proper  meals  midday  (for  we  all  know  that  Germans  eat  
warm  meals  for  lunch  and  not  for  dinner),  made  from  fresh  ingredients  that  
she  probably  purchased  that  same  morning.    One  remarkable  aspect  of  
German  cuisine  is  how  little  of  it  is  prepackaged  –  Germans  actually  cook  real  
food  on  a  regular  basis.    Of  course  many  non-­‐Germans  do  the  same…but  the  
amount  of  ready-­‐made  meals  in  a  German  supermarket  pales  in  comparison  
to  those  on  offer  in  North  America  or  England.    The  Hausfrau  also  keeps  a  
tidy  and  clean  home.    Opting  for  quality  over  quantity,  taking  pride  in  hard  
work,  mastering  the  art  of  delayed  gratification,  focusing  on  long-­‐term  goals  
instead  of  quick  gains…  

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• Sandra  Bernhard:     A  
performer,  actress,  singer  and  author.    She  is  the  host  of  e  hugely  popular  
Sandyland,  her  daily  radio  show  on  SiriusxM’s  Radio  Andy  channel  102,  for  
which  she  won  a  Gracie  Award.    A  pioneer  of  the  one-­‐woman  show,  Bernhard  
brings  a  completely  unique  and  raucous  mix  of  cabaret,  stand-­‐up,  rock-­‐n-­‐roll,  
and  social  commentary  to  the  stage.    Notable  shows,  which  she  has  
performed  both  on  and  off-­‐Broadway  include:  WITHOUT  YOU  I’M  NOTHING,  
I’M  STILL  HERE…DAMMIT,  EVERYTHING  BAD  AND  BEAUTIFUL,  and  
SANDRA  MONICA  BLVD:  COAST  TO  COAST.    “What  makes  Bernhard’s  
comedy  so  rare  –  whether  she’s  philosophizing  about  Taylor  Swift’s  squad  or  
singing  Dolly  Parton’s  “Hard  Candy  Christmas”  as  imagined  by  Caitlyn  Jenner  
–  is  that  within  every  keenly  observed  pop-­‐culture  rant,  there’s  an  element  of  
piercing  truth,”  Variety  wrote.    In  a  review  of  her  career,  The  New  Yorker  
noted  that  “Bernhard  teaches  the  children  –  all  those  burgeoning  spoken-­‐
word  artist  and  monologists  –  how  to  perform  observational  comedy  with  
style,  and  right  on  the  political  edge.”    And  the  Los  Angeles  Times  praised  
another  show,  writing  that  Bernhard  “has  musicality  to  die  for,  a  voice  that  
swoops  from  the  bluesy  basement  to  a  top  floor  falsetto…”      

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• Nina  Hagen:    

German  singer,  songwriter,  and  actress.    She  is  known  for  her  theatrical  
vocals  and  rose  to  prominence  during  the  punk  and  new  wave  movements  in  
the  late  1970s  and  early  1980s.    Born  in  the  former  East  Berlin,  German  
Democratic  Republic,  Hagen  began  her  career  as  an  actress  when  she  

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appeared  in  several  German  films  alongside  her  mother  Eva-­‐Marie  Hagen.    
Around  that  same  time,  she  joined  the  band  Automobil  and  released  the  
single  “Du  hast  den  Farbilm  vergessen”.    After  her  stepfather  Wolf  
Biermann’s  East  German  citizenship  was  withdrawn  in  1976,  Hagen  followed  
him  to  Hamburg.    Shortly  afterwards,  she  was  offered  a  record  deal  from  CBS  
Records  and  formed  Nina  Hagen  Band.    Their  self-­‐titled  debut  album  was  
released  in  1978  to  critical  acclaim  and  was  a  commercial  success  selling  
over  250,000  copies.    Nina’s  lyrics  were  nasty,  honest  and  oblique.    She  
relentlessly  sang,  shouted,  shrieked  and  purred  about  death,  STDs,  and  sex  in  
a  train  station  restroom.    The  band  released  one  more  album  Unbehagen  
before  their  break-­‐up  in  1979.    That  same  year  Nina  Hagen  caused  a  scandal  
on  Austrian  television  by  giving  instructions  on  masturbation  on  a  talk  show.  
The  presenter  was  so  overwhelmed  he  grinned  sheepishly  and  didn’t  
intervene.    After  the  broadcast,  he  was  fired  –  while  fans  of  the  punk  singer  
applauded  her  historic  TV  appearance.    Nina  Hagen  has  always  had  a  heart  
for  the  disadvantaged  and  has  also  fought  forced  psychiatric  treatment  and  
gotten  involved  in  hospice  work.    Her  own  belief  in  divine  karma  has  helped  
her  regularly  look  death  in  the  eye.    But  her  religious  views  are  multi-­‐faceted.  

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• Courtney  Love:

   An  
American  singer,  songwriter,  and  actress.    A  figure  in  the  punk  and  grunge  
scenes  of  the  1990s,  Love’s  career  has  spanned  four  decades.    She  rose  to  
prominence  as  the  lead  vocalist  of  the  alternative  rock  band  Hole,  which  she  
formed  in  1989.    Love  has  drawn  public  attention  for  her  uninhibited  live  
performances  and  confrontational  lyrics,  as  well  as  her  highly  publicized  
personal  life  following  her  marriage  to  Nirvana  frontman  Kurt  Cobain.    Born  
to  countercultural  parents  in  San  Francisco,  Love  had  an  itinerant  childhood,  

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but  was  primarily  raised  in  Portland,  Oregon,  where  she  played  in  a  series  of  
short-­‐lived  bands  and  was  active  in  the  local  punk  scene.    After  briefly  being  
in  a  juvenile  hall,  she  spent  a  year  living  in  Dublin  and  Liverpool  before  
returning  to  the  United  States  and  was  cast  in  the  Alex  Cox  films  SID  AND  
NANCY  (1986)  and  STRAIGHT  TO  HELL  (1987).    She  formed  Hole  in  Los  
Angeles,  receiving  attention  from  underground  rock  press  for  the  gorup’s  
1991  debut  album,  produced  by  Kim  Gordon.    Hole’s  second  release,  LIVE  
THROUGH  THIS  (1994),  was  met  with  critical  accolades  and  multi-­‐platinum  
sales.    In  1995,  Love  returned  to  acting,  earning  a  Golden  Globe  Award  for  
her  performance  as  Althea  Leasure  in  THE  PEOPLE  VS.  LARRY  FLYNT  
(1996),  which  established  her  as  a  mainstream  actress.    The  following  year,  
Hole’s  third  album,  CELEBRITY  SKIN  (1998),  was  nominated  for  three  
Grammy  Awards.    Love  has  had  an  impact  on  female-­‐fronted  alternative  acts  
and  performers.    She  has  been  cited  as  influential  on  young  female  
instrumentalists  in  particular,  having  once  infamously  proclaimed:  “I  want  
every  girl  in  the  world  to  pick  up  a  guitar  and  start  screaming…I  strap  on  that  
motherfucking  guitar  and  you  cannot  fuck  with  me.    That’s  my  feeling.”    In  
THE  ELECTRIC  GUITAR:  A  HISTORY  OF  AN  AMERICAN  ICON,  it  is  noted:  
“[Love]  truly  lived  up  to  Paul  Westerberg’s  (The  Replacements)  assessment  
of  pretty  girls  ‘playing  makeup/wearing  guitar’  …  She  frequently  stood  on  
stage,  microphone  in  hand  and  foot  on  monitor,  and  simply  let  her  Fender  
guitar  dangle  around  her  neck.    She  truly  embodied  the  empowerment  that  
came  with  playing  the  electric  guitar  …  Love  depended  heavily  upon  her  male  
lead  guitar  foil  Eric  Erlandson,  but  the  rest  of  her  band  remained  exclusively  
female  throughout  several  lineup  changes.”    In  2015,  the  PHOENIX  NEW  
TIMES  declared  Love  the  number  one  greatest  female  rock  star  of  all  time,  
writing:  “To  build  a  perfect  rock  star,  there  are  several  crucial  ingredients:    
musical  talent,  physical  attractiveness,  tumultuous  relationships,  substance  
abuse,  and  public  meltdowns,  just  to  name  a  few.    These  days,  Love  seems  to  
have  rebounded  from  her  epic  tailspin  and  has  leveled  out  in  a  slightly  more  
normal  manner,  but  there’s  no  doubt  that  her  life  to  date  is  the  type  of  story  
people  wouldn’t  believe  in  a  novel  or  a  movie.”  

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• LaVern  Baker:    

An  American  rhythm-­‐and-­‐blues  singer  who  had  several  hit  records  on  the  
pop  chart  in  the  1950s  and  early  1960s.    Her  most  successful  records  were  
“Tweedle  Dee”  (1955),  “Jim  Dandy”  (1956),  and  “I  Cried  a  Tear”  (1958).    She  
was  one  of  the  first  female  R&B  performers  to  cross  over  to  reach  large  
numbers  of  white  listeners  in  the  early  days  of  Rock  and  Roll.    Baker’s  
exuberant  delivery  drove  such  mid-­‐50s  hits  as  “Tweedle  Dee”  and  “Jim  
Dandy,”  while  1958s  “I  Cried  a  Tear”  showed  her  to  be  an  effective  ballad  
singer.    After  white  singer  Georgia  Gibbs’  note-­‐for-­‐note  cover  version  [of  
“Tweedle  Dee”]  topped  the  pop  charts,  Baker  made  a  fruitless  effort  to  sue  
Gibbs,  and  unsuccessfully  petitioned  Congress  to  consider  making  such  cover  
versions  illegal.      

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• Patti  Smith:    

An  American  singer-­‐songwriter,  musician,  author,  and  poet,  who  became  an  


influential  component  of  the  New  York  City  punk  rock  movement  with  her  
1975  debut  album  HORSES.    Called  the  “punk  poet  laureate,”  Smith  fused  
rock  and  poetry  in  her  work.    Her  most  widely  known  song  is  “Because  the  
Night,”  which  was  co-­‐written  with  Bruce  Springsteen.    It  reached  number  13  
on  the  Billboard  Hot  100  chart  in  1978  and  number  five  in  the  U.K.    In  2005,  
Smith  was  named  a  Commander  of  the  Ordre  des  Arts  et  des  Lettres  by  the  
French  Ministry  of  Culture.    In  2007,  she  was  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  
Hall  of  Fame.    HORSES  is  an  iconoclastic  record;  the  songs  are  full  of  the  

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ecstatic  violence  of  things  being  shattered  in  order  to  be  remade.    It’s  the  
sound  of  Smith  (“Rimbaud  with  amps,”)  claiming  her  place  among  her  poet  
heroes  and  doing  so  with  her  signature  mix  of  kinship  and  contempt.  In  the  
months  after  the  release  of  HORSES,  the  Patti  Smith  Group  played  CBGBs,  
making  the  shabby  downtown  New  York  dive  bar  the  center  of  a  global  
movement  and  the  “godmother  of  punk”  epithet  has  stuck.      

• Tina  Turner:    
An  internationally  recognized  singer,  songwriter,  and  actress.    She  is  
originally  from  the  United  States,  and  has  been  a  Swiss  citizen  since  2013.    
Turner  rose  to  prominence  with  Ike  Turner’s  Kings  of  Rhythm  before  
recording  hit  singles  both  with  Ike  and  as  a  solo  performer.    One  of  the  best-­‐

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selling  recording  artists  of  all  time,  she  has  been  referred  to  as  the  The  Queen  
of  Rock  ‘n’  Roll  and  has  sold  more  than  200  million  records  worldwide.    
Turner  is  noted  for  her  energetic  stage  presence,  powerful  vocals,  career  
longevity,  and  trademark  legs.    Anna  Mae  Bullock  was  born  in  Nutbush,  
Tennessee.    She  began  her  career  in  1958  as  a  featured  singer  with  Ike  
Turner’s  Kings  of  Rhythm,  first  recording  under  the  name  “Little  Ann”.    Her  
introduction  to  the  public  as  Tina  Turner  began  in  1960  as  a  member  of  the  
Ike  &  Tina  Turner  Revue  with  the  single  “A  Fool  In  Love.”    Success  followed  
with  a  string  of  notable  hits  credited  to  the  duo,  including  “A  Fool  In  Love”  
(1960),  “River  Deep  –  Mountain  High”  (1966),  “Proud  Mary”  (1971),  and  
“Nutbush  City  Limits”  (1973).    In  her  autobiography,  I,  TINA:  MY  LIFE  STORY  
(1986),  she  revealed  that  Ike  Turner  had  subjected  her  to  domestic  violence  
prior  to  their  1976  split  and  subsequent  1978  divorce.    Raised  a  Baptist,  she  
became  an  adherent  of  Nichiren  Buddhism  in  1973,  crediting  the  spiritual  
chant  of  NAM  MYOHO  RENGE  KYO  with  helping  her  to  endure  during  difficult  
times.    After  her  divorce  and  professional  separation  from  Ike,  she  rebuilt  her  
career  through  live  performances.    In  the  1980s,  Turner  launched  a  major  
comeback  as  a  solo  artist.    The  1983  singer  “Let’s  Stay  Together”  was  
followed  by  the  1984  release  of  her  fifth  solo  album,  PRIVATE  DANCER,  
which  became  a  worldwide  success.    The  album  contained  the  song  “What’s  
Love  Got  To  Do  With  It”;  the  song  became  Turner’s  biggest  hit  and  won  four  
Grammy  Awards,  including  Record  of  the  Year.    Turner’s  solo  success  
continued  throughout  the  1980s  and  1990s  with  multi-­‐platinum  albums  and  
hit  singles.    In  1993,  WHAT’S  LOVE  GOT  TO  DO  WITH  IT,  a  biographical  film  
adapted  from  Turner’s  autobiography,  was  released  along  with  an  
accompanying  soundtrack  album.    In  2008,  Turner  returned  from  semi-­‐
retirement  to  embark  on  her  Tina!:  50th  Anniversary  Tour;  the  tour  become  
one  of  the  highest-­‐selling  ticket  shows  of  all  time.    Turner  has  also  garnered  
success  acting  in  films  such  as  the  1975  rock  musical  TOMMY,  the  1985  
action  film  MAD  MAX  BEYOND  THUNDERDOME,  and  the  1993  film  LAST  
ACTION  HERO.    From  THE  GUARDIAN:    With  new  stage  production  TINA:  
THE  MUSICAL  now  open,  we  look  back  at  the  boundary-­‐breaking  60-­‐year  
career  of  a  singer  who  crossed  racial  lines  and  overcame  violent  oppression  
to  revolutionise  music.    Tina  Turner  was  a  giant  of  the  decade  that  brought  us  
sky-­‐high  Elnett  hairdos  and  dazzling  arena  pop.    Her  swagger,  sensuality,  
gravelly  vocals  and  unstoppable  energy  were  her  trademarks  and  still  evoke  
the  kind  of  euphoria  that  remains  synonymous  with  rock  ‘n’  roll.    Yet  in  the  
mid-­‐1980s  –  the  outset  of  her  second  wind  as  a  solo  artist  –  she  was  also  
making  history,  executing  these  bold  moves  as  a  middle-­‐aged  African-­‐
American  female  entertainer  who  had  overcome  severe  personal  and  
professional  obstacles  to  reach  the  top.  

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• Yoko  Ono:    A  
Japanese-­‐American  multimedia  artist,  singer,  songwriter  and  peace  activist.    
her  work  also  encompasses  performance  art,  which  she  performs  in  English  

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and  Japanese  and  filmmaking.    She  is  known  for  being  the  wife  of  English  
singer-­‐songwriter  John  Lennon  of  the  Beatles  from  1969  until  his  murder  in  
1980.    Ono  grew  up  in  Tokyo  and  also  spent  several  years  in  New  York  City.    
She  studied  at  Gakushuin  University,  but  withdrew  from  her  course  after  two  
years  and  moved  to  New  York  in  1953  to  live  with  her  family.    She  spent  
some  time  at  Sarah  Lawrence  College  and  then  became  involved  in  New  York  
City’s  downtown  artist’s  scene,  which  included  the  Fluxus  group.    She  first  
met  Lennon  in  1966  at  her  own  art  exhibition  in  London,  and  they  became  a  
couple  in  1968  and  wed  the  following  year.    With  their  performance  BED-­‐INS  
FOR  PEACE  in  Amsterdam  and  Montreal  in  1969,  Ono  and  Lennon  famously  
used  their  honeymoon  at  the  Hilton  Amsterdam  as  a  stage  for  public  protests  
against  the  Vietnam  War.    The  feminist  themes  of  her  music  have  influenced  
musicians  as  diverse  as  the  B-­‐52s  and  Meredith  Monk.    She  achieved  
commercial  and  critical  acclaim  in  1980  with  the  chart-­‐topping  album  
DOUBLE  FANTASY,  a  collaboration  with  Lennon  that  was  released  three  
weeks  before  his  murder.    Public  appreciation  of  Ono’s  work  has  shifted  over  
time  and  was  helped  by  a  retrospective  at  a  Whitney  Museum  branch  in  1989  
and  the  1992  release  of  the  six-­‐disc  box  set  ONOBOX.    Retrospectives  of  her  
artwork  have  also  been  presented  at  the  Japan  Society  in  New  York  City  in  
2001,  in  Bielefeld,  Germany,  and  the  UK  in  2008,  Frankfurt,  and  Bilbao,  Spain,  
in  2013  and  The  Museum  of  Modern  Art  in  New  York  City  in  2015.    She  
received  a  Golden  Lion  Award  for  lifetime  achievement  from  the  Venice  
Biennale  in  2009  and  the  2012  Oskar  Kokoschka  Prize,  Austria’s  highest  
award  for  applied  contemporary  art.    As  Lennon’s  widow,  Ono  works  to  
preserve  his  legacy.    She  funded  Strawberry  Fields  in  Manhattan’s  Central  
Park,  the  Imagine  Peace  Tower  in  Iceland,  and  the  John  Lennon  Museum  in  
Saitama,  Japan  (which  closed  in  2010).    She  has  made  significant  
philanthropic  contributions  to  the  arts,  peace,  Philippine  and  Japan  disaster  
relief,  and  other  causes.    In  2012,  Ono  received  the  Dr.  Rainer  Hildebrandt  
Human  Rights  Award.    The  award  is  given  annually  in  recognition  of  
extraordinary,  nonviolent  commitment  to  human  rights.    Ono  continued  her  
social  activism  when  she  inaugurated  a  biennial  $50,000  LennonOno  Grant  
for  Peace  in  2002.    She  also  co-­‐founded  the  group  Artists  Against  Fracking  in  
2012.    She  has  a  daughter,  Kyoko  Chan  Cox,  from  her  marriage  to  Anthony  
Cox  and  a  son,  Sean  Taro  Ono  Lennon,  from  her  marriage  to  Lennon.    She  
collaborates  musically  with  Sean.    Ono’s  living  legacy  as  one  of  the  most  
prolific  and  confrontational  purveyors  of  outsider  art  in  modern  history,  
someone  whose  association  with  The  Beatles  through  her  marriage  to  John  
Lennon  was  met  with  a  tsunami  of  polarized  opinions.    However,  thanks  to  a  
generation  of  underground  acts  heavily  influenced  by  her  solo  output  –  
artists  like  Sonic  Youth,  Yo  La  Tengo,  Diamanda  Galas,  and  the  Boredoms  –  
Ono’s  albums  have  been  reassessed,  finally  critically  understood  in  some  
circles  for  the  visionary  works  they  are.    Where  some  people  only  saw  TWO  
VIRGINS  for  the  nude  portrait  of  its  creators  on  the  cover  (nevermind  the  fact  
the  couple  recorded  the  album  while  Lennon’s  first  wife  was  on  holiday),  
younger  artists  heard  the  genius  in  the  way  the  guitarist,  enraptured  by  

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Ono’s  artistic  daring,  took  the  experimentation  the  Beatles  were  exploring  on  
SGT.  PEPPER  and  THE  WHITE  ALBUM  and  made  a  hard  left  into  John  Cage  
territory,  employing  tape  loops,  assorted  instruments  and,  most  importantly,  
the  elasticity  of  Yoko’s  voice.    LIFE  WITH  THE  LIONS,  the  second  release  on  
Apple  Records’  short-­‐lived  spoken  word/experimental  subsidiary  Zapple  
(which  also  released  George  Harrison’s  second  studio  LP  ELECTRONIC  
SOUND),  was  partially  recorded  at  Queen  Charlotte’s  Hospital  in  London  
while  Ono  was  admitted  for  a  rocky  pregnancy  that  resulted  in  a  miscarriage.    
The  infant,  who  the  couple  named  John  Ono  Lennon  II,  can  be  heard  on  the  
track  “Baby’s  Heartbeat,”  in  which  a  portable  Nagra  microphone  was  used  to  
capture  and  loop  their  first  child’s  fading  heart  sounds.    The  track  is  
immediately  followed  by  “Two  Minutes  Silence”,  a  direct  homage  to  Cage’s  
composition  “Four  Thirty-­‐Three”;  it  consists  of  complete  silence,  save  for  any  
subtle  natural  sounds  picked  up  by  the  microphone.    It  is  said  to  be  a  
memorial  to  their  unborn  son.    The  entire  first  side  of  the  record  is  
comprised  of  a  26-­‐minute  improvisational  piece  culled  from  a  March  1969  
performance  a  Cambridge  University  featuring  a  caustic  back-­‐and-­‐forth  
between  Yoko’s  voice  and  John’s  guitar  feedback,  before  the  duo  were  joined  
onstage  by  acclaimed  free  jazz  musicians:  John  Tchicai  on  saxophone  and  
drummer  John  Stevens.    YOKO  ONO/PLASTIC  ONO  BAND  is  the  most  fully-­‐
realized  work  of  the  three,  recorded  with  a  full  band  consisting  of  Ringo  Starr  
on  drums  and  longtime  Beatles  associate  Klaus  Voormann  on  bass.    Free  jazz  
once  again  plays  a  prominent  role,  this  time  on  the  propulsive  side  two  
opener  “AOS,”  cut  live  in  1968  with  The  Ornette  Coleman  Quartet  featuring  
Ed  Blackwell  on  drums  and  double  bassists  Charlie  Haden  and  David  Izenzon.    
On  the  50th  anniversary  of  the  Ono-­‐Lennon  union,  it’s  thrilling  to  see  just  how  
far  the  music  she  made  –  both  with  her  husband  and  on  her  own  –  has  come  
in  terms  of  gaining  appreciation  from  the  public  ear.      

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• Aretha  Franklin:    

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  pianist,  and  civil  rights  activist.    Franklin  


began  her  career  as  a  child  singing  gospel  at  New  Bethel  Baptist  Church  in  
Detroit,  Michigan,  where  her  father  C.L.  Franklin  was  minister.    At  the  age  of  
18,  she  embarked  on  a  secular  musical  career  as  a  recording  artist  for  
Columbia  Records.    While  Franklin’s  career  did  not  immediately  flourish,  she  
found  acclaim  and  commercial  success  after  singing  with  Atlantic  Records  in  
1966.    Hit  songs  such  as  “Respect”,  “Chain  of  Fools”,  “Think”,  “(You  Make  Me  
Feel  Like)  A  Natural  Woman”,  “I  Never  Loved  a  Man  (The  Way  I  Love  You)”,  
and  “I  Say  a  Little  Prayer”,  propelled  her  past  her  musical  peers.    By  the  end  
of  the  1960s,  Aretha  Franklin  had  come  to  be  known  as  “The  Queen  of  Soul”.    
Franklin  continued  to  record  acclaimed  albums  such  as  I  NEVER  LOVED  A  
MAN  THE  WAY  I  LOVE  YOU  (1967),  LADY  SOUL  (1968),  SPIRIT  IN  THE  DARK  
(1970),  YOUNG,  GIFTED  AND  BLACK  (1972),  AMAZING  GRACE  (1972),  and  
SPARKLE  (1976)  before  experiencing  problems  with  her  record  company.    
Franklin  left  Atlantic  in  1979  and  sgined  with  Arista  Records.    She  appeared  
in  the  1980  film  THE  BLUES  BROTHERS  before  releasing  the  successful  
albums  JUMP  TO  IT  (1982),  WHO’S  ZOOMIN’  WHO?  (1985),  and  ARETHA  
(1986)  on  the  Arista  label.    In  1998,  Franklin  returned  to  the  Top  40  with  the  

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Lauryn  Hill-­‐produced  song  “A  Rose  Is  Still  a  Rose”;  later,  she  released  an  
album  of  the  same  name  which  was  certified  gold.    That  same  year,  Franklin  
earned  international  acclaim  for  her  performance  of  “Nessun  dorma”  at  the  
Grammy  Awards;  she  filled  in  at  the  last  minute  for  Luciano  Pavarotti,  who  
canceled  his  appearance  after  the  show  had  already  begun.    In  a  widely  noted  
performance,  she  paid  tribute  to  2015  honoree  Carole  King  by  singing  (“You  
Make  Me  Feel  Like)  A  Natural  Woman”  at  the  Kennedy  Center  Honors.    
Franklin  recorded  112  charted  singles  on  Billboard,  including  77  Hot  100  
entries,  17  top-­‐ten  pop  singles.    She  is  the  most  charted  female  artist  in  
history.    Franklin  received  a  star  on  the  Hollywood  Walk  of  Fame  in  1979,  
had  her  voice  declared  a  Michigan  “natural  resource”  in  1985,  and  became  
the  first  woman  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  in  1987.    The  
National  Academy  of  Recording  Arts  and  Science  awarded  her  a  Grammy  
Legen  Award  in  1991,  then  the  Grammy  Lifetime  Achievement  Award  in  
1994.    Franklin  was  a  Kennedy  Center  Honoree  in  1994,  recipient  of  the  
Nation  Medal  of  Arts  in  1999,  and  was  bestowed  the  Presidential  Medal  of  
Freedom  in  2005.    “American  history  wells  up  when  Aretha  sings,”  President  
Obama  explained  in  response  to  her  performance  of  “A  Natural  Woman”  at  
the  2015  Kennedy  Center  Honors.    “Nobody  emodies  more  fully  the  
connection  between  the  African-­‐American  spiritual,  the  blues,  R&B,  rock  and  
roll  –  the  way  that  hardship  and  sorrow  were  transformed  into  something  
full  of  beauty  and  vitality  and  hope.”      
• Nona  Hendryx:    

American  vocalist,  record  producer,  songwriter,  musician,  author,  and  

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actress.    Hendryx  is  known  for  her  work  as  a  solo  artist  as  well  as  for  being  
one-­‐third  of  the  trio  Labelle,  who  had  a  hit  with  “Lady  Marmalade.”    her  
music  has  ranged  from  soul,  funk,  and  R&B  to  hard  rock,  new  wave,  and  new-­‐
age.    She  stated  in  an  interview  that  her  family’s  last  name  was  originally  
spelled  with  an  “I”  and  that  she  is  a  distant  cousin  of  American  music  legend  
Jimi  Hendrix.    From  righteousbabe.com:    Quite  simply  put,  Nona  Hendryx  is  
the  quintessential  “mother”  of  contemporary  artists  such  as  Erykah  Badu,  
Emeli  Sandé,  Janelle  Monáe,  M.I.A.,  V.V.  Brown,  and  others  who  can  only  hope  
to  see  careers  that  allow  them  to  span  the  decades,  and  she  still  rocks  on!    
Longtime  Nona  Hendryx  fans  know  her  as  one  the  founding  members  of  the  
doo-­‐wop  girl  group,  Patti  LaBelle  &  the  Bluebelles.    Known  as  the  
“sweethearts  of  the  Apollo  Theatre”  the  group  was  inducted  in  the  R&B  Hall  
of  Fame  in  1999.    After  signing  to  Atlantic  Records,  the  group  lost  a  member,  
but  the  remaining  members  reinveted  themselves  into  the  iconic  funk-­‐rock  
group,  Labelle.    The  group  saw  huge  success  throughout  the  70s,  racking  up  
three  gold  albums  and  a  #1  worldwide  platinum  hit  with  the  single  “Lady  
Marmalade”.    In  1977,  lead  singer  Patti  LaBelle  left  the  group  to  start  her  solo  
career.    While  Labelle  fans  grieved  the  split,  Nona  Hendryx  fans  celebrated  at  
the  launch  of  her  solo  career.    Nona’s  solo  efforts  included  eight  studio  
albums,  collaborations  with  the  likes  of  Prince,  Peter  Gabriel,  Talking  Heads,  
Bono,  Keith  Richard,  and  more,  resulting  in  several  top  10  hits  and  a  Grammy  
nomination.    Hendryx  also  began  writing  music  for  theater  and  film  and  
began  producing  and  continued  to  collaborate  with  a  new  generation  of  
artists  including  India  Arie,  Esperanza  Spalding,  Cassandra  Wilson,  and  
Sheila  E.    In  2011  Nona  dded  her  long  career  an  adjunct  position  teaching  
Stage  Craft,  a  course  she  created  for  The  Clive  Davis  Dpartment  at  Tisch  
School  of  the  Arts  at  New  York  University  and  was  appointed  Ambassador  for  
Artistry  in  Education  at  Berklee  College  of  Music  in  Boston.      

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• Nico:    

Christa  Päffgen  known  by  her  stage  name  Nico,  was  a  German  singer,  
songwriter,  musician,  model,  and  actress.    She  had  roles  in  several  films,  
including  Federico  Fellini’s  LA  DOLCE  VITA  (1960)  and  Andy  Warhol’s  
CHELSEA  GIRLS  (1966).    At  the  insistence  of  Warhol,  she  recorded  vocals  for  
three  songs  of  the  Velvet  Underground’s  debut  album  THE  VELVET  
UNDERGROUND  &  NICO  (1967).    At  the  same  time,  she  started  a  solo  career  
and  released  CHELSEA  GIRL.    Nico’s  friend  Jim  Morrison  suggested  that  she  
start  writing  her  own  material.    She  then  composed  songs  on  a  harmonium,  
not  traditionally  a  rock  instrument;  John  Cale  became  her  music  arranger  and  
produced  THE  MARBLE  INDES,  DESERTSHORE,  THE  END…  and  other  
subsequent  albums.    In  the  1980s,  she  toured  extensively  in  Europe,  USA,  
Australia,  and  Japan.    After  a  last  concert  in  Berlin  in  June  1988,  she  went  on  
holiday  in  Ibiza  to  rest  but  died  after  having  a  stroke  while  cycling.    Her  
father  Wilhelm,  born  into  a  dynasty  of  Colognian  master  brewers,  was  
enlisted  as  a  solider  during  [WWII]  and  sustained  head  injuries  that  caused  
severe  brain  damage  and  ended  his  life  in  a  psychiatric  institution;  according  
to  unproven  rumours,  he  was  variously  said  to  have  died  in  a  concentration  
camp,  or  to  have  faded  away  as  a  result  of  shell  shock.    In  1946,  Nico  and  her  
mother  relocated  to  downtown  Berlin,  where  Nico  worked  as  a  seamstress.    
She  attended  school  until  the  age  13,  and  began  selling  lingerie  in  the  
exclusive  department  store  KaDeWe,  eventually  getting  modeling  jobs  in  
Berlin.    At  five  feet  ten  inches  and  with  chiseled  features  and  pale  skin,  Nico  
rose  to  prominence  as  a  fashion  model  as  a  teenager.    At  age  15,  while  
working  as  a  temp  for  the  U.S.  Air  Force,  Nico  was  raped  by  an  American  

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sergeant.    The  sergeant  was  court-­‐martialled  and  Nico  gave  evidence  for  the  
prosecution  at  his  trail.    Nico’s  song  “Secret  Side”  from  the  album  THE  END…  
makes  oblique  references  to  the  rape.    Nico  saw  herself  as  part  of  the  
tradition  of  bohemian  artists,  which  she  traced  back  to  the  Romanticism  of  
the  early  19th  century.    She  led  a  nomadic  life,  living  in  different  countries.    
Apart  form  Germany,  where  she  grew  up,  and  Spain,  where  she  died,  Nico  
lived  in  Italy  and  France  in  the  1950s,  spent  most  of  the  1960s  in  the  US,  and  
lived  in  London  in  the  early  1960s  and  again  in  the  1980s,  when  she  moved  
between  London  and  Manchester.    Nico  inspired  many  musicians  including  
Siouxsie  and  the  Banshees,  The  Cure,  Morrissey,  Elliott  Smith,  and  Björk.    
Siouxsie  and  the  Banshees  invited  her  as  special  guest  on  their  first  major  UK  
tour  in  1978;  they  also  covered  “All  Tomorrow’s  Parties”.    The  Cure’s  leader  
Robert  Smith  has  cited  DESERTSHORE  as  one  of  his  favourite  records,  as  has  
Björk.    Joy  Division’s  Peter  Hook  cited  CHELSEA  GIRL  as  one  of  his  favourite  
albums.    Bauhaus’  singer,  Peter  Murphy,  considered  that,  “Nico  recorded  the  
first  truly  Gothic  album,  MARBLE  INDEX  or  THE  END.    Nico  was  Gothi,  but  
she  was  Mary  Shelley  to  everyone  else’s  Hammer  Horror.    They  both  did  
Frankenstein,  but  Nico’s  was  real.  Morrissey  cited  Nico  when  asked  to  name  
artists  who  have  a  lasting  influence  on  him:    “The  royal  three  remain  the  
same:  the  New  York  Dolls,  Frank  Sinatra,  Elvis  Presley,  with  Nico  standing  
firm  as  first  reserve.”    Morrissey  also  commented  on  the  song  “Innocent  and  
Vain”  with  the  sentence:  “this  is  my  youth  in  one  piece  of  music”.    Elliott  
Smith  covered  “Chelsea  Girls”  and  “These  Days”  in  Portland,  Oregon  in  
October  1999;  he  also  cited  THE  MARBLE  INDEX  as  one  of  the  “things  I  was  
obsessed  about  at  school”  due  to  her  “wonderful  intriguing  voice,  icy  and  
rmote  yet  warm  at  the  same  time”.      
• Reza  Abdoh:    

An  Iranian-­‐born  director  and  playwright  known  for  large-­‐scale,  experimental  

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theatrical  productions,  often  staged  in  unusual  spaces  like  warehouses  and  
abandoned  buildings.    From  dazedigital.com’s  article  “Why  queer  director  
Reza  Abdoh  was  American  theatre’s  greatest  punk”:    As  humanity  widens  its  
recognition  of  oppressed  queer  histories,  artists  continue  to  posthumously  
enter  the  spotlight.    For  AIDS  artists,  many  of  whom  were  tragically  taken  
from  the  world  at  a  tender  young  age,  the  spotlight  comes  in  a  string  of  
retrospective  exhibitions  and  documentaries  aimed  at  showing  how  these  
artists  used  their  work  as  a  form  of  protest.    Among  this  cadre  of  creatives  
was  queer  Iranian  theatre  director  and  playwright  Reza  Abdoh  whose  
politically  potent  productions  were  so  piercing  that  anyone  who  got  to  
witness  one  still  frames  Abdoh  and  his  performers  with  god-­‐like  status.    
Abdoh  was  American  theatre’s  greatest  punk.    His  ruthless  commitment  to  
experimental  performance  pushed  the  boundaries  of  theatre  and  sobered  
viewers  to  the  stark  reality  of  queer  rights  in  the  1980s-­‐90s  America  –  an  
influence  in  direct  line  with  his  queer  contemporaries  like  David  
Wojnarowicz  and  Keith  Haring.    His  plays,  which  were  usually  set  in  
abandoned  warehouses  and  buildings,  took  theatre  out  of  the  threatre  hall  
itself  and  meshed  it  with  reality  while  treating  social  and  political  life  with  
pure  anarchy.    From  scenes  of  BDSM  to  rave  culture,  crime  thrillers,  and  fairy  
tales,  Abdoh’s  dark,  yet  equally  luminous  plays  provoked  viewers  to  consider  
the  political  atrocities  of  their  time,  including  president  Ronald  Reagan’s  
oppressive  regime,  the  stigmatization  of  AIDS,  and  America’s  deeply  
embedded  homophobia  and  racism.    At  the  age  of  32,  Abdoh  sadly  passed  
away  from  AIDS.    For  Adboh,  art  was  both  an  escape  and  a  tool  for  processing  
trauma,  reality,  and  survival,  making  every  second  of  his  experimental  
productions  deeply  personal.    “I  am  an  artist  living  with  AIDS.    I  am  a  
homosexual  born  in  Iran,”  Abdoh  once  reflected.    “In  my  life,  I  have  had  to  
work  through  problems  of  stigmatization  and  prejudice.    When  I  discovered  
the  power  of  the  arts  to  express  my  pains  and  joys,  it  became  clear  to  me  that  
there  would  be  no  other  way  to  work  through  the  demons  except  to  fully  
embrace  the  process  of  creation.    The  work  was  not  personal  therapy  but  had  
a  connection  to  other  people’s  realities.    As  I  grow  older  and  more  mature,  it  
becomes  clearer  to  me  that  personal  struggles  and  conflicts  are  connected  
with  universal  struggles  and  conflicts.    It  is  this  knowledge,  ironically,  that  
gives  me  the  freedom  to  experiment  in  my  work.”    The  earliest  personal  
strings  Abdoh  pulls  upon  his  work  were  memories  from  his  childhood,  
including  his  Iranian  heritage,  and  his  tumultuous  relationship  with  his  
father.    Born  in  Tehran  in  1963,  at  age  13,  Abdoh  relocated  to  live  with  his  
grandmother  in  London  where  he  fell  in  love  with  theatre  after  seeing  a  
production  of  Shakespeare’s  A  MIDSUMMER  NIGHT’S  DREAM.    In  the  wake  of  
the  Iranian  revolution,  in  1979  the  artist  and  his  family  relocated  to  
California  where  his  father  died  a  year  later.    In  1983,  he  began  directing  
plays  in  Los  Angeles  by  adapting  classics  like  KING  LEAR  and  KING  OEDIPUS.    
Abdoh’s  affination  to  Iran  finds  its  way  into  plays  like  his  1988  play  
PEEPSHOW,  where  Abdoh  includes  excerpts  form  the  Iran-­‐Contra  hearings  
and  war  images,  while  references  to  his  father  appear  in  his  1990  production  

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FATHER  WAS  A  PECULIAR  MAN.    In  1988,  Abdoh  was  diagnosed  with  AIDS  –  
the  same  year  David  Wojnarowicz  appeared  at  ACT  UP’s  Food  and  Drug  
Administration  (FDA)  protest  with  a  jacket  that  read,  “If  I  die  of  AIDS  –  forget  
burial  –  just  drop  my  body  on  the  steps  of  the  FDA.”    AIDS  was  at  crisis  point  
and  queer  artists  of  this  moment  were  unflinching  in  stating  so.    When  
reflecting  upon  the  inherent  sexuality  of  Abdoh’s  work,  critic  Hilton  Als  
stated  in  THE  NEW  YORKER  that,  “What  was  on  his  mind  that  year  under  
Reagan’s  Immigration  Reform  and  Control  Act,  an  HIV  test  was  required  –  
was  what  was  happening  to  the  queer  body  in  America.    Sexuality  was  
inextricable  from  Abdoh’s  work.    Not  only  did  he  use  sex  as  a  vehicle  for  
exploring  the  human  form,  but  he  created  a  platform  for  queer  artists  by  
their  sexuality  to  be  openly  proud  and  expressive  of  their  own  identity.    
“Abdoh  didn’t  rely  on  metaphors  for  the  gorgeous  confusion  and  frequent  
disillusionment  of  being  sexual;  he  showed  those  things,”  Als  adds.    “His  
actors  tore  at  their  skin,  slathered  their  faces  with  makeup  that  ran  down  
their  shirt  fronts  or  their  naked  chests  because  Abdoh  wanted  sex  to  look  like  
sex,  not  like  a  polite  version  of  closeness  or  romance.”    Al’s  description  
translates  right  through  Abdoh’s  1991  production  BOGEYMAN  which  lifts  the  
lid  on  secret  BDSM  acts  that  play  out  in  a  nine-­‐square  grid  that  looks  like  a  
dollhouse.    In  BOGEYMAN,  latex  and  chain-­‐clad  queer  men  partake  in  
castration,  piercings,  torture  tanks,  and  simulated  sex  scenes  set  alongside  
idyllic  prairie  scenes  and  the  occasional  naked  man  who  would  step  out  of  
character  to  lighten  the  mood  by  singing  and  dancing.    Abdoh’s  1993  
production  QUOTATIONS  FROM  A  RUINED  CITY  is  entirely  underlined  by  the  
suffering  of  the  AIDS  crisis  –  the  show  being  a  metaphor  for  the  ruins  of  the  
body,  as  Abdoh  once  described  in  an  interview.    The  play  follows  two  male  
couples,  the  first  is  a  gay  couple  who  decay  physically  and  psychologically  
across  the  entire  play,  while  the  second  couple  travels  through  time.    As  critic  
Elinor  Fuchs  once  reflected  in  a  1999  biography  on  Abdoh:  “Dying  of  AIDS  is  
the  very  architecture  of  the  performance,  which  reels  from  graveyard  to  
oxygen  mask  to  the  sound  of  gasping  for  breath  to  coffins  to  funeral  and  da  
capo  to  graveyard  to  hospital,  with  the  central  sufferers  each  time  a  little  
weaker,  a  little  more  transparent.    In  between  come  brief  remissions:  
feverish  dances  and  love  scenes.”    Fuch  adds,  “The  torrential  repetitions  –  
throwing  the  actors  into  one  more  dance,  one  more  speech,  bringing  on  one  
more  image,  one  more  idea  and  geopolitical  association-­‐  represents  perhaps  
the  most  heartbreaking  mimicry  of  the  attempt  to  stay  alive  in  the  losing  
struggle  with  AIDS.”    Abdoh’s  deeply  political  approach  to  theatre  blurred  the  
lines  between  theatre  as  abstraction  and  theatre  as  a  form  of  social  
commentary  –  his  deeply  surrealist,  beautifully  queer  approach  allowed  him  
to  critique  reality  through  a  lens  of  frantic  fantasy.    In  1996,  he  produced  THE  
HIP-­‐HOP  WALTZ  OF  EURYDICE,  which  critiqued  the  social  and  political  
reality  of  America  in  the  1990s  through  a  queer  retelling  of  the  Greek  myth  of  
Orpheus  and  Eurydice  –  a  play  Abdoh  referred  to  as  a  “gut  reaction  to  
systemic  repression  and  erosion  of  freedom”.    The  original  myth  traces  the  
fateful  love  of  Orpheus  and  Eurydice,  while  HIP-­‐HOP  focuses  on  an  

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antagonistic,  genderless  couple  Tommy  and  Dora  Lee.    As  the  show’s  
synopsis  reads:    “America  is  crumbling!    Projecting  (poet  Rainer  Maria)  Rilke  
and  (Jean)  Cocteau  into  an  Orwellian  post-­‐nuclear  world  reworked  by  the  
Marx  Brothers,  an  explosive  insane  waltz  in  which  Orpheus  and  Eurydice  –  
heads  shaved,  batteries  in  the  neck  and  genders  reversed  –  explore  a  punk  
underworld  where  eroticism  is  strictly  forbidden.    In  1992,  THE  NEW  YORK  
TIMES  declared  Abdoh’s  production  THE  LAW  REMAINS  as  “one  of  the  
angriest  theatre  pieces  ever  hurled  at  a  New  York  audience”  –  a  statement  
which  bolstered  Abdoh’s  inherently  radical  approach  to  theatre.    The  seven-­‐
scene  play  is  a  critique  of  violence  and  its  social  impact  as  studied  through  
the  lens  of  serial  killer  Jeffrey  Dahmer,  THE  LAW  REMAINS  as  Abdoh  uses  
shock  as  a  tactic  to  interrogate  everything  from  murder  to  sexual  mutilation  
and  necrophilia.    “It’s  nauseating,  all  right,  but  is  it  art?”  once  asked  critic  
Julius  Novick  of  the  show  in  the  essay  “Creating  Out  of  Death:  An  
Introduction  to  the  Work  of  Reza  Abdoh”.    “For  Abdoh,  shock  is  not  a  ‘tactic’;  
it’s  a  prerequisite  to  communicating  in  a  forum  where  the  listeners  have  
learned  to  assume  a  passive  and  comfortable  position.”    To  read  more  of  this  
article  go  here:    https://www.dazeddigital.com/art-­‐
photography/article/43420/1/queer-­‐director-­‐reza-­‐abdoh-­‐american-­‐
theatre-­‐kw-­‐institute-­‐berlin-­‐bdsm-­‐sex-­‐activist  
• Janelle  Monáe:    

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  rapper,  actress,  and  producer  who  is  signed  
to  Atlantic  Records,  as  well  as  her  own  imprint,  the  Wondaland  Arts  Society.    
Monáe’s  musical  career  began  in  2003  when  she  released  an  unofficial  demo  
album  titled  THE  AUDITION.    In  2007,  she  publicly  debuted  with  a  conceptual  

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EP  titled  METROPOLIS:  SUITE  I  (THE  CHASE).    It  peake  at  number  two  on  the  
US  Top  Heatseekers  chart,  and  in  2010,  through  Bad  Boy  Records,  Monáe  
released  her  first  full-­‐length  studio  album,  THE  ARCHANDROID,  a  concept  
album  and  sequel  to  her  first  EP.    In  2011,  Monáe  was  featured  as  a  guest  
vocalist  on  fun.’s  single  “We  Are  Young”,  which  achieved  major  commercial  
success,  topping  the  charts  of  over  ten  countries  and  garnering  Monáe  a  
wider  audience.    Her  second  studio  album,  THE  ELECTRIC  LADY,  was  
released  in  2013  and  debuted  at  number  five  on  the  Billboard  200,  serving  as  
the  fourth  and  fifth  installments  of  her  seven-­‐part  METROPOLIS  concept  
series.    In  2016,  Monáe  made  her  theatrical  film  debut  in  two  high  profile  
productions;  she  starred  in  HIDDEN  FIGURES  as  NASA  mathematician  and  
aerospace  Mary  Jackson  and  also  starred  in  MOONLIGHT.    HIDDEN  FIGURES  
was  a  box  office  success,  while  MOONLIGHT  won  the  Academy  Award  for  
Best  Picture  at  the  89th  annual  ceremony.    Monáe’s  third  studio  album,  DIRTY  
COMPUTER,  also  described  as  a  concept  album,  was  released  in  2018  to  
widespread  acclaim;  it  was  chosen  as  the  best  album  of  the  year  by  several  
publications  and  earned  Monáe  two  nominations  at  the  61st  Annual  Grammy  
Awards,  including  Album  of  the  Year.    The  album  debuted  at  number  six  on  
the  Billboard  200  and  was  further  promoted  by  Monáe’s  Dirty  Computer  
Tour,  which  lasted  from  June-­‐August  2018.    Monáe  possesses  a  mezzo-­‐
soprano  voice.    THE  TELEGRAPH  published  an  interview  with  Monáe,  talking  
about  her  first  studio  album,  in  which  the  journalist  Bernadete  McNulty  said,  
“I  begin  to  worry  for  a  moment  that  Monáe  may  not  just  be  a  humourless  
science-­‐fiction  nerd,  but  actually  an  android  herself,  created  in  a  laboratory  
as  a  super-­‐musical  cross  between  James  Brown,  Judy  Garland,  André  3000  
and  Steve  Jobs,  invted  to  test  the  desperate  incredulity  of  music  journalists.”    
She  also  compared  Monáe  to  artists  such  as  Annie  Lennox,  Lauryn  Hill,  and  
Corinne  Bailey  Rae.    Her  musical  styles  have  been  described  as  “a  soaring  
orchestral  trip  enlivened  with  blockbuster  vocals,  mysterious  imagery  and  
notes  of  Sixties  pop  and  jazz”.      

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• Chrissie  Hynde:    

An  American  singer-­‐songwriter  and  musician.    She  is  a  founding  member  and  


the  lead  guitarist,  lead  vocalist,  and  primary  songwriter  of  the  rock  band  The  
Pretenders,  as  well  as  its  only  constant  member.    Inspired  by  hippie  counter-­‐
culture,  Hynde  worked  in  London  with  Malcolm  McLaren  and  Vivienne  
Westwood  at  their  clothing  store,  SEX.    In  1978,  she  formed  her  own  band,  
The  Pretenders,  with  Pete  Farndon,  James  Honeymoon-­‐Scott,  and  Martin  
Chambers.    She  has  also  released  a  number  of  songs  with  other  musicians  
including  Frank  Sinatra,  Cher,  and  UB40.    Hynde  was  inducted  into  the  Rock  
and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  in  2005  as  a  member  of  The  Pretenders.    Hynde  has  a  
contralto  vocal  range.    Until  1978,  shortly  before  the  advent  of  The  
Pretenders,  Hynde  had  little  idea  what  she  sounded  like.    Attributing  her  
distinctive  time  signatures  to  an  inability  to  count  and  her  distinctive  amusia  
to  an  inability  to  hear,  Hynde  eschews  formal  voice  training;  she  contends  
that  “distinctive  voices  in  rock  are  trained  through  years  of  many  things:    
frustration,  fear,  loneliness,  anger,  insecurity,  arrogance,  narcissism,  or  just  
sheer  perseverance  –  anything  but  a  teacher.    With  her  take-­‐no-­‐prisoners  
lyrical  and  musical  approach  and  her  Zen-­‐Beatnik-­‐Punk-­‐Biker-­‐Chick  style,  
Hynde,  along  with  her  contemporaries  Patti  Smith,  Debbie  Harry,  Joan  Jett,  
The  Runaways,  Siouxsie  Sioux,  Kate  Bush,  Grace  Jones,  Exene  Cervenka,  Lydia  
Lunch,  The  Slits.  The  Raincoats,  Wendy  O.  Williams,  Lene  Lovich  and  Nina  
Hagen  influenced  the  musical  landscape  as  well  as  female  fashion  and  the  
feminist  attitude  for  further  generations’  inspiration.    In  a  1994  interview,  
Madonna  recalled  of  Hynde:    “I  saw  her  play  in  Central  Park  [in  August  1980,  
performing  with  the  Pretenders].    She  was  amazing:    the  only  woman  I’d  seen  
in  performance  where  I  thought,  yeah,  she’s  got  balls,  she’s  awesome!  …It  

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gave  me  courage,  inspiration,  to  see  a  woman  with  that  kind  of  confidence  in  
a  man’s  world.”  
• Judith  Butler:    

An  American  philosopher  and  gender  theorist  whose  work  has  influenced  


political  philosophy,  ethics,  and  the  fields  of  third-­‐wave  feminist,  queer,  and  
literary  theory.    In  1993,  she  began  teaching  at  the  University  of  California,  
Berkeley,  where  she  has  served,  beginning  in  1998,  as  the  Maxine  Eliot  
Professor  n  the  Department  of  Comparative  Literature  and  Program  of  
Critical  Theory.    She  is  also  the  Hannah  Arendt  Chair  at  the  European  
Graduate  School.    Butler  is  best  known  for  her  books  GENDER  TROUBLE:  
FEMINISM  AND  THE  SUBVERSION  OF  IDENTITY  (1990)  and  BODIES  THAT  
MATTER:  ON  THE  DISCURSIVE  LIMITS  OF  SEX  (1993),  in  which  she  
challenges  conventional  notions  of  gender  and  develops  her  theory  of  gender  
performativity.    This  theory  has  had  a  major  influence  on  feminist  and  queer  
scholarship.    Her  works  are  often  studied  in  film  studies  courses  emphasizing  
gender  studies  and  performativity  in  discourse.    Butler  has  supported  lesbian  
and  gay  rights  movements  and  has  spoken  out  on  many  contemporary  
political  issues.  In  particular,  she  is  a  vocal  critic  of  Zionism,  Israeli  politics,  
and  its  effect  on  the  Israeli-­‐Palestinian  conflict,  emphasizing  that  Israel  does  
not  and  should  not  be  take  to  represent  all  Jews  or  Jewish  opinion.    From  
thecut.com:    If    you  wanted  to  choose  a  celebrity  avatar  for  everything  
supposedly  weird  about  The  Youth,  you  could  do  worse  than  Jaden  Smith:  a  
gnomic  tweeter,  sometime  crystal  devotee,  self-­‐described  “Future  of  Music,  
Photography,  and  Filmmaking,”  who  has  little  attachment  to  the  gender  
binary.    Earlier  this  year,  the  17-­‐year-­‐old  son  of  Will  Smith  and  Jada  Pinkett  
Smith,  brother  of  Willow,  appeared  in  a  Louis  Vuitton  womenswear  
campaign.    Jaden  Smith,  quasar  of  contemporary  teen  behaviors,  wears  a  
finged  white  top  and  an  embellished,  knee-­‐length  black  skirt.    Wait,  though.    
Rub  your  eyes,  refocus  your  gaze,  and  really,  is  there  any  real  reason  why  this  
ought  to  be  weird?    He  looks  good.    And  gender  norms  –  they  are  pretty  
arbitrary,  right?    Smith  also  wore  a  dress,  with  a  loose  sport  coat  and  
sneakers,  when  he  took  THE  HUNGER  GAMES’  Amandla  Stenberg  to  the  

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prom.    (Stenberg,  meanwhile,  recently  came  out  as  bisexual  over  Snapchat,  
though  she’s  also  shrugged  at  conventional  identity  politics:  “I  don’t  really  
see  sexuality  in  boxes,”  she  has  said.)    Smith’s  insouciant  attitude  toward  
gender  looks  less  like  affectation  than  evidence  of  a  world  that  has  changed  
profoundly  in  the  two  decades  since  his  father  starred  on  THE  FRESH  
PRINCE  OF  BEL-­‐AIR.    Or,  for  that  matter,  since  his  father  refused  to  kiss  a  
man  onscreen  23  years  ago.    Caitlyn  Jenner’s  coming  out  last  year  was  
Kardashian-­‐scale  teachable  moment  –  the  opportunity  for  patient,  prime-­‐
time  explanations  of  why  not  to  take  gender  for  granted.    But  beyond  the  
“transgender  tipping  point”  heralded  by  TIME  and  the  broader  awakening  of  
identity  politics,  there  is  another  revelation  going  on:  a  growing  acceptance,  
especially  among  a  broad  swath  of  young  people,  of  easy  gender  fluidity  and  
ambiguity.    In  2014,  Facebook  stopped  limiting  its  gender  options  to  male  or  
female  and  began  giving  users  some  50  other  choices  (from  neutrois  to  
genderqueer  to  cis).    In  2015,  the  site  abandoned  that  present  menu  
altogether  and  just  let  users  enter  up  to  ten  terms  of  their  own.    We  find  
ourselves  poised  someplace  between  gender  mattering  tremendously  and  
mattering  not  very  much  at  all.    The  impulse  to  reexamine  assumptions  has  
had  practical  consequences  –  gender-­‐neutral  college  dorms  and  high-­‐school  
bathrooms  –  and  cultural  ripples.    Writers  like  Jill  Soloway  (creator  of  TV’s  
TRANSPARENT)  and  Maggie  Nelson  (author  of  the  queer-­‐family  memoir  THE  
ARGONAUTS)  have  found  human  drama  in  gender’s  mutability.    Meanwhile,  
BuzzFeed  offers  an  illustrated  list  showing  “What  People  Say  to  Gender  
Nonbinary  People  vs.  the  Subtext  We  Often  Hear,”  and  ROOKIE  presents  the  
recent  comic  “My  Gender  is  Weird.”    Here’s  TEEN  VOGUE  on  another  photo  of  
Jaden  Smith  in  a  skirt  suit:  The  midi  skirt  set  sends  up  a  poignant  rejection  of  
heteronormativity.”    What  sage  could  have  predicted  that  heteronormativity  
would  eventually  make  its  way  into  the  vocabulary  of  teen  magazines  and  
shareable  web  content?    Only,  perhaps,  the  queer  theorist  Judith  Butler.    
Butler  laughs  when  I  tell  her  about  the  TEEN  VOGUE  verdict  on  Jaden  Smith.    
“I  think  there  aren’t  very  many  of  us  who  could  have  foreseen  it,”  Butler  says,  
considering  the  blossoming  mainstream  interest  in  gender  issues.    We  are  
speaking  shortly  after  President  Obama  publicly  voiced  his  support  for  
transgender  rights  in  the  fight  against  North  Carolina’s  bathroom  law,  and  
gender  –  as  something  in  need  of  definition,  as  something  potentially  
ambiguous  or  complex  –  is  at  the  center  of  national  debate.    “Such  an  
utterance  coming  out  of  a  U.S.  presdent  would  be  impossible  in  the  1990s,”  
Butler  says.    GENDER  TROUBLE,  published  in  1990,  made  Butler  a  star:  It  
introduced  “performativity,”  the  idea  that  gender  isn’t  something  we  are  but  
something  we  continually  do,  opening  the  door  for  “cultural  configurations  of  
sex  and  gender  [to]  proliferate,”  as  she  put  it  in  the  book’s  conclusion,  
“confounding  the  very  binarism  of  sex,  and  exposing  its  fundamental  
unnaturalness.”    If  not  for  Butler’s  work,  “you  wouldn’t  have  the  version  of  
genderqueer-­‐ness  that  we  have  now,”  says  Jack  Halberstam,  a  gender-­‐studies  
professor  at  Columbia.    “She  made  it  clear  that  the  body  is  not  a  stable  
foundation  for  gender  expression.”    For  much  of  her  career,  Butler  was  

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known  mostly  within  academia,  in  part  because  of  the  difficulty  of  her  prose.    
And  yet  the  work  Butler  demands  of  readers  is  of  a  kind  that,  more  than  ever,  
they  are  willing  to  do  now  –  if  not  necessarily  while  reading  theoretical  texts,  
then  in  moving  through  their  daily  lives.    People  outside  the  academy  
question  their  assumptions;  they  wrestle  with  unfamiliar  ideas  and  examine  
their  own  discomfort.    “Don’t  laugh,”  read  a  recent  headline  in  the  
WASHINGTON  POST.    “I  have  a  serious  reason  for  raising  my  cats  gender  
neutral.”    (The  reason:  as  a  reminder  to  use  the  right  pronouns  for  nonbinary  
friends.)    Theoryspeak,  meanwhile,  has  infiltrated  civilian  vocabularies.    
Trope  and  problematic  and  heteronormative;  even,  in  a  not-­‐quite-­‐Butlerian  
sense,  performative  –  the  sort  of  words  that  rankled  queer  theory’s  culture-­‐
wars  critics  –  are  right  at  home  on  Tumblr  and  Twitter.    In  a  broad-­‐stroke,  
vastly  simplified  version,  the  understanding  of  gender  that  GENDER  
TROUBLE  suggests  is  not  only  recognizable;  it  is  pop.    I  was  watching  
SCANDAL  the  other  night,”    Butler  tells  me,  “and  there  was  a  great  moment  
where  a  black  characters  says,  ‘Oh,  race  is  just  a  social  construct.’”    She  enjoys  
observing  this  kind  of  cultural  cross-­‐pollination.    “I  thought  it  was  hilarious!    
It  was  a  moment  where  an  academic  argument  was  brought  into  popular  
culture.”    (Butler  also  watches  TRANSPARENT,  which  she  considers  
“enormously  entertaining”  but  “much  better  on  Jewish  life  than  it  is  on  trans  
life.    It’s  a  bit  of  a  throwback  to  the  LA  CAGE  AUX  FOLLES  idea  of  
transgender.”)    This  kind  of  thing  happens  with  some  frequency  now,  and  
often  transcends  mere  hilarity,  as  when  Laverne  Cox  talks  in  interviews  
about  Simone  de  Beauvoir.    “Laverne  says,  ‘It  was  that  phrase,  that  one  is  not  
born  but  rather  becomes  a  woman,  that  made  it  possible  for  me  to  think  that  
I  could  become  trans,’”  Butler  says.    “You  know,  it’s  kind  of  trippy  that  here’s  
this  popular-­‐culture  person  who  has  read  and  struggled  with  ideas,  and  went  
out  into  this  world,  and  brought  them  with  her”  to  reach  new  audiences.    
GENDER  TROUBLE  hasn’t  changed  –  chapters  still  feel  like  long-­‐distance  
runs.    And  yet  completing  this  feat  of  endurance  today  leaves  the  liberal-­‐artsy  
reader  with  a  curious  sense  of  lightness.    The  felling  is  not  of  your  
worldview’s  being  upended  but  rather  thoroughly  explained.    That  it  comes  
into  being  through  repeated  actions,  so,  like,  I  become  recognizable  as  a  “girl”  
by  doing  girls  things:    Okay.    That  the  world  as  we  know  it  has  generally  
presumed  everyone  to  be  straight-­‐wise,  pay  the  price;  and  that,  while  maybe  
we  can’t  totally  escape  all  of  this,  we  can  find  ways  of  questioning  it,  possible  
even  undermining  it,  and  so  making  life  more  livable  for  everybody:    Yeah,  
sounds  about  right.    Here  is  the  link  to  the  rest  of  the  article:    
https://www.thecut.com/2016/06/judith-­‐butler-­‐c-­‐v-­‐r.html  

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• Blondie/Debbie  Harry:    

An  American  rock  band  founded  by  singer  Debbie  Harry  and  guitarist  Chris  
Stein.    The  band  were  pioneers  in  the  early  American  new  wave  and  punk  
scenes  of  the  mid-­‐late  1970s.    Its  first  two  albums  contained  strong  elements  
of  these  genres,  and  although  successful  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  Australia,  
Blondie  was  regarded  as  an  underground  band  in  the  United  States  until  the  
release  of  PARALLEL  LINES  in  1978.    Over  the  next  three  years,  the  band  
achieved  several  hit  singles,  including  “Heart  of  Glass”,  “Call  Me”,  “Rapture”,  
and  “The  Tide  is  High”  and  became  noted  for  its  eclectic  mix  of  musical  styles  
incorporating  elements  of  disco,  pop,  reggae,  and  early  rap  music.    Debbie  
Harry  is  an  American  singer,  songwriter,  model,  and  actress.    From  VANITY  
FAIR:    “I  don’t  think  anybody  thought  about  being  in  a  band  for  more  than  a  
year  or  two,”  Debbie  Harry  told  VF  Hollywood  at  the  opening  party  for  “A  
Blondie  Exhibition,”  at  the  Chelsea  Hotel  Storefront  Gallery  last  Monday.  But  
how  wrong  she  was:  this  year  marks  the  40th  anniversary  of  Blondie,  one  of  
the  greatest  1970s  New  York  bands  and  one  of  the  first  to  blend  the  grit  and  
decay  of  punk  rock  with  the  pop  and  flash  of  new  wave.    From  DAZED:    
Sometimes,  looking  at  images  of  Debbie  Harry  is  actually  painful  she  looks  
that  good.    With  her  iconic  pout,  shock  of  bleached  white  hair  and  revolving,  
ever-­‐imitated  outfit  choices,  the  70s  style  queen  has  always  been  (and  still  is)  
much  more  than  Blondie’s  lead  singer.    First  emerging  onto  the  scene  as  a  
Playboy  bunny,  and  ending  up  as  one  of  punk  rock’s  most  fearless  
frontwomen,  Harry  defined  the  effortless  fashion  of  New  York  City;  a  style  
borne  from  sweaty  basement  hangouts  CBGB,  Studio  54,  and  Max’s  Kansas  
City,  and  documented  in  Edo  Bertoglio’s  party-­‐buzzed  polaroids  and  

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countless  on-­‐stage  film  clips.    These  days,  her  influence  is  felt  everywhere,  
from  the  denim-­‐clad  looks  that  Sky  Ferreira  rocks  on  stage,  to  Miley  Cyrus’  
self-­‐aware  sexual  prowess.      
• Suzi  Quatro:  

 
An  American  rock  singer-­‐songwriter,  multi-­‐instrumentalist  and  actress.    She  
was  the  first  female  bass  player  to  become  a  major  rock  star.    In  the  1970s,  

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Quatro  scored  a  string  of  hit  singles  that  found  greater  successes  in  Europe  
and  Australia  than  in  her  homeland.    She  reached  no.  1  in  the  UK  and  other  
European  countries  and  Australia  with  her  singles  “Can  the  Can”  (1973)  and  
“Devil  Gate  Drive”  (1974).    Following  a  recurring  role  as  bass  player  Leather  
Tuscadero  on  the  popular  American  sitcom  HAPPY  DAYS,  her  duet  “Stumblin’  
In”  with  Smokie’s  lead  singer  Chris  Norman  reached  No.  4  in  the  US.    Quatro  
released  her  eponymous  debut  album  in  1973.    Since  then,  she  has  released  
fifteen  studio  albums,  ten  compilation  albums,  and  one  live  album.    Her  other  
solo  hits  include  “48  Crash”,  “Daytona  Demon”,  “The  Wild  One”,  and  “Your  
Mama  Won’t  Like  Me”.    Between  1973  and  1980,  Quatro  was  awarded  six  
Bravo  Ottos.    In  2010,  she  was  voted  into  the  Michigan  Rock  and  Roll  Legends  
online  Hall  of  Fame.    Quatro  has  sold  over  50  million  and  continues  to  
perform  live,  worldwide.    Her  most  recent  studio  album  was  released  in  2019  
and  she  also  continues  to  present  new  radio  programmes.    In  August  1974,  
Simon  Frith  spotted  a  problem  with  the  formula  that  was  working  outside  
the  US,  saying  that,  “Suzi’s  facing  a  bit  of  a  [commercial]  crisis:    Chinn  and  
Chapman,  having  proved  their  point,  are  losing  interest  in  her.    She’s  never  
had  their  best  material  (they  don’t  play  many  games  with  her)  and  each  of  
her  singles  has  been  less  gripping  than  the  one  before.    Unless  they  suddenly  
imagine  a  new  joke,  she’s  in  danger  of  petering  out  and  she  lacks  the  
resources  to  fight  back.    None  of  her  own  musical  talents  has  been  needed  
and  so  they’ve  been  ignored  (except  on  the  throwaway  B-­‐sides)  and  while  
Sweet  and  Mud  have  their  histories  and  themselves  to  draw  for  support,  
Suzi’s  present  has  nothing  to  do  with  her  past  and  her  group  was  formed  
only  to  play  Chinnichap  music.    Mud  may  become  a  top  cabaret  act  and  Sweet  
a  respected  rock  group,  but  Suzi  will  only  be  a  memory.    Mickie  Most’s  skill  in  
the  ‘60s  was  to  make  pop  music  out  of  British  blues  and  R&B  and  folk;  Chinn  
and  Chapman’s  skill  in  the  ‘70s  has  been  to  make  pop  music  out  of  an  
audience.    As  this  audience  ages  and  changes,  so  will  its  music  and  Suzi  
Quatro  will  have  been  just  an  affectionate  part  of  growing  up.”    In  1983,  
journalis  Tom  Hibbert  wrote  that  Quatro  may  have  overstated  her  role  as  the  
leading  light  among  female  rock  musicians.    He  said  that,  “…it  was  in  the  
wake  of  the  1977  punk  revolution  that  the  traditions  of  rock  were  turned  
upside  down  and  female  musicians  truly  came  to  the  fore.    But  Suzi  Quatro,  
with  her  tomboy  sneers,  her  bass  guitar  and  her  stompingly  persuasive  teen-­‐
tunes,  had  at  least  laid  down  a  challenge  to  the  male-­‐dominated  rock  
orthodoxy.    On  stage  in  the  Eighties,  Quatro  was  still  conveying  energy  and  
excitement  –  and  she  still  lacked  class.”    In  his  2008  paper  SUZI  QUATRO:  A  
PROTOTYPE  IN  THE  ARCHSHEOLOGY  OF  ROCK,  Frank  Oglesbee  writes  that,  
“The  rebellion  of  rock  music  was  largely  a  male  rebellion;  the  women  –  often,  
in  the  1950s  and  ‘60s,  girls  in  their  teens  –  in  rock  usually  sang  songs  as  
personae  utterly  dependent  on  their  macho  boyfriends”.    He  describes  
Quatro  as  “a  female  rock  pioneer,  in  some  ways  the  female  rock  pioneer…a  
cornerstone  in  the  archsheology  of  rock.”    He  said  she  grew  up  to  become  
“the  first  female  lead  singer  and  bassist,  an  electric  ax-­‐woman,  who  sang  and  
played  as  freely  as  the  males,  inspiring  other  females.”  

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• Jayne  County:    An  American  singer,  
songwriter,  actress,  and  record  producer  whose  career  has  spanned  five  
decades.    She  was  the  vocalist  of  influential  proto-­‐punk  band  Wayne  County  
&  the  Electric  Chairs  and  has  been  known  for  her  outrageous  and  
unpredictable  stage  antics.    She  went  on  to  become  rock’s  first  openly  
transgender  singer.    County’s  music  has  encompassed  a  number  of  styles  
over  the  course  of  her  career,  including  glam  punk,  punk  rock,  blues  rock,  
and  boogie-­‐woogie.    County  did  not  think  her  birth  name  Wayne  Rogers  
“sounded  very  glamorous”  and  decided  to  adopt  the  name  of  the  county  in  
which  Detroit  was  located  because  she  admired  bands  from  that  city  “like  
Iggy  Pop  and  all  those  people.”    Though  she  has  never  been  a  commercial  
success,  she  has  been  an  influence  on  a  number  of  musicians  including  David  
Bowie,  the  Ramones,  Patti  Smith,  Pete  Burns,  and  Lou  Reed,  and  many  of  
County’s  songs  have  become  well-­‐known,  including  “Are  You  Man  Enough  to  
Be  a  Woman”,  “Fuck  Off”,  “Stuck  on  You”,  and  “Night  Time”.    Pianist  Jools  
Holland’s  first  studio  outing  was  with  County  on  her  single  “Fuck  Off”.    She  
also  appeared  as  an  actress  at  Andy  Warhol’s  FACTORY.  

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• New  York  Dolls:  

An  American  hard  rock  band  formed  in  New  York  City  in  1971.    Along  with  
the  Velvet  Underground  and  the  Stooges,  they  were  one  of  the  first  bands  of  
the  early  punk  rock  scenes.    Although  their  original  line-­‐up  fell  apart  quickly,  
the  band’s  first  two  albums  –  NEW  YORK  DOLLS  (1973)  and  TOO  MUCH  TOO  
SOON  (1974)  –  became  among  the  most  popular  cult  records  in  rock.    The  
line-­‐up  at  this  time  comprised  vocalist  David  Johansen,  guitarist  Johnny  
Thunders,  bassist  Arthur  Kane,  guitarist  and  pianist  Sylvain  Sylvain  and  
drummer  Jerry  Nolan;  the  latter  two  had  replaced  Rick  Rivets  and  Billy  
Murcia,  respectively,  in  1972.    On  stage,  they  donned  an  androgynous  
wardrobe,  wearing  high  heels,  eccentric  hats  and  satin.    Nolan  described  the  
group  in  1974  as  “the  Dead  End  Kids  of  today”.    According  to  the  
ENCYCLOPEDIA  OF  POPULAR  MUSIC  (1995),  the  New  York  Dolls  predated  
the  punk  and  glam  metal  movements  and  were  “one  of  the  most  influential  
rock  bands  of  the  last  20  years.”    They  influenced  rock  groups  such  as  the  Sex  
Pistols,  Kiss,  the  Ramones,  Guns  N’  Roses,  the  Damned  and  the  Smith,  whose  
frontman  Morrissey  organized  a  reunion  show  for  the  New  York  Dolls’  
surviving  members  in  2004.    After  reuniting,  they  recorded  and  released  
three  more  albums  –  ONE  DAY  IT  WILL  PLEASE  US  TO  REMEMBER  EVEN  
THIS  (2006),  CAUSE  I  SEZ  SO  (2009),  and  DANCING  BACKWARD  IN  HIGH  
HEELS  (2011).    The  New  York  Dolls  have  been  inactive  following  a  2011  
British  tour  with  Alice  Cooper;  the  band’s  guitarist  on  that  tour,  Earl  Slick,  
confirmed  in  an  interview  they  had  disbanded  that  same  year.    According  to  

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AllMusic  editor  Stephen  Thomas  Erlewine,  the  New  York  Dolls  developed  an  
original  style  of  hard  rock  that  presaged  both  punk  rock  and  heavy  metal  
music,  and  drew  on  elements  such  as  the  “dirty  rock  &  roll”  of  the  Rolling  
Stones,  the  “anarchic  noise”  of  the  Stooges,  the  glam  rock  of  David  Bowie  and  
T.  Rex,  and  girl  group  pop  music.    Erlewine  credited  the  band  for  creating  
punk  rock  “before  there  was  a  term  for  it.”    Ken  Tucker,  who  referred  to  them  
as  a  proto-­‐punk  band,  wrote  that  they  were  strongly  influenced  by  the  “New  
York  sensibility”  of  Lou  Reed:  “The  mean  wisecracks  and  impassioned  
cynicism  that  informed  the  Dolls’  songs  represented  an  attitude  that  Reed’s  
work  with  the  Velvet  Underground  embodied,  as  did  the  Dolls’  distinct  lack  of  
musicianship.    When  they  began  performing,  four  of  the  band’s  five  members  
wore  Spandex  and  platform  boots,  while  Johansen  –  the  band’s  lyricist  and  
“conceptmaster”  –  often  preferred  high  heels  and  a  dress  occasionally.    
Fashion  historian  Valerie  Steele  said  that,  while  the  majority  of  the  punk  
scene  pursued  an  understated  “street  look”,  the  New  York  Dolls  followed  an  
English  glam  rock  “look  of  androgyny  –  leather  and  knee-­‐length  boots,  chest  
hair,  and  bleach”.    According  to  James  McNair  of  THE  INDEPENDENT,  “when  
they  began  pedaling  their  trashy  glam-­‐punk  around  lower  Manhattan  in  
1971,  they  were  more  burlesque  act  than  band;  a  bunch  of  lipsticked,  gutter  
chic-­‐endorsing  cross-­‐dressers.”      

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• Marc  Bolan  /  T.  Rex:    

An  English  singer-­‐songwriter,  musician,  guitarist,  and  poet.    He  was  best  

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known  as  the  lead  singer  of  the  glam  rock  band  T.  Rex.    Bolan  was  one  of  the  
pioneers  of  the  glam  rock  movement  of  the  1970s.    He  died  at  the  age  of  29  in  
a  car  crash  two  weeks  before  his  30th  birthday.    In  1997,  a  memorial  stone  
and  bust  of  Bolan,  Marc  Bolan’s  Rock  Shrine,  was  unveiled  at  the  site  where  
he  died  in  Barnes,  London.    Bolan’s  appearance  on  the  BBC’s  music  show  TOP  
OF  THE  POPS  in  March  1971,  wearing  glitter  and  satins,  is  often  cited  as  the  
beginning  of  the  glam  rock  movement.    Music  critic  Ken  Barnes  called  Bolan  
“the  man  who  started  it  all”.    T.  Rex’s  1971  album  ELECTRIC  WARRIOR,  with  
all  songs  written  by  Bolan,  including  the  UK  chart  topper  “Get  It  On”,  has  
been  described  by  AllMusic  as  “the  album  that  essentially  kick-­‐started  the  UK  
glam  rock  craze.”    Producer  Tony  Visconti,  who  would  also  work  with  the  
other  major  glam  rock  pioneer  David  Bowie,  stated,  “What  I  saw  in  Marc  
Bolan  had  nothing  to  do  with  strings,  or  very  high  standards  of  artistry;  what  
I  saw  in  him  was  raw  talent.    I  saw  genius.    I  saw  a  potential  rock  star  in  Marc  
–  right  from  the  minute,  the  hour  I  met  him.”    Bolan  and  his  producer  Tony  
Visconti  oversaw  the  session  for  “Ride  a  White  Swan”,  the  single  that  changed  
Bolan’s  career  which  was  inspired  in  part  by  Mungo  Jerry’s  success  with  “In  
the  Summertime”,  moving  Bolan  away  from  predominately  acoustic  numbers  
to  a  more  electric  sound.    Recorded  on  1  July  1970  and  released  later  that  
year,  it  made  slow  progress  in  the  UK  Top  40,  until  it  finally  peaked  in  early  
1971  at  number  two.    Bolan  took  to  wearing  top  hats  and  feather  boas  on  
stage  as  well  as  putting  drops  of  glitter  on  each  of  his  cheekbones.    Stories  
are  conflicting  about  his  inspiration  for  this  –  some  say  it  was  introduced  by  
his  personal  assistant,  Chelita  Secunda,  although  Bolan  told  John  Pidgeon  in  a  
1974  interview  on  Radio  1  that  he  noticed  the  glitter  on  his  wife,  June  Child’s  
dressing  table  prior  to  a  photo  session  and  casually  daubed  some  on  his  face  
there  and  then.    Other  performers  –  and  their  fans  –  soon  took  up  variations  
on  the  idea.    The  era  of  glam  and  glitter  rock  was  born.      

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• Roxy  music:    

An  English  rock  band  that  were  formed  in  1970  by  Bryan  Ferry  –  who  
became  the  band’s  lead  singer  and  main  songwriter  –  and  bass  guitarist  
Graham  Simpson.    Alongside  Ferry,  the  other  longtime  members  were  Phil  
Manzanera  (guitar),  Andy  Mackay  (saxophone  and  oboe),  and  Paul  
Thompson  (drums  and  percussion).    Other  members  included  Brian  Eno  
(synthesizer  and  “treatments”),  Eddie  Jobson  (synthesizer  and  violin),  and  
John  Gustafson  (bass).    Although  the  band  took  a  break  from  group  activities  
in  1976  and  again  in  1983,  they  reunited  for  a  concert  tour  in  2001,  and  
toured  together  intermittently  between  that  time  and  their  break-­‐up  in  2011.    
Ferry  frequently  enlisted  members  of  Roxy  Music  as  session  musicians  for  
his  solo  releases.    Roxy  Music  became  a  successful  act  in  Europe  and  
Australia  during  the  1970s.    This  success  began  with  their  self-­‐titled  debut  
album,  ROXY  MUSIC  (1972).    The  band  pioneered  more  musically  
sophisticated  elements  of  glam  rock  while  significantly  influencing  early  
English  punk  music,  and  provided  a  model  for  many  new  wave  acts  while  
innovating  elements  of  electronic  composition.    The  group  also  distinguished  
their  visual  and  musical  sophistication  through  the  preoccupation  with  
glamorous  fashions.    Ferry  and  co-­‐founding  member  Eno  have  had  influential  
solo  careers.    The  latter  became  one  of  Britain’s  most  significant  record  
producers  of  the  late  20th  century.    ROLLING  STONE  magazine  ranked  Roxy  
Music  No.  98  on  its  “The  Immortals  –  100  The  Greatest  Artists  of  All  Time”  
list,  thought  it  dropped  the  group  from  its  updated  list  in  2011.    The  band’s  
final  studio  album  was  AVALON  (1982),  which  became  platinum-­‐certified  in  
the  United  States.    In  2005  the  band  began  recording  a  new  studio  album,  
which  would  have  been  their  ninth,  and  would  have  been  their  first  record  
since  1973  with  Brian  Eno,  who  wrote  two  songs  for  it  and  also  played  
keyboards.    However,  Bryan  Ferry  eventually  confirmed  that  material  from  

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these  sessions  would  be  released  as  a  Ferry  solo  album,  with  Eno  playing  on  
“a  couple  of  tracks”,  and  that  he  does  not  think  they  will  ever  record  as  Roxy  
Music  again.    The  album  ultimately  became  Ferry’s  2010  solo  album  
OLYMPIA,  which  featured  contribution  from  Eno,  Manzanera  and  Mackay  
(amongst  many  other  session  players.)    Roxy  Music  played  a  series  of  40th  
anniversary  shows  in  2011,  but  has  since  become  inactive  as  a  performing  
entity.    In  2019,  Roxy  Music  were  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  
Fame.    The  early  style  and  presentation  of  Roxy  Music  was  influenced  by  the  
art  school  backgrounds  of  its  principal  members.    Ferry,  Mackay,  and  Eno,  all  
had  studied  at  prominent  UK  art  colleges  during  the  mid-­‐to-­‐late  1960s,  when  
these  institutions  were  introducing  courses  that  avoided  traditional  art  
teaching  practice,  with  its  emphasis  on  painting,  and  instead  focused  on  more  
recent  developments,  most  notably  pop  art,  and  explored  new  concepts  such  
as  cybernetics.    As  writer  Michael  Bracewell  notes  in  his  book  ROXY:  THE  
BAND  THAT  INVENTED  AN  ERA,  Roxy  Music  was  created  expressly  by  Ferry,  
Mackay,  and  Eno,  as  a  means  of  combining  their  musical  interests  in  music,  
modern  art,  and  fashion.    Roxy  Music  was  one  of  the  first  rock  music  groups  
to  create  and  maintain  a  carefully  crafted  look  and  style  that  included  their  
stage  presentation,  music  videos,  album  and  single  cover  designs,  and  
promotional  materials  such  as  posters,  handbills,  cards  and  badges.    They  
were  assisted  in  this  by  a  group  of  friends  and  associates  who  helped  sculpt  
the  classic  Roxy  Music  ‘look’,  notably  fashion  designer  Antony  Price,  hair  
stylist  Keith  Mainwaring,  photographer  Karl  Stoecker,  the  group’s  “PR  
consultant”  Simon  Puxley  (a  former  university  friend  of  Mackay’s)  and  
Ferry’s  art  school  classmate  Nicholas  De  Ville.    Well-­‐known  critic  Lester  
Bangs  went  so  far  to  say  that  Roxy  represented  “the  triumph  of  artifice”.    In  
2005,  Tim  de  Lisle  of  THE  GUARDIAN  argued  that  Roxy  Music  are  the  second  
most  influential  British  band  after  The  Beatles.    He  wrote,  “Somehow,  in  a  
landscape  dominated  by  Led  Zeppelin  at  one  end  and  The  Osmonds  at  the  
other,  they  managed  to  reach  the  Top  10  with  a  heady  mixture  of  futurism,  
retro  rock  ‘n’  roll,  camp,  funny  noised,  silly  outfits,  art  techniques,  film  
references  and  oboe  solos.    And  although  their  popularity  has  ebbed  and  
flowed,  their  influence  has  been  strikingly  consistent.  

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• Celine  Dion:    

Canadian  singer.    Born  into  a  large  family  from  Charlemagne,  Quebec,  she  
emerged  as  a  teen  star  in  her  homeland  with  a  series  of  French-­‐language  
albums  during  the  198s.    She  first  gained  international  recognition  by  
winning  both  the  1982  Yamaha  World  Popular  Song  Festival  and  the  1988  
Eurovision  Song  Contest,  where  she  represented  Switzerland.    After  learning  
to  speak  English,  she  signed  on  to  Epic  Records  in  the  United  States.    In  1990,  
Dion  released  her  debut  English-­‐language  album,  UNISON,  establishing  
herself  as  a  viable  pop  artist  in  North  America  and  other  English-­‐speaking  
areas  of  the  world.    During  the  1990s,  she  achieved  worldwide  fame  after  
releasing  several  best-­‐selling  English  albums,  such  as  FALLING  INTO  YOU  
(1996)  and  LET’S  TALK  ABOUT  LOVE  (1997),  which  were  both  certified  
diamond  in  the  US.    She  also  scored  a  series  of  international  number-­‐one  hits,  
including  “The  Power  of  Love”,  “Think  Twice”,  “Because  You  Loved  Me”,  “It’s  
All  Coming  Back  to  Me  Now”,  “My  Heart  Will  Go  On”,  and  “I’m  Your  Angel”.    
Dion  continued  releasing  French  albums  between  each  English  record;  D’EUX  
(1995)  became  the  best-­‐selling  French-­‐language  album  of  all  time,  while  S’IL  
SUFFISAIT  D’AIMER  (1998),  SANS  ATTENDRE  (2012),  and  ENCORE  UN  SOIR  
(2016),  were  all  certified  diamond  in  France.    During  the  2000s,  she  built  her  
reputation  as  a  highly  successful  live  performer  with  A  NEW  DAY…  in  Las  
Vegas  Strip  (2003-­‐07),  which  remains  the  highest-­‐grossing  concert  residency  
of  all  time,  as  well  as  the  Taking  Chances  World  Tour  (2008-­‐09),  one  of  the  
highest-­‐grossing  concert  tours  of  all  time.    Dion’s  music  has  been  influenced  
by  genres  ranging  from  rock  and  R&B  to  gospel  and  classical.    Her  recordings  
are  mainly  in  French  and  English,  although  she  also  sings  in  Spanish,  Italian,  
German,  Latin,  Japanese,  and  Mandarin  Chinese.    While  her  releases  have  
often  received  mixed  critical  reception,  she  is  regarded  as  one  of  pop  music’s  

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most  influential  voices.    She  has  won  five  Grammy  Awards,  including  Album  
of  the  Year  and  Record  of  the  Year.      
• Karen  Carpenter:    

An  American  singer  and  drummer  who  was  part  of  the  duo  the  Carpenters  
alongside  her  brother  Richard.    She  was  praised  for  her  contralto  vocals,  and  
her  drumming  abilities  were  viewed  positively  by  other  musicians  and  
critics.    Her  struggles  with  eating  disorders  would  later  raise  awareness  of  
anorexia  and  body  dysmorphia.    Carpenter  was  born  in  New  Haven,  
Connecticut,  and  moved  to  Downey,  California,  in  1963  with  her  family.    She  
began  to  study  the  drums  in  high  school  and  joined  the  Long  Beach  State  
choir  after  graduating.    After  several  years  of  touring  and  recording,  the  
Carpenters  were  signed  to  A&M  Records  in  1969,  achieving  commercial  and  
critical  success  throughout  the  1970s.    Initially,  Carpenter  was  the  band’s  
full-­‐time  drummer,  but  gradually  took  the  role  of  frontwoman  as  drumming  
was  reduced  to  a  handful  of  live  showcases  or  tracks  on  albums.    While  the  
Carpenters  were  on  hiatus  in  the  late  1970s,  she  recorded  a  solo  album,  
which  was  released  years  after  her  death.    Carpenter  had  the  eating  disorder  
anorexia  nervosa,  which  was  little-­‐known  at  the  time,  and  was  briefly  
married  in  the  early  1980s.    She  died  at  age  32  from  heart  failure  caused  by  
complications  related  to  her  illness.    Her  death  led  to  increased  visibility  and  
awareness  of  eating  disorders.    Her  work  continues  to  attract  praise,  
including  being  listed  among  ROLLING  STONE’s  100  greatest  singers  of  all  
time.    Carptenter’s  singing  has  attracted  critical  praise  and  influenced  several  
significant  musicians  and  singers.    Paul  McCartney  has  said  she  had  “the  best  
female  voice  in  the  world:  melodic,  tuneful,  and  distinctive”.    She  had  been  
called  “one  of  the  greatest  voices  of  our  lifetime”  by  Elton  John.    her  
drumming  has  been  praised  by  fellow  musicians  Hal  Blain,  Cubby  O’Brien  
and  Buddy  Rich  and  by  MODERN  DRUMMER  magazine.    In  1975,  she  was  

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voted  the  best  rock  drummer  in  a  poll  of  PLAYBOY  readers,  beating  Led  
Zeppelin’s  John  Bonham.      
• Prince:  

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  musician,  record  producer,  dancer,  actor,  

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and  filmmaker.    With  a  career  spanning  four  decades,  Prince  was  known  for  
his  eclectic  work  and  flamboyant  stage  performances.    He  was  also  a  multi-­‐
instrumentalist  and  regarded  as  a  guitar  virtuoso.    Prince  was  also  known  for  
his  very  wide  and  extensive  vocal  range,  in  particular  his  far  reaching  
falsetto.    His  innovative  music  integrated  a  wide  variety  of  styles,  including  
funk,  rock,  R&B,  new  wave,  soul,  psychedelia,  and  pop.    Born  and  raised  in  
Minneapolis,  Minnesota,  Prince  developed  an  interest  in  music  as  a  young  
child  and  wrote  his  first  song,  “Funk  Machine”,  at  the  age  of  seven.    He  signed  
a  recording  contract  with  Warner  Bros.  Records  at  the  age  of  17  and  released  
his  debut  album  FOR  YOU  in  1978.    His  1979  album  PRINCE  went  platinum,  
and  his  next  three  albums  –  DIRTY  MIND  (1980),  CONTROVERSY  (1981),  and  
1999  (1982)  –  continued  his  success,  prominently  showcasing  his  explicit  
lyrics  as  well  as  blending  of  funk,  dance,  and  rock  music.    In  1984,  he  began  
referring  to  his  backup  band  as  The  Revolution  and  released  PURPLE  RAIN,  
the  soundtrack  album  to  his  film  debut.    It  quickly  became  his  most  critically  
and  commercially  successful  release,  spending  24  consecutive  weeks  atop  
Billboard  200  and  selling  25  million  copies  worldwide.    After  releasing  the  
albums  AROUND  THE  WORLD  IN  A  DAY  (1985)  and  PARADE  (1986),  The  
Revolution  disbanded,  and  Prince  released  the  double  album  SIGN  O’  THE  
TIMES  (1987)  as  a  solo  artist.    He  released  three  more  solo  albums  before  
debuting  THE  NEW  POWER  GENERATION  band  in  1991.    In  1993,  in  the  
midst  of  a  contractual  dispute  with  Warner  Bros.,  he  changed  his  stage  name  
to  an  unpronounceable  symbol,  also  known  as  the  “Love  Symbol,”  and  began  
churning  out  new  albums  at  a  faster  rate  in  order  to  sooner  meet  a  
contractually  required  quota  and  so  release  himself  from  further  obligations  
to  the  record  label.    He  released  five  records  between  1994  and  1996  before  
he  signed  with  Arista  Records  in  1998.    In  2000,  he  began  referring  to  himself  
as  “Prince”  again.    He  released  16  albums  after  that,  including  the  platinum-­‐
selling  MUSICOLOGY  (2004).    His  final  album  HIT  N  RUN  PHASE  TWO,  was  
first  released  on  the  Tidal  streaming  service  in  2015.    Four  months  later,  at  
the  age  of  57,  Prince  died  of  an  accidental  fentanyl  overdose  at  his  Paisley  
Park  home  and  recording  studio  in  Chanhassen,  Minnesota.    Prince  pioneered  
the  late  1970s  Minneapolis  sound,  a  funk  rock  subgenre  drawing  from  synth-­‐
pop  and  new  wave.    He  sold  over  100  million  records  worldwide,  making  him  
one  of  the  best-­‐selling  music  artists  of  all  time.    He  won  seven  Grammy  
Awards,  seven  Brit  Awards,  six  American  Music  Awards,  four  MTV  Video  
Music  Awards,  an  Academy  Award  (for  Best  Original  Score  for  the  1984  film  
PURPLE  RAIN)  and  a  Golden  Globe  Award.    He  was  inducted  into  the  Rock  
and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  and  Rhythm  and  Blues  Music  Hall  of  Fame  in  2004  and  
2016  respectively.    ROLLNG  STONES  ranked  Prince  at  No.  27  on  their  list  of  
100  Greatest  Artists  of  All  Time.    The  LOS  ANGELES  TIMES  called  Prince  “our  
first  post-­‐everything  pop  star,  defying  easy  categories  of  race,  genre,  and  
commercial  appeal.”    Jon  Pareles  of  THE  NEW  YORK  TIMES  described  him  as  
“a  master  architect  of  funk,  rock,  R&B  and  pop”,  and  highlighted  his  ability  to  
defy  labels.    As  a  performer,  he  was  known  for  his  flamboyant  style  and  
showmanship.    He  came  to  be  regarded  as  a  sex  symbol  for  his  androgynous,  

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amorphous  sexuality,  play  with  signifiers  of  gender,  and  defiance  of  racial  
stereotypes.    His  “audacious,  idiosyncratic”  fashion  sense  made  use  of  
“ubiquitous  purple,  alluring  makeup  and  frilled  garments.”    His  androgynous  
look  has  been  compared  to  Little  Richard  and  David  Bowie.      
• Lady  Gaga:    

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  and  actress.    She  is  known  for  her  
unconventionality,  provocative  work  and  visual  experimentation.    Gaga  
began  performing  as  a  teenager,  singing  at  open  mic  nights  and  acting  in  
school  plays.    She  studied  at  Collaborative  Arts  Project  21,  thorugh  New  York  
University’s  Tisch  School  of  the  Arts,  before  dropping  out  to  pursue  a  music  
career.    When  Def  Jam  Recordings  canceled  her  contract,  she  worked  as  a  
songwriter  for  Sony/ATV  Music  Publishing,  where  Akon  helpe  her  sign  a  
joint  deal  with  Interscope  Records  and  his  own  label  KonLive  Distribution  in  
2007.    She  rose  to  prominence  the  following  year  with  her  debut  album,  the  
electropop  record  THE  FAME,  and  its  chart-­‐topping  singles  “Just  Dance”  and  
“Poker  Face”.    A  follow-­‐up  EP,  THE  FAME  MONSTER  (2009),  featuring  the  
singles  “Bad  Romance”,  “Telephone”  and  “Alejandra”,  was  also  successful.    
Gaga’s  second  full-­‐length  album,  BORN  THIS  WAY  (2011),  explored  
electronic  rock  and  techno-­‐pop.    It  peaked  atop  the  US  Billboard  200  and  sold  
more  than  one  million  copies  in  the  country  in  its  first  week.    Its  title  track  
became  the  fastest  selling  song  on  the  iTunes  Store  with  over  a  million  
downloads  in  less  than  a  week.    Gaga  experimented  with  EDM  on  her  third  
studio  album,  ARTPOP  (2013),  which  reached  number  one  in  the  US  and  
included  the  single  “Applause”.    Her  collaborative  jazz  album  with  Tony  
Bennett,  CHEEK  TO  CHEEK  (2014),  and  her  soft  rock-­‐influenced  fifth  studio  
album  JOANNE  (2016),  also  topped  the  US  charts.    During  this  period  Gaga  

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ventured  into  acting  playing  leading  roles  in  the  miniseries  AMERICAN  
HORROR  STORY:  HOTEL  (2015-­‐2016),  for  which  she  received  a  Golden  Globe  
Award  for  Best  Actress,  and  the  critically  acclaimed  musical  drama  A  STAR  IS  
BORN  (2018).    She  also  contributed  to  the  latter’s  soundtrack,  which  received  
the  BAFTA  Award  for  Best  Film  Music  and  made  her  the  only  woman  to  
achieve  five  US  number  one  albums  in  the  2010s.    Its  lead  single  “Shallow”,  
earned  Gaga  the  Academy  Award  and  the  Golden  Globe  Award  for  Best  
Original  Song.    Critics  have  analyzed  and  scrutinized  Gaga’s  musical  and  
performance  style,  as  she  has  experimented  with  new  ideas  and  images  
throughout  her  career.    She  says  the  continual  reinvention  is  “liberating”  
herself,  which  she  has  been  drawn  to  since  childhood.  Gaga  is  a  contralto  
with  a  range  spanning  from  Bb2  to  B5.    She  has  changed  her  vocal  style  
regularly,  and  considers  BORN  THIS  WAY  “much  more  vocally  up  to  par  with  
what  I’ve  always  been  capable  of”.    In  summing  up  her  voice,  
ENTERTAINMENT  WEEKLY  wrote:    “There’s  an  immense  emotional  
intelligence  behind  the  way  she  uses  her  voice.    Almost  never  does  she  
overwhelm  a  song  with  her  vocal  ability,  recognizing  instead  that  artistry  is  
to  be  found  in  nuance  rather  than  lung  power.    Gaga’s  songs  have  been  called  
“depthless”  by  writer  Camille  Paglia  in  THE  SUNDAY  TIMES,  but  according  to  
Evan  Sawdey  of  POPMATTERS,  she  “does  manage  to  get  you  moving  and  
grooving  at  an  almost  effortless  pace”.    Gaga  believes  that  “all  good  music  can  
be  played  on  a  piano  and  still  sound  like  a  hit”.    Simon  Reynolds  wrote  in  
2010,  “Everything  about  Gaga  came  from  electroclash  except  the  music,  
which  wasn’t  particularly  1980s,  just  ruthlessly  catchy  naughties  pop  glazed  
with  Auto-­‐Tune  and  undergirded  with  R&B-­‐ish  bests.    When  interviewed  by  
Barbara  Walters  for  her  annual  ABC  News  special  10  MOST  FASCINATING  
PEOPLE  in  2009,  Gaga  dismissed  the  claim  that  she  is  intersex  as  an  urban  
legend.    Responding  to  a  question  on  the  issue,  she  expressed  her  fondness  
for  androgyny.    In  a  2010  SUNDAY  TIMES  article,  Camille  Paglia  called  Gaga  
“more  an  identity  thief  than  an  erotic  taboo  breaker,  a  mainstream  
manufactured  product  who  claims  to  be  singing  for  the  freaks,  the  rebellious  
and  the  dispossessed  when  she  is  none  of  those.”  

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• Nicky  Minaj:    

A  Trinidad  and  Tobago-­‐born  rapper,  singer,  songwriter,  actress,  and  model.    


Born  in  Saint  James,  Port  of  Spain,  and  raised  in  Queens,  New  York  City,  she  
gained  public  recognition  after  releasing  the  mixtapes  PLAYTIME  IS  OVER  
(2007),  SUCKA  FREE  (2008),  and  BEAM  ME  UP  SCOTTY  (2009).    After  
signing  with  Young  Money  Entertainment  in  2009,  Minaj  released  her  first  
studio  album  PINK  FRIDAY  (2010),  which  peaked  at  number  one  on  the  US  
Billboard  200  Recording  Industry  Association  of  America  (RIAA).    Her  second  
album  PINK  FRIDAY:  ROMAN  RELOADED,  was  released  in  2012  and  debuted  
at  number  one  in  several  countries.    Minaj  made  her  film  debut  in  the  2012  
animated  film  ICE  AGE:  CONTINENTAL  DRIFTS.    In  2013,  she  was  a  judge  on  
the  twelfth  season  of  AMERICAN  IDOL.    Minaj’s  third  studio  album,  THE  
PINKPRINT,  was  released  in  2014.    She  subsequently  played  supporting  roles  
in  the  films  THE  OTHER  WOMAN  (2014)  and  BARBERSHOP:  THE  NEXT  CUT  
(2016).    Her  fourth  studio  album  QUEEN,  was  released  in  2018.    Early  in  her  

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career,  Minaj  was  known  for  her  colorful  costumes  and  wigs.    Her  rapping  is  
distinctive  for  its  fast  flow  and  use  of  alter  egos  and  accents,  primarily  British  
cockney.    Minaj  was  the  first  female  artists  included  on  MTV’s  annual  Hottest  
MC  list.    In  2016,  Minaj  was  included  on  the  annual  TIME  100  list  of  most  
influential  people  in  the  world.    As  a  lead  artist,  she  has  earned  four  top-­‐five  
entries  on  the  Billboard  Hot  100:    “super  Bass”  in  2011,  “Starships”  in  2012,  
and  “Bang  Bang”  and  “Anaconda”,  both  in  2014.    She  has  accumulated  the  
most  Billboard  Hot  100  entries  among  women  of  all  genres.    Minaj  has  
broken  other  records  including  the  most  top  10  hits  among  women  on  the  
Billboard  R&B  Hip-­‐Hop  Airplay  chart.    Minaj  has  been  called  one  of  the  most  
influential  female  rap  artists  of  all  time.    Throughout  her  career,  she  has  
received  numerous  accolades,  including  six  American  Music  Awards,  11  BET  
Awards,  four  MTV  Video  Awards,  four  Billboard  Music  Awards,  a  Billboard  
Women  in  Music  Rising  Star  Award,  and  10  Grammy  Award  nominations.    
Minaj  has  sold  20  million  singles  as  a  lead  artist,  60  million  singles  as  a  
featured  artist,  and  over  five  million  albums  worldwide,  making  her  one  of  
the  world’s  best-­‐selling  music  artists.    Minaj  is  known  for  her  animated  
rapping  style  and  her  unique  flow.    Her  rapping  is  distinctive  for  its  speed  
and  the  use  of  alter  egos  and  accents,  primarily  British  cockney.    She  often  
both  sings  and  raps  in  her  songs  and  combines  metaphors,  punch  lines,  and  
word  play  into  her  work.    The  alter  egos  are  incorporated  with  her  lyrics  in  
British  accents  (Roman  Zolanski)  or  soft-­‐spokenness  (Harajuku  Barbie).  Ice-­‐
T  said  about  Minaj’s  rapping  style,  “[Minaj]  does  her  thing.    She  has  her  own  
way  of  doing  it.    She  has  an  ill  vocal  delivery.    She  kind  of  reminds  me  of  a  
female  Busta  Rhymes,  like  how  she  throws  her  voice  in  different  directions.”      
• Joan  Jett:    

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An  American  rock  singer,  songwriter,  composer,  musician,  record  producer,  
and  occasional  actress.    Jett  is  best  known  for  her  work  as  the  frontwoman  of  
her  band  Joan  Jett  &  the  Blackhearts,  and  for  earlier  founding  and  performing  
with  the  Runaways,  which  recorded  and  released  the  hit  song  “Cherry  
Bomb”.    The  Blackhearts’  version  of  the  song  “I  Love  Rock  ‘n  Roll”  was  
number-­‐one  on  the  Billboard  Hot  100  for  seven  weeks  in  1982.    Jett’s  other  
notable  hit  songs  include  “Bad  Reputation”,  “Crimson  and  Clover”,  “Do  You  
Wanna  Touch  Me  (Oh  Yeah)”,  “Light  of  Day”,  “I  Hate  Myself  for  Loving  You”,  
and  “Dirty  Deeds”.    Jett  has  a  mezzo-­‐soprano  vocal  range.    She  has  three  
albums  that  have  been  certified  Platinum  or  Gold,  and  has  been  a  feminist  
icon  throughout  her  career.    She  has  been  described  as  the  Queen  of  Rock  ‘n’  
Roll  and  the  Godmother  of  Punk.    In  2015,  Joan  Jett  &  the  Blackhearts  were  
inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame.    Jett  lived  in  Long  Beach,  New  
York,  since  the  late  1970s  before  moving  to  Rockville  Centre,  New  York.    
From  CitizenTruth.org:    When  asked  about  the  role  of  feminism  in  her  band’s  
early  days,  Jett  said  that  the  term  was  still  new  at  the  time  and  that  it  
occasionally  conflicted  with  her  own  motives.    “I  definitely  felt  criticism  from  
aspects  of  that  movement  who  were  uncomfortable  with  the  fact  that  young  
girls  and  teenagers  want  to  have  sex  and  talk  about  sex.    You  don’t  just  
dismiss  that  aspect  of  being  a  woman,”  Jett  said.    Jett  went  on  to  explain  that  
Rock  n’  Roll  is  innately  “sexual”  and  that  this  should  be  embraced  for  its  
virtues  –  not  feared  for  its  potential  limitations  and  dangers.    “It’s  frustrating  
when  you’re  taking  crap  from  women  you’re  trying  to  follow  your  dreams.    
Your  parents  always  told  you  that  you  could  be  whatever  you  wanted  to  be,  
and  now  you’ve  got  these  women  telling  you  that  can’t  for  some  political  
reason  you  don’t  yet  understand.    I  didn’t  get  it.”    “The  problem  with  labels  is  
they  have  boundaries,  you  know?”    Joan  continued.    “What  a  feminist  is  to  
one  person  is  not  the  same  thing  [to  another].    I’m  for  people  being  what  they  
want  to  be;  if  that’s  a  woman  being  a  rock  ‘n’  roller  or  a  nuclear  physicist,  
which  may  not  be  fields  women  typically  go  into.    You  can’t  let  other  people  
dictate  your  life  to  you.    I  know  I’m  a  woman,  I  knew  I  was  girl,  but  I’m  going  
to  do  what  I’m  going  to  do.    I  didn’t  get  caught  up  in  the  gender  role  of  it.    
That’s  what  I  was  fighting  against  the  whole  time,  the  fact  that  people  were  
saying  girls  can’t  play  rock  ‘n’  roll.    It  didn’t  make  logical  sense  to  me.”  

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• Little  Richard:  

 An  American  musician,  singer,  and  songwriter.    An  influential  figure  in  
popular  music  and  culture  for  seven  decades,  Richard  Wayne  Penniman’s  
most  celebrated  work  dates  from  the  mid-­‐1950s,  when  his  dynamic  music  
and  charismatic  showmanship  laid  the  foundation  for  rock  and  roll.    His  
music  also  played  a  key  role  in  the  formation  of  other  popular  music  genres,  
including  soul  and  funk.    Penniman  influenced  numerous  singers  and  
musicians  across  musical  genres  from  rock  to  hip  hop;  his  music  helped  
shape  rhythm  and  blues  for  generations  to  come,  and  his  performances  and  
headline-­‐making  thrust  his  career  right  into  the  mix  of  American  popular  
music.    Penniman  has  been  honored  by  many  institutions.    He  was  inducted  
into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  as  part  of  its  first  group  of  inductees  in  
1986.    He  was  also  inducted  into  the  Songwriters  Hall  of  Fame.    He  is  the  
recipient  of  a  Lifetime  Achievement  Award  from  the  Recording  Academy  and  
a  Lifetime  Achievement  Award  from  the  Rhythm  and  Blues  Foundation.    
Little  Richard’s  “Tutti  Frutti”  (1955)  was  included  in  the  National  Recording  
Registry  of  the  Library  of  Congress  in  2010,  which  stated  that  his  “unique  
vocalizing  over  the  irresistible  beat  announced  a  new  era  in  music.”    In  2015,  
the  National  Museum  of  African  American  Music  honored  Little  Richard  with  
a  Rhapsody  &  Rhythm  Award  for  his  pivotal  role  in  the  formation  of  popular  
music  genres  and  in  helping  shatter  the  color  line  on  the  music  charts,  
changing  American  culture  significantly.    Penniman  said  in  1984  that  he  
played  with  just  girls  as  a  child  and  was  subjected  to  homophobic  jokes  and  

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ridicule  because  of  his  manner  of  walk  and  talk.    His  father  brutally  punished  
him  whenever  he  caught  his  son  wearing  his  mother’s  makeup  and  clothing.    
The  singer  claimed  to  have  been  sexually  involved  with  both  sexes  as  a  
teenager.    Because  of  his  effeminate  mannerisms,  his  father  kicked  him  out  of  
their  family  home  at  15.    In  1985,  on  THE  SOUTH  BANK  SHOW,  Penniman  
explained,  “my  daddy  put  me  out  of  the  house.    He  said  he  wanted  seven  
boys,  and  I  had  spoiled  it,  because  I  was  gay.”    Penniman  first  got  involved  in  
voyeurism  in  his  early  twenties,  when  a  female  friend  would  drive  him  
around  and  pick  up  men  who  would  allow  him  to  watch  them  have  sex  in  the  
backseat  of  cars.    Penniman’s  activity  caught  the  attention  of  Macon  police  in  
1955  and  he  was  arrested  after  a  gas  station  attendant  in  Macon  reported  
sexual  activity  in  a  car  Penniman  was  occupying  with  a  heterosexual  couple.    
Cited  on  a  sexual  misconduct  charge,  he  spent  three  days  in  jail  and  was  
temporarily  banned  from  performing  in  Macon,  Georgia.    In  the  early  1950s,  
he  became  acquainted  with  an  openly  gay  musician  Billy  Wright,  who  helped  
in  establishing  Penniman’s  look,  advising  him  to  use  pancake  makeup  on  his  
face  and  wear  his  hair  in  a  long-­‐haired  pompadour  style  similar  to  his.    As  
Penniman  got  used  to  the  makeup,  he  ordered  his  band,  the  Upsetters,  to  
wear  the  makeup  too,  to  gain  entry  into  predominantly  white  venues  during  
performances,  later  stating,  “I  wore  the  make-­‐up  so  that  white  men  wouldn’t  
think  that  I  was  after  the  white  girls.    It  made  things  easier  for  me,  plus  it  was  
colorful  too.”    In  2000,  Richard  told  JET  magazine,  “I  figure  if  being  called  a  
sissy  would  make  me  famous,  let  them  say  what  they  want  to.”    Penniman’s  
look,  however,  still  attracted  female  audiences,  who  would  send  him  naked  
photos  and  their  phone  numbers.    Groupies  began  throwing  undergarments  
at  Penniman  during  performances.    Penniman’s  music  and  performance  style  
had  a  pivotal  effect  on  the  shape  and  sound  and  style  of  popular  music  genres  
of  the  20th  century.    As  a  rock  and  roll  pioneer,  Penniman  embodied  its  spirit  
more  flamboyantly  than  any  other  performer.    Penniman’s  raspy  shouting  
style  gave  the  genre  one  of  its  most  identifiable  and  influential  vocal  sounds  
and  his  fusion  of  boogie-­‐woogie,  New  Orleans  R&B,  and  gospel  music  blazed  
its  rhythmic  trail.      

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• Chuck  Berry:     An  American  singer  and  
songwriter,  and  one  of  the  pioneers  of  rock  and  roll  music.    With  songs  such  
as  “Maybellene”  (1955),  “Roll  Over  Beethoven”  (1956),  “Rock  and  Roll  Music”  
(1957)  and  “Johnny  B.  Goode”  (1958),  Berry  refined  and  developed  rhythm  
and  blues  into  the  major  elements  that  made  rock  and  roll  distinctive.    
Writing  lyrics  that  focused  on  teen  life  and  consumerism,  and  developing  a  
music  style  that  included  guitar  solos  and  showmanship,  Berry  was  a  major  
influence  on  subsequent  rock  music.    Born  into  a  middle-­‐class  African-­‐
American  family  in  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  Berry  had  an  interest  in  music  from  an  
early  age  and  gave  his  first  public  performance  at  Sumner  High  School.    While  
still  a  high  school  student  he  was  convicted  of  armed  robbery  and  was  sent  to  
a  reformatory,  where  he  was  held  from  1944  to  1947.    After  his  release,  
Berry  settled  into  married  life  and  worked  at  an  automobile  assembly  plant.    
By  early  1953,  influenced  by  the  guitar  riffs  and  showmanship  techniques  of  
the  blues  musician  T-­‐Bone  Walker,  Berry  began  performing  with  the  Johnnie  
Johnson  Trio.    His  break  came  when  he  traveled  to  Chicago  in  May  1955  and  
met  Muddy  Waters,  who  suggested  he  contact  Leonard  Chess,  of  Chess  
Records.    With  Chess,  he  recorded  “Maybellene”  –  Berry’s  adaptation  of  the  
country  song  “Ida  Red”  –  which  sold  over  a  million  copies,  reaching  number  
one  on  Billboard  magazine’s  rhythm  and  blues  chart.    By  the  end  of  the  
1950s,  Berry  was  an  established  star,  with  several  hit  records  and  film  
appearances  and  a  lucrative  touring  career.    He  had  also  established  his  own  
St.  Louis  nightclub,  Berry’s  Club  Bandstand.    However,  he  was  sentenced  to  
three  years  in  prison  in  January  1962  for  offenses  under  the  Mann  Act  –  he  
had  transported  a  14-­‐year-­‐old  girl  across  state  lines.    After  his  release  in  
1963,  Berry  had  several  more  hits,  including  “No  Particular  Place  to  Go”,  “You  
Never  Can  Tell”,  and  “Nadine”.    But  these  did  not  achieve  the  same  success,  or  
lasting  impact,  of  his  1950s  songs,  and  by  the  1970s  he  was  more  in  demand  
as  a  nostalgic  performer,  playing  his  past  hits  with  local  backup  bands  of  
variable  quality.    However,  in  1972,  he  reached  a  new  level  of  achievement  

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when  a  rendition  of  “My  Ding-­‐a-­‐Ling”  became  his  only  record  to  top  the  
charts.    His  insistence  on  being  paid  in  cash  led  in  1979  to  a  four-­‐month  jail  
sentence  and  community  service,  for  tax  evasion.  Berry  was  among  the  first  
musicians  to  be  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  on  its  opening  
in  1986;  he  was  cited  for  having  “laid  the  groundwork  for  not  only  a  rock  and  
roll  sound  but  a  rock  and  roll  stance”    Berry  is  included  n  several  of  ROLLING  
STONE  magazine’s  “greatest  of  all  time”  lists;  he  was  ranked  fifth  on  its  2004  
and  2011  lists  of  the  100  Greatest  Artists  of  All  Time.    The  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  
of  Fame’s  500  Songs  That  Shaped  Rock  and  Roll  includes  three  of  Berry’s:  
“Johnny  B.  Goode”,  “Maybellene”,  and  “Rock  and  Roll  Music”.    Berry’s  “Johnn  
B.  Goode”  is  the  only  rock-­‐and-­‐roll  song  included  on  the  Voyager  Golden  
Record.    He  was  nicknamed  by  NBC  as  the  “Father  of  Rock  and  Roll”.    Berry  
contributed  three  things  to  rock  music:  an  irresistible  swagger,  a  focus  on  the  
guitar  riff  as  the  primary  melodic  element  and  an  emphsis  on  songwriting  
and  storytelling.    Berry’s  showmanship  has  been  influential  on  other  rock  
guitarists,  particularly  his  one-­‐legged  hop  routine,  and  the  “duck  walk”,  
which  he  first  used  as  a  child  when  he  walked  “stooping  with  full-­‐bended  
knees,  but  with  my  back  and  head  vertical”  under  a  table  to  retrieve  a  ball  
and  his  family  found  it  entertaining;  he  used  it  when  “performing  in  New  
York  for  the  first  time  and  some  journalist  branded  it  the  duck  walk.”  

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• Anthony  Newley:    

An  English  actor,  singer,  and  songwriter.    Newley  achieved  success  as  a  


performer  in  such  diverse  fields  as  rock  and  roll  and  stage  and  screen  acting.    

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As  a  recording  artist  he  enjoyed  a  dozen  Top  40  entries  on  the  UK  Singles  
Chart  between  1959  and  1962,  including  two  number  one  hits.    With  
songwriting  partner  Leslie  Bricusse,  Newley  penned  “Feeling  Good”,  which  
was  popularized  by  Nina  Simone  and  covered  by  many  other  popular  artists,  
as  well  as  the  title  song  of  1964  film  GOLDFINGER  (along  with  John  Barry).    
Bricusse  and  Newley  received  an  Academy  Award  nomination  for  the  film  
score  of  WILLY  WONKA  &  THE  CHOCOLATE  FACTORY  (1971).    THE  GUINESS  
BOOK  OF  BRITISH  HIT  SINGLES  &  ALBUMS  described  Newley  as  “among  the  
most  innovative  UK  acts  of  the  early  rock  years  before  moving  into  musicals  
and  cabaret”.    Newley  was  inducted  into  the  Songwriters  Hall  of  Fame  in  
1989.      
• Lindsay  Kemp:    

A  British  dancer,  actor,  teacher,  mime  artist,  and  choreographer.    He  was  
probably  best  known  for  his  1974  flagship  production  of  FLOWERS,  a  mime  
and  music  show  based  on  Jean  Genet’s  novel  OUR  LADY  OF  THE  FLOWERS,  in  

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which  he  played  the  lead  role  of  ‘Divine’.    Due  to  its  homosexuality  and  
perceived  decadence,  reviews  were  sometimes  hostile,  but  it  is  widely  
considered  a  theatrical  and  sensory  sensation,  and  it  toured  globally  for  
many  years.    He  was  also  a  mentor  to  David  Bowie  and  Kate  Bush.    He  staged  
and  performed  in  Bowie’s  ZIGGY  STRADUST  concerts  at  London’s  Rainbow  
Theatre  in  August  1972,  with  Jack  Birkett,  and  appears  in  a  the  promotional  
video  for  Bowie’s  single  “John,  I’m  Only  Dancing”,  directed  by  Mick  Rock.      
• Rufus  Wainwright:

   An  American-­‐Canadian  singer,  songwriter,  and  composer.    He  has  recorded  


seven  albums  of  original  music  and  numerous  tracks  on  compilations  and  
film  soundtracks.    He  has  also  written  a  classical  opera  and  set  Shakespeare  
sonnets  to  music  for  a  theater  piece  by  Robert  Wilson.    Wainwright’s  self-­‐
titled  debut  album  was  released  through  DreamWorks  Records  in  May  1998.    
His  second  album  POSES,  was  released  in  June  2001.    Wainwright’s  third  and  
fourth  studio  albums,  WANT  ONE  (2003)  and  WANT  TWO  (2004),  were  
repackaged  s  the  double  album  WANT  in  2005.    In  2007,  Wainwright  
released  his  fifth  studio  album  RELEASE  THE  STARS  and  his  first  live  album  
RUFUS  DOES  JUDY  AT  CARNEGIE  HALL.    His  second  live  album  MILWAUKEE  
AT  LAST!!!  was  released  in  2009,  followed  by  the  studio  ablums  ALL  DAYS  
ARE  NIGHTS:  SONGS  FOR  LULU  (2010)  and  OUT  OF  THE  GAME  (2012).    The  
double  album  PRIMA  DONNA  (2015),  was  a  recording  of  his  opera  of  the  
same  name.  His  ninth  studio  album  TAKE  ALL  MY  LOVES:  9  SHAKESPEARE  
SONNETS  (2016),  featured  nine  adaptations  of  Shakespeare’s  sonnets.    
Wainwright’s  work  contains  several  recurring  themes:  opera,  literature,  pop  
culture,  politics,  and  love  (often  unrequited  love).    “Foolish  Love”  and  “Danny  
Boy”  are  about  a  crush  he  once  had  on  a  straight  man.    Other  songs  address  
full-­‐blown  love  and  the  consequences  of  falling  out  of  love.    Wainwrigtht  also  
sings  about  his  family  relationships.    Several  songs  deal  with  experiences  
with  addiction.      

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• Sex  Pistols:    

An  English  punk  rock  band  that  formed  in  London  in  1975.    They  were  
responsible  for  initiating  the  punk  movement  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  
inspiring  many  later  punk  and  alternative  rock  musicians.    Although  their  
initial  career  lasted  just  two  and  half  years  and  produced  only  four  singles  
and  one  studio  album,  NEVER  MIND  THE  BOLLOCKS,  HERE’S  THE  SEX  
PISTOLS,  they  are  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  influential  acts  in  the  history  
of  popular  music.    The  Sex  Pistols  originally  comprised  vocalist  Johnny  
Rotten  (John  Lydon),  guitarist  Steve  Jones,  drummer  Paul  Cook,  and  bassist  
Glen  Matlock.    Matlock  was  replaced  by  Sid  Vicious  in  early  1977.    Under  the  
management  of  Malcolm  McLaren,  the  band  attracted  controversies  that  both  
captivated  and  appalled  Britain.    Through  an  obscenity-­‐laced  television  
interview  in  December  1976  and  their  May  1977  single  “God  Save  the  
Queen”,  attacking  Britons’  social  conformity  and  deference  to  the  Crown,  
they  precipitated  the  punk  rock  movement.    In  January  1978,  at  the  end  of  an  
over-­‐hyped  and  turbulent  tour  of  the  United  States,  Rotten  announced  the  
band’s  break-­‐up.    Over  the  next  few  month,  the  three  remaining  band  
members  recorded  songs  for  McLaren’s  film  versoin  of  the  Sex  Pistols’  story,  
THE  GREAT  ROCK  ‘N’  ROLL  SWINDLE.    Vicious  died  of  a  heroin  overdose  in  
February  1979,  following  his  arrest  for  the  alleged  murder  of  his  girlfriend.    
Rotten,  James,  Cook  and  Matlock  briefly  reunited  for  a  concert  tour  in  1996.    
On  24  February  2006,  the  Sex  Pistols  –  the  four  original  members  plus  

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Vicious  –  were  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame,  but  the  refused  
to  attend  the  ceremony,  calling  the  museum  “a  piss  stain”.  

• Farrah  Fawcett:     An  American  


actress  of  stage  and  screen,  model,  and  artist.    A  four-­‐time  Emmy  Award  
nominee  and  six-­‐time  Golden  Globe  Award  nominee,  Fawcett  rose  to  
international  fame  when  she  starred  as  private  investigator  Jill  Munroe  in  the  
first  season  of  the  television  series  CHARLIE’S  ANGELS  (1976-­‐1977).    
Fawcett  began  her  career  in  the  1960s  appearing  in  commercials  and  guest  
roles  on  television.    During  the  1970s,  she  appeared  in  numerous  television  
series,  including  recurring  roles  on  HARRY  O  (1974-­‐1976),  and  THE  SIX  
MILLION  DOLLOAR  MAN  (1974-­‐1978)  with  her  first  husband,  film  and  
television  star  Lee  Majors.    Her  breakthrough  role  came  in  1976  when  she  
was  cast  as  Jill  Munroe  in  CHARLIE’S  ANGELS,  alongside  Kate  Jackson  and  
Jaclyn  Smith.    The  show  propelled  all  three  to  stardom,  but  especially  
Fawcett,  who  was  then  billed  as  “Farrah  Fawcett-­‐Majors”.    After  appearing  
only  in  the  first  season,  Fawcett  decided  to  leave  the  show,  but  eventually  
returned  for  the  show’s  third  and  fourth  seasons  (1978-­‐1980).    For  her  role  
in  CHARLIE’S  ANGELS  she  received  her  first  Golden  Globe  nomination.    In  
1983,  Fawcett  received  positive  reviews  for  her  performance  in  the  Off-­‐
Broadway  play  EXTREMITIES.    She  was  subsequently  cast  in  the  1986  film  
version  and  received  a  Golden  Globe  nomination.    Fawcett’s  iconic  1976  
poster  sold  a  record-­‐breaking  20  million  copies.    Fawcett’s  appearance  in  the  
television  show  boosted  sales  of  her  poster,  and  she  earned  far  more  
royalties  from  poser  sales  than  from  her  salary  appearing  in  CHARLIES  
ANGELS.    Her  hairstyle  went  on  to  become  an  international  trend,  with  
women  sporting  a  “Farrah-­‐do”,  a  “Farrah-­‐flip”,  or  simply  “Farrah  hair”.  

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Iterations  of  her  hair  style  predominated  among  American  women’s  
hairstyles  well  into  the  1980s.  

• Joan  Fontaine :    A  
British-­‐American  actress  who  is  best  known  for  her  starring  roles  in  cinema  
during  the  Classical  Hollywood  era.    Fontaine  appeared  in  more  than  45  
feature  films  in  a  career  that  spanned  five  decades.    She  was  the  younger  
sister  of  Olivia  de  Havilland.    She  released  an  autobiography,  NO  BED  OF  
ROSES,  in  1978.    She  continued  to  act  until  her  last  performance  in  1994.    
Having  won  an  Academy  Award  for  her  role  in  SUSPICION,  Fontaine  is  the  
only  actor  to  have  won  an  Academy  Award  for  acting  in  a  Hitchcock  film.    
Furthermore,  she  and  her  sister  remain  the  only  siblings  to  have  won  major  
acting  Academy  Awards,  although  it  is  well-­‐known  that  they  were  estranged  
for  many  decades.      

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• Barbara  Stanwyck:    

An  American  actress,  model,  and  dancer.    Starting  as  a  Ziegfeld  girl  in  the  
1920s,  she  was  a  film  and  television  star,  known  for  her  60-­‐year  career  as  a  
consummate  and  versatile  professional  for  a  strong,  realistic  screen  
presence.    A  favorite  of  directors  including  Cecil  B.  DeMille,  Fritz  Lang,  and  
Frank  Capra,  she  made  85  films  in  38  years  in  Hollywood  before  turning  to  
television.    By  1944,  Stanwyck  had  become  the  highest-­‐paid  woman  in  the  

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United  States.    She  occasionally  served  as  a  dance  instructor  at  a  speakeasy  
for  gays  and  lesbians  owned  by  Guinan.      
• Joan  Crawford:    

An  American  film  and  television  actress  who  began  her  career  as  a  dancer  in  
traveling  theatrical  companies  before  debuting  as  a  chorus  girl  on  Broadway.    
Crawford  then  signed  a  motion  picture  contract  with  Metro-­‐Goldwyn-­‐Mayer  
in  1925;  her  career  would  span  decades,  studios,  and  controversies.    In  1999,  

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The  American  Film  Institute  ranked  Crawford  tenth  on  its  list  of  the  greatest  
female  stars  of  Classic  Hollywood  Cinema.    In  the  1930s,  Crawford’s  fame  
rivaled  and  later  outlasted,  that  of  MGM  colleagues  Norma  Shearer  and  Great  
Garbo.    Crawford  often  played  hard-­‐working  young  women  who  found  
romance  and  success.    These  characters  and  stories  were  well  received  by  
Depression-­‐era  audiences,  and  were  popular  wit  women.    Crawford  became  
one  of  Hollywood’s  most  prominent  movie  stars,  and  one  of  the  highest-­‐paid  
women  in  the  United  States.    Crawford  has  also  attracted  a  following  in  the  
gay  community.    In  JOAN  CRAWFORD:  THE  ESSENTIAL  BIOGRAPHY,  the  
author  explains  that  Crawford  appeals  to  many  gay  men  because  they  
sympathize  with  her  struggle  for  success  in  both  the  entertainment  industry  
and  her  personal  life.  

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• Bette  Davis:  

 An  American  actress  of  film,  television,  and  theater.    With  a  career  spanning  
60  years,  she  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest  actresses  in  Hollywood  
history.    She  was  noted  for  playing  unsympathetic,  sardonic  characters,  and  
was  famous  for  her  performances  in  a  range  of  film  genres,  from  

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contemporary  crime  melodramas  to  historical  and  period  films,  suspense  
horror,  and  occasional  comedies,  although  her  greatest  successes  were  her  
roles  in  romantic  dramas.    After  appearing  in  Broadway  plays,  Davis  moved  
to  Hollywood  in  the  summer  of  1930.    However,  her  early  films  for  Universal  
Studios  (and  as  a  loanout  to  other  studios)  were  unsuccessful.    She  joined  
Warner  Bros.  in  1932,  and  established  her  career  with  several  critically  
acclaimed  performances.    In  1937,  she  attempted  to  free  herself  from  her  
contract;  although  she  lost  the  well-­‐publicized  legal  case  against  Warners,  it  
marked  a  beginning  of  her  most  successful  period.    Until  the  late  1940s,  she  
was  one  of  the  most  celebrated  leading  ladies  of  US  cinema,  known  for  her  
forceful  and  intense  style.    Davis  gained  a  reputation  as  a  perfectionist  who  
could  be  highly  combative  and  confrontational.    She  clashed  with  studio  
executives  and  film  directors,  as  well  as  many  of  her  co-­‐stars.    Her  forthright  
manner,  idiosyncratic  speech,  and  ubiquitous  cigarette  contributed  to  a  
public  persona  that  has  often  been  imitated.    In  1964,  Jack  Warner  spoke  of  
the  “magic  quality  that  transformed  this  sometimes  bland  and  not  beautiful  
little  girl  into  a  great  artist”.    Davis  attracted  a  following  in  the  gay  
subculture,  and  was  frequently  imitated  by  female  impersonators  such  as  
Tracey  Lee,  Craig  Russell,  Jim  Bailey,  and  Charles  Pierce.    Attempting  to  
explain  her  popularity  with  gay  audiences,  the  journalist  Jim  Emerson  wrote:  
“Was  she  just  a  camp  figurehead  because  her  brittle,  melodramatic  style  of  
acting  hadn’t  aged  well?    Or  was  it  that  she  was  ‘Larger  Than  Life’,  a  tough  
broad  who  had  survived?    Probably  some  of  both.”  
• Mrs.  Robinson:    

A  term  used  to  describe  an  older  woman  pursuing  someone  younger  than  

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herself,  in  reference  to  the  character  played  by  Anne  Bancroft  in  the  movie  
THE  GRADUATE.      

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• Janis  Joplin:    

American  rock,  soul,  and  blues  singer-­‐songwriter,  and  one  of  the  most  

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successful  and  widely  known  rock  stars  of  her  era.    After  releasing  three  
albums,  she  died  of  a  heroin  overdose  at  the  age  of  27.    A  fourth  album,  
PEARL,  was  released  in  January  1971,  just  over  three  months  after  her  death.    
It  reached  number  one  on  the  Billboard  charts.  In  1967,  Joplin  rose  to  fame  
following  an  appearance  at  Monterey  Pop  Festival,  where  she  was  the  lead  
singer  of  the  then  little-­‐known  San  Francisco  psychedelic  rock  band  Big  
Brother  and  the  Holding  Company.    After  releasing  two  albums  with  the  
band,  she  left  Big  Brother  to  continue  as  a  solo  artist  with  her  own  backing  
groups,  first  the  Kozmic  Band  and  the  Full  Tilt  Boogie  Band.    She  appeared  at  
the  Woodstock  festival  and  the  FESTIVAL  EXPRESS  train  tour.    Five  singles  
by  Joplin  reached  the  Billboard  Hot  100,  including  a  cover  of  the  Kris  
Kristofferson  song  “Me  and  Bobby  McGee”,  which  reached  number  1  in  
March  1971.    Her  most  popular  songs  include  her  cover  versions  of  “Piece  of  
My  Heart”,  “Cry  Baby”,  “Down  on  Me”,  “Ball  and  Chain”,  and  “Summertime”;  
and  her  original  song  “Mercedes  Benz”,  her  final  recording.    Joplin,  a  mezzo-­‐
soprano  highly  respected  for  her  charismatic  performing  ability,  was  
posthumously  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  in  1995.    
Audiences  and  critics  alike  referred  to  her  stage  presence  as  “electric”.    
ROLLNG  STONE  ranked  Joplin  number  46  on  its  2004  list  of  the  100  Greatest  
Artists  of  All  Time.    She  remains  one  of  the  top-­‐selling  musicians  in  the  
United  States,  with  Recording  Industry  Association  of  America  certifications  
of  15.5  million  albums  sold.      

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• Kurt  Cobain:    

An  
American  singer,  songwriter,  and  musician,  best  known  as  the  guitarist  and  
frontman  of  the  rock  band  Nirvana.    He  is  remembered  as  one  of  the  most  
iconic  and  influential  rock  musicians  in  the  history  of  alternative  music.    Born  
in  Aberdeen,  Washington,  Cobain  formed  the  band  Nirvana  with  Krist  
Novoselic  and  Aaron  Burckhard  in  1987  and  established  it  as  part  of  the  
Seattle  music  scene  which  later  became  known  as  grunge.    After  signing  with  
major  label  DGC  Records,  Nirvana  found  success  with  “Smells  Like  Teen  
Spirit”  from  their  second  album  NEVERMIND  (1991).    Following  the  success  
of  NEVERMIND,  Nirvana  was  labeled  “the  flagship  band”  of  Generation  X,  and  
Cobain  was  hailed  as  “the  spokesman  of  a  generation”;  however,  Cobain  
resented  this,  believing  his  message  and  artistic  vision  had  been  

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misinterpreted  by  the  public,  with  his  personal  problems  often  subject  to  
media  attention.    During  the  last  years  of  his  life,  Cobain  struggled  with  
heroin  addiction  and  chronic  health  problems  such  as  depression.    He  also  
struggled  with  the  personal  and  professional  pressures  of  fame,  and  his  
marriage  to  musician  Courtney  Love.    On  April  8,  1994,  at  the  age  of  27,  
Cobain  was  found  dead  at  his  home  in  Seattle,  and  police  concluded  he  died  
on  April  5  from  a  self-­‐inflicted  shotgun  wound  to  his  head.    Cobain  has  been  
described  as  a  “Generation  X  icon”.    He  was  also  posthumously  inducted  into  
the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame,  along  with  Nirvana  bandmates  Dave  Grohl  
and  Novoselic,  in  their  first  year  of  eligibility  in  2014.    In  2003,  David  Fricke  
of  ROLLING  STONE  ranked  him  the  12th  greatest  guitarist  of  all  time.    He  was  
ranked  7th  by  MTV  in  the  “22  Greatest  Voices  in  Music”.    In  2006,  he  was  
placed  20th  by  HIT  PARADER  on  their  list  of  the  “100  Greatest  Metal  Singers  
of  All  Time”.    Grohl  stated  that  Cobain  believed  that  music  comes  first  and  
lyrics  second.    Cobain  focused,  foremost,  on  the  melodies  of  his  songs.    Cobain  
complained  when  fans  and  rock  journalists  attempted  to  decipher  his  singing  
and  extract  meaning  from  his  lyrics,  writing:  “Why  in  the  hell  do  journalists  
insist  on  coming  up  with  a  second-­‐rate  Freudian  evaluation  of  my  lyrics,  
when  90  percent  of  the  time  they’ve  transcribed  them  incorrectly?”    Cobain  
originally  wanted  NEVERMIND  to  be  divided  into  two  sides:  a  “Boy”  side  for  
the  songs  written  about  the  experiences  of  his  early  life  and  childhood,  and  a  
“Girl”  side,  for  the  songs  written  about  his  dysfunctional  relationship  with  
Tobi  Vail  [a  punk  rock  zinester,  whom  he  believed  to  be  his  female  
counterpart].    In  October  1992,  when  asked,  “Well,  are  you  gay?  by  MONK  
MAGAZINE,  Cobain  replied,  “If  I  wasn’t  attracted  to  Courney,  I’d  be  bisexual.”  
In  another  interview,  he  described  identifying  with  the  gay  community  in  
THE  ADVOCATE,  stating,  “I’m  definitely  gay  in  spirit  and  I  probably  could  be  
bisexual”  and  “if  I  wouldn’t  have  found  Courtney,  I  probably  would  have  
carried  on  with  a  bisexual  life-­‐style”.    He  described  himself  as  being  
“feminine”  in  childhood,  and  often  wore  dresses  and  other  stereotypically  
feminine  clothing.      

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• Nick  Drake:    

An  English  singer-­‐songwriter  known  for  his  acoustic  guitar-­‐based  songs.    


Though  he  failed  to  find  a  wide  audience  during  his  lifetime,  his  work  has  
since  achieved  wider  recognition.    Drake  signed  to  Island  Records  when  he  
was  20,  while  a  student  at  the  University  of  Cambridge.    He  released  his  
debut  album,  FIVE  LEAVES  LEFT,  in  1969,  followed  by  the  jazzier,  more  
upbeat  BRYTER  LAYTER  (1971)  and  the  sparse  PINK  MOON  (1972).    The  
albums  sold,  in  total,  fewer  than  4,000  copies  in  his  lifetime.    Drake’s  
reluctance  to  perform  live  or  give  interviews  contributed  to  his  lack  of  
success.    Drake  suffered  from  depression,  a  condition  evident  in  his  lyrics.    
After  recording  PINK  MOON,  he  withdrew  from  performance  and  retreated  
to  his  parents’  home  in  rural  Warwickshire.    In  1974,  aged  26,  Drake  died  
from  an  overdose  of  approximately  30  amitriptyline  pills,  a  prescribed  
antidepressant.    His  cause  of  death  was  determined  as  suicide.    The  1979  
release  of  the  retrospective  album  FRUIT  TREE  triggered  a  reassessment  of  
Drake’s  music.    By  the  mid-­‐1980s,  he  was  credited  as  an  influence  by  such  
artists  as  Robert  Smith,  David  Sylvian,  and  Peter  Buck.    In  1985,  the  Dream  
Academy  reached  the  UK  and  US  charts  with  “Life  in  a  Northern  Town”,  a  
song  written  about  and  dedicated  to  Drake.    By  the  early  1990s,  he  had  come  
to  represent  a  “doomed  romantic”  musician  in  the  UK  music  press.    The  first  
Drake  biography  was  published  in  1997,  followed  in  1998  by  the  
documentary  film  A  STRANGER  AMONG  US.    In  1999,  his  song  “Pink  Moon”  
was  used  in  a  Volkswagen  commercial,  boosting  his  US  album  sales.    By  2014,  
more  than  2.4  million  Nick  Drake  albums  had  been  sold  in  the  UK  and  the  US.    
Drake  was  obsessive  about  practicing  his  guitar  technique,  and  would  stay  up  
through  the  night  writing  and  experimenting  with  alternative  tunings.    Drake  
who  studied  English  Literature  at  Cambridge,  was  drawn  to  the  works  of  
William  Blake,  William  Butler  Yeats,  and  Henry  Vaughn,  and  his  lyrics  reflect  

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such  influences.    He  also  employed  a  series  of  elemental  symbols  and  codes,  
largely  drawn  from  nature.    The  moon,  stars,  sea,  rain,  trees,  sky,  mist,  and  
seasons  are  all  commonly  used,  influenced  in  part  by  his  rural  upbringing.    
Throughout,  Drake  writes  with  detachment,  more  as  an  observer  than  
participant,  a  point  of  view  ROLLING  STONE’s  Anthony  DeCurtis  described  
“as  if  he  were  viewing  his  life  from  a  great,  unbridgeable  distance”.    This  
perceived  inability  to  connect  has  led  to  much  speculation  about  Drake’s  
sexuality.    Boyd  has  said  he  detects  a  virginal  quality  in  his  lyrics  and  music,  
and  notes  that  he  never  knew  of  him  behaving  in  a  sexual  way  with  anyone,  
male  or  female.      
• Chris  Cornell:    

An  American  musician,  singer,  and  songwriter.    He  was  best  known  as  the  
lead  vocalist  for  the  rock  bands  Soundgarden  and  Audioslave.    Cornell  was  
also  known  for  his  numerous  solo  works  and  soundtrack  contributions  since  
1991,  and  as  the  founder  and  frontman  for  Temple  of  the  Dog,  the  one-­‐off  
tribute  band  dedicated  to  his  late  friend  Andrew  Wood.    Cornell  is  considered  
one  of  the  chief  architects  of  the  1990s  grunge  movement,  and  is  well  known  
for  his  extensive  catalog  as  a  songwriter,  his  nearly  four-­‐octave  vocal  range,  
and  his  powerful  vocal  belting  technique.    He  released  four  solo  studio  
albums,  EUPHORIA  MORNING  (1999),  CARRY  ON  (2007),  SCREAM  (2009),  
HIGHER  TRUTH  (2015).    Cornell  received  a  Golden  Globe  Award  nomination  
for  his  song  “The  Keeper”,  which  appeared  in  the  2011  film  MACHINE  GUN  
PREACHER,  and  co-­‐wrote  and  performed  the  theme  song  to  the  James  Bond  
film  CASINO  ROYALE  (2006),  “You  Know  My  Name”.    His  last  solo  release  
before  his  death  was  the  charity  single  “The  Promise”,  written  for  the  ending  
credits  for  the  2016  film  of  the  same  name.    He  was  voted  “Rock’s  Greatest  
Singer”  by  readers  of  GUITAR  WORLD,  ranked  4th  in  the  list  of  “Heavy  Metal’s  
All-­‐Time  Top  100  Vocalists”  by  HIT  PARADER,  9th  in  the  list  of  “Best  Lead  
Singers  of  All  Time”  by  ROLLING  STONE,  and  12th  in  MTV’s  “22  Greatest  
Voices  in  Music”.    Across  his  entire  catalog,  Cornell  has  sold  14.8  million  
albums,  8.8  million  digital  songs,  and  300  million  on-­‐demand  audio  streams  

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in  the  U.S.  alone,  as  well  as  over  30  million  records  worldwide.    He  was  
nominated  for  16  Grammy  Awards  and  won  three.    Cornell  struggled  with  
depression  for  most  of  his  life.    He  was  found  dead  in  his  Detroit  hotel  room  
early  on  the  morning  of  Mary  18,  2017,  after  performing  at  a  Soundgarden  
concert  an  hour  earlier  at  the  Fox  Theatre.    He  death  was  ruled  a  suicide  by  
hanging.      
• Michael  Hutchence:    

An  Australian  musician,  singer-­‐songwriter  and  actor  who  co-­‐founded  the  


rock  band  INXS,  which  sold  over  60  million  records  worldwide  and  was  
inducted  into  the  ARIA  Hall  of  Fame  in  2001.    Hutchence  was  the  lead  singer  
of  INXS  from  1977  until  his  death.    According  to  rock  music  historian  Ian  
McFarlane,  “Hutchence  was  the  archetypal  rock  showman.    He  exuded  an  
overtly  sexual,  macho  cool  with  his  flowing  locks,  and  lithe  and  exuberant  
stage  movements.”    Hutchence  was  named  ‘Best  International  Artist’  at  the  
1991  BRIT  Awards,  with  INXS  winning  the  related  group  award.    Hutchence  

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was  a  member  of  the  short-­‐lived  pop  rock  group  Max  Q.    He  also  recorded  
some  solo  material  and  acted  in  feature  films,  including  DOGS  IN  SPACE  
(1986),  FRANKENSTEIN  UNBOUND  (1990),  and  LIMP  (1997).    Hutchence  
had  a  string  of  love  affairs  with  prominent  actresses,  models,  and  singers,  
and  his  private  life  was  often  reported  in  the  Australian  and  international  
press.    In  July  1996,  Hutchence  and  English  television  presenter  Paula  Yates  
had  a  daughter,  Heavenly  Hiraani  Tiger  Lily.    On  the  morning  of  22  November  
1997,  Hutchence  was  found  dead  in  his  hotel  room  in  Sydney.    His  death  was  
reported  by  the  New  South  Wales  Coroner  to  be  the  result  of  suicide  by  
hanging.    Hutchence  and  INXS  went  on  a  world  tour  to  support  the  April  
1997  release  of  ELEGANTLY  WASTED.    The  final  20th  anniversary  tour  was  to  
occur  in  Australia  in  November  and  December.    During  the  tour,  Yates  
planned  to  visit  Hutchence  with  their  daughter  and  Yate’s  three  children,  but  
Geldof  had  taken  legal  action  to  prevent  the  visit.    On  the  morning  of  22  
November  1997,  Hutchence,  aged  37,  was  found  dead  in  Room  524  at  the  
Ritz-­‐Carlton  hotel  in  Double  Bay,  Sydney.    Actress  Kym  Wilson  was  the  last  
person  to  see  Hutchence  alive,  after  partying  with  him  in  his  hotel  room  prior  
to  his  death.    Geldof  and  Yates  each  gave  police  statements  on  the  phone  calls  
they  exchanged  with  Hutchence  on  the  morning  of  his  death;  however,  they  
did  not  volunteer  their  phone  records.    Yates’s  statement  on  26  November  
indicated  that  she  had  informed  Hutchence  of  the  Geldof  girls’  custody  
hearing  being  adjourned  until  17  December,  which  meant  that  Yates  would  
not  be  able  to  bring  Tiger  and  the  Geldof  girls  to  Australia  for  a  visit  as  
previously  intended.    According  to  Yates,  Hutchence  “Was  frightened  and  
couldn’t  stand  a  minute  more  without  his  baby…  [he]  was  terribly  upset  and  
he  said,  “I  don’t  know  how  I’ll  live  without  seeing  Tiger’”.    Yates  indicated  
that  Hutchence  said  he  was  going  to  phone  Geldof  “to  let  the  girls  come  to  
Australia”.    Geldof’s  police  statements  and  evidence  to  the  coroner  indicated  
that  Geldof  did  receive  a  call  from  Hutchence,  who  was  “hectoring  and  
abusive  and  threatening”  during  their  phone  conversation.    The  occupant  in  
the  room  next  to  Hutchence’s  heard  a  loud  male  voice  and  swearing  at  about  
5  AM;  the  coroner  was  satisfied  that  this  was  Hutchence  arguing  with  Geldof.    
At  9:54  AM  on  22  November,  Hutchence  spoke  with  a  former  girlfriend,  
Michèle  Bennett;  according  to  Bennett,  Hutchence  was  crying,  sounded  upset,  
and  told  her  he  needed  to  see  her.    Bennett  arrived  at  his  hotel  room  door  at  
about  10:40  AM,  but  there  was  no  response.    Hutchence’s  body  was  
discovered  by  a  hotel  maid  at  11:50  AM.  Police  reported  that  Hutchence  was  
found  “in  a  kneeling  position  facing  the  door.    He  had  used  his  snakeskin  belt  
to  tie  a  knot  on  the  automatic  door  closure  at  the  top  of  the  door,  and  had  
strained  his  head  forward  into  the  loop  so  hard  that  the  buckle  had  broken.      

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• Ian  Curtis:    

An  English  singer-­‐songwriter  and  musician.    He  was  the  lead  singer  and  
lyricist  of  the  post-­‐punk  band  Joy  Division  and  recorded  two  albums  with  the  
group:    UNKNOWN  PLEASURES  (1979)  and  CLOSER  (1980).    Curtis,  who  
suffered  from  epilepsy  and  depression,  died  by  suicide  on  the  eve  of  Joy  
Division’s  first  North  American  tour  and  shortly  before  the  release  of  
CLOSER.    His  suicide  resulted  in  the  band’s  dissolution  and  the  subsequent  
formation  of  New  Order.    Curtis  was  known  for  his  bass-­‐baritone  voice,  dance  
style,  and  songwriting  typically  filled  with  imagery  of  desolation,  emptiness,  
and  alienation.    On  the  eve  of  17  May  1980,  Curtis  asked  Deborah  [wife]  to  
drop  her  impending  divorce  proceedings;  she  replied  that  he  would  likely  
have  changed  his  mind  by  the  following  morning,  and  then  –  mindful  of  his  
previous  suicide  attempt  [only  a  month  before]  and  also  concerned  his  state  
of  anxiety  and  frustration  may  drive  Curtis  into  an  epileptic  fit  –  offered  to  
spend  the  night  in  his  company.    Deborah  then  drove  to  her  parents’  home  to  

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inform  them  of  her  intentions.    When  she  returned  to  his  house  at  77  Barton  
Street  in  Macclesfield,  Cheshire,  his  demeanour  had  changed,  and  he  
informed  his  wife  of  his  intentions  to  spend  the  night  alone,  first  making  her  
promise  not  to  return  to  the  house  before  he  had  taken  his  scheduled  10  a.m.  
train  to  Manchester  to  rendezvous  with  his  bandmates.    In  the  early  hours  of  
the  next  morning,  Curtis  ended  his  life  by  hanging  himself  in  his  kitchen.    He  
was  23  years  old.    Deborah  found  his  body  soon  after;  he  had  used  the  
kitchen’s  washing  line  to  hang  himself,  having  written  a  note  to  Deborah  in  
which  he  declared  his  love  for  her  despite  his  recent  affair.    Curtis  spent  the  
few  hours  before  his  suicide  watching  Werner  Herzog’s  1977  film  STROSZEK  
and  listening  to  Iggy  Pop’s  1977  album  THE  IDIOT.    His  wife  recollected  that  
he  had  taken  photographs  of  their  wedding  and  their  baby  daughter  off  the  
walls,  apparently  to  view  them  as  he  composed  his  suicide  note.    At  the  time  
of  his  suicide,  Joy  Division  were  on  the  eve  of  their  debut  North  American  
tour,  and  Deborah  had  stated  Curtis  had  viewed  this  upcoming  tour  with  
extreme  trepidation,  not  only  because  of  his  extreme  fear  of  flying  (he  had  
wanted  to  travel  by  ship),  but  because  he  had  also  expressed  deep  concerns  
as  to  how  American  audiences  would  react  to  his  epilepsy.    Deborah  has  also  
claimed  that  Curtis  had  confided  in  her  on  several  occasions  that  he  held  no  
desire  to  live  past  his  early  twenties.    In  a  2007  interview  with  THE  
GUARDIAN,  Stephen  Morris  expressed  regret  that  nobody  had  realized  
during  Curtis’  life  the  distress  he  was  in,  even  though  it  was  evident  in  his  
lyrics.      
• Elliott  Smith:    

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  and  multi-­‐instrumentalist.    Smith  was  born  

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in  Omaha,  Nebraska,  raised  primarily  in  Texas,  and  lived  much  of  his  life  in  
Portland,  Oregon,  where  he  first  gained  popularity.    Smith’s  primary  
instrument  was  the  guitar,  though  he  also  used  piano,  clarinet,  bass  guitar,  
drums,  and  harmonica.    Smith  had  a  distinctive  vocal  style,  characterized  by  
his  “whispery,  spiderweb-­‐thin  delivery”,  and  used  multi-­‐tracking  to  create  
vocal  layers,  textures,  and  harmonies.    After  playing  in  the  rock  band  
Heatmiser  for  several  years,  Smith  began  his  solo  career  in  1994,  with  
releases  on  the  independent  record  labels  Cavity  Search  and  Kill  Rock  Stars  
(KRS).    In  1997,  he  signed  a  contract  with  DreamWorks  Records,  for  which  he  
recorded  two  albums.    Smith  rose  to  mainstream  prominence  with  his  song  
“Miss  Misery”  –  included  in  the  soundtrack  for  the  film  GOOD  WILL  HUNTING  
(1997)  –  was  nominated  for  an  Oscar  in  the  Best  Original  Song  category  in  
1998.    Smith  was  a  drinker  and  drug  user,  and  was  diagnosed  with  attention  
deficit  hyperactivity  disorder  (ADHD)  and  major  depressive  disorder.    His  
struggles  with  drugs  and  mental  illness  affected  his  life  and  work,  and  often  
appeared  in  his  lyrics.    In  2003,  aged  34,  he  died  in  Los  Angeles,  California,  
from  two  stab  wounds  to  the  chest.    The  autopsy  evidence  was  inconclusive  
as  to  whether  the  wounds  were  self-­‐inflicted  or  the  result  of  homicide.    At  the  
time  of  his  death,  Smith  was  working  on  his  sixth  studio  album,  FROM  A  
BASEMENT  ON  THE  HILL,  which  was  posthumously  completed  and  released  
in  2004.    Smith  said  that  transitions  were  his  favorite  part  of  songs  and  that  
he  preferred  to  write  broader  more  impressionistic  music  closer  to  pop  
rather  than  folk  music.    Smith  compared  his  songs  to  stories  or  dreams,  not  
purely  confessional  pieces  that  people  could  relate  to.    When  asked  about  the  
dark  nature  of  his  songwriting  and  the  cult  following  he  was  gaining,  Smith  
said  he  felt  it  was  merely  a  product  of  his  writing  songs  that  were  strongly  
meaningful  to  him  rather  than  anything  contrived.    Larry  Crane,  Smith’s  
posthumous  archivist,  has  said  that  he  was  surprised  at  the  amount  of  
“recycling  of  musical  ideas”  he  encountered  while  cataloging  Smith’s  private  
tapes;  “I  found  songs  recorded  in  high  school  reworked  15  years  on.    Lyrics  
became  more  important  to  him  as  he  became  older,  and  more  time  was  spent  
working  on  them.”    Smith  died  on  October  21,  2003,  at  the  age  of  34  from  two  
stab  wounds  to  the  chest.    At  the  time  of  the  stabbing,  he  was  at  his  Lemoyne  
Street  home  in  Echo  Park,  California,  where  he  lived  with  his  girlfriend,  
Jennifer  Chiba,  the  two  were  arguing,  and  she  locked  herself  in  the  bathroom  
to  take  a  shower.    Chiba  heard  him  scream  and  upon  opening  the  door  saw  
Smith  standing  with  a  knife  in  his  chest.    She  pulled  the  knife  out,  after  which  
he  collapsed  and  she  called  9-­‐1-­‐1  at  12:18  p.m.  Smith  died  in  the  hospital  
with  the  time  of  death  listed  as  1:36  p.m.    A  possible  suicide  note,  written  on  
a  Post-­‐It  note,  read:  “I’m  sorry  –  love,  Elliott.    God  forgive  me.”    The  name  
“Elliott”  is  misspelled  as  “Eliot”  in  the  coroner’s  report  of  the  note,  but  not  on  
the  Post-­‐it.    While  Smith’s  death  was  reported  as  a  suicide,  the  official  
autopsy  report  released  in  December  2003  left  open  the  question  of  
homicide.    According  to  PITCHFORK,  record  producer  Larry  Crane  reported  
on  his  Tape  Op  message  board  that  he  had  planned  to  help  Smith  mix  his  
album  in  mid-­‐November.  Crane  wrote,  “I  hadn’t  talked  to  Elliott  in  over  a  

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year.    His  girlfriend,  Jennifer,  called  me  [last  week]  and  asked  if  I’d  like  to  
come  to  L.A.  and  help  mix  and  finish  [Smith’s  album].    I  said  ‘yes,  of  course’,  
and  chatted  with  Elliott  for  the  first  time  in  ages.    It  seems  surreal  that  he  
would  call  me  to  finish  an  album  and  then  a  week  later  kill  himself.    I  talked  
to  Jennifer  this  morning,  who  was  obviously  shattered  and  in  tears,  and  said,  
‘I  don’t  understand,  he  was  so  healthy.’    The  coroner  reported  that  no  traces  
of  illegal  substances  or  alcohol  were  found  in  Smith’s  system  at  the  time  of  
his  death  but  did  find  prescribed  levels  of  antidepressant,  anxiolytic,  and  
ADHD  medications.    There  were  no  hesitation  wounds,  which  are  typical  of  
suicide  by  self-­‐infliction.    Due  to  the  inconclusive  autopsy  ruling,  the  Lost  
Angeles  Police  Department’s  investigation  remains  open.  
• Wendy  O.  Williams:    

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  and  actress.    Born  in  Webster,  New  York,  
she  came  to  prominence  as  the  lead  singer  of  the  rock  band  Plasmatics.    Her  
onstage  theatrics  included  partial  nudity,  exploding  equipment,  firing  a  
shotgun,  and  chainsawing  guitars.    Dubbed  the  “Queen  of  Shock  Rock”  and  
the  “Metal  Priestess”,  Williams  was  considered  the  most  controversial  and  
radical  female  singer  of  her  time.    Performing  her  own  stunts  in  videos,  she  
often  sported  a  Mohawk  hairstyle.    In  1985,  during  the  height  of  her  
popularity  as  a  solo  artist,  she  was  nominated  for  Best  Female  Rock  Vocal  
Performance.    Leaving  home  at  16,  Williams  hitchhiked  to  Colorado,  earning  
money  by  crocheting  string  bikinis.    She  travelled  to  Florida  and  Europe  
landing  various  jobs  such  as  lifeguard,  stripper,  macrobiotic  cook,  and  server  
at  Dunkin’  Donuts.    After  arriving  in  New  York  City  in  1976,  she  began  
performing  in  live  sex  shows,  and  in  1979  appeared  in  the  porno  CANDY  

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GOES  TO  HOLLYWOOD.    That  year  manager  Rod  Swenson  recruited  her  to  
the  Plasmatics  and  the  two  became  romantically  involved.    The  band  quickly  
became  known  on  the  local  underground  scene,  performing  at  clubs  such  as  
CBGB.    Three  albums  with  Plasmatics  later,  Williams  embarked  on  a  solo  
career  and  released  her  debut  album,  WOW,  in  1984.    Albums  KOMMANDER  
OF  KAOS  (1986)  and  DEFFEST!  AND  BADDEST!  (1988)  followed,  before  her  
retirement  from  the  music  industry.  Williams  made  her  non-­‐adult  screen  
debut  in  Tom  DeSimone’s  film  REFORM  SCHOOL  GIRLS  (1986),  for  which  she  
recorded  the  title  song.    She  also  appeared  in  the  1989  comedy  PUCKER  UP  
AND  BARK  LIKE  A  DOG,  television  series  THE  NEW  ADVENTURES  OF  BEANS  
BAXTER  and  MACGYVER.    On  6  April  1998,  Williams  committed  suicide  near  
her  home  in  Storrs,  Connecticut  by  gunshot;  she  had  attempted  to  kill  herself  
twice  in  the  years  leading  up  to  her  death,  allegedly  she  had  also  been  
struggling  with  deep  depression.    
• Pete  Townshend:  

 An  English  multi-­‐instrumentalist,  singer  and  songwriter  best  known  as  the  
guitarist,  backing  and  secondary  lead  vocalist,  principal  songwriter,  co-­‐
founder  and  leader  of  the  rock  band  the  Who.    His  career  with  the  Who  spans  
over  50  years,  during  which  time  the  band  grew  to  one  of  the  most  important  
and  influential  rock  bands  of  the  20th  century.    Pete  Townshend  is  the  main  
songwriter  for  the  Who,  having  written  well  over  100  songs  for  the  bands  11  
studio  albums,  including  concept  albums  and  the  rock  operas  TOMMY  and  
QUADROPHENIA,  plus  popular  rock  radio  staples  such  as  WHO’S  NEXT,  and  
dozens  more  that  appeared  on  non-­‐album  singles,  bonus  tracks  on  reissues,  
and  tracks  on  rarities  compilations  such  as  ODDS  &  SODS  (1974).    He  has  also  
written  more  than  100  songs  that  have  appeared  on  his  solo  albums,  as  well  
as  radio  jingles  and  television  theme  songs.    Although  known  primarily  as  a  
guitarist,  he  also  plays  keyboards,  banjo,  accordion,  harmonica,  ukulele,  

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mandolin,  violin,  synthesizer,  bass  guitar,  and  drums,  on  his  own  solo  
albums,  several  Who  albums  and  as  a  guest  contributor  to  an  array  of  other  
artists’  recordings.    He  is  self-­‐taught  on  all  of  the  instruments  he  plays  and  
has  never  had  any  formal  training.    Townshend  has  also  contributed  to  an  
authored  many  newspaper  and  magazine  articles,  book  reviews,  essays,  
books,  and  scripts,  and  he  has  collaborated  as  a  lyricist  and  composer  for  
many  other  musical  acts.    Due  to  his  aggressive  playing  style  and  innovative  
songwriting  techniques,  Townshend’s  works  with  the  Who  and  in  other  
projects  have  earned  him  critical  acclaim.    He  was  ranked  No.  3  in  Dave  
Marsh’s  list  of  Best  Guitarists  in  THE  NEW  BOOK  OF  ROCK  LISTS,  No.  10  in  
Gibson.com’s  list  on  the  top  50  guitarists,  and  No.  10  again  in  ROLLING  
STONE’s  updated  2011  list  of  the  100  greatest  guitarists  of  all  time.    In  1983,  
Townshend  received  the  Brit  Award  for  Lifetime  Achievement;  in  1990,  he  
was  inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  as  a  member  of  the  Who;  in  
2001,  he  received  a  Grammy  Lifetime  Achievement  Award  as  a  member  of  
the  Who;  and  in  2008  he  received  Kennedy  Center  Honors.    He  and  Roger  
Daltry  received  The  George  and  Ira  Gershwin  Award  for  Lifetime  Musical  
Achievement  at  UCLA  on  21  May  2016.    From  The  Daily  Californian:    In  the  
misty  fog  engulfing  Golden  Gate  Park  on  Sunday  evening,  singer-­‐songwriter  
and  guitarist  Pete  Townshend  walked  onto  Land’s  End  stage  already  
beaming.    “You’re  wet!    You’re  all  fucking  wet  –  and  we’re  not  wet!”  he  
laughed  as  vocalist-­‐guitarist  Roger  Daltrey  stepped  up  to  the  mic  and  added:  
“But  it  won’t  be  long  before  we  are!”    Al  the  while,  Zak  Starkey  –  son  of  Ringo  
Starr  –  pattered  along  on  the  drums,  egging  on  the  pair’s  slightly  stoned  
quips.    Rock  legends  Townshend  and  Daltrey  are  the  two  remaining  original  
member  of  The  Who,  formed  in  1964  in  London,  England.    The  band  opened  
its  Outside  Lands  set  with  “I  Can’t  Explain”  off  its  first  album,  MY  
GENERATION.    While  the  set  started  off  with  couple  nicks  and  bumps,  the  
band  were  later  as  on-­‐point  as  ever,  picking  up  an  electrifying  energy  –  and  it  
had  the  crowd  with  it  all  the  way.        

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• Jim  Morrison:    

An  American  singer,  songwriter,  and  poet,  who  served  as  the  lead  vocalist  of  
the  rock  band  the  Doors.    Due  to  his  poetic  lyrics,  distinctive  voice,  wild  
personality,  performances,  and  the  dramatic  circumstances  surrounding  his  
life  and  early  death,  Morrison  is  regarded  by  music  critics  and  fans  as  one  of  
the  most  iconic  and  influential  frontmen  in  rock  history.    Since  his  death,  his  
fame  has  endured  as  one  of  popular  culture’s  most  rebellious  and  oft-­‐
displayed  icons,  representing  the  generation  gap  and  youth  counterculture.    
Together  with  Ray  Manzarek,  Morrison  co-­‐founded  the  Doors  during  the  
summer  of  1965  in  Venice,  California.    The  band  spent  two  years  in  obscurity  
until  shooting  to  prominence  with  their  number-­‐one  single  in  the  United  
States  “Light  My  Fire,”  taken  from  their  self-­‐titled  debut  album.    Morrison  
wrote  or  co-­‐wrote  many  of  the  Doors’  songs,  including  “Light  My  Fire,”  
“Break  On  Through  (To  the  Other  Side)”,  “The  End”,  “Moonlight  Drive”,  
“People  Are  Strange”,  “Hello,  I  Love  You”,  “Roadhouse  Blues”,  “L.A.  Woman”,  

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and  “Riders  on  the  Storm”.    He  recorded  a  total  of  six  studio  albums  with  the  
Doors,  all  of  which  sold  well  and  received  critical  acclaim.    Though  the  Doors  
recorded  two  more  albums  after  Morrison  died,  his  death  severely  affected  
the  band’s  fortunes,  and  they  split  up  in  1973.    In  1993,  Morrison  was  
inducted  into  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  as  a  member  of  the  Doors.    
Morrison  was  also  well  known  for  improvising  spoken  word  poetry  passages  
while  the  band  played  live.    Morrison  was  ranked  number  47  on  ROLLING  
STONE’S  list  of  the  “100  Greatest  Singers  of  All  Time”,  and  number  22  on  
CLASSIC  ROCK  MAGAZINE’S  “50  Greatest  Singers  in  Rock”.    Manzarek  said  
Morrison  “embodied  hippie  counterculture  rebellion”.  Morrison  developed  
an  alcohol  dependency  during  the  1960s,  which  at  times  affected  his  
performances  on  stage.    He  died  unexpectedly  at  the  age  of  27  in  Paris.    As  no  
autopsy  was  performed,  the  cause  of  Morrison’s  death  remains  unknown.    As  
a  naval  family,  the  Morrisons  moved  frequently.    As  a  consequence,  
Morrison’s  early  education  was  routinely  disrupted  as  he  moved  from  school  
to  school.    Nonetheless,  he  was  drawn  to  the  study  of  literature,  poetry,  
religion,  philosophy  and  psychology,  among  other  fields.    Biographers  have  
consistently  pointed  to  a  number  of  writers  and  philosophers  who  influenced  
Morrison’s  thinking  and,  perhaps,  his  behavior.    While  still  in  his  adolescence,  
Morrison  discovered  the  works  of  German  philosopher  Friedrich  Nietzsche.    
He  was  also  drawn  to  the  poetry  of  William  Blake,  Charles  Baudelaire,  and  
Arthur  Rimbaud.    Beat  Generation  writers  such  as  Jack  Kerouac  and  libertine  
writers  such  as  the  Marquis  de  Sade  also  had  a  strong  influence  on  
Morrison’s  outlook  and  manner  of  expression;  Morrison  was  eager  to  
experience  the  life  described  in  Kerouac’s  ON  THE  ROAD.    He  was  similarly  
drawn  to  the  work  of  French  writer  Louis-­‐Ferdinand  Céline.    Céline’s  book  
VOYAGE  AU  BOUT  DE  LA  NUIT  (JOURNEY  TO  THE  END  OF  THE  NIGHT)  and  
Blake’s  AUGURIES  OF  INNOCENCE  both  echo  through  one  of  Morrison’s  early  
songs,  “End  of  the  Night”.    Morrison  later  met  and  befriended  Michael  
McClure,  a  well-­‐known  Beat  poet.    McClure  had  enjoyed  Morrison’s  lyrics  but  
was  even  more  impressed  by  his  poetry  and  encouraged  him  to  further  
develop  his  craft.    Morrison’s  vision  of  performance  was  colored  by  the  
works  of  20th-­‐century  French  playwright  Antonin  Artaud  (author  of  
THEATER  AND  ITS  DOUBLE)  and  Julian  Beck’s  LIVING  THEATER.    Other  
works  relating  to  religion,  mysticism,  ancient  myth,  and  symbolism  were  of  
lasting  interest,  particularly  Joseph  Campbell’s  THE  HERO  WITH  A  
THOUSAND  FACES.    James  Frazer’s  THE  GOLDEN  BOUGH  also  became  a  
source  of  inspiration  and  is  reflected  in  the  title  of  the  song  “Not  to  Touch  the  
Earth”.    Morrison  was  particularly  attracted  to  the  myths  and  religions  of  
Native  Americans  cultures.    While  he  was  still  at  school,  his  family  moved  to  
New  Mexico  where  he  got  to  see  some  of  the  places  and  artifacts  important  to  
the  American  Southwest  Indigenous  cultures.    These  interests  appear  to  be  
the  source  of  many  references  to  creatures  and  places  such  as  lizards,  snakes,  
deserts,  and  “ancient  lakes”  that  appear  in  his  songs  and  poetry.    His  
interpretation  and  imagination  of  Native  American  ceremonies  and  peoples  
(which,  based  on  his  readings,  he  referred  to  by  the  anthropological  term  

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“shamans”)  influenced  his  stage  routine,  notably  in  seeking  trance  states  and  
vision  through  dancing  to  the  point  of  exhaustion.    In  particular,  Morrison’s  
poem  “The  Ghost  Song”  was  inspired  by  his  readings  about  the  Native  
American  Ghost  Dance.    Morrison’s  vocal  influences  included  Elvis  Presley  
and  Frank  Sinatra,  which  is  evident  in  his  baritone  crooning  style  on  several  
of  the  Doors’  songs.    In  the  1981  documentary  THE  DOORS:  A  TRIBUTE  TO  
JIM  MORRISON,  producer  Paul  Rothchild  relates  his  first  impression  of  
Morrison  as  being  a  “Rock  and  Roll  Bing  Crosby”.    Sugerman  states  that  
Morrison,  as  a  teenager,  was  such  a  fan  of  Presley  that  he  demanded  silence  
when  Elvis  was  on  the  radio.    He  states  that  Sinatra  was  Morrison’s  favorite  
musician  and  the  Beach  Boys’  1967  LP  WILD  HONEY  “one  of  his  favorite  
albums…he  really  got  into  it.”    Morrisons  was,  and  continues  to  be,  one  of  the  
most  popular  and  influential  singer-­‐songwriters  and  iconic  frontmen  in  rock  
history.    To  this  day  Morrison  is  widely  regarded  as  the  prototypical  rock  
star:    surly,  sexy,  scandalous,  and  mysterious.    The  leather  pants  he  was  fond  
of  wearing  both  onstage  and  off  have  since  become  stereotyped  as  rock-­‐star  
apparel.    In  2011,  a  ROLLING  STONES  readers’  pick  placed  Jim  Morrison  in  
fifth  place  of  the  magazines  “Best  Lead  Singers  of  All  Time”.    Iggy  and  the  
Stooges  are  said  to  have  formed  after  lead  singer  Iggy  Pop  was  inspired  by  
Morrison  while  attending  a  Doors  concert  in  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan.    One  of  
Pop’s  most  popular  songs,  “The  Passenger”,  is  said  to  be  based  on  one  of  
Morrison’s  poems.      
Cheater  (Stephen  Trask,  Chris  Weilding,  Dave  McKinley,  Scott  Bilbrey),  and  

SqueezeBox!:     Cheater  
was  Stephen  Trask’s  band  that  played  at  the  Tribeca  Gay  Club  SqueezBox!    
They  also  were  the  original  band  for  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANRY  INCH.    Stephen  
Trask  isFrom  Tricia  Romano’s  article  in  daily.redbullmusic.com:    We  had  a  

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sign  on  the  door  that  said,  “This  is  a  gay  rock  ‘n’  roll  club,  if  you  can’t  handle  
us,  fuck  off.”    The  year  was  1994.    Rudy  Giuliani  had  just  been  elected  mayor  
of  New  York.    It  was  before  the  city  was  gripped  by  terror,  before  Times  
Square  was  recast  as  a  Disneyfied  playground  for  tourists,  before  models  and  
bottles  infiltrated  and  sterilized  its  clubs.    After  four  years  of  Mayor  David  
Dinkins’  meager  one-­‐term  run,  New  York  City  still  had  its  gritty  and  
dangerous  parts,  with  many  pockets  of  Manhattan  not  yet  gentrified  to  the  
teeth.    Williamsburg  was  a  Polish/Hispanic/Hasidic  neighborhood;  “hipster”  
was  not  a  pejorative  description  for  every  kid  from  New  Jersey  wearing  tight  
black  jeans;  and  the  Meatpacking  District  still  had  actual  meat-­‐packers.    And  
the  gay  club  scene,  though  not  yet  as  iconic  as  in  its  ‘80s  heyday,  was  starting  
to  coalesce  into  something  that  could  claim  a  spot  in  New  York’s  rich  nightlife  
history.    As  techno  became  de  rigueur  in  Brooklyn  warehouses,  muscle  
queens  danced  all  night  in  big  Chelsea  superclubs,  and  Michael  Alig  led  club  
kids  on  dystopian  drug  binges  at  Limelight,  another  music  subculture  
emerged  downtown  in  Tribeca,  on  the  far  edges  of  the  west  side  of  
Manhattan  at  a  tiny,  divey  rock  club  called  Don  Hill’s.    Bored  with  the  options  
for  gay  men  and  women,  rock  ‘n’  roll  fashion  designer  Michael  Schmidt  
teamed  up  with  Pat  Briggs  of  the  industrial  band  Psychotica,  drag  queen  
Misstress  Formika  and  DJ  Miss  Guy  to  create  SqueezeBox!,  one  of  New  York  
City’s  last  great  parties.    SqueezeBox!  gave  gay  (and  straight)  revelers  a  
different  kind  of  outlet.    Every  Friday,  pretty  boys,  glam  girls,  rough  rockers  
and  cool  celebs  converged  upon  Don  Hill’s,  wearing  their  dirty,  filthy,  punk-­‐
rock  best.    The  party  birthed  bands,  revolutionized  the  drag  scene  and  served  
as  a  hothouse  for  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  INCH,  which  went  on  to  become  
an  off-­‐Broadway  hit  and  a  big  Hollywood  movie.    The  darkest  days  of  the  
AIDS  epidemic  had  passed,  but  the  gay  community  remained  on  edge,  
remembering  lost  friends  at  the  mercy  of  the  caustic  and  careless  mayor  
Edward  Koch.    They  didn’t  have  a  friend  in  Rudolph  Giuliani,  either,  who  
upon  taking  office  instituted  a  veritable  war  against  nightlife,  wielding  an  
early-­‐century  cabaret  law  to  close  clubs  down  at  will.    But  SqueezeBox!  
survived.    And  long  after  it  ended,  the  club’s  influence  was  clear  not  only  in  
the  quintessential  pansexual  New  York  parties  like  Motherfucker,  Misshapes,  
and  Berliniamsburg,  but  in  the  rock  revival  and  electroclash  movements  that  
would  soon  rule  over  Manhattan  and  Brooklyn.    John  Cameron  Mitchell:    It  
was  the  club  that  I  had  always  been  waiting  for  my  whole  life.    I  could  just  
barely  tolerate  the  music  in  most  gay  places  until  that  point.    But  in  terms  of  a  
full-­‐on  queer  rock  ‘n’  roll  place  that  was  performance-­‐based  but  also  a  place  
where,  you  know,  you  could  slam  with  cut  boys  without  fear  of  breaking  their  
hair  –  that  was  the  place  to  go.    You  know,  it  was  kinda  scary.    You  never  
knew  what  was  gonna  happen.    It  was  like  punk  rock  just  got  invented  by  gay  
people  at  that  point.    There  was  always  The  Buzzcocks  and  Jayne  County  and  
everything.    So  it  was  from  heaven.    Very  quickly  Stephen  Trask  said,  “You  
can  practice  being  a  fake  rock  star,”  which  I  was  writing  about,  “And  do  a  gig  
here,  but  you  have  to  do  it  drag.”    He  said  I  couldn’t  do  male  characters.    I  had  
to  do  what  was  originally  a  supporting  character  of  Hedwig.    Because  it  was  

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really  about  Tommy  the  boyfriend,  who  was  the  son  of  the  general,  as  I  was.    
And  then  the  supporting  character  sort  of  thrust  into  the  spotlight  because  it  
was  a  drag  club  and  I  had  to  do  it  in  drag.    So  in  a  way  SqueezeBox!  forced  
Hedwig  out  of  me  like  a  toothpaste  tube.    It  was  just  so  scary.    I  had  never  
sung  in  a  band.    I  had  never  been  in  drag.    So  my  first  gig  there  was  just,  you  
know,  full-­‐on  giving  birth.    From  Stephen  Trask’s  blog:    I  think  the  best  part,  
though,  was  being  on  that  stage  every  week  with  Jack  Steeb.    Jack  and  I  were  
in  my  band  Cheater  together,  the  band  that  became  the  Angry  Inch,  but  we  
were  also  in  the  Squeezebox  band  together,  playing  those  great  shows  every  
Friday  night  for  a  packed  house,  hanging  out  with  our  friends  and  boyfriends  
in  front  of  the  club  on  the  hood  of  my  car,  watching  all  the  queer  rockers  file  
in  for  the  show  or  step  outside  for  a  cigarette.    Jack  and  I  moved  to  New  York  
together  to  make  it:  to  be  rock  stars,  to  be  queer,  to  be  queer  rock  stars  
together.    We  shared  an  apartment  in  Fort  Greene,  listened  to  albums,  went  
to  shows,  drank  Silvovitz,  delivered  pizza.    Jack  played  bass  in  my  bands  
Bimbo  Limbo  Spam  and  later  Cheater.    I  remember  once,  when  Richard  Hell  
was  looking  for  a  bass  player/keyboardist  for  a  Japanese  tour,  Jack  and  I  
went  in  as  a  team,  willing  to  forgo  pay  and  play  for  nothing  but  the  travel  
expenses.    Sadly,  the  travel  expenses  for  two  were  too  high  and  he  couldn’t  
make  it  work  –  but  he  wanted  to  and  we  had  a  blast  jamming  with  him  in  that  
rehearsal  space  on  Avenue  A.    When  Cheater  started  to  make  a  name  for  itself  
and  we  were  in  the  Squeezebox  band  and  playing  the  early  Hedwig  shows,  it  
felt  like  we  were  really  getting  there,  a  couple  of  queer  punks  making  it  in  
New  York  on  our  own  terms.    Jack  didn’t  make  it  with  me,  though.    Jack  was  
an  addict  and  an  alcoholic.    I  was  a  classic  enabler.    I  remember  snorting  
cocaine  and  getting  drunk  with  him  until  the  wee  hours  just  to  hang  out  on  
his  terms,  getting  fucked  up  and  listening  to  “The  Blue  Mask”  and  “Slanted  
and  Enchanted”  and  Teenage  Fan  Club,  watching  Falcon  International  porn  
while  finishing  off  a  bottle.    I  also  remember  searching  all  over  some  of  the  
seediest  neighborhoods  of  Baltimore  and  Philadelphia  when  Cheater  was  
gigging  there  and  he  had  disappeared.    I  remember  the  day  his  mom  called  to  
tell  me  he’d  gone  missing  two  days,  and  searching  all  over  the  lower  east  side  
for  him,  even  climbing  up  fire  escapes  to  peek  into  the  apartments  of  some  
guy  he  may  have  hooked-­‐up  with.    I  remember  finding  him  in  the  strangest  
places  and  in  the  most  disturbing  conditions.    I  was  hopeful  when  he  went  
into  rehab.    We  put  the  band  on  hold  almost  a  year  for  him,  which  kind  of  
killed  that  project.    When  he  was  sober  for  a  year,  my  boyfriend  Michael  and  I  
went  to  JCM  to  his  AA/NA  meeting.    One  after  one,  people  got  up  and  told  
their  stories.    The  stories  all  seemed  to  me  to  have  the  same  theme  –  
addiction  was  like  a  lover  that  only  wanted  to  scam  you  out  of  everything:  
your  money,  your  things,  your  friends,  until  you  had  nothing  left.    I  wrote  
“The  Long  Grift”  for  Jack,  sung  from  the  perspective  of  someone  who’d  
figured  out  the  game  and  had  the  strength  to  send  his  lover  packing.    We  all  
really  thought  Jack  had  won  the  battle.    This  lover,  though,  never  stays  gone.    
He  keeps  banging  on  the  door,  promising,  lying:  “This  time  will  be  different.”    

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After  about  10  years  of  his  careering  from  recovery  to  addiction,  I  remember  
John  calling  me  up  to  tell  me  that  we  had  lost  Jack.      

• Stephen  Trask  –   (Skszp,  Keyboards,  Guitar,  Vocals),  See  


Creators  section  for  more  information.  

• Chris  Weilding  (Krzyzhtoff,  Guitar,  Vocals)  A  founding  


member  of  the  band  Cheater  and  has  been  playing  guitar  for  Ms.  Hedwig  
since  her  earliest  incarnation  at  The  Fez.    In  addition  to  playing  on  the  
original  cast  recording  of  HEDWIG,  Chris  has  also  had  the  pleasure  of  singing  
background  vocals  for  Julia  Greenberg.    Also,  performed  with  the  band  
Goddamn  Wolves.  

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• Dave  McKinley   (Schlatko,  Percussion)  

• Scott  Bilbrey  (Bass,  Guitar,  Vocals,  Jacek) .      

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• Helen  Reddy:    

An  Australian  singer,  actor,  and  activist.    Born  in  Melbourne,  Victoria  to  a  
show-­‐business  family,  Reddy  started  her  career  as  an  entertainer  at  age  four.    

  100  
She  sang  on  radio  and  television,  and  won  a  talent  contest  on  a  television  
programme,  BANDSTAND,  in  1966;  her  prize  was  a  ticket  to  New  York  City  
and  a  record  audition,  which  turned  out  to  be  unsuccessful.    She  pursued  her  
international  singing  career  by  moving  to  Chicago  and,  subsequently,  Los  
Angeles,  where  she  made  her  debut  singles  “One  Way  Ticket”  and  “I  Believe  
in  Music”  in  1968  and  1970,  respectively.    The  B-­‐side  of  the  latter  single,  “I  
Don’t  Know  How  to  Love  Him”  reached  No.  13  in  Canadian  pop  chart  RPM  
and  she  was  signed  to  Capitol  Records  a  year  later.  During  the  1970s,  she  
enjoyed  international  success,  especially  in  the  United  States  where  she  
placed  15  singles  in  the  Top  40  of  the  Billboard  Hot  100.    Six  made  the  Top  10  
and  three  reached  No.  1,  including  her  signature  hit  “I  Am  Woman”.    She  
placed  25  songs  on  the  Billboard  Adult  Contemporary  chart;  15  made  the  
Top  10  and  eight  reached  No.  1,  six  consecutively.    In  1974,  at  the  inaugural  
American  Music  Awards,  she  became  the  first  artist  to  win  the  award  for  
Favorite  Pop/Rock  Female  Artist.    In  television,  she  was  the  first  Australian  
to  host  her  own  one-­‐hour  weekly  primetime  variety  show  on  an  American  
network,  along  with  several  specials  that  were  seen  in  more  than  40  
countries.    Between  the  1980s  and  the  1990s,  as  her  single  “I  Can’t  Say  
Goodbye  to  You”  became  her  last  to  chart  in  the  U.S.,  she  acted  in  musical  
theaters  and  recorded  a  few  albums  such  as  CENTER  STAGE  before  retiring  
from  live  performance  in  2002.    She  returned  to  university  in  Australia  and  
earned  her  degree,  and  practiced  as  a  clinical  hypnotherapist  and  
motivational  speaker.    In  2011,  after  singing  “Breezin’  Along  with  the  Breeze”  
with  her  half-­‐sister,  Toni  Lamond,  for  Lamond’s  birthday,  Reddy  decided  to  
return  to  performing.    Her  song  “I  Am  Woman”  played  a  large  role  in  popular  
culture  and  became  an  anthem  for  second-­‐wave  feminism.    She  came  to  be  
known  as  a  “feminist  poster  girl”  or  a  “feminist  icon”.  In  2011,  Billboard  
named  her  the  No.  28  adult  contemporary  artist  of  all  time  (No.  9  woman).    In  
2013  the  Chicago  Tribune  dubbed  her  the  “Queen  of  ‘70s  Pop”.  

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• John  Lennon:    
An  English  singer,  songwriter  and  peace  activist  who  co-­‐founded  the  Beatles,  
the  most  commercially  successful  band  in  the  history  of  popular  music.    He  
and  fellow  member  Paul  McCartney  formed  a  much-­‐celebrated  songwriting  
partnership.    Along  with  George  Harrison  and  Ringo  Starr,  the  group  
achieved  worldwide  fame  during  the  1960s.    In  1969,  Lennon  started  the  
Plastic  Ono  Band  with  his  second  wife,  Yoko  Ono,  and  he  continued  to  pursue  
a  solo  career  following  the  Beatles’  breakup  in  April  1970.    Born  John  
Winston  Lennon  in  Liverpool,  he  became  involved  in  the  skiffle  craze  as  a  
teenager.    In  1957,  he  formed  his  first  band,  the  Quarrymen,  which  evolved  
into  the  Beatles  in  1960.    Further  to  his  Plastic  Ono  Band  singles  such  as  
“Give  Peace  a  Chance”  and  “Instant  Karma!”,  Lennon  subsequently  produced  
albums  that  included  JOHN  LENNON/PLASTIC  ONO  BAND  and  IMAGINE,  and  
songs  such  as  “Working  Class  Hero”,  “Imagine”,  and  “Happy  Xmas  (War  Is  

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Over)”.    After  moving  to  New  York  City  in  1971,  he  never  returned  to  England  
again.  In  1975,  he  disengaged  himself  from  the  music  business  to  raise  his  
infant  son  Sean,  but  re-­‐emerged  with  Ono  in  1980  with  the  album  DOUBLE  
FANTASY.    He  was  shot  and  killed  in  the  archway  of  his  Manhattan  apartment  
building  three  weeks  after  the  album’s  release.    Lennon  revealed  a  rebellious  
nature  and  acerbic  wit  in  his  music,  writing,  drawings,  on  film  and  in  
interviews.    he  was  controversial  through  his  political  and  peace  activism.    
From  1971  onwards,  his  criticism  of  the  Vietnam  War  resulted  in  a  three-­‐
year  attempt  by  the  Nixon  administration  to  deport  him.    Some  of  his  songs  
were  adopted  as  anthems  by  the  anti-­‐war  movement  and  the  larger  
counterculture.    Music  historians  Schinder  and  Schwartz  wrote  of  the  
transformation  in  popular  music  styles  that  took  place  between  the  1950s  
and  the  1960s.    They  said  the  Beatles’  influence  cannot  be  overstated:    
having,  “revolutionized  the  sound,  style,  and  attitude  of  popular  music  and  
opened  rock  and  roll’s  doors  to  a  tidal  wave  of  British  rock  acts”,  the  group  
then,  “spent  the  rest  of  the  1960s  expanding  rock’s  stylistic  frontiers”.    Liam  
Gallagher  and  his  group  Oasis  were  among  the  many  who  acknowledged  the  
band’s  influence;  he  identified  Lennon  as  a  hero.    In  1999,  he  named  his  first  
son  Lennon  Gallagher  in  tribute.    On  National  Poetry  Day  in  1999,  the  BBC  
conducted  a  poll  to  identify  the  UK’s  favourite  song  lyric  and  announced  
“Imagine”  as  the  winner.      

• Phil  Collins:    
An  English  drummer,  singer,  songwriter,  multi-­‐instrumentalist,  record  

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producer,  and  actor.    He  was  the  drummer  and  later  became  singer  of  the  
rock  band  Genesis,  and  is  also  a  solo  artist.    Between  1982  and  1989,  Collins  
scored  three  UK  and  seven  US  number-­‐one  singles  in  his  solo  career.    When  
his  work  with  Genesis,  his  work  with  other  artists,  as  well  as  his  solo  career  
is  totaled,  he  has  more  US  Top  40  singles  than  any  other  artist  during  the  
1980s.    His  most  successful  singles  from  the  period  include  “In  the  Air  
Tonight”,  “Against  All  Odd  (Take  a  Look  at  Me  Now)”,  “One  More  Night”,  
“Sussudio”,  “Two  Hearts”,  and  “Another  Day  in  Paradise”.    Born  and  raised  in  
west  London,  Collins  played  drums  from  the  age  of  five  and  completed  drama  
school  training,  which  secured  him  various  roles  as  a  child  actor.    He  then  
pursued  a  music  career,  joining  Genesis  in  1970  as  their  drummer  and  
becoming  lead  singer  in  1975  following  the  departure  of  Peter  Gabriel.    
Collins  began  a  solo  career  in  the  1980s,  initially  inspired  by  his  marital  
breakdown  and  love  of  soul  music,  releasing  a  series  of  successful  albums,  
including  FACE  VALUE  (1981),  NO  JACKET  REQUIRED  (1985),  and  …BUT  
SERIOUSLY  (1989).    Collins  became  “one  of  the  most  successful  pop  and  
adult  contemporary  singers  of  the  ‘80s  and  beyond”.    He  also  became  known  
for  a  distinctive  gated  reverb  drum  sound  on  many  of  his  recordings.    In  
1996,  Collins  left  Genesis  to  focus  on  his  solo  work;  this  included  writing  
songs  for  Disney’s  TARZAN  (1999)  for  which  he  received  an  Oscar  for  Best  
Original  Song  for  “You’ll  Be  In  My  Heart”.    He  rejoined  Genesis  for  their  TURN  
IT  ON  AGAIN  TOUR  in  2007.    Following  a  five-­‐year  retirement  to  focus  on  his  
family  life,  Collins  released  an  autobiography  and  began  his  NOT  DEAD  YET  
TOUR,  which  runs  from  June  2017  until  October  2019.    Collins’s  discography  
includes  eight  studio  albums  that  have  sold  33.5  million  certified  units  in  the  
US  and  an  estimated  150  million  worldwide,  making  him  one  of  the  world’s  
best-­‐selling  artists.    He  is  one  of  only  three  recording  artists,  along  with  Paul  
McCartney  and  Michael  Jackson,  who  have  sold  over  100  million  records  
worldwide  both  as  solo  artists  and  separately  as  principal  members  of  a  
band.    He  has  received  eight  Grammy  Awards,  six  Brit  Awards  (winning  Best  
British  Male  Artist  three  times),  two  Golden  Globe  Awards,  one  Academy  
Award,  and  a  Disney  Legend  Award.    he  was  awarded  six  Ivor  Novello  
Awards  from  the  British  Academy  of  Songwriters,  Composers,  and  Authors,  
including  the  International  Achievement  Award.    He  received  a  star  on  the  
Hollywood  Walk  of  Fame  in  1999,  and  was  inducted  into  the  Songwriters  
Hall  of  Fame  in  2003  and  the  Rock  and  Roll  Hall  of  Fame  as  a  member  of  
Genesis  in  2010.    He  has  also  been  recognized  by  music  publications  with  
induction  into  the  MODERN  DRUMMER  Hall  of  Fame  in  2012,  and  the  
CLASSIC  DRUMMER  Hall  of  Fame  in  2013.    From  THE  GUARDIAN:    Few  pop  
figures  have  become  as  successful  and  yet  reviled  as  Phil  Collins.    [The]  news  
that  the  “housewives’  choice”  local  radio  staple  was  considering  a  return  to  
music  brought  a  predictable  chorus  of  derision.    “Please  God  no!”  pleaded  on  
Guardian  commenter.    However,  it’s  about  time  we  recognized  Collins’s  vast  
influence  as  one  of  the  godfathers  of  popular  culture.    Here  are  some  reasons  
why:    Phil  pioneered  minimalist  electronica,  The  “Phil  Collins  drum  sound”  is  
a  popular  music  staple,  Phil’s  drumming  has  inspired  everyone  from  Led  

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Zeppelin  to  a  gorilla,  Phil  starred  in  one  of  the  most  pivotal  pop  films  ever  (A  
HARD  DAY’S  NIGHT),  He  almost  starred  in  one  of  the  best-­‐loved  children’s  
classics  (CHITTY  CHITTY  BANG  BANG),  Phil  saved  Genesis  from  the  prog-­‐
rock  abyss,  Phil  is  a  godfather  of  avant-­‐garde  rock  and  ambient  music,  Phil’s  
music  has  spanned  a  multitude  of  genres,  Phil  inspired  a  classic  scene  in  
AMERICAN  PSYCHO,  and  Phil  is  an  icon  of  American  rap  and  R&B.    For  more  
of  this  article  visit:    
https://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/dec/02/phil-­‐collins-­‐godfather-­‐
popular-­‐culture  
• Boston:  

 
An  American  rock  band  from  Boston,  Massachusetts,  who  had  its  most  
notable  successes  during  the  1970s  and  1980s.    Centered  on  multi-­‐
instrumentalist  founder  and  leader  Tom  Scholz,  who  played  the  majority  of  
instruments  on  the  debut  album,  the  band  is  a  staple  of  classic  rock  radio  
playlists.    Boston’s  best-­‐known  works  include  the  songs  “More  Than  a  
Feeling”,  “Peace  of  Mind”,  “Foreplay/Long  Time”,  “Rock  and  Roll  Band”,  
“Smokin”,  “Don’t  Look  Back”,  “A  Man  I’ll  Never  Be”,  and  “Amanda”.    The  band  
has  sold  more  than  75  million  records  worldwide,  including  31  million  
albums  in  the  United  States,  of  which  17  million  were  from  its  self-­‐titled  
debut  album  and  seven  million  were  for  its  second  album,  DON’T  LOOK  
BACK,  making  the  group  one  of  the  world’s  best-­‐selling  artists.    Altogether,  
the  band  has  released  six  studio  albums  over  a  career  spanning  over  40  
years.    Boston  was  ranked  the  63rd  best  hard  rock  artist  by  VH1.    Boston’s  
genre  is  considered  by  most  to  be  hard  rock  and  arena  rock,  while  combining  

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elements  of  progressive  rock  into  its  music.    Boston  founder,  guitarist,  and  
primary  songwriter  Tom  Scholz’s  blend  of  musical  styles,  ranging  from  
classical  to  1960s  English  pop,  has  resulted  in  a  unique  sound,  most  
consistently  realized  on  the  first  two  albums  (BOSTON  and  DON’T  LOOK  
BACK).    This  sound  is  characterized  by  multiple  lead  and  blended  harmonies  
guitar  work  (usually  harmonized  in  thirds),  often  alternating  between  and  
then  mixing  electric  and  acoustic  guitars.    The  band’s  harmonic  style  has  
been  characterized  as  being  “violin-­‐like”  without  using  synthesizers.    Scholz  
is  well-­‐regarded  for  the  development  of  complex,  multi-­‐tracked  guitar  
harmonies.    Another  contributing  factor  is  the  use  of  handmade,  high  tech  
equipment,  such  as  the  Rockman,  used  by  artists  such  as  Journey  guitarist  
Neal  Schon,  the  band  ZZ  Top,  and  Ted  Nugent.    Def  Leppard’  album  
HYSTERIA  was  created  using  only  Rockman  technology.    Scholz’s  production  
style  combines  deep,  aggressive,  comparatively  short  guitar  riffing  and  
nearly  ethereal,  generally  longer  note  vocal  harmonies.    A  heavier,  lower,  and  
darker  overall  approach  came  in  the  next  two  albums.  
• Kansas:    

An  American  rock  band  that  became  popular  in  the  1970s  initially  on  album-­‐
oriented  rock  charts  and  later  with  singles  such  as  “Carry  On  Wayward  Son”  
and  “Dust  in  the  Wind”.    The  band  has  produced  nine  gold  albums,  three  
multi-­‐platinum  albums  (LEFTOVERTURE  6X,  POINT  OF  KNOW  RETURN  4X,  
THE  BEST  OF  KANSAS  4X),  one  other  platinum  studio  album  (MONOLITH),  
one  platinum  live  double  album  (TWO  FOR  THE  SHOW),  and  a  million-­‐selling  
single,  “Dust  in  the  Wind”.    Kansas  appeared  on  the  Billboard  charts  for  over  
200  weeks  throughout  the  1970s  and  1980s  and  played  to  sold-­‐out  arenas  

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and  stadiums  throughout  North  America,  Europe,  and  Japan.    “Carry  On  
Wayward  Son”  was  the  second-­‐most-­‐played  track  on  US  classic  rock  radio  in  
1995  and  No.  1  in  1997.    Kansas’  musical  style,  the  fusion  of  hard  rock,  
southern  rock,  and  progressive  rock,  was  influenced  by  several  previous  
bands.    The  music  of  Yes  and  Genesis  was  inspirational  to  Kansas,  especially  
demonstrated  in  the  lyrics  of  Walsh.    Livgren  cited  the  1960s  band  Touch  as  
foundational  to  his  development.    Livgren’s  evolving  spirituality  is  reflected  
in  the  band’s  songs,  with  early  works  showing  an  interest  in  the  mysticism  of  
Eastern  religions,  works  in  the  late  1970s  influenced  by  the  American  
spiritual  philosophy  of  THE  URANTIA  BOOK,  followed  in  the  early  1980s  by  
works  embracing  born-­‐again  Christianity.    The  re-­‐formed  band  produced  a  
harder  pop  metal  album  in  the  late  1980s.    

 
• America:    An  American  rock  band  that  was  formed  in  London  in  1970  by  
Dewey  Bunnell,  Dan  Peek,  and  Gerry  Beckley.    The  trio  met  as  sons  of  US  Air  
Force  personnel  stationed  in  London,  where  they  began  performing  live.    
Achieving  significant  popularity  in  the  1970s,  the  trio  was  famous  for  its  
close  vocal  harmonies  and  light  acoustic  folk  rock  sound.    The  band  released  
a  string  of  hit  albums  and  singles,  many  of  which  found  airplay  on  pop/soft  
rock  stations.    The  band  came  together  shortly  after  the  members’  graduation  
from  high  school,  and  a  record  deal  with  Warner  Bros.  Records  followed.    Its  
debut  album,  AMERICA,  included  the  transatlantic  hits  “A  Horse  with  No  
Name”.    The  group  continues  to  record  material  and  tour  with  regularity.    Its  
2007  album  HERE  &  NOW  was  a  collaboration  with  a  new  generation  of  
musicians  who  credited  the  band  as  an  influence.    America  won  a  Grammy  
Award  for  Best  New  Artist  and  were  nominated  for  Best  Pop  Vocal  Group  at  

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the  15th  Annual  Grammy  Awards  in  1973.    The  group  was  inducted  into  the  
Vocal  Group  Hall  of  Fame  in  2006  and  received  a  star  on  the  Hollywood  Walk  
of  Fame  in  2012.  
• Europe:  

 A  Swedish  rock  band  formed  in  Upplands  Väsby  in  1979,  by  vocalist  Joey  
Tempest,  guitarist  John  Norum,  bassist  Peter  Olsson,  and  drummer  Tony  
Reno.    They  got  a  major  breakthrough  in  Sweden  in  1982  by  winning  the  
televised  competition  “Rock-­‐SM”  (Swedish  Rock  Championships):  it  was  the  
first  time  this  competition  was  held,  and  Europe  became  a  larger  success  
than  the  competition  itself.    Since  their  formation,  Europe  has  released  
eleven  studio  albums,  three  live  albums,  three  compilations  and  twenty-­‐four  
music  videos.    Europe  rose  to  international  fame  in  the  1980s  with  their  third  
album,  1986’s  THE  FINAL  COUNTDOWN,  which  has  sold  over  3  million  
copies  in  the  United  States  and  15  million  copies  worldwide  (including  album  
and  single).    “A  Masterclass  in  Cheesiness”:    The  band  just  didn’t  lend  itself  to  
much  credibility.    Maybe  it  was  the  poodle  haircuts,  the  over-­‐pompous  
keyboards  of  Mic  Michaeli,  or  the  falsetto  voice  of  singer  Joey  Tempest,  but  
the  truth  was  that  it  was  easy  to  laugh  at  Europe.    However,  behind  all  the  
cheesiness  lurked  a  good  rock  band,  capable  of  good  hooks  and  above-­‐
average  musicianship.  

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• Asia:     An  
English  progressive  rock  band  formed  in  London  in  1981.    The  most  
commercially  successful  line-­‐up  was  its  original,  which  was  a  supergroup  of  
four  members  of  different  progressive  rock  bands  of  the  1970s:  lead  vocalist  
and  bassist  John  Wetton  of  King  Crimson  and  U.K.,  guitarist  Steve  Howe  of  
Yes,  keyboardist  Geoff  Downes  of  Yes  and  the  Buggles,  and  drummer  Carl  
Palmer  of  Emerson,  Lake  &  Paler.    Their  debut  album,  Asia,  released  in  1982,  
remains  their  best  selling  album  and  went  to  number  one  in  several  
countries.    The  singles  “Heat  of  the  Moment”  and  “Only  Time  Will  Tell”  
became  Top  40  hits,  both  boosted  by  popular  MTV  music  videos.    Their  
influences  included  self-­‐important  progressive  rockers  that  reigned  supreme  
in  the  1970s,  seminal  art  rock  bands,  and  stretches  of  indulgent  
instrumentals  on  their  records.      

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• Whitney  Houston:    

An  American  singer  and  actress.    She  was  cited  as  the  most  awarded  female  
artist  of  all  time  by  Guinness  World  Records  and  remains  one  of  the  best-­‐
selling  music  artists  of  all  time  with  200  million  records  sold  worldwide.    
Houston  released  seven  studio  albums  and  two  soundtrack  albums,  all  of  
which  have  been  certified  diamond,  multi-­‐platinum,  platinum,  or  gold  by  the  
Recording  Industry  Association  of  America.    Her  crossover  appeal  on  the  
popular  music  charts  –  as  well  as  her  prominence  on  MTV,  starting  with  her  
vide  for  “How  Will  I  Know”  –  influenced  several  African-­‐American  women  
artists  who  followed  in  her  footsteps.    Houston  began  singing  in  church  as  a  
child  and  became  a  background  vocalist  while  in  high  school.    With  the  
guidance  of  Arista  Records  chairman  Clive  Davis,  she  signed  to  the  label  at  
the  age  of  19.    Her  first  two  studio  albums,  Whitney  Houston  (1985)  and  
Whitney  (1987),  both  reached  number  one  on  the  Billboard  200  in  the  United  
States.    She  became  the  only  artist  to  have  seven  consecutive  number-­‐one  
singles  on  the  US  Billboard  Hot  100  chart,  from  “Saving  All  My  Love  For  You”  
in  1985  to  “Where  Do  Broken  Hearts  Go”  in  1988.    During  the  1980s,  MTV  
was  coming  into  its  own  and  received  criticism  for  not  playing  enough  black  
artists.    With  Michael  Jackson  breaking  down  the  color  barrier  for  black  men,  
Houston  did  the  same  for  black  women.    She  became  the  first  black  woman  to  
receive  heavy  rotation  on  the  network  following  the  success  of  the  “How  Will  
I  Know”  video.    Following  Houston’s  breakthrough,  other  African-­‐American  
women,  such  as  Janet  Jackson  and  Anita  Baker,  were  successful  in  popular  
music.    Baker  commented  that  “Because  of  what  Whitney  and  Sade  did,  there  
was  an  opening  for  me…For  radio  stations,  black  women  singers  aren’t  taboo  

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anymore.”    Houston  was  a  mezzo-­‐soprano,  and  was  commonly  referred  to  as  
“The  Voice”  in  reference  to  her  exceptional  vocal  talent.  
 
Hedwig  =  (figurative)  
• Quest  for  Individuality  
• Search  for  “Other  Half”  
• Loneliness  
• Gender  Confusion  
• Platonic  Sex  =  Plato’s  Symposium  =  “Origin  of  Love”  story  (origin  story  of  gay,  
lesbian,  and  heterosexual  love).  
• Two  halves  into  a  whole  being:    Yitzhak  =  Jew  /  Hedwig  =  German  (the  two  
halves  of  Germany/Berlin  during  WWII  that  were  broken  apart  by  the  “gods”  
of  the  geopolitical  world);  Hedwig’s  botched  sex  change  forcing  her  into  
gender  ambiguity  before  she  was  ready  creating  a  need  to  marry  her  
maleness  with  her  femaleness  (finding  both  halves  within  herself  –  maleness,  
as  well  as  femaleness  comes  from  within);  Erich  Honecker  (East  Germany)  
and  Helmut  Kohl  (West  Germany)  are  the  gods  that  split  the  humans  in  half;    
• Musical  Ambiguity  =  Gender  Ambiguity  
• Surrealistic,  Multi-­‐cultural  fairytale  
• Antithesis  /  Themes  of  Opposites  in  the  show:    Man/Woman;  Gay/Straight;  
Spiritual/Physical;  East  Berlin/West  Berlin;  Sacred/Profane;  
Creator/Creation;  God/Mortal;  Defiant/Defeatist;  and  Powerful/Powerless.  
• Gods  =  Destroyers  
• God  figure:  She  parallels  the  Gods  in  “Origin  of  Love”.  
• Creator  =  Creates  Tommy  in  her  image.  
• Gnostics  =  Religious  sect  that  believes  that  participants  only  need  to  
understand  themselves  and  their  world  to  be  saved.  
• Doesn’t  See:  Creation  from  pain  (she  created  Tommy  and  Yitzhak  from  need,  
but  doesn’t  see  their  potential  to  betray  her).  
• Discoveries:    She  can  be  whole  without  another  person,  making  peace  with  
the  past,  making  peace  with  gender  deformity,  making  peace  with  one’  space  
in  the  world,  making  peace  with  creating  art  and  sharing  it  with  an  audience  
–  the  unconscious  reality  in  the  personality  of  the  group.  
 
Tommy  and  Yitzhak  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Hedwig’s  resentment-­‐filled  dysfunctional  relationahip  with  her  other  
half,  maybe  her  true  other  half,  escalates  as  Tommy  Gnosis’  career  sky-­‐
rockets    The  two  lovers  –  Tommy,  the  former,  deceitful  lover,  and  Yitzhak,  
the  defeminsized  or  unsexed  one  –  serve  as  avatars  (Hindu  manifestation  of  a  
deity  or  released  soul  in  bodily  form  on  earth;  an  incarnate  divine  teacher)  
for  Hedwig’s  neurotic  displays  of  self-­‐hatred  and  increasing  alienation  from  
herself  and  the  world…Stripped  bare  o  all  her  ‘selves,’  Hedwig,  in  a  gesture  of  
peace,  then  gifts  her  wig  to  Yitzhak,  thereby  giving  them  permission  to  
present  as  female,  which  is  their  avowed  desire.    The  caged  Yitzhak  is  set  
free.    The  shadow  character  is  thrust  into  the  light,  and  in  the  original  version  

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of  the  show,  walks  off  stage  to  seek  their  new  destiny.    In  later  productions  of  
the  musical,  a  double  ending  ensues  wherein  Yitzhak  leaves  to  make  a  
spectacular  costume  change  and  returns  to  take  over  singing  the  last  song  of  
the  show,  as  Hedwig  joins  her.      
 
The  Connection  to  the  “Spirit  of  1969”  Season  
 
1969:  
• Unrest  and  crises  on  multiple  fronts  
• Civil  disunity  
• Scientific  Advancements  
• UC  Berkley  Protests  
• “Moratorium  to  End  the  War  in  Vietnam”  
• Native  Americans  claim  Alcatraz  for  19  months.  
• The  Release  of  the  My  Lai  Massacre  photos  
• Trial  of  the  Chicago  Seven,  which  brought  the  battle  of  the  leftists  and  the  
establishment  to  the  forefront  of  society.  
• President  Nixon  becomes  President  over  the  “silent  majority”.  
• Woodstock  
• Manson  Family  Murders  
• $1  trillion  in  goods/services  in  the  United  States  for  the  first  time  in  history.  
• Boeing’s  747  is  launched.  
• Walk  on  the  Moon.  
• Stonewall  riots.  
 
The  Songs  
 
From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  INCH:  
One  of  the  most  dynamic  aspects  of  the  libretto  and  score  of  HEDWIG  AND  THE  
ANGRY  INCH  is  that  even  though  it  presents  itself  as  semi-­‐improve  gig  theatre,  
hosted  by  a  character  that  knows  her  way  around  the  improvisational  nature  of  the  
performativity  of  gender  roles,  and  encourages  each  performer  taking  on  the  role  of  
Hedwig  in  future  to  adapt  the  text  to  the  venue  in  which  the  are  playing,  and  do  their  
best  to  sustain  the  thrown-­‐together  feel  of  the  show,  the  written  script  and  songs  
actually  do  function  in  a  relatively  ‘classic’  musical  theatre  manner.    The  songs  for  
the  most  part  move  the  story  forward.    The  script  lays  its  cards  on  the  line  and  takes  
us  through  Hedwig’s  life  step  by  step.      
 
“Tear  Me  Down”  (past)  
• Metaphor  for  Hedwig  as  the  Berlin  Wall,  i.e.  all  of  us  are  cut  in  half.  
• Yitzhak  =  Jew  and  Hedwig  =  German  (two  halves  of  Germany/Berlin  in  
WWII).  
• Beginning  of  the  antithesis  of  Hedwig’s  identity  told  through  musical  
stylizations:  Rock  ‘n’  Roll  and  then  cis-­‐female  crooner  music.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Bear  in  mind,  though,  that  the  assumed  masculine  look  of  rock  ‘n’  roll  

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had  its  roots  in  aligning  itself  and/or  adopting  a  working  –class,  anti-­‐crooner  
(i.e.  middle  class)  stance  as  if  to  say  to  the  world:  this  is  raw,  this  is  real,  there  
are  no  tricks  up  my  sleeve.      
 
“The  Origin  of  Love”  (past)  
• Pop  ballad  with  a  nod  to  the  1970s  pop  ‘stylings’  of  Debby  Boone  and  Toni  
Tennille.  
• Platonic  Symposium:    Describes  how  once  three  sexes  or  human  being  
existed  –  children  of  the  sun  (male  and  male),  children  of  the  earth  (  women  
and  women),  and  children  of  the  moon  (male  and  female)  –  and  how  angry  
gods  split  the  three  sexes  in  two,  leaving  those  abandoned  with  an  existential  
yearning  to  find  their  other  half.  
• Berlin  Wall  cutting  the  famous  art  center  in  half  
• Gospel  of  Thomas  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Thus,  in  terms  of  the  show’s  dramaturgy,  on  a  musical  level,  it  
reinforces  what  Mitchell  has  already  set  up:    that  Hedwig  is  positioned  
between  the  earnestness  of  pop  songs  as  once  delivered  by  gentle-­‐voiced  
female  crooners  in  contrast  to  the  world  of  gender-­‐bending,  queer  punch  and  
glam-­‐rockers.      
• Allows  the  audience  to  settle  into  the  show.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    So,  even  though  ‘The  Origin  of  Love’  is  a  song  about  a  subject’s  search  
for  completion  after  being  split  from  their  other  half,  it  somehow  reads  and  
sings  as  an  anthem  for  seeking  one’s  own  path…The  effectiveness  of  Stephen  
Trask’s  song  ‘The  Origin  of  Love’  is  that  it  manages  to  evoke  not  only  the  
wistful  yearning  at  the  heart  of  Hansel/Hedwig  and  the  show  itself  –  the  
idealized  female-­‐identified  crooner  side  of  our  genderqueer  heroine  –  but  
also  brings  to  mind,  through  its  lyrical  explication  of  Aristophanes’  speech  in  
Plato’s  symposium,  the  more  wide-­‐ranging  possibilities  inherent  in  rock  and  
popular  music.    Rock  is  a  form  that  should  get  to  choose  between  binary  
notions  of  self,  let  alone  rigid  articulations  of  subject  matter.    It  is  a  genre  that  
has  always  been  in-­‐between  many  origins  and  idealized  images:  between,  
say,  the  seemingly  vapid  plasticity  of  the  ‘girl  singer’  that  pre-­‐dated  its  
existence,  and  the  straight-­‐seeming  affect  and  simultaneous  affectless-­‐ness  of  
the  rock  ‘n’  roll  ‘boy’  that  became  its  emblem.    It’s  always  been  in  some  ways  
a  queer  form  that  could  do  more  to  own  up  to  its  queerness,  radical  and  
otherwise.  
 
“Sugar  Daddy”  (past)  
• Erich  Honecker  (East  Germany)  and  Helmut  Kohl  (West  Germany)  are  the  
Gods  that  split  the  humans  in  half.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Trask’s  song  ‘Sugar  Daddy’  becomes  the  focus  of  the  show  at  this  
point.    Buoyed  by  a  repetitive,  nearly  parodic  country-­‐fied  twang  and  two-­‐
step  beat  (think  a  variation  of  Dolly  Parton’s  1973  ‘Jolene’  laced  in  snark),  the  

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song  is  a  chance  for  Mitchell  as  Hedwig  to  play  the  audience  as  if  they  were  
her  sugar  daddy.    Moving  into  the  crowd,  sitting  on  people’s  laps,  flirting  with  
all…It’s  an  exuberant  respite  from  the  darker-­‐hued  tone  of  ‘The  Origin  of  
Love,’  and,  as  a  result,  allows  the  audience  to  simply  enjoy  Hedwig’s  ability  to  
be  charming  and  audacious  within  the  received  expectations  of  a  rock  ‘n’  roll  
cabaret  act.    It’s  also  an  occasion  for  the  performer  playing  the  role  to  
improvise  and  let  loose,  and  remind  us,  in  case  we  have  forgotten  that  gender  
is  a  construct  that  is  being  performed  before  our  eyes,  and  that  glam’s  roots  
lie  in  ‘glamour’  itself,  and  through  its  enchantment  we  are  bound  to  be  
seduced…  
   
“The  Angry  Inch”  (past)  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Hedwig’s  physical  trauma  serves  as  the  psychological  core  of  the  
show.    Risen  like  Lazarus,  she  is  resurrected  into  a  body  that  has  been  
mutilated  and  is  physically  rendered  by  its  inability  to  be  neither  one  thing  
nor  another.    Her  sex  organ  is  neither  a  penis  nor  a  vagina,  but  something  in-­‐
between  and  therefore,  ‘other.’    In  the  song  ‘Angry  Inch,’  which  of  all  the  
songs  in  the  show  has  the  most  ‘classic’  punk  rock  sound,  one  deeply  
evocative  of  the  Sex  Pistols’  NEVER  MIND  THE  BOLLOCKS  (1977)  album,  
Hedwig  illustrates  her  traumatized  state.    Frenetic,  caged,  caught,  confused,  
she  cannot  find  a  way  out  of  her  dilemma  because  it  is  embedded  in  her  skin  
and  at  the  root  of  her  newly  marked  sex  –  once  that  also  is  haunted  by  its  
prior  carnal  ‘memory’…Hedwig’s  ‘otherness’  is  caused  by  an  accident.    If  the  
operation  had  not  been  botched,  there  would  likely  be  no  story  to  tell.    Or  at  
least  not  one  that  hinges  on  her  constant  state  of  indeterminacy,  and  how  she  
wrestles  with  this  fact  to  discover  a  way  to  be  in  the  world.    Yet,  her  
‘otherness’  is  central  to  Hedwig’s  existence  and  how  she  occupies  not  only  
her  own  imaginary,  but  that  of  the  show  itself.    Bluntly  marking  Hedwig’s  
gendered  instability,  Mitchell  as  writer  and  Trask  as  lyricist,  mine  Hedwig’s  
rent  and  rented  body  as  a  surface  upon  which  to  write  a  darkly  exuberant  
fairy  tale  about  a  child  that  discovers  she  is  one  of  a  kind,  but  also  potentially  
among  her  own  kind,  if  she  dares  travel  past  borders  that  confine  and  try  to  
stabilize  her  being  and  identity.      
• The  focus  of  the  piece  is  on  trauma’s  shock  and  awe  effect  upon  the  psyche  
and  physical  body.  
 
“Wig  In  A  Box”  (past)  
• Wig  =  Personal  Hell  
• LaVern  Baker  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    ‘Wig  in  a  Box’  details  Hedwig’s  new  transformation.    The  song  is  
sweet-­‐tempered  in  its  energy  and  almost  bouncy  in  its  rhythms.    Backed  by  
an  ooh-­‐wah-­‐wah  chorus  (the  kind  usually  favoured  in  girl  group  songs  of  the  
1960s),  the  song  allows  Mitchell  to  revel  in  a  costume  change  –  a  new  dress  
and  fur  coat  –  and  yes,  extensions  to  the  wig,  which  is  as  much  a  star  of  the  

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show  as  he  is…In  effect,  this  new  look  –  fanned-­‐out  wig,  high  femme  make-­‐
up,  dress  and  fur  coat  –  becomes  both  protective  shell  and  convenient  
armour  with  which  Hedwig  can  deal  with  and  face  a  cruel  world.    The  song’s  
lyrics  also  re-­‐inscribe  how  music  is  essential  to  Hedwig’s  life  and  acts  as  an  
agent  of  grace  at  each  stage  in  her  life’s  transformations…Alone  in  rural  
Kansas,  she  is  like  one  of  those  heroines  from  the  ‘women’s  films’  of  the  
1940s…In  these  films,  women  often  suffer  hardship  and  life-­‐changing  events  
at  the  hands  of  men  and  patriarchal  culture,  but  persevere  and  usually  follow  
their  own  path,  despite  conflicting  social  obstacles  in  their  way…Styling  
herself  as  ultra-­‐femme,  using  makeup  as  a  mask  and  weapon  with  which  to  
face  the  world…  
 
“Wicked  Little  Town”  (past)  
• First  song  written  for  the  show  
• First  time  the  song  is  heard,  it  is  not  finished.  
• Autobiographical  to  John  Cameron  Mitchell’s  upbringing  as  a  Midwestern  
Army  Brat.  
• Male  Point-­‐of-­‐View  
• Antithesis  /  Themes  of  Opposites  in  the  show:    Man/Woman;  Gay/Straight;  
Spiritual/Physical;  East  Berlin/West  Berlin;  Sacred/Profane;  
Creator/Creation;  and  God/Mortal.  
• The  song  establishes  the  love-­‐at-­‐first-­‐sight  meeting  of  Hedwig  and  Tommy  
Speck  and  seals  their  fate.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Although  Hedwig  introduces  it  mockingly  as  a  poor  gal’s  mocking  
homage  to  the  kind  of  driving-­‐at-­‐night,  alone-­‐in-­‐the-­‐dark  songs  made  
popular  once  by  Phil  Collins  (songs  like  his  1981  hit  ‘In  the  Air  Tonight’),  
‘Wicked  Little  Town’  acts  as  a  musical  mirror  to  an  earlier  song  in  the  show  
‘Origin  of  Love.’    Both  are  ballads,  and  both  are  lyrically  centered  on  a  soul  
braving  and/or  wracked  by  the  elements  yet  determined  to  carry  on.    In  
‘Origin  of  Love,’  the  lyrics  express  Hansel’s  interpretation  of  the  story  from  
Plato’s  Symposium  –  the  sexes  split  in  two,  endlessly  searching  the  universe  
for  their  other  half.    In  ‘Wicked  Little  Town,’  Hedwig  is  tossed  about  by  Lady  
Luck,  living  in  a  town  that  shuns  her,  yet  she  offers  those  listening  to  her,  
equally  stuck  in  confining,  repressive  circumstances,  a  way  out  of  the  soul-­‐
crunching  mess  of  their  lives  by  riding  the  waves  of  her  voice  –  signal  against  
noise.    It  is  a  tender  exploration  of  the  power  of  music  and  the  way  voices  
that  societies  wish  to  silence  can  still  find  a  way  to  be  heard.    Music  as  
sanctuary.    Music  as  refuge.    Music  as  a  space  and  for  liberation.    With  
truthful  utterance  through  song,  then,  the  potentiality  of  love  exists,  and  
through  it,  the  possible  union  with  another  –  the  long-­‐sought-­‐for  other  half?    
[…]    The  story  between  them  begins  to  play  out  a  bit  like  a  less  starry  version  
of  the  iconic  Hollywood  film  A  STAR  IS  BORN  (  1937,  1954,  1976,  and  2018).    
Tommy  starts  to  write  songs  with  Hedwig.    She  baptizes  him  with  the  stage  
name  ‘Tommy  Gnosis’  and  it  seems  as  if  Hedwig  has  finally  found  her  other  
half  –  the  one  that  knows  her  and  con  ‘complete’  her  torn  being.    ‘Gnosis’  is  

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the  common  Greek  noun  for  knowledge,  and  Hedwig’s  christening  of  Tommy  
with  his  new  name  albeit  for  the  stage,  proves  to  be  a  double-­‐edged  sword,    
 
“The  Long  Grift”  (past)  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    …when  Tommy  finds  out  that  Hedwig  is  not  biologically  female  
through  the  song  ‘The  Long  Grift,’  he  rejects  her…’Love  the  front  of  me,’  
Hedwig  demands,  but  Tommy  cannot.    He  runs  away  and  becomes  a  bone  
fide  rock  star…Tommy  does  so  using  the  songs  Hedwig  has  written  the  ones  
they  co-­‐wrote  all  under  his  name,  thereby  effectively  stealing  Hedwig’s  gifts  
of  song  and  erasing  her  entirely  from  his  story.    The  memory  of  this  moment  
–  for  the  show  is  a  memory  play  –  ignites  a  smashed  reverie  of  rage…  
• From  Stephen  Trask’s  blog:    I  wrote  “The  Long  Grift”  for  Jack  [Stephen’s  
bandmate/friend],  sung  from  the  perspective  of  someone  who’d  figured  out  
the  game  and  had  the  strength  to  send  his  lover  packing.    We  all  really  
thought  Jack  had  won  the  battle.    This  lover,  though,  never  stays  gone.    He  
keeps  banging  on  the  door,  promising,  lying:  “This  time  will  be  different.”    
After  about  10  years  of  his  careering  from  recovery  to  addiction,  I  remember  
John  calling  me  up  to  tell  me  that  we  had  lost  Jack.      
 
“Hedwig’s  Lament”  (past)  
• A  much  altered  reprise  of  “Tear  Me  Down”  
• At  first  it  is  defiant  and  later  it  is  defeatist  /  First  powerful  and  later  
powerless  (mirroring  the  themes  of  opposites  in  the  show).  
• Glam  Rock,  which  will  be  followed  by  the  pure  punk  piece  in  the  musical,  just  
like  music  history.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    She  is  the  broken  heroine  of  all  torch  song,  pining  for  her  man,  taking  
the  damage  doled  out,  and  seeking  restoration  at  one  and  the  
same…Hedwig’s  inability  to  cope  with  not  only  her  life  in  this  new  country,  
but  also  with  the  cracked  nature  of  her  consciousness,  torn  as  it  is  between  
nations,  languages,  and  a  scarred  sex  organ  that  does  not  ‘work’  according  to  
society’s  and  nature’s  conventionally  rendered  dictates.    Hedwig  is  ‘outside’  
natural  laws.    Her  freakishness  is  accentuated.    Or  so  Hedwig  feels  at  this  
moment  when  she  feels  utterly  shattered.    Echoes  of  David  Bowie’s  CRACKED  
ACTOR  (1974)  can  be  glimpsed  in  the  brittle,  addled  slide  into  despair…  
 
“Exquisite  Corpse”  (present)  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    There  is  even  the  rough  equivalent  in  the  score  of  what  in  musical  
theatre  terms  is  called  an  ‘eleven  o’clock  number’  –  a  show-­‐stopping  song  
that  occurs  late  in  the  second  half  in  which  the  central  character  comes  to  a  
major  realization  about  their  circumstances  in  life.  
• Punk  song  preceded  by  a  glam  rock  ballad,  just  like  music  history.  
• A  nervous  breakdown.  

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• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    …stripping  off  her  presentational  life  mask  –  wig,  dress  and  makeup  –  
as  she  smashes  the  tomatoes  she  uses  as  her  fake  breasts  against  her  chest,  
and  lets  the  red  juice  of  the  tomato  drip  down  her  front  the  front  that  was  an  
affront  to  Tommy  –  the  front  that  cannot  be  a  ‘front’  for  anything  else,  
because  there  is  nothing  else  there.    Torn  in  every  direction,  she  is  a  raging,  
roaring,  aching  mess,  echoing,  musically  and  lyrically  David  Bowie  again,  
specifically  his  headlong  dive  into  ‘Rock  ‘n’  Roll  Suicide.’    In  this  shattered  
mirror,  the  body  is  rent  for  all  to  see.    The  sacrificial  martyr  is  now  on  rock  ‘n’  
roll’s  altar.    Pity  the  star,  watch  how  she  falls,  and  oh,  how  we  love  the  fall,  
because  the  crowd  is  primed  for  this  kind  of  sacrifice.  This  is  the  stuff  of  
theater…It’s  ancient  Greece  and  the  ritual  must  come  to  an  end  somehow,  
and  what  better  way  for  it  to  do  so  than  through  a  spectacular  fall  from  
grace?  […]    Trauma  is  re-­‐illuminated  through  the  wounds  of  the  battered  
psyche  of  the  marginalized  body,  twice  marginalized  for  being  woman  and  
other/ed.    The  carnal  cabaret  electrifies  our  veins  in  the  audience,  spectators  
at  the  carnival  of  destructive  desire,  as  the  meltdown  of  all  meltdowns  takes  
place.    This  is  the  kind  invoked  by  Bowie  when  he  killed  off  Ziggy  Stardust,  
but  also  the  kind  that  raged  through  the  guitar-­‐smashing  Pete  Townsend  
when  he  was  The  Who,  the  tranced-­‐out  dive  into  the  unknown  of  Jim  
Morrison  when  he  fronted  The  Doors,  the  jagged,  frantic  crash  and  burn  of  
Sid  Vicious  of  the  Sex  Pistols,  and  heck,  the  dark  thread  of  suicides  that  
course  through  rock  ‘n’  roll  history:  Janis  Joplin,  Kurt  Cobain,  Nick  Drake,  
Chris  Cornell,  Michael  Hutchence,  Ian  Curtis,  Elliott  Smith,  Wendy  O.  
Williams,  and  so  on.    Rock  ‘n’  roll  is  littered  with  corpses,  glittering  once,  
burning  bright  and  usually  beautiful,  primed  to  give  their  all  and  leave  in  a  
blaze  of  ill-­‐fitting  glory.    For  a  moment,  Hedwig  looks  like  she  will  too  join  
their  ranks.    
 
“Wicked  Little  Town  (reprise)”  (present)  
• The  song  is  resolved  from  the  earlier  hearing.  
• Tommy’s  Concert  
• Tommy/Hedwig  =  Creation/Creator  
• Hedwig  singing  to  younger  version  of  herself  
• Hansel  singing  to  Hedwig  
• Hansel  singing  to  his  mother  
• Hedwig  must  escape  her  toxic  inside  by  freeing  Tommy.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    Yet,  in  the  midst  of  her  breakdown,  something  happens,  and  it’s  
almost  as  if  it’s  a  mistake.    She  appears  to  become  Tommy  Gnosis  (a  fact  
made  richer  if  you  know  that  John  Cameron  Mitchell  originally  envisioned  
the  role  of  Tommy  for  himself  before  Hedwig  appeared  as  a  character  in  the  
musical’s  development),  and  in  that  act  of  seeming/becoming,  Tommy  asks  
Hedwig  for  forgiveness.    One  half  meets  the  other  –  sun  to  earth  –  recalling  
the  story  Hansel  heard  his  mother  re-­‐tell  from  Plato’s  Symposium.    This  is  a  
storied  enactment  now  as  the  selves  break  down  and  face  each  other  in  the  

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cracked  mirror  of  rock  ‘n’  roll’s  ecstatic  larynx.    Hedwig  meets  Tommy  in  an  
imagined  dual  performance  of  selves  in  a  reprise  of  the  song  ‘Wicked  Little  
Town.’    In  this  slightly  hallucinatory,  radiant  haze  of  a  moment,  where  the  
identities  and  being  of  the  two  halves  are  blurred,  Hedwig  as  Tommy  forgives  
Tommy.    The  altar,  this  altar  of  theatre  and  ritual,  will  not  have  a  sacrifice  
then  but  rather  an  offering  of  reconciliation  instead.      
 
“Midnight  Radio”  (present)  
• Declaration  of  Independence  =  healing  song  for  the  audience  and  
Yitzhak/Hedwig  
• Female  empowerment  trope  song  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANGRY  
INCH:    A  stripped  Hedwig  stands  in  the  light  of  grace  and  benediction  in  front  
of  an  audience  under  a  liberating  halo  of  empowered  yet  ambiguous  
exaltation…Hedwig  sings  the  glorious,  anthemic  ‘Midnight  Radio’  as  an  acto  
of  apotheosis  and  one  of  Dionysian  celebration.    All  the  supreme  goddesses  of  
rock  ‘n’  roll  –  Patti  Smith,  Tina  Turner,  Yoko  Ono,  Aretha  Franklin,  Nona  
Hendryx  and  Nico.    She  asks  the  crowd  to  ‘Lift  up  your  hands’  in  a  gesture  of  
unity  and  shared  uplift,  but  also  in  echoing  lyrically  and  ironically  the  ending  
of  Bowie’s  ‘Rock  ‘n’  roll  Suicide,’  which  finishes  with  Bowie  as  Ziggy  Stardust  
repeatedly  asking  his  listener/potential  lover  to  ‘gimme  your  hands.’    So,  who  
really  is  Hedwig  now?    Does  she  know?    Stripped  of  every  mask  she  has  worn  
throughout  her  life,  how  will  she  walk  into  the  world/  
 
The  Ending  
• How  to  marry  Hedwig’s  two  sides  and  let  Yitzhak  go  and  be  a  true  creation.  
• From  Caridad  Svich’s  MITCHELL  AND  TRASK’S  HEDWIG  AND  THE  ANRGY  
INCH:    Mitchell  suggests,  especially  in  the  2001  film  version  that  Hedwig  
walks  off  stage  naked  or  nearly  naked,  and  it  is  as  if  they  are  a  new-­‐born  
babe,  once  again,  facing  the  world,  eyes  open  and  embracing  the  unknown.    
After  a  tumultuous  life  of  repetitive  traumas,  Hedwig  breaks  through  
everything  and  starts  again.    Think  of  this  as  a  crash-­‐and-­‐burn,  and  then  burn  
brighter  on  the  other  side  scenario.    Unmasked,  the  child  of  the  sun,  who  is  
also  the  child  of  the  earth  and  moon,  will  walk  the  lowly  earth,  and  perhaps  
find  healing.    It’s  interesting  that  Mitchell  and  Trask  do  not  wish  to  neatly  
resolve  Hedwig’s  predicament,  and  make  her  a  poster  child  for  genderqueer  
power  everywhere.    They  allow  the  audience  to  live  with  ambiguity  about  
whether  she  will  make  it  in  the  world  or  not.    In  a  visual  nod,  though,  to  a  
desire  for  completion,  in  the  stage  directions  for  the  original  production,  
Mitchell  writes  that  Hedwig  ‘walks  through  the  door  and  into  the  light.    The  
projected  male  and  female  faces  merge  into  one.’  
 
Vocabulary  

  118  
 
1980s  high  style  (pg.  7):    1980s  fashion  place  heavy  emphasis  on  expensive  clothes  
and  fashion  accessories.  Apparel  tended  to  be  very  bright  and  vivid  in  appearance.    
Women  expressed  an  image  of  wealth  and  success  through  shiny  costume  jewelry,  
such  as  large  faux-­‐gold  earrings,  pearl  necklaces,  and  clothing  covered  in  sequins  

  119  
and  diamonds.    Punk  fashion  began  as  a  reaction  against  both  the  hippie  movement  
of  the  past  decades  and  the  materialistic  values  of  the  current  decade.    Hair  in  the  
1980s  was  typically  big,  curly,  bouffant  and  heavily  styled.    Television  shows  such  as  
DYNASTY  helped  popularize  the  high  volume  bouffant  and  glamorous  image  
associated  with  it.    Women  from  the  1980s  wore  bright,  heavy  makeup.    Fashionable  
clothing  in  the  early  1980s  included  both  unisex  and  gender-­‐specific  attire.    
Widespread  fashions  for  women  in  the  early  1980s  included  sweaters  (including  
turtleneck,  crew  neck,  and  v-­‐neck  varieties);  fur-­‐lined  puffer  jackets;  tunics;  faux-­‐fur  
coats;  velvet  blazers;  trench  coats  (made  in  both  fake  and  real  leather);  crop  tops;  
tube  tops;  knee-­‐length  skirts  (of  no  prescribed  length,  as  designers  opted  for  
choice);  loose,  flowy,  knee-­‐length  dresses  (with  high-­‐cut  and  low-­‐cut  necklines,  
varying  sleeve  lengths,  and  made  in  a  variety  of  fabrics  including  cotton,  silk,  satin,  
and  polyester);  high-­‐waisted  loose  pants;  embroidered  jeans;  leather  pants;  and  
designer  jeans.    Women’s  pants  of  the  1980s  were,  in  general,  worn  with  long  
inseams,  and  by  1981  the  flared  jeans  of  the  70s  had  gone  out  of  fashion  in  favor  of  
straight  leg  trousers.    From  1980-­‐83  popular  women’s  accessories  included  belts,  
knee-­‐high  boots  with  thick  kitten  heels,  sneakers,  jelly  shoes,  mules,  round-­‐toed  
shoes  and  boots,  jelly  bracelets,  shoes  with  thick  heels,    small,  think  necklaces,  and  
small  watches.      

 
High  Style  is  a  style  adopted  by  a  select  few.    In  HEDWIG,  we  are  probably  dealing  
with  the  subculture  of  punk  and  New  Romantic.    It  was  characterized  by  multi-­‐
colored  Mohawks,  ripped  skinny  jeans,  worn  band  tee-­‐shirts,  and  denim  or  leather  
jackets.    This  syle  was  popular  among  people  who  listened  to  punk  music  such  as  
The  Sex  Pistols,  and  later,  (despite  the  band’s  self-­‐proclaimed  rock  ‘n’  roll  image)  
Guns  n’  Roses.    Usually  the  denim  jackets  (which  became  an  identity  of  the  group)  
were  adorned  by  safety  pins,  buttons,  patches,  and  several  other  pieces  of  music  or  
cultural  memorabilia.    The  origins  of  the  New  Romantic  and  new  wave  fashion  and  
music  movement  of  the  mid  1980s  are  often  attributed  to  the  Blitz  Kids  who  
frequented  the  club  Blitz  in  London,  especially  David  Bowie.    Bowie  even  used  the  
Blitz’s  host  Steven  Strange  in  his  music  video  Ashes  to  Ashes.    It  is  also  important  to  
note  that  the  New  Romantics  and  those  involved  with  the  punk  scene  had  inspired  
each  other  because  of  the  concentration  of  influential  individuals  going  to  the  same  

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clubs  and  having  the  same  friend  circles.    This  is  considered  the  DIY  of  punk:  
androgynous  clothing,  including  ruffled  poet  shirts,  red  or  blue  hussar  jackets  with  
gold  braid,  silk  sashes,  tight  pants,  shiny  rayon  waistcoats,  and  tailcoats  based  on  
those  worn  during  the  Regency  era.    Women,  too,  were  very  theatrical  in  terms  of  
makeup  and  style  and  often  favored  big  hair,  fishnet  gloves,  corsets,  crushed  velvet,  
and  elements  of  Middle  Eastern  and  gypsy  clothing.  

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Aggessive  influence  of  German  philosophy  on  rock  and  roll  entitled  (pg.  16):    

From  Huffpost  article  by  Nicholas  Ferroni:    If  you  live  on  planet  Earth  and  have  
access  to  a  TV  or  radio,  you  are  well  aware  of  the  story  behind  Adel’s  record  
breaking  album  21.    Just  to  make  sure,  Adele  was  so  devastated  after  a  breakup  that,  
unlike  most  people  who  get  dumped  and  turn  into  psycho  stalkers,  she  decided  to  
write  an  album  with  songs  that  could  make  the  coldest  hearted  person  cry  like  a  
teenage  girl  after  getting  dumped.    This,  however,  is  not  the  particular  instance  to  
which  I  am  referring.    Adele  is  not  the  first  person  (and  considering  most  songs  are  
about  being  in  love  and  heartbreak,  and  the  remaining  songs  are  about  money  or  
“swag,”  she  won’t  be  the  last)  to  pour  her  heart  out  and  express  her  emotions  
through  her  work,  nor  will  she  be  the  last  person  to  turn  personal  heartbreak  into  
fame  and  success.    However,  the  person  who  has  used  his  personal  experiences  as  
inspiration  and  not  self-­‐destruction,  and  who  has  had  more  of  an  impact  on  the  
music  world  than  almost  any  other  musician  or  artist  is  actually  not  a  musician  at  
all,  but  a  philosopher.    That’s  right  Friedrich  Nietzsche,  a  nineteenth  century  German  
philosopher,  probably  deserves  to  win  not  only  a  “Lifetime  Achievement  Award”  in  
music,  but  he  is  also  deserving  of  dozens  of  Grammy’s  and  an  induction  into  every  
genre’s  Hall  of  Fame.    What  most  people,  and  even  most  musicians,  don’t  realize  is  
that  Nietzsche  coined  what  can  be  considered  one  of  the  most  used  phrases  in  music  
and  even  society.    In  his  book  TWILIGHT  OF  IDOS  (1888),  Nietzsche  wrote,  “Was  ihn  
nict  umbringt,  macht  ihn  starker,”  which  translates  to  English  as  “what  does  not  kill  
me  only  makes  me  stronger.”    Not  only  is  this  phrase  uttered  and  known  by  nearly  
every  person  in  the  civilized  world,  it  has  been  the  basis  for  more  songs  in  more  
genres  than  any  other  phrase  or  quote  (even  more  so  that  The  Beatles’  “All  We  Need  
Is  Love”).    And,  like  Adele,  Nietzsche’s  failures  with  love  led  him  to  adopt  many  of  his  

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philosophical  views  on  love,  life,  and  even  God.    Little  did  this  “existentialist”  know  
at  the  time,  Nietzsche  would  be  one  of  the  most  quoted  people  in  history  alongside  
Jesus  and  Confucius.    he  is  not  limited  to  being  a  “one  hit  wonder”  of  the  quote  world  
either;  he  has  hundreds  of  gems  and,  for  those  of  us  who  follow  him  on  Twitter  
(@NietzscheQuotes),  we  enjoy  his  profound,  pathetic  and  cynical  words  on  a  daily  
basis,  and  they  are  still  extremely  relevant.    As  a  man  who  has  had  his  share  of  
rejection,  I  truly  feel  for  him  and  his  tortured  soul.    However,  if  his  soul  wasn’t  
tortured,  we  wouldn’t  have  the  hundreds  of  songs  that  his  quote  has  come  to  
inspire.    So,  thank  you  Friedrich  Nietzsche,  your  words  have  helped  and  continue  to  
help  make  artists  such  as  Kelly  Clarkson,  Kanye  West,  Asia,  Tupac,  and  many  more  
into  award  winners,  and  most  of  them  I  doubt  would  even  know  who  you  are.    If  
only  his  family  could  find  a  way  to  cash  in  on  the  residuals  and  revenue  acquired  by  
using  his  iconic  phrase?    Whether  it’s  Adele’s  song  “Someone  Like  You,”  or  
Nietzsche’s  quote,  “Ah,  women.    They  make  the  highs  higher  and  the  lows  more  
frequent,”  it’s  safe  to  assume  that  the  best  revenge  for  being  heartbroken  is  to  
become  successful  and  famous,  and  the  best  way  to  do  that  is  to  write  a  song  or  
something  so  profound  someone  will  use  it  in  a  song.    Though,  I  have  also  found  that  
dating  someone  more  attractive  and  successful  than  the  person  who  dumped  you  
works  well  too.    On  a  different  note,  for  my  superhero  fans,  Nietzsche  also  coined  
the  term  and  concept  of  a  “Superman,”  but  I  will  save  that  for  another  blog  entirely.  
 
Androgynous  (pg.  39):    partly  male  and  partly  female  in  appearance;  of  
indeterminate  sex.    Having  the  physical  characteristics  of  both  sexes;  
hermaphrodite.    1620s,  “womanish”  (of  a  man);  1650s,  “having  two  sexes,  being  
both  male  and  female,”  from  Latin  androgynus,  from  Greek  androgynos  
“hermaphrodite,  male  and  female  in  one;  womanish  man;”  as  an  adjective  (of  baths)  
“common  to  men  and  women,”  from  Andros,  genitive  of  ander  “male”  =  gyne  
“woman”.  
 

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Aqua  Net   (pg.  15):    A  hair  spray  brand  
notable  for  its  popularity  and  for  its  marketing  strategy,  which  aimed  to  make  hair  
spray  “as  ubiquitous  as  soap”.    The  brand  is  known  for  its  distinctive  large  purple  
spray  cans,  and  the  spray  itself  is  known  for  its  strong  hold  and  distinctive  smell.    
Aqua  Net  was  invented  in  the  1950s.    Sources  differ  on  its  availability  around  this  
time.  One  source  describes  it  as  being  initially  available  only  in  hair  salons  and  not  
offered  directly  for  sale  to  the  public  until  the  late  1950s.    Another  states  that  this  
change  happened  in  1961.  Yet  another  says  it  was  on  the  market  as  early  as  1953,  
but  does  not  specify  whether  it  included  direct  sale  to  the  public  or  only  to  salons.    
Regardless  of  how  they  obtained  it,  those  who  did  have  access  to  it  in  the  1950s  and  
1960s  found  it  suitable  for  facilitating  the  bouffant  hairstyles  in  those  decades,  such  
as  the  beehive.    In  the  1960s,  Aqua  Net  was  advertised  by  The  Three  Stooges.    In  the  
1980s,  a  renewed  trend  for  big  hair,  and  the  rise  of  glam  rock  and  hair  metal,  
resulted  in  the  widespread  use  of  hair  spray  in  mainstream  and  alternative  culture  
alike.    Aqua  Net  became  synonymous  with  these  trends  during  that  decade.    In  the  
1980s  Aqua  Net  was  advertised  by  Donna  Mills.  

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Arcadians  (pg.  41):    An  ancient  Greek  tribe  which  was  situated  in  the  mountainous  
Peloponnese.    It  is  considered  one  of  the  oldest  Greek  tribes  which  settled  in  Greece  
and  it  was  probably  a  relative  tribe  of  the  proto-­‐Greeks  who  are  mentioned  by  the  
ancient  authors  as  Pelasgians.    Whilst  Herodotus  seems  to  have  found  the  idea  that  
the  Arcadians  were  not  Greek  far-­‐fetched,  it  is  clear  that  the  Arcadians  were  
considered  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  region.    This  is  testified  by  ancient  myths,  
like  the  myth  Arcas,  the  myth  of  Lycaon  etc.    Arcadia  is  also  one  of  the  regions  
described  in  the  “catalogue  of  ships”  in  the  ILIAD.    Agamemnon  himself  gave  Arcadia  
the  ships  for  the  Trojan  war  because  Arcadia  did  not  have  a  navy.    Arcadia  is  a  
region  in  the  central  Peloponnese.    It  took  its  name  from  the  mythological  character  
Arcas  (a  hunter  who  became  king  of  Arcadia;  he  is  remembered  for  having  taught  
the  people  the  arts  of  weaving  and  baking  bread  –  he  is  the  son  of  the  God  Zeus,  who  
disguised  himself  as  Artemis  to  rape  his  mother  Callisto,  a  nymph  in  Artemis’s  
group,  who  was  turned  into  a  bear  when  Zeus’  wife  Hera  discovered  this)  and  in  
Greek  mythology,  it  is  the  home  of  the  god  Pan.    In  European  Renaissance  arts,  
Arcadia  was  celebrated  as  an  unspoiled,  harmonious  wilderness;  as  such,  it  was  
referenced  in  popular  culture.      
 
Aristophanes  (pg.  39):    A  comic  playwright  of  ancient  Athens.    Eleven  of  his  forty  
plays  survive  virtually  complete.    These  provide  the  most  valuable  examples  ofa  
genre  of  comic  drama  known  as  Old  Comedy  and  are  used  to  define  it,  along  with  
fragments  from  dozens  of  lost  plays  by  Aristophanes  and  his  contemporaries.    Also  
known  as  “The  Father  of  Comedy”  and  “the  Prince  of  Ancient  Comedy”,  Aristophanes  
has  been  said  to  recreate  the  life  of  ancient  Athens  more  convincingly  than  any  other  
author.    His  powers  of  ridicule  were  feared  and  acknowledged  by  influential  

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contemporaries;  Plato  singled  out  Aristophanes’  play  THE  CLOUDS  as  slander  that  
contributed  to  the  trail  and  subsequent  condemning  of  Socrates,  although  other  
satirical  playwrights  had  also  caricatured  the  philosopher.    Aristophanes’  second  
play,  THE  BABYLONIANS  (now  lost),  was  denounced  by  Cleon  as  a  slander  against  
the  Athenian  polis.    It  is  possible  that  the  case  was  argued  in  court,  but  details  of  the  
trial  are  not  recorded  and  Aristophanes  caricatured  Cleon  mercilessly  in  his  
subsequent  plays,  especially  THE  KNIGHTS,  the  first  of  many  plays  that  he  directed  
himself.    “in  my  opinion,”  he  says  through  that  plays’  Chorus,  “the  author-­‐director  of  
comedies  has  the  hardest  job  of  all.”    Plato’s  THE  SYMPOSIUM  appears  to  be  a  useful  
source  of  biographical  information  about  Aristophanes,  but  its  reliability  is  open  to  
doubt.    It  purports  to  be  a  record  of  conversations  at  a  dinner  party  at  which  both  
Aristophanes  and  Socrates  are  guests,  held  some  seven  years  after  the  performance  
of  THE  CLOUDS,  the  play  in  which  Socrates  was  cruelly  caricatured.    Plato  was  only  a  
boy  when  the  events  in  THE  SYMPOSIUM  are  supposed  to  have  occurred  and  it  is  
possible  that  his  Aristophanes  is  in  fact  based  on  a  reading  of  his  plays.    For  
example,  conversation  among  the  guests  turns  to  the  subject  of  Love  and  
Aristophanes  explains  his  notion  of  it  terms  of  an  amusing  allegory,  a  device  he  
often  uses  in  his  plays.    He  is  represented  as  suffering  an  attack  of  hiccoughs  and  this  
might  be  a  humorous  reference  to  the  crude  physical  jokes  in  his  plays.    He  tells  the  
other  guests  that  he  is  quite  happy  to  be  thought  amusing  but  he  is  wary  of  
appearing  ridiculous.    This  fear  of  being  ridiculed  is  consistent  with  his  declaration  
in  THE  KNIGHTS  that  he  embarked  on  the  career  of  comic  playwright  warily  after  
witnessing  the  public  contempt  and  ridicule  that  other  dramatists  had  incurred.      
 
atonement  (pg.  9):    reparation  for  a  wrong  or  injury,  reparation  or  expiation  for  sin.    
the  reconciliation  of  God  and  humankind  through  Jesus  Christ.    early  16th  century  
(denoting  unity  or  reconciliation,  especially  between  God  and  man):  from  “at  one”  +  
-­‐ment,  influenced  by  medieval  Latin  adunamentum  ‘unity’,  and  earlier  onement  
from  an  obsolete  verb  one  ‘to  unite’.  

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August  13,  1961  (pg.  8):    Berlin  woke  up  to  a  shock:  the  East  German  Army  had  
begun  construction  on  the  infamous  Berlin  Wall.    The  Wall  was  initially  constructed  
in  the  middle  of  Berlin,  and  expanded  over  the  following  months.      
 
Autobahn  (pg.  15):    The  federal  controlled-­‐access  highway  system  in  Germany.    The  
official  German  term  is  Bundesautobahn,  which  translates  as  “federal  motorway”.    
The  literal  meaning  of  the  word  is  “Federal  Auto(mobile)  Track”.    German  
Autobahnen  are  widely  known  for  having  no  federally  mandated  speed  limit  for  
some  classes  of  vehicles.    However,  limits  are  posted  (and  enforced)  in  areas  that  
are  urbanized,  substandard,  accident-­‐prone,  or  under  construction.    On  speed-­‐
unrestricted  stretches,  an  advisory  speed  of  81  mph  applies.    While  driving  faster  is  
no  illegal  as  such  in  the  absence  of  a  speed  limit,  it  can  cause  an  increased  liability  in  
the  case  of  a  collision  (which  the  mandatory  auto  insurance  has  to  cover).  
 

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Barbara  Streisand  (pg.  25):    

An  American  singer,  actress,  and  filmmaker.    In  a  career  spanning  six  decades,  she  
has  achieved  success  in  multiple  fields  of  entertainment  and  has  been  recognized  
with  two  Academy  Awards,  ten  Grammy  Awards  including  the  Grammy  Lifetime  
Achievement  Award  and  the  Grammy  Legend  Award,  five  Emmy  Awards  including  
one  Daytime  Emmy,  a  Special  Tony  Award,  an  American  Film  Institute  Award,  a  
Kennedy  Center  Honors  prize,  four  Peabody  Awards,  the  Presidential  Medal  of  
Freedom,  and  nine  Golden  Globes.    She  is  among  a  small  group  of  entertainers  who  
have  been  honored  with  an  Emmy,  Grammy,  Oscar,  and  Tony  Award  –  though  only  
three  were  competitive  awards  –  and  is  one  of  only  two  artists  in  that  group  who  
have  also  won  a  Peabody.      
 
Berlin  Accent:    High  German  dialect  spoken  in  the  city  of  Berlin  as  well  as  its  
surrounding  metropolitan  area.    The  area  of  Berlin  was  one  of  the  first  to  abandon  
East  Low  German  as  a  written  language  (in  the  late  16th  century)  and  later  also  as  a  
spoken  language.    This  was  the  first  dialect  of  Standard  German  with  definite  High  
German  roots  but  a  Low  German  substratum  apparently  formed.    Berlinese  
pronunciation  is  similar  to  that  of  other  High  German  varieties.    Nevertheless,  it  
maintains  unique  characteristics  that  set  it  apart  from  other  variants.    Most  notable  
are  the  strong  contraction  trends  over  several  words  and  the  rather  irreverent  
adaptation  of  foreign  words  and  Anglicisms  that  are  difficult  to  understand  among  
Upper  German  speakers.    Also,  some  words  contain  the  letter  j  (representing  IPA:  
[j])  instead  of  g.    This  is  exemplified  in  the  word  for  good,  in  which  gut  becomes  jut.    
Berlinese  grammar  contains  some  notable  differences  from  that  of  standard  
German.    For  instance,  the  accusative  case  and  dative  case  are  not  distinguished.    
Similarly,  conjunctions  that  are  distinguished  in  standard  German  are  not  in  

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Berlinese.    For  example,  in  standard  German,  wenn  (when  /  if)  is  used  for  
conditional,  theoretical,  or  consistent  events  and  vann  (when)  is  used  for  events  
currently  occurring  or  questions.    There  is  no  difference  in  the  two  in  Berlinese.    
Genitive  forms  are  also  replaced  by  prepositional  accusative  forms,  some  still  with  
an  inserted  pronoun.    For  example,  dem  sein  Haus  (the  his  house)  rather  than  the  
standard  sien  Haus  (his  house).    Plural  forms  often  have  an  additional  –s,  regardless  
of  the  standard  plural  ending.    Words  ending  in  –ken  are  often  written  (colloquially)  
and  pronounced  as  –sken.    From  Jerry  Blunt’s  STAGE  DIALECTS:    some citizens of
Berlin claim that only they speak a proper German, to which statement some non-
Berliners have been heard to reply heatedly that there is a question whether the Berliners
really speak German at all. To understand this we only have to compare the above
situation to that of an American Southerner who evinces a special attitude toward the
speech of a northern city, Boston or Brooklyn, for example.  
 
Berlin  Wall  (pg.  7):    

A  guarded  concrete  barrier  that  physically  and  ideologically  divided  Berlin  from  
1967  to  1989.    Construction  of  the  Wall  was  commenced  by  the  German  Democratic  
Republic  (GDR,  East  Germany)  on  13  August  1961.    The  Wall  cut  off  (by  land)  West  
Berlin  from  surrounding  East  Germany,  including  East  Berlin.    The  barrier  included  
guard  towers  placed  along  large  concrete  walls,  accompanied  by  a  wide  area  (later  
known  as  the  “death  strip”)  that  contained  anti-­‐vehicle  trenches,  “fakir  beds”  and  
other  defenses.    The  Eastern  Bloc  portrayed  the  Wall  as  protecting  the  population  
from  fascist  elements  conspiring  to  prevent  the  “will  of  the  people”  in  building  a  
socialist  state  in  East  Germany.    GDR  authorities  officially  referred  to  the  Berlin  Wall  
as  the  Anti-­‐Fascist  Protection  Rampart.    The  West  Berlin  city  government  

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sometimes  referred  to  it  as  the  “Wall  of  Shame”,  a  term  coined  by  mayor  Willy  
Brandt  in  reference  to  the  Wall’s  restriction  on  freedom  of  movement.    Along  with  
the  separate  and  much  longer  inner  German  border  (IGB),  which  demarcated  the  
border  between  East  and  West  Germany,  it  came  to  symbolize  physically  the  “Iron  
Curtain”  that  separated  Western  Europe  and  the  Eastern  Bloc  during  the  Cold  War.    
Before  the  Wall’s  erection,  3.5  million  East  Germans  circumvented  Eastern  Bloc  
emigration  restrictions  and  defected  from  the  GDR,  many  by  crossing  over  the  
border  from  East  Berlin  into  West  Berlin;  from  there  they  could  then  travel  to  West  
Germany  and  to  other  Western  European  countries.    Between  1961  and  1989  the  
Wall  prevented  almost  all  such  emigration.    During  this  period  over  100,000  people  
attempted  to  escape  and  over  5,000  people  succeeded  in  escaping  over  the  Wall,  
with  an  estimated  death  toll  ranging  from  136  to  more  than  200  in  and  around  
Berlin.    In  1989,  a  series  of  revolutions  in  nearby  Eastern  Bloc  countries  –  Poland  
and  Hungary  in  particular  –  caused  a  chain  reaction  in  East  Germany  that  ultimately  
resulted  in  the  demise  of  the  Wall.    After  several  weeks  of  civil  unrest,  the  East  
German  government  announced  on  9  November  1989  that  all  GDR  citizens  could  
visit  West  Germany  and  West  Berlin.  Crowds  of  East  Germans  crossed  and  climbed  
onto  the  Wall,  joined  by  West  Germans  on  the  other  side  in  a  celebratory  
atmosphere.    Over  the  next  few  weeks,  euphoric  people  and  souvenir  hunters  
chipped  away  parts  of  the  Wall.    The  Brandenburg  Gate  in  the  Berlin  Wall  was  
opened  on  22  December  1989.    The  demolition  of  the  Wall  officially  began  on  13  
June  1990  and  was  completed  in  1992.    The  “fall  of  the  Berlin  Wall”  paved  the  way  
for  German  reunification,  which  formally  took  place  on  3  October  1990.      
 

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Blackstrap  Molasses  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  17):

 
 
Blitzkrieg  (pg.  18):    literally,  lighting  war.    an  intense  military  campaign  intended  to  
bring  about  a  swift  victory.      
 

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Bomb  craters  near  the  Berlin  Wall  (pg.  16):

 
 

  132  
Brita  in  the  1990s  (pg.  28):

 
 
calamity  (pg.  9):    an  event  causing  great  and  often  sudden  damage  or  distress;  a  
disaster.    late  Middle  English  (in  the  sense  ‘disaster  and  distress’):  from  Old  French  
calamite,  from  Latin  calamitas.  
 

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Camisole  in  the  1970s  (pg.  18):

 
 
Chocolate  clam  shells  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  19):

 
 

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Communist  East  Berlin  (pg.  9):    

East  Berlin  was  the  capital  city  of  the  German  Democratic  Republic  from  1949  to  
1990.    Formally,  it  was  the  Soviet  sector  of  Berlin,  established  in  1945.    The  
American,  British,  and  French  sectors  were  known  as  West  Berlin.    From  13  August  
1961  until  9  November  1989,  East  Berlin  was  separated  from  West  Berlin  by  the  
Berlin  Wall.    The  Western  Allied  powers  did  not  recognize  East  Berlin  as  the  GDR’s  
capital,  nor  the  GDR’s  authority  to  govern  East  Berlin.    On  3  October  1990,  the  day  
Germany  was  officially  reunified,  East  and  West  Berlin  formally  reunited  as  the  city  

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of  Berlin.    With  the  London  Protocol  of  1944  signed  on  September  12,  1944,  the  
United  State,  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  Soviet  Union  decided  to  divide  Germany  
into  three  occupation  zones  and  to  establish  a  special  area  of  Berlin,  which  was  
occupied  by  the  three  Allied  Forces  together.    In  May  1945,  the  Soviet  Union  
installed  a  city  government  for  the  whole  city  that  was  called  “Magistrate  of  Greater  
Berlin”,  which  existed  until  1947.    After  the  war,  the  Allied  Forces  initially  
administered  the  city  together  with  the  Allied  Kommandatura,  which  served  as  the  
governing  body  of  the  city.    However,  in  1948  the  Soviet  representative  left  the  
Kommandatura  and  the  common  administration  broke  apart  during  the  following  
months.    In  the  Soviet  sector,  a  separate  city  government  was  established  which  
continued  to  call  itself  “Magistrate  of  Greater  Berlin”.    When  the  German  Democratic  
Republic  was  established  in  1949,  it  immediately  claimed  East  Berlin  as  its  capital  –  
a  claim  that  was  recognized  by  all  Communist  countries.    Nevertheless,  its  
representative  to  the  People’s  Chamber  were  not  directly  elected  and  did  not  have  
full  voting  rights  until  1981.    In  June  1948,  all  railways  and  roads  leading  to  West  
Berlin  were  blocked,  and  East  Berliners  were  not  allowed  to  emigrate.    
Nevertheless,  more  than  1,000  East  Germans  were  escaping  to  West  Berline  each  
day  by  1960,  caused  by  the  strains  on  the  East  German  economy  from  war  
reparation  owed  to  the  Soviet  Union,  massive  destruction  of  industry,  and  lack  of  
assistance  from  the  Marshall  Plan.    In  August  1961,  the  East  German  Government  
tried  to  stop  the  population  exodus  by  enclosing  West  Berlin  within  the  Berlin  Wall.    
It  was  very  dangerous  for  fleeing  residents  to  cross  because  armed  soldiers  were  
trained  to  shoot  illegal  migrants.    East  Germany  was  a  socialist  republic,  but  there  
was  not  complete  economic  equality.    Privileges  such  as  prestigious  apartments  and  
good  schooling  were  given  to  members  of  the  ruling  party  and  their  family.    
Eventually,  Christian  churches  were  allowed  to  operate  without  restraint  after  years  
of  harassment  by  authorities.    In  the  1970s,  wages  of  East  Berliners  rose  and  
working  hours  fell.    The  Western  Allies  (the  US,  UK,  and  France)  never  formally  
acknowledged  the  authority  of  the  East  German  government  to  govern  East  Berlin;  
the  official  Allied  protocol  recognized  only  the  authority  of  the  Soviet  Union  in  East  
Berlin  in  accordance  with  the  occupation  status  of  Berlin  as  a  whole.    The  United  
States  Command  Berlin,  for  example,  published  detailed  instructions  for  U.S.  
military  and  civilian  personnel  wishing  to  visit  East  Berlin.    In  fact,  the  three  
Western  commandants  regularly  protested  against  the  presence  of  the  East  German  
National  People’s  Army  (NVA)  in  East  Berlin,  particularly  on  the  occasion  of  military  
parades.    Nevertheless,  the  three  Western  Allies  eventually  established  embassies  in  
East  Berlin  in  the  1970s,  although  they  never  recognized  it  as  the  capital  of  East  
Germany.    Treaties  instead  used  terms  such  as  “seat  of  government.”    From  The  
Telegraph:    Having  recently  visited  the  former  offices  of  the  Ministry  of  State  
Security  in  Berlin,  it  reminded  me  of  how  much  people  suffered  under  the  
communist  regime  in  East  Germany.    Though  I  always  enjoyed  travelling  here  in  the  
Eighties,  unlike  the  local  population,  I  was  of  course  free  to  leave.    For  me,  the  
appeal  was  being  able  to  see  part  of  Germany  as  it  once  was,  such  as  in  the  thirties  
without  the  ubiquitous  gaudy  fast  food  outlets  or  supermarkets  found  in  the  West.    
In  those  days,  travel  in  East  Germany  had  to  organized  through  the  Berolina  travel  
agency  in  London,  paying  in  pounds  for  vouchers  for  accommodation  to  be  

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exchanged  at  certain  specified  hotels  where  Westerners  could  stay.    Petrol  could  
only  be  bought  at  a  number  of  designated  stations.    It  was  always  interesting  to  slow  
down  when  approaching  restricted  areas.    I  often  wondered  where  the  ruling  elite  
went  after  a  grueling  day  in  the  ministries,  trying  to  think  of  what  they  could  do  next  
to  ensure  the  regime  held  up.    During  those  days,  it  later  emerged,  the  Politburo  
used  to  head  off  to  a  walled-­‐off  park-­‐like  compound  at  Wandilitz,  30  kilometers  (18  
miles)  north  of  Berlin  to  enjoy  privileges  such  as  fresh  oranges  and  real  coffee,  
denied  to  the  rest  of  the  population.    These  days  there  are  a  great  number  of  
museums  in  the  former  East  Berlin  where  it  is  possible  to  get  an  idea  of  what  life  
was  like  under  the  communist  regime.    Since  2012,  the  former  offices  of  the  Ministry  
of  State  Security,  the  headquarters  of  East  Germany’s  secret  police  force  (known  as  
the  Stasi)  have  also  been  open  to  the  public.    In  addition,  to  visiting  the  premises,  
citizens  from  the  former  German  Democratic  Republic  can  apply  to  find  out  what  
information  was  held  on  them,  including  who  informed  on  them.    In  order  to  set  up  
this  ministry  in  the  Lictenberg  area  of  Berlin,  a  church  and  two  rows  of  house  had  to  
be  demolished  to  make  space  for  this  huge  52  acre  site  where  as  many  as  8,000  
people  worked  in  50  offices.    As  visitors  now  approach  the  building  from  
Ruschestrasse,  they  can  see  the  large  porte-­‐cochère  added  to  prevent  anyone  living  
in  the  vicinity  from  seeing  who  arrived  or  departed.    Once  striking  exhibit  in  the  
entrance  hall  is  what,  from  the  outside,  looks  like  a  normal  delivery  van  but  which  
was  actually  a  prison  vehicle,  used  to  bring  in  opponents  of  the  regime  for  
questioning,  without  arousing  suspicion  among  the  general  public.    The  longest  
serving  minister  for  state  security  was  Erich  Mielke,  who  remained  in  office  for  
almost  32  years  until  the  regime  collapsed  in  1989.    Barely  eight  weeks  later  the  
building  was  stormed  by  citizens  wanting  to  know  what  information  was  held  about  
them.    In  addition  to  a  large  wood-­‐panelled  conference  room  with  a  secret  staircase  
leading  down  to  an  inner  courtyard,  one  can  see  Mielke’s  office  and  a  small  private  
room  to  where  he  could  withdraw.    Naturally,  Mielke  had  a  house  on  the  Wandlitz  
complex,  but  apparently  his  wife  complained  that  it  was  boring  there,  not  least  
because  Erich  Honecker,  East  Germany’s  leader  from  1971  until  1989,  banned  her  
from  taking  her  pet  dog  with  her  whenever  she  went.    After  2.7  million  citizens  had  
fled  East  Germany  between  1949  and  1961,  it  took  the  Berlin  Wall,  the  Iron  Curtain,  
armed  border  guards  and  a  tightly  controlled  administration  to  ensure  the  
remaining  17  million  stayed  within  the  country’s  boundaries.    It  is  incredible  to  
think  that,  after  12  years  of  rule  under  Hitler,  another  dictatorial  regime  and  
administration  was  to  unfurl  over  the  then  Soviet  Occupation  Zone  and  last  for  a  
further  40  years.    The  East  German  dictatorship  permeated  all  aspects  of  the  lives  of  
its  people  and  it  was  up  to  the  Stasi  to  ensure  Communist  ideology  was  adhered  to,  
not  least  by  appointing  a  huge  number  of  informants,  some  190,000  in  fact,  who  
could  be  thwarted.    Its  job  was  also  to  recruit  and  train  the  next  generation  of  Stasi  
staff.    Among  the  artefacts  on  display  to  show  what  lengths  the  authorities  went  to  
keep  an  eye  on  its  own  citizens  are  belts,  bird-­‐boxes,  and  Thermos  flasks  all  fitted  
with  built-­‐in  Russian-­‐made  F-­‐21  KGM  miniature  spy  cameras.    One  was  even  hidden  
in  a  watering  can,  only  the  top  half  of  which  could  be  filled  with  water.    It  was  also  
the  role  of  the  Stasi  to  keep  tabs  on  anyone  showing  signs  of  copying  what  they  
considered  to  be  degenerate  Western  trends,  such  as  the  punk  movement  or  pop  

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culture;  even  hitchhiking  was  regarded  as  decadent.    The  stories  of  those  killed  
while  escaping  to  the  West  are  too  numerous  to  mention.    The  case  of  Chris  
Gueffroy,  the  last  person  to  be  shot  dead  at  the  Berlin  Wall,  always  strikes  me  as  
being  particularly  sad.    Only  20,  he  died  trying  to  flee  to  West  Berlin  on  February  6,  
1989.    Alas  he  was  not  to  know  that,  had  he  waited  another  nine  months,  he  could  
have  walked  over  without  fear.    Ten  years  earlier,  in  1979,  regime-­‐opponent  petty  
officer  Bodo  Strehlow  was  on  board  an  East  German  patrol  boat  on  the  Baltic  
looking  out  for  people  attempting  to  flee  to  the  West  by  sea.    Threatening  the  rest  of  
the  crew  with  a  firearm  and  locking  them  below  deck,  he  was  able  to  commandeer  
the  ship  in  an  attempt  to  et  to  the  coast  of  Schleswig-­‐Holstein  and  freedom.    
However,  the  other  members  of  the  crew  managed  to  retake  control  over  the  boat  
after  a  hand  grenade  was  thrown.    The  Stasi  called  for  Strehlow  to  be  sentenced  to  
death  but  he  escaped  with  a  life  sentence  in  solitary  confinement,  which  ended,  of  
course,  in  1989,  when  he  was  released  and  went  to  live  near  Hamburg.    In  1991  
Mielke  faced  trial  for  his  involvement  in  the  murder  of  two  policemen  in  Berlin  in  
1931  and  in  1993  he  was  sentenced  to  six  years’  imprisonment.    he  served  two  
years  of  the  sentence  but  was  subsequently  released  and  died  in  May  2000,  aged  92.  
 
constitutional  (pg.  28):    relating  to  an  established  set  of  principles  governing  a  state.    
relating  to  someone’s  physical  or  mental  condition.    a  walk,  typically  one  taken  
regularly  to  maintain  or  restore  good  health.    1680s,  “pertaining  to  a  person’s  
(physical  or  mental)  constitution,”  from  constitution  meaning  “beneficial  to  bodily  
constitution”  is  from  1750.    Meaning  “authorized  or  allowed  by  the  political  
constitution”  is  from  1765.      
 
countenance  (pg.  40):    a  person’s  face  or  facial  expression.    support.    admit  as  
acceptable  or  possible.    Middle  English:  from  Old  French  contenance  ‘bearing,  
behavior’,  from  contenir  sense  was  ‘bearing,  demeanor’,  also  ‘facial  expression’,  
hence  ‘the  face’.  
 

  138  
Croatia  mid-­‐1990s  (pg.  25):    

The  Croatian  War  for  

  139  
Independence  was  fought  from  1991  to  1995  between  Croat  forces  loyal  to  the  
government  of  Croatia  –  which  had  declared  independence  from  the  Socialist  
Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia  (SFRY)  –  and  the  Serb-­‐controlled  Yugoslav  People’s  
Army  (JNA)  and  local  Serb  forces,  with  the  JNA  ending  its  combat  operations  in  
Croatia  by  1992.    In  Croatia,  the  war  is  primarily  referred  to  as  the  “Homeland  War”  
(Domovinski  rat)  and  also  as  the  “Greater-­‐Serbian  Aggression”  (Velikosrpska  
agresija).    A  majority  of  Croats  wanted  Croatia  to  leave  Yugoslavia  and  become  a  
sovereign  country,  while  many  ethnic  Serbs  living  in  Croatia,  supported  by  Serbia,  
opposed  the  secession  and  wanted  Serb-­‐claimed  lands  to  be  in  a  common  state  with  
Serbia.    Most  Serbs  sought  a  new  Serb  State  within  a  Yugoslav  federation,  including  
areas  of  Croatia  and  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  with  ethnic  Serb  majorities  or  
significant  minorities,  and  attempted  to  conquer  as  much  of  Croatia  as  possible.  
Croatia  declared  independence  on  25  June  1991,  but  agreed  to  postpone  it  with  the  
Brioni  Agreement  and  cut  all  remaining  ties  with  Yugoslavia  on  8  October  1991.    
The  JNA  initially  tried  to  keep  Croatia  within  Yugoslavia  by  occupying  all  of  Croatia.    
After  this  failed,  Serb  forces  established  the  self-­‐proclaimed  Republic  of  Serbian  
Krajina  (RSK)  within  Croatia.    After  the  ceasefire  of  January  1992  and  international  
recognition  of  the  Republic  of  Croatia  as  a  sovereign  state,  the  front  lines  were  
entrenched,  the  United  Nations  Protection  Force  (UNPROFOR)  was  deployed,  and  
combat  became  largely  intermittent  in  the  following  three  years.    During  that  time,  
the  RSK  encompassed  13,913  square  kilometers  (5,372  sq  mi),  more  than  a  quarter  
of  Croatia.    In  1995,  Croatia  launched  two  major  offensives  known  as  Operation  
Flash  and  Operation  Storm,  these  offensives  effectively  ended  the  war  in  its  favor.    
The  remaining  United  Nations  Transitional  Authority  for  Easter  Slavonia,  Baranja  
and  Wester  Sirmium  (UNTAES)  zone  was  peacefully  reintegrated  into  Croatia  by  
1998.    The  war  ended  with  Croatian  victory,  as  it  achieved  the  goals  it  had  declared  
at  the  beginning  of  the  war:    independence  and  preservation  of  it  borders.    
Approximately  21-­‐25%  of  Croatia’s  economy  was  ruined,  with  an  estimated  US  $37  
billion  in  damaged  infrastructure,  lost  output,  and  refugee-­‐related  costs.    Over  
20,000  people  were  killed  in  the  war,  and  refugees  were  displaced  on  both  sides.    
The  Serb  and  Croatian  governments  began  to  progressively  cooperate  with  each  
other  but  tension  remain,  in  part  due  to  verdicts  by  the  International  Criminal  
Tribunal  for  the  former  Yugoslavia  (ICTY)  and  lawsuits  filed  by  each  country  against  
each  other.    Following  the  end  of  the  war,  Croatia  faced  the  challenges  of  post-­‐war  
reconstruction,  the  return  of  refugees,  advancing  democratic  principles,  protection  
of  human  rights  and  general  social  and  economic  development.    The  post-­‐2000  
period  is  characterized  by  democratization,  economic  growth  and  structural  and  
social  reforms,  as  well  as  problems  such  as  unemployment,  corruption  and  
inefficiency  of  the  public  administration.      

  140  
crypto-­‐homo  rockers  (pg.  10):    

Crypto  =  a  person  having  a  secret  allegiance  to  a  political  creed,  especially  


communism;  concealed,  secret;  Greek  for  ‘hidden’.    Homo  =  homosexual,  same,  Latin  
for  ‘man’.    So,  essentially,  hidden  homosexual  rock  music.    These  could  include  
Freddie  Mercury,  Elton  John,  David  Bowie,  Prince,  Boy  George,  Annie  Lennox,  Little  
Richard,  Erasure,  Michael  Stipe,  Liberace,  Rob  Halford,  Indigo  Girls.    From  Stephen  
Trask’s  blog:    I  think  the  best  part,  though,  was  being  on  that  stage  every  week  with  
Jack  Steeb.    Jack  and  I  were  in  my  band  Cheater  together,  the  band  that  became  the  
Angry  Inch,  but  we  were  also  in  the  Squeezebox  band  together,  playing  those  great  
shows  every  Friday  night  for  a  packed  house,  hanging  out  with  our  friends  and  
boyfriends  in  front  of  the  club  on  the  hood  of  my  car,  watching  all  the  queer  rockers  
file  in  for  the  show  or  step  outside  for  a  cigarette.    Jack  and  I  moved  to  New  York  
together  to  make  it:  to  be  rock  stars,  to  be  queer,  to  be  queer  rock  stars  together.    
We  shared  an  apartment  in  Fort  Greene,  listened  to  albums,  went  to  shows,  drank  
Silvovitz,  delivered  pizza.    Jack  played  bass  in  my  bands  Bimbo  Limbo  Spam  and  
later  Cheater.    I  remember  once,  when  Richard  Hell  was  looking  for  a  bass  
player/keyboardist  for  a  Japanese  tour,  Jack  and  I  went  in  as  a  team,  willing  to  forgo  
pay  and  play  for  nothing  but  the  travel  expenses.    Sadly,  the  travel  expenses  for  two  
were  too  high  and  he  couldn’t  make  it  work  –  but  he  wanted  to  and  we  had  a  blast  
jamming  with  him  in  that  rehearsal  space  on  Avenue  A.    When  Cheater  started  to  
make  a  name  for  itself  and  we  were  in  the  Squeezebox  band  and  playing  the  early  
Hedwig  shows,  it  felt  like  we  were  really  getting  there,  a  couple  of  queer  punks  
making  it  in  New  York  on  our  own  terms.    Jack  didn’t  make  it  with  me,  though.    Jack  
was  an  addict  and  an  alcoholic.    I  was  a  classic  enabler.    I  remember  snorting  cocaine  
and  getting  drunk  with  him  until  the  wee  hours  just  to  hang  out  on  his  terms,  getting  
fucked  up  and  listening  to  “The  Blue  Mask”  and  “Slanted  and  Enchanted”  and  
Teenage  Fan  Club,  watching  Falcon  International  porn  while  finishing  off  a  bottle.    I  
also  remember  searching  all  over  some  of  the  seediest  neighborhoods  of  Baltimore  

  141  
and  Philadelphia  when  Cheater  was  gigging  there  and  he  had  disappeared.    I  
remember  the  day  his  mom  called  to  tell  me  he’d  gone  missing  two  days,  and  
searching  all  over  the  lower  east  side  for  him,  even  climbing  up  fire  escapes  to  peek  
into  the  apartments  of  some  guy  he  may  have  hooked-­‐up  with.    I  remember  finding  
him  in  the  strangest  places  and  in  the  most  disturbing  conditions.    I  was  hopeful  
when  he  went  into  rehab.    We  put  the  band  on  hold  almost  a  year  for  him,  which  
kind  of  killed  that  project.    When  he  was  sober  for  a  year,  my  boyfriend  Michael  and  
I  went  to  JCM  to  his  AA/NA  meeting.    One  after  one,  people  got  up  and  told  their  
stories.    The  stories  all  seemed  to  me  to  have  the  same  theme  –  addiction  was  like  a  
lover  that  only  wanted  to  scam  you  out  of  everything:  your  money,  your  things,  your  
friends,  until  you  had  nothing  left.    I  wrote  “The  Long  Grift”  for  Jack,  sung  from  the  
perspective  of  someone  who’d  figured  out  the  game  and  had  the  strength  to  send  his  
lover  packing.    We  all  really  thought  Jack  had  won  the  battle.    This  lover,  though,  
never  stays  gone.    He  keeps  banging  on  the  door,  promising,  lying:  “This  time  will  be  
different.”    After  about  10  years  of  his  careering  from  recovery  to  addiction,  I  
remember  John  calling  me  up  to  tell  me  that  we  had  lost  Jack.      
   

  142  
Cuisinart  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  18):

 
 
“Deutschland  Uber  Alles”  (pg.  17):    “Germany  Above  All”,  the  beginning  and  refrain  
of  the  first  stanza  of  the  song  “Deutchlandlied”  (The  Song  of  the  Germans),  which  

  143  
was  the  national  anthem  of  Germany.    In  East  Germany,  the  national  anthem  was  
“Auferstanden  aus  Ruinen”  (Risen  from  Ruins).  
 
Disco  dancing  jet-­‐set  in  the  late  1980s  in  Milan  and  Rome  (pg.  17):    

  144  
From  DAZED:    When  you  think  of  dance  music  through  the  ages,  you  think  of  the  
meccas  of  clubbing.    Ibiza,  long  lost  hotspots  like  Haçienda,  Berghain,  and  despite  
the  loss  of  Fabric  we  can  still  add  that  one  to  the  list.    But  one  exhibition  is  
uncovering  the  long-­‐lost  era  of  Spaghetti  Disco  –  an  Italian  dance  music  subculture,  
born  out  the  volatile  and  drug-­‐ridden  70s.    With  clubs  like  Cosmic  playing  host  to  
youth  searching  for  an  escape  from  the  violence  of  their  heated  political  climate,  it  
doesn’t  look  too  dissimilar  to  London  today.    When  there’s  a  popular  disdain  for  
politics,  most  of  the  time,  escapism  is  the  answer.    But  through  escapism,  sometimes  
something  beautiful  can  be  born  out  of  it.      
 

  145  
Dole  pineapple  rings  (pg.  29):    

 
 

  146  
Drag  culture  in  Croatia  in  the  1990s  (pg.  25):  

 From  THE  CALVERT  JOURNAL:    Belgrade’s  first  drag  star,  Viva  la  Diva,  was  already  
active  back  in  the  90s,  but  it’s  only  in  the  past  couple  of  years  [2019  article]  that  the  
drag  scene  has  truly  developed  in  Serbia.    Now,  as  in  Zagreb,  there  are  more  than  
two  dozen  working  queens  in  the  city.    “Before,  I  would  do  two  or  three  drag  shows  
a  year,  and  now  there  is  almost  one  a  month  in  Belgrade,”  Andrej  says.    “I  think  the  
fact  that  we  haven’t  had  a  tradition  or  culture  of  drag  in  this  region  is  an  opportunity  
to  develop  something  authentic,  something  new,”  explains  Andrej.      
 

  147  
Dungeons  and  Dragons  in  the  late  1980s  early  1990s  (pg.  25):

 
 
Eastern  European  accent  -­‐  Croatian  (pg.  7):    We  will  be  using  the  Russian  Accent,  for  
Slavic  sounds.    But,  some  specifics:    There  are  only  5  vowels  and  25  consonants.    
They  have  a  very  hard  time  pronouncing  some  sounds  that  are  simple.    They  have  a  
hard  time  learning  when  to  use  definite/indefinite  articles  –  because  they  don’t  have  
them.    They  also  have  a  hard  time  learning  when  to  use  tenses  in  English  –  because  
their  tense  structure  is  somewhat  simpler  than  that  of  English.    Their  pronunciation  
of  the  “ch”  sound  is  a  bit  tougher  than  the  Russian.    They  also  stress  all  words  on  the  
first  syllable.  
 

  148  
Ephialetes  (pg.  39):    
An  ancient  Athenian  politician  and  an  early  leader  of  the  democratic  movement  
there.    He  betrayed  his  homeland,  in  hope  of  receiving  some  kind  of  reward  from  the  
Persians,  by  showing  the  Persian  forces  a  path  around  the  allied  Greek  position  at  
the  pass  of  Thermopylae,  which  helped  them  win  the  Battle  of  Thermopylae.  
 
Erich  Honecker  (pg.  19):    

A  German  politician  who  was  the  General  Secretar  of  the  Socialist  Unity  Party  of  
Germany  (SED).    As  party  leader  he  worked  closely  with  Moscow  (which  had  a  large  

  149  
army  stationed  in  East  Germany).    He  controlled  the  government  of  the  German  
Democratic  Republic  (East  Germany)  from  1971  until  he  was  forced  out  in  the  
weeks  preceding  the  fall  of  the  Berlin  Wall  in  October  1989.    From  1976  onward  he  
was  also  the  country’s  official  head  of  state  as  Chairman  of  the  State  Council  of  the  
German  Democratic  Republic  following  Willi  Stoph’s  relinquishment  of  the  post.    
Honecker’s  political  career  began  in  the  1930s  when  he  became  an  official  in  the  
Communist  Party  of  Germany,  a  position  for  which  he  was  imprisoned  by  the  Nazi  
government  of  Germany.    Following  World  War  II,  he  was  freed  by  the  Soviet  army  
and  relaunched  his  political  activities,  founding  the  youth  organization  the  Free  
German  Youth  in  1946  and  serving  as  the  group’s  chairman  until  1955.    As  the  
Security  Secretary  of  the  Party’s  Central  Committee  in  the  new  East  Germany,  he  
was  the  prime  organizer  of  the  building  of  the  Berlin  Wall  in  1961  and,  in  this  
function,  bore  responsibility  for  the  “order  to  fire”  along  the  Inner  German  border.    
In  1970,  he  initiated  a  political  power  struggle  that  led,  with  support  of  the  Kremlin  
leader  Leonid  Brezhnev,  to  his  replacing  Walter  Ulbrict  as  First  Secretary  of  the  
Central  Committee  and  as  chairman  of  the  state’s  National  Defense  Council.    Under  
his  command,  the  country  adopted  a  programme  of  “consumer  socialism”  and  
moved  toward  the  international  community  by  normalizing  relations  with  West  
Germany  and  also  becoming  a  full  member  of  the  UN,  in  what  is  considered  one  of  
his  greatest  political  successes.    As  Cold  War  tensions  eased  in  the  late  1980s  with  
the  advent  of  perestroika  and  glasnost  –  the  liberal  reforms  introduced  by  Soviet  
leader  Mikhail  Gorbachev  –  Honecker  refused  all  but  cosmetic  changes  to  the  East  
German  political  system.    He  cited  the  continual  hardliner  attitudes  of  Kim  II-­‐sung  
and  Fidel  Castro,  whose  respective  regimes  of  North  Korea  and  Cuba  had  been  
critical  of  reforms.    As  anticommunist  protests  grew,  Honecker  begged  Gorbachev  to  
intervene  with  the  Soviet  army  to  suppress  protests  in  order  to  maintain  communist  
rule  as  Moscow  had  done  with  Czechoslovakia  in  the  Prague  Spring  of  1968  and  
with  the  Hungarian  Revolution  of  1956;  Gorbachev  refused.    Honecker  was  forced  to  
resign  by  his  party  in  October  1989  in  a  bid  to  improve  the  government’s  image  in  
the  eyes  of  the  public.    Honecker’s  eighteen  years  at  the  helm  of  the  German  
Democratic  Republic  came  to  an  end.    The  entire  regime  collapsed  in  the  following  
weeks.    Following  German  reunification  in  1990,  he  sought  asylum  in  the  Chilean  
embassy  in  Moscow  in  1991  but  was  extradited  back  to  Germany  a  year  later  to  
stand  trail  for  his  role  in  the  human  rights  abuses  committed  by  his  East  German  
government.    However,  the  proceedings  were  abandoned  due  to  his  illness  and  he  
was  freed  from  custody  to  travel  to  join  his  family  in  exile  in  Chile,  where  he  died  in  
May  1994  from  liver  cancer.  
 

  150  
Ermine  Stole  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  18):

 
 

  151  
fish  on  his  truck  (pg.  25):  
 
flowing  wig  extension  (pg.  15,  24):

  152  
 
French  cigarettes  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  18):

 
 

  153  
General  Speck  (pg.  25):    
Hermann  Ritter  von  Speck  was  a  German  general  during  World  War  II.    He  was  a  
recipient  of  the  Knight’s  Cross  of  the  Iron  Cross  of  Nazi  Germany.    Speck  was  killed  
by  French  machine  gun  fire  on  15  June  1940  in  Pont-­‐sur-­‐Yonne,  France.    He  was  the  
first  German  general  officer  killed  in  World  War  II.    In  2010,  Jay  Nordlinger  spoke  
with  von  Speck’s  daughter,  who  claimed  that  the  general  deliberately  sought  death  
in  battle:  “According  to  his  daughter,  he  wanted  to  die,  and  arranged  to  die.    He  felt  
he  could  not  break  his  oath  to  the  army  –  he  could  not  desert.    And  his  Catholic  faith  

  154  
prevented  him  from  committing  suicide  –  suicide  straight  out,  you  might  say.    So,  he  
put  himself  in  the  line  of  fire.    In  his  dying  words,  he  did  not  say,  ‘Give  my  love  to  my  
family’,  or  anything  like  that.    He  said,  ‘It  had  to  be  this  way’.  
 
German  Dialect:    From  Jerry  Blunt’s  STAGE  DIALECTS:    A  German  dialect  is  an  
emphatic  speech,  characterized  more  by  the  strength  of  its  vowel  and  consonant  
substitutions  than  by  idiomatic  expressions.    Definiteness  of  utterance  negates  slur  
in  syllable  formation.    The  result  is  that  the  key  sounds  of  the  dialect  are  relatively  
easy  to  detect.    In  most  cases  they  are  also  easy  to  form.    The  same  is  true  of  an  
Austrian  dialect.    The  German  tongue  itself  is  one  specific  branch,  perhaps  the  
principal  one,  of  the  Teutonic  language  group.    Present-­‐day  Dutch,  Danish,  Swedish,  
and  Norwegian  are  also  members  of  that  group.    So  is  English,  although  it  is  the  least  
noticeable  member,  it’s  words  and  sounds  being  the  farthest  removed  of  any  from  
present  German  speech.    Betweent  those  cousin  languages  which  are  located  on  the  
Continent  –  German,  Dutch,  Danish,  Swedish,  Norwegian  –  some  understanding  is  
possible  in  written  and  oral  communication.    Not  so  with  English.    A  study  of  the  
German  language  is  required  before  an  equal  understanding  can  come  to  an  
Englishman  or  an  American.    Consequently,  the  number  of  German  words  of  
transferable  use  to  the  dialectician  is  limited,  causing  the  speaker  to  rely  heavily  on  
the  use  of  key  sounds  in  the  German  dialect.    On  the  other  hand,  the  advantage  to  an  
English  or  American  dialectician  is  that  a  German  dialect  introduces  only  a  few  new  
sounds  –  the  rest  are  native  to  us.    One  of  the  new  sounds  the  vowel  [ɛ̝], has already
been studied as one of the key sounds of Scots, and of the French dialect where it was
heard as [oe:]. Another, the [x], as in loch (lake), is very like its aspirated Scotch cousin.
A third is [ç], ich, also strongly aspirated. These last two have limited use for the
dialectician. For the rest, the majority of the dialect differences fall in the consonant
category. Within the territory of the modern German nation itself – disregarding the
political East-West division – there are the usual dialectical inconsistencies. Some
Germans speak High German, some Low German. The descriptions are geographical,
not social. The term High, a reference to altitude, includes South German areas of
Bavaria and Baden, and some portions of Switzerland and Austria, those which are
located in or on the edge of the Alps. There the dialectician listens almost in vain for the
sound of a back-trilled [r], a sound which, in contrast, is heard often and strongly in the
lower flat areas of North Germany, centering around the city of Hamburg. On the other
hand, some citizens of Berlin claim that only they speak a proper German, to which
statement some non-Berliners have been heard to reply heatedly that there is a question
whether the Berliners really speak German at all. To understand this we only have to
compare the above situation to that of an American Southerner who evinces a special
attitude toward the speech of a northern city, Boston or Brooklyn, for example. In
consequence of the above, the usual twin problems of the dialectician are also present in
this study. First, when listening to primary sources, that is, to German speaking English,
certain key sounds may not be present, causing doubt of the legitimacy of the use of those
key sounds, as in the instance of the lack of a back-trilled [r] in the speech of someone
from Munich. Second, a comment by a German person, one from the Province of Silesia,
might be disturbingly critical of a failure to substitute a [z] for an [s]. For the above kind
of problems, the actor-dialectician has this knowledge to sustain him: that the inclusion

  155  
of a sectional dialect in a national dialect in any non-English speech is an unnecessary
refinement of his work, one that would require a detailed study and practice beyond
legitimate limits. Fortunately, it is never a matter of pertinence that an actor be required,
in his use of a German or French or Italian dialect, to prove to an audience that the
character he portrays comes from Hamburg or Marseille or Naples; no audience has the
knowledge necessary to detect localized differences, nor a desire to do so. Consequently,
in the section that follows, certain arbitrary but legitimate choices between key sounds
will be made. The choices will be explained, after which, in turn, the student is given an
opportunity to choose for himself which practice he will follow. Many Standard English
pronunciations can be heard in the speech of a German talking in English. If the speaker
did not learn his English from another German, the chances are he learned it, because of
geographical proximity, from an educated Englishman. Before World War II the above
explanation was consistently true. And today, among most older German public figures
the precise accents of Oxford or Cambridge are heard repeatedly. This aspect of a
German dialect could be used to advantage in certain instances. On the other hand, the
restriction need not be an extra requirement for a proper German dialect. Since the war,
in those areas where American personnel have been stationed, American pronunciation
and American idiom (“Can’t lube your care today, Bud, all filled up.”) have made their
expected impress.  
 
gigolo  (pg.  30):    a  young  man  paid  or  financially  supported  by  an  older  woman  to  be  
her  escort  or  lover.    1920s  (in  the  sense  of  ‘dancing  partner’):  from  French,  formed  
as  the  masculine  of  gigole  ‘dance  hall  woman’,  from  colloquial  gigue  ‘leg’.  
 
girth  (pg.  12):    the  measurement  around  the  middle  of  something,  especially  a  
person’s  waist.    a  band  attached  to  a  saddle,  used  to  secure  it  on  a  horse  by  being  
fastened  around  its  belly.  surround;  encircle.    Old  Norse  “a  horse’s  girth”.  
 

  156  
Gods  of  the  Nile,  The  (pg.  13)

Hapi  was  the  god  of  the  annual  flooding  of  the  Nile  in  ancient  Egyptian  religion.    The  
flood  deposited  rich  silt  (fertile  soil)  on  the  river’s  banks,  allowing  the  Egyptians  to  
grow  crops.    Hapi  was  greatly  celbrated  among  the  Egyptians.    Some  of  the  titles  of  
Hapi  were  “Lord  of  the  Fish  and  Birds  of  the  Marshes”  and  “Lord  of  the  River  
Bringing  Vegetation”.    Hapi  is  typically  depicted  as  an  androgynous  figure  with  a  
large  belly  and  pendulous  breasts,  wearing  a  loincloth  and  ceremonial  false  beard.    
The  5  main  Egyptian  gods  are  AMUN-­‐RA:  the  Hidden  One,  MUT:  The  Mother  
Goddess,  OSIRIS:    The  King  of  the  Living,  ANUBIS:  The  Divine  Embalmer,  and  RA:  
God  of  the  Sun  and  Radiance.  
 
Gospel  of  Thomas  (pg.  12-­‐14):    A  non-­‐canonical  sayings  gospel.    It  was  discovered  
near  Nag  Hammadi  Egypt,  in  December  1945  among  a  group  of  books  known  as  the  
Nag  Hammadi  library.    Scholars  speculate  that  the  works  were  buried  in  response  to  
a  letter  from  Bishop  Athanasius  declaring  a  strict  canon  of  Christian  scripture.    The  
Coptic-­‐language  text,  the  second  of  seven  contained  in  what  modern-­‐day  scholars  

  157  
have  designated  as  Codex  II,  is  composed  of  114  sayings  attributed  to  Jesus.    Almost  
half  of  these  sayings  resemble  those  found  in  the  Canonical  Gospel,  while  it  is  
speculated  that  the  other  sayings  were  added  from  Gnostic  tradition.    Its  place  of  
origin  may  have  been  Syria,  where  Thomasine  traditions  were  strong.    Selected  
Verses  from  THE  GOSPEL  OF  THOMAS,  in  the  DPS  script:    Jesus  said  to  them,  “When  
you  make  the  two  one,  and  the  inside  like  the  outside  and  the  outside  like  the  inside,  
and  the  above  like  the  below,  and  the  male  and  the  female  into  one  and  the  same,  so  
that  the  male  be  not  male  nor  the  female  female;  and  when  you  make  eyes  in  place  
of  an  eye,  an  hand  in  place  of  a  hand,  a  foot  in  place  of  a  foot,  and  and  image  in  place  
of  an  image;  then  you  will  enter  the  kingdom.”    His  disciples  said  to  him,  “Is  
circumcision  beneficial  or  not?”  Jesus  said  to  them,  “If  it  were  beneficial,  their  father  
would  beget  them  from  their  mother  already  circumcised.    However,  the  true  
circumcision  of  the  spirit  has  proved  entirely  profitable.”    Jesus  said,  “Be  not  be  
anxious  from  morning  until  evening  and  from  evening  until  morning  about  what  you  
will  wear.”    Jesus  said,  “If  you  bring  forth  that  which  is  within  you,  what  you  bring  
forth  will  save  you.    If  you  do  not  bring  forth  what  is  within  you,  what  you  do  not  
bring  forth  will  destroy  you.”  
 
grain  alcohol  (pg.  28):    Purified  form  of  ethyl  alcohol  (ethanol)  made  from  the  
distillation  of  fermented  grain.    The  ethanol  is  produced  via  fermentation  of  sugars  
in  the  grain  by  yeast  prior  to  repeated  distillation  or  rectification.    The  term  “grain  
alcohol”  may  be  used  to  refer  to  any  ethanol  produced  from  grain  or  another  
agricultural  origin  (as  in  beer  or  vodka)  or  it  may  be  reserved  to  describe  alcohol  
that  is  at  least  90%  pure  (e.g.  Everclear).      
 
grift  (pg.  30):    engage  in  petty  or  small-­‐scale  swindling.    a  petty  or  small-­‐scale  
swindle.    1906  underworld  slang,  perhaps  a  corruption  of  graft  (corruption).  
 

  158  
Gummi  Baerchen  (pg.  16):    
Small,  fruit  gum  candies,  similar  to  a  jelly  baby  in  some  English-­‐speaking  countries    
The  gummy  bear  originated  in  Germany,  where  it  is  popular  under  the  name  
Gummibärchen  (little  gum  or  gummy  bear).    Gum  Arabic  was  the  original  base  
ingredient  used  to  produce  the  gummy  bears,  hence  the  name  gum  or  gummy.    Hans  
Riegel,  Sr.,  a  confectioner  from  Bonn,  started  the  Haribo  company  in  1920.    In  1922,  
inspired  by  the  trained  bears  seen  at  street  festivities  and  markets  in  Europe  
through  to  the  19th  century,  he  invented  the  Dancing  Bear  (Tanzbär),  a  small,  
affordable  fruit-­‐flavored  gum  candy  treat  for  children  and  adults  alike,  which  was  
much  larger  in  form  than  its  later  successor,  the  Gold-­‐Bear  (Goldbär).    Even  during  
Weimar  Germany’s  hyperinflation  period  that  wreaked  havoc  on  the  country,  
Haribo’s  fruit-­‐gum  Dancing  Bear  treats  remained  affordably  priced  for  a  mere  1  
Pfennig,  in  pairs,  at  kiosks.    The  success  of  the  Dancing  Bear’s  successor  would  late  
become  Haribo’s  world-­‐famous  Gold-­‐Bears  candy  product  in  1967.  
 
gypped  (pg.  31):  cheat  or  swindle  (someone).    From  NPR:    In  never  thought  about  
the  etymology  of  the  verb  “gypped”  until  the  end  of  college,  when  my  friend,  
lamenting  his  stolen  iPod,  said  the  word  and  immediately  retracted  it.    “Isn’t  that  
offensive?”  he  wondered.    Until  that  moment,  I  had  never  thought  about  it  either.    
What  sparked  our  unease  was  the  sudden  realization  that  “gypped”  was  somehow  
tied  to  “gypsy.”    “Gypsy”  is  commonly  used  to  describe  the  Romani  people.  But  the  
term  carries  many  negative  connotations,  and  its  derivative  carries  even  more:  

  159  
when  somebody  is  “gypped,”  they  are,  according  to  Merriam-­‐Webster,  “defrauded,  
swindled,  cheated.”    According  to  the  OXFORD  ENGLISH  DICTIONARY,  the  first  
known  recorded  definition  of  the  term  “gypped”  dates  back  to  the  1899  Century  
Dictionary,  which  says  that  it  is  “probably  an  abbreviation  of  gypsy,  gipsy,  as  applied  
to  a  sly  unscrupulous  fellow.”    It  also  appears  in  1914,  in  Louis  Jackson  &  C.R.  
Hellyer’s  VOCABULARY  OF  CRIMINAL  SLANG.    The  noun  “gyp”  was  described  as  
“current  in  polite  circles,”  and  “derived  from  the  popular  experience  with  thieving  
Gypsies.”    As  a  verb,  the  term  is  defined  as  “to  flim-­‐flam”  and  to  “cheat  by  means  of  
guile  and  manual  dexterity.”    Proper  usage?    “Gyp  this  boob  with  a  deuce.”    I’m  not  
exactly  sure  what  gyp  this  boob  with  a  deuce  means,  but  it  sounds  like  something  
stuck  between  ribald  and  ridiculous.    To  read  the  rest  of  the  article,  click  here:    
https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/12/30/242429836/why-­‐being-­‐
gypped-­‐hurts-­‐the-­‐roma-­‐more-­‐than-­‐it-­‐hurts-­‐you  
 

Helmut  Kohl  (pg.  19):    A  German  


statesman  who  served  as  Chancellor  of  Germany  from  1982  to  1998  (of  West  
Germany  from  1982  to  1990  and  reunited  Germany  1990-­‐1998)  and  as  the  
chairman  of  the  Christian  Democratic  Union  (CDU)  from  1973  to  1998.    From  1969  
to  1976,  Kohl  was  minister  president  of  the  state  of  Rhineland-­‐Palatinate.    Kohl  
chaired  the  Group  of  Seven  in  1985  and  1992.    In  1998  he  became  honorary  
chairman  of  the  CDU,  resigning  from  the  position  in  2000.    Born  in  1930  in  
Ludwigshafen  to  a  Roman  Catholic  family,  Kohl  joined  the  Christian  Democratic  

  160  
Union  in  1946  at  the  age  of  16.    He  earned  a  PhD  in  history  at  Heidelberg  University  
in  1958  and  worked  as  a  business  executive  before  becoming  a  full-­‐time  politician.    
He  was  elected  as  the  youngest  member  of  the  Parliament  of  Rhineland-­‐Palatinate  in  
1959  and  became  Minister-­‐President  of  his  home  state  in  1969.    Viewed  during  the  
1960s  and  early  1970s  as  a  progressive  within  the  CDU,  he  was  elected  national  
chairman  of  the  party  in  1973.    In  the  1976  federal  election  his  party  performed  
well,  but  the  social-­‐liberal  government  of  social  democrat  Helmut  Schmidt  was  able  
to  remain  in  power,  as  well  as  in  1980,  when  Kohl’s  rival  from  the  Bavarian  sister  
party  CSU,  Franz  Josef  Strauß,  candidated.    After  Schmidt  had  lost  the  support  of  the  
liberal  FDP  in  1982,  Kohl  was  elected  Chancellor  through  a  switch  of  the  FDP,  
forming  a  Christian-­‐liberal  government.    After  he  had  become  party  leader,  Kohl  was  
increasingly  seen  as  a  more  conservative  figure.    As  Chancellor  Kohl  was  strongly  
committed  to  European  integration  and  French-­‐German  cooperation  in  particular;  
he  was  also  a  steadfast  ally  of  the  United  States  and  supported  Reagan’s  more  
aggressive  policies  in  order  to  weaken  the  Soviet  Union.    Kohl’s  16-­‐year  tenure  was  
the  longest  of  any  German  Chancellor  since  Otto  von  Bismark.    He  oversaw  the  end  
of  the  Cold  War  and  the  German  reunification,  for  which  he  is  generally  known  as  
Chancellor  of  Unity.    Together  with  French  President  François  Mitterrand,  Kohl  was  
the  architect  of  the  Maastrict  Treaty,  which  established  the  European  Union  (EU)  
and  the  euro  currency.    Kohl  was  also  a  central  figure  in  the  eastern  enlargement  of  
the  European  Union,  and  his  government  led  the  effort  to  push  for  international  
recognition  of  Croatia,  Slovenia,  and  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  when  the  states  
declared  independence.    He  played  an  instrumental  role  in  solving  the  Bosnian  War.    
Domestically,  Kohl’s  policies  focused  on  economic  reforms  and  later  also  on  the  
process  of  integrating  the  former  East  Germany  into  the  reunited  Germany,  and  he  
moved  the  federal  capital  from  the  “provisional  capital”  Bonn  back  to  Berlin,  
although  he  himself  never  resided  there  because  the  government  offices  were  only  
relocated  in  1999.    Kohl  also  greatly  increased  federal  spending  on  arts  and  culture.    
After  his  chancellorship,  Kohl’s  reputation  suffered  domestically  because  of  his  role  
in  the  CDU  donations  scandal  and  he  had  to  resign  from  his  honorary  chairmanship  
of  the  CDU  after  little  more  than  a  year  in  January  2000,  but  he  was  partly  
rehabilitated  in  later  years.    The  later  Chancellor  Angela  Merkel  started  her  political  
career  as  Kohl’s  protégée.    Kohl  was  described  as  “the  greatest  European  leader  of  
the  second  half  of  the  20th  century”  by  U.S.  Presidents  George  H.W.  Bush  and  Bill  
Clinton.    Kohl  received  the  Charlemagne  Prize  in  1988  with  François  Mitterrand;  in  
1998  Kohl  became  the  second  person  to  be  named  Honorary  Citizen  of  Europe  by  
the  European  heads  of  state  or  government.    Following  his  death,  Kohl  was  honored  
with  the  first  ever  European  Act  of  State  in  Strasbourg.      
 

  161  
Hephaestus  (pg.  41):    

The  Greek  god  of  blacksmiths,  metalworking,  carpenters,  craftsmen,  artisans,  


sculptors,  metallurgy,  fire,  and  volcanoes.    Hephaestus’  Roman  equivalent  is  Vulcan.    
In  Greek  mythology,  Hephaestus  was  either  the  son  of  Zeus  and  Hera  or  he  was  
Hera’s  parthenogenous  child.    He  was  cast  off  Mount  Olympus,  by  his  mother  
because  of  his  deformity  or,  in  another  account,  by  Zeus  for  protecting  Hera  from  his  

  162  
advances.    As  a  smithing  god,  Hephaestus  made  all  the  weapons  of  the  gods  in  
Olympus.    He  served  as  the  blacksmith  of  the  gods,  and  was  worshipped  in  the  
manufacturing  and  industrial  centers  of  Greece,  particularly  Athens.    The  cult  of  
Hephaestus  was  based  in  Lemnos.    Hephaestus’  symbols  are  a  smith’s  hammer,  
anvil,  and  a  pair  of  tongs.      
 

Homer  (pg.  39):    


Legendary  author  of  the  ILIAD  and  the  ODYSSEY,  two  epic  poems  that  are  the  
central  works  of  ancient  Greek  literature.    The  ILLIAD  is  set  during  the  Trojan  War,  
the  ten-­‐year  siege  of  the  city  of  Troy  by  a  coalition  of  Greek  kingdoms.    It  focuses  on  
a  quarrel  between  King  Agamemnon  and  the  warrior  Achilles  lasting  a  few  weeks  
during  the  last  year  of  the  war.    The  ODYSSEY  focuses  on  the  ten-­‐year  journey  home  
of  Odysseus,  king  of  Ithaca,  after  the  fall  of  Troy.    Many  accounts  of  Homer’s  life  
circulated  in  classical  antiquity,  the  most  widespread  being  that  he  was  a  blind  bard  

  163  
from  Ionia,  a  region  of  central  coastal  Anatolia  in  present-­‐day  Turkey.  Modern  
scholars  consider  these  accounts  legendary.    The  Homeric  Question  –  concerning  by  
whom,  when,  where  and  under  what  circumstance  the  ILIAD  and  ODYSSEY  were  
composed  –  continues  to  be  debated.    Broadly  speaking,  modern  scholarly  opinion  
falls  into  two  groups.    One  holds  that  most  of  the  ILIAD  and  (according  to  some)  the  
ODYSSEY  are  the  works  of  a  single  poet  of  genius.    The  other  considers  the  Homeric  
poems  to  be  the  result  of  a  process  of  working  and  reworking  by  many  contributors,  
and  that  “Homer”  is  best  seen  as  a  label  for  an  entire  tradition.    It  is  generally  
accepted  that  the  poems  were  composed  at  some  point  around  the  late  eighth  or  
early  seventh  century  BC.    The  poems  are  in  Homeric  Greek,  also  known  as  Epic  
Greek,  a  literary  language  which  shows  a  mixture  of  features  of  the  Ionic  and  Aeolic  
dialects  from  different  centuries;  the  predominant  influence  is  Eastern  Ionic.    Most  
researchers  believe  that  the  poems  were  originally  transmitted  orally.    From  
antiquity  until  the  present  day,  the  influence  of  the  Homeric  epics  on  Western  
civilization  has  been  great,  inspiring  many  of  its  most  famous  works  of  literature,  
music,  art  and  film.    The  Homeric  epics  were  the  greatest  influence  on  ancient  Greek  
culture  and  education;  to  Plato,  Homer  was  simply  the  one  who  “has  taught  Greece”.  
 
Howard  Stern  (pg.  10):    

American  radio  and  television  personality,  producer,  author,  actor,  and  


photographer.    He  is  best  known  for  his  radio  show  THE  HOWARD  STERN  SHOW,  
which  gained  popularity  when  it  was  nationally  syndicated  on  terrestrial  radio  from  
1986  to  2005.    Stern  has  broadcast  on  Sirius  XM  Satellite  Radio  since  2006.    Stern  
landed  his  first  radio  jobs  while  at  Boston  University.    From  1976  to  1982,  Stern  
developed  his  on-­‐air  personality  through  morning  positions  at  WRNW  in  Briarcliff  
Manor,  New  York,  WCCC  in  Hartford,  Connecticut,  WWWW  in  Detroit,  Michigan,  and  
WWDC  in  Washington  D.C.    Stern  worked  afternoons  at  WNBC  in  New  York  City  
from  1982  until  his  firing  in  1985.    In  1985,  he  began  a  20-­‐year  run  at  WXRK  in  New  

  164  
York  City;  his  morning  show  entered  syndication  in  1986  and  aired  in  60  markets  
and  attracted  20  million  listeners  at  its  peak.    Stern  won  numerous  industry  awards,  
including  Billboard’s  Nationally  Syndicated  Air  Personality  of  the  Year  eight  
consecutive  times,  and  is  the  first  to  have  the  number  one  morning  show  in  New  
York  City  and  Los  Angeles  simultaneously.    He  became  the  most  fined  radio  host  
when  the  Federal  Communications  Commission  issued  fines  totaling  $2.5  million  to  
station  owners  for  content  it  deemed  indecent.  Stern  became  one  of  the  highest  paid  
radio  figures  after  signing  a  five-­‐year  deal  with  Sirius  in  2004  worth  $500  million.    
In  recent  years,  Stern’s  photography  has  been  featured  in  HAMPTONS  and  WHIRL  
magazines.    From  2012  to  2015,  he  served  as  a  judge  on  AMERICA’S  GOT  TALENT.    
Stern  has  described  himself  as  the  “King  of  All  Media”  since  1992  for  his  successes  
outside  radio.    He  hosted  and  produced  numerous  late  night  television  shows,  pay-­‐
per-­‐view  events,  and  home  videos.    His  two  books  PRIVATE  PARTS  (1993)  and  MISS  
AMERICA  (1995),  entered  THE  NEW  YORK  TIMES  BEST  SELLER  list  at  number  one  
and  sold  over  one  million  copies.    The  former  was  made  into  a  biographical  comedy  
film  in  1997  that  had  Stern  and  his  radio  show  staff  star  as  themselves.    It  topped  
the  US  box  office  in  its  opening  week  and  grossed  $41.2  million  domestically.    Stern  
performs  on  its  soundtrack,  which  charted  the  Billboard  200  at  number  one  and  was  
certified  platinum  for  one  million  copies  sold.    Stern’s  third  book,  HOWARD  STERN  
COMES  AGAIN,  was  released  in  2019.  
 
humility  (pg.  39):    a  modest  or  low  view  of  one’s  own  importance;  humbleness.    
Middle  English:  from  Old  French  humilite,  from  Latin  humilitas,  from  humilis.      
 
Hypoallergenic  dogs  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  18):    The  studies  about  hypoallergenic  
dogs  started  to  come  out  in  the  1980s.    Dogs  suggested  included  dogs  that  don’t  
shed  as  much.    There  is  no  such  thing  as  a  hypoallergenic  dog.    From  
thehappypuppy.com:    …since  the  1980’s  we’ve  seen  a  surge  of  people  claiming  to  
have  the  answer:  hypoallergenic  dogs.    Over  sixty  breeds  of  dog  have  been  included  
on  one  list  of  hypoallergenic  dogs  or  another.    The  American  Kennel  Club  have  their  
own  list,  ranging  from  small  hypoallergenic  dogs  (they  suggest  a  Chinese  Crested  
dog,  or  a  Maltese),  To  large  hypoallergenic  dogs  (a  Giant  Schnauzer  or  an  Afghan  
Hound)  hairless  dogs  like  the  Xoloitzcuintli,  and  lots  of  Terriers  and  Poodles  in  
between.      
 
idiom  (pg.  11):    a  group  of  words  established  by  usage  as  having  a  meaning  not  
deducible  from  those  of  the  individual  words  (e.g.,  rain  cats  and  dogs,  see  the  light).    
a  characteristic  mode  of  expression  in  music  or  art.    late  16th  century:  from  French  
idiome,  or  via  late  Latin  from  Greek  idioma  ‘private  property,  peculiar  phraseology’,  
from  idiousthai  ‘make  one’s  own’,  from  idios  ‘own,  private’.  
 
indenture  (pg.  40):    a  legal  agreement,  contract,  or  document.    bind  (someone)  by  an  
indenture  as  an  apprentice  or  laborer.    a  formal  list,  certificate,  or  inventory.    an  
agreement  binding  an  apprentice  to  a  master.    the  fact  of  being  bound  to  serve  by  an  
agreement  of  indenture.    late  Middle  English  endenture,  via  Anglo-­‐Norman  French  

  165  
from  medieval  Latin  indentura,  from  indentatus,  past  participle  of  indentare.    ‘give  a  
zigzag  outline  to,  divide  by  a  zigzag  line’.  
 
insolent  (pg.  39):    showing  a  rude  and  arrogant  lack  of  respect.    late  Middle  English  
(also  in  the  sense  ‘extravagant,  going  beyond  acceptable  limits’):  from  Latin  insolent  
‘immoderate,  unaccustomed,  arrogant’,  from  in-­‐  ‘not’  +  solent  –  ‘being  accustomed’.  
 
Jacek  (pg.  24):    

Bass  
player  in  The  Angry  Inch,  originally  played  by  the  Bass  player  from  Cheater,  Scott  
Bilbrey.    The  name  is  usually  Polish  of  Greek  origin  coming  from  Hyacinth,  through  
the  archaic  form  of  Jacenty.    Pronounced  YAH-­‐tsek.    The  name  is  also  a  popular  
Polish  saint  (born  c.  1185)  who  is  known  for  bringing  the  Dominican  religious  order  
to  Poland.    Apollo  named  the  flower  that  grew  from  Hyakinthos’s  blood  hyacinth.    
Symbolizing  sport  or  play  in  the  language  of  flowers,  hyacinth  represent  constancy,  
while  blue  hyacinth  expresses  sincerity.  
 

  166  
J.C.  Penny  guitar  in  the  late  1980s  early  1990s  (pg.  25):

 
 

  167  
Jelly  Roll  (pg.  17):  
 
Jove  (pg.  14):    

God  
of  the  sky  and  thunder  and  king  of  the  gods  in  Ancient  Roman  religion  and  
mythology.    Jupiter/Jove  was  the  chief  deity  of  Roman  state  religion  and  mythology  
throughout  the  Republican  and  Imperial  eras,  until  Christianity  became  the  
dominant  religion  of  the  Empire.    In  Roman  mythology,  he  negotiates  with  Numa  
Pompilius,  the  second  king  of  Rome,  to  establish  principles  of  Roman  religion  such  
as  offering,  or  sacrifice.    Jupiter/Jove  is  usually  thought  to  have  originated  as  an  
aerial  god.    His  identifying  implement  is  the  thunderbolt  and  his  primary  sacred  
animal  is  the  eagle,  which  held  precedence  over  other  birds  in  the  taking  of  auspices  
and  became  one  of  the  most  common  symbols  of  the  Roman  army.    The  two  
emblems  were  often  combined  to  represent  the  god  in  the  form  of  an  eagle  holding  
in  its  claws  a  thunderbolt,  frequently  seen  on  Greek  and  Roman  coins.    As  the  sky-­‐
god,  he  was  a  divine  witness  to  oaths,  the  sacred  trust  on  which  justice  and  good  
government  depend.    Many  of  his  functions  were  focused  on  the  Capitoline  Hill,  
where  the  citadel  was  located.    In  the  Capitoline  Triad,  he  was  the  central  guardian  

  168  
of  the  state  with  Juno  and  Minerva.    His  sacred  tree  was  the  oak.    The  Romans  
regarded  Jupiter  as  the  equivalent  of  the  Greek  Zeus,  and  in  Latin  literature  and  
Roman  art,  the  myths  and  iconography  of  Zeus  are  adapted  under  the  name  
Iuppiter.    In  the  Greek-­‐influenced  tradition,  Jupiter/Jove  was  the  brother  of  Neptune  
and  Pluto,  the  Roman  equivalents  of  Poseidon  and  Hades  respectively.    Each  
presided  over  one  of  the  three  realms  of  the  universe:    sky,  the  waters,  and  the  
underworld.    The  Italic  Diespiter  was  also  the  sky  god  who  manifested  himself  in  the  
daylight,  usually  identified  with  Jupiter.    Tinia  is  usually  regarded  as  his  Etruscan  
counterpart.  
 
John  (pg.  31):    a  toilet.    a  prostitute's  client.    early  20th  century  (in  john  –  sense  2)  
from  the  given  name  John,  used  from  late  Middle  English  as  a  form  of  address  to  a  
man,  or  to  denote  various  occupations,  including  that  of  priest  (late  Middle  English)  
and  policeman  (mid  17  century).  
 
Junction  City,  KS  (pg.  22):

   

  169  
A  city  in  and  the  county  seat  of  Geary  County,  Kansas,  United  States.    As  of  the  2010  
census,  the  city  population  was  23,353.    Fort  Riley,  a  major  U.S.  Army  post,  is  nearby.    
Junction  City  is  so  named  from  its  position  at  the  confluence  of  the  Smoky  Hill  and  
Republican  rivers.    In  1854,  Andrew  J.  Mead  of  New  York  of  the  Cincinnati-­‐
Manhattan  Company,  Free  Staters  connected  to  the  Massachusetts  Emigrant  Aid  
Company  planned  a  community  there  called  Manhattan  (there  was  also  a  discussion  
to  call  it  New  Cincinnati).    When  the  steamship  Hartford  delivering  the  immigrants  
could  not  reach  the  community  because  of  low  water  on  the  Kansas  River,  the  Free  
Staters  settled  20  miles  east  in  what  today  is  Manhattan,  Kansas.    The  community  
was  renamed  Millard  City  for  Captain  Millard  of  the  Hartford  on  October  3,  1855.    It  
was  renamed  briefly  Humboldt  in  1857  by  local  farmers  and  renamed  again  later  
that  year  to  Junction  City.    It  was  formally  incorporated  in  1859.    In  1923,  John  R.  
Brinkley  established  Radio  Station  KFKB  (which  stood  for  “Kansas  First,  Kansas  
Best”)  using  a  1  kW  transmitter.    It  is  one  of  the  first  –  if  not  the  very  first  –  radio  
stations  in  Kansas.    Brinkley  used  the  station  to  espouse  his  belief  that  goat  testicles  
could  be  implanted  in  men  to  enhance  their  virility.    Among  Junction  City’s  residents  
is  film  director  Kevin  Wilmott,  whose  movies,  including  NINTH  STREET,  are  set  in  
Junction  City.    Ninth  Street  specifically  refers  to  a  bawdy  area  of  the  community  that  
was  frequented  by  Fort  Riley  soldiers  in  the  1960s.    Timothy  McVeigh  rented  the  
Ryder  truck  he  used  in  the  Oklahoma  City  bombing  from  an  auto  body  shop  in  
Junction  City.    The  makeup  of  the  city  was  60.7%  White,  22.3%  Black,  0.9%  Native  
American,  3.9%  Asian,  0.9%  Pacific  Islander,  4.0%  from  other  races,  and  7.3%  from  
two  or  more  races.    Hispanic  and  Latino  of  any  race  were  13.0%  of  the  population.    
Fort  Riley’s  population  is  7,761.    Fort  Riley  is  named  in  honor  of  Major  General  
Bennet  C.  Riley,  who  led  the  first  military  escort  along  the  Santa  Fe  Trail.    The  fort  
was  established  in  1853  as  a  military  post  to  protect  the  movement  of  people  and  
trade  over  the  Oregon,  California,  and  Santa  Fe  trails.    In  the  years  after  the  Civil  
War,  Fort  Riley  served  as  a  major  United  States  Cavalry  post  and  school  for  cavalry  

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tactics  and  practice.    The  post  was  a  base  for  skirmishes  with  Native  Americans  after  
the  Civil  War  ended  in  1865,  during  which  time  George  A.  Custer  was  stationed  at  
the  fort.    In  1887,  Fort  Riley  became  the  site  of  the  United  States  Cavalry  School.    The  
famous  all-­‐black  9th  and  10th  Cavalry  Regiments,  the  soldiers  of  which  were  called  
“Buffalo  Soldiers”,  were  stationed  at  Fort  Riley  at  various  times  in  the  19th  and  early  
20th  centuries.    During  World  War  I,  the  fort  was  home  to  50,000  soldiers,  and  it  
sometimes  identified  as  ground  zero  for  the  1918  Spanish  flu  pandemic,  which  its  
soldiers  were  said  to  have  spread  all  over  the  world.    Since  the  end  of  World  War  II,  
various  infantry  divisions  have  been  assigned  there.    Most  notably,  from  1955  to  
1996  the  post  was  home  to  the  famed  1st  Infantry  Division,  also  called  “Big  Red  One”.    
Between  1999-­‐2006  the  post  was  headquarters  to  the  24th  Infantry  Division  
(Mechanized)  and  known  as  “America’s  Warfighting  Center”.    In  August  2006,  the  
Big  Red  One  relocated  its  headquarters  to  Fort  Riley  from  Leighton  Barracks,  
Germany.      
 
Korean  sergeants’  wives  late  1980s  early  1990s  (pg.  26):    

From  Sang  Jo  Kim’s  PhD  dissertation  “We  Shouldn’t  Be  Forgotten”:  Korean  Military  
Brides  and  Koreans  in  Kansas:    The  Korean  diaspora  in  Kansas  is  unique  in  a  

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number  of  respects.    Most  importantly,  Korean  women  have  dominated  the  makeup  
of  migrants  by  gender  and  continue  to  play  the  major  role  in  this  expanding  
diaspora.    Not  only  hightly  gendered,  the  Korean  diaspora  in  Kansas  is  also  
relatively  young  and  scattered  across  the  state.    The  dynamics  within  the  Korean  
diaspora  where  race,  class,  gender,  and  certain  Korean  attitudes  and  behaviors  have  
created  new  Korean/American  identities,  which  are  never  complete  but  still  in  
production  over  time.    Since  the  1965  Immigration  Act,  the  United  States  has  
witnessed  massive  migration  of  Asian  immigrants.    From  1965  on,  a  majority  of  the  
Korean  immigrants  now  living  in  the  United  States  came  to  this  country.    While  the  
impact  of  this  Korean  migration  to  the  United  States  has  been  examined  and  
analyzed  in  urban  areas  on  the  East  and  West  Coasts,  such  as  Los  Angeles  and  New  
York,  the  impact  of  “new”  immigration,  especially  Korean  immigrants  in  the  
Midwest,  has  rarely  been  explored,  despite  the  fact  that  the  2000  Census  
demonstrates  a  significant  number  of  Korean  migrants  who  came  to  the  region.    The  
third  wave  [of  immigration]  indicates  the  period  from  the  late  1960s  through  the  
1980s.    This  wave  occurred  after  the  passage  of  the  1965  Immigration  and  
Nationality  Act,  during  the  prime  of  Korean’s  glorification  of  the  “American  Dream”  
of  wealth  and  social  mobility.    Most  Korean  female  immigrants  in  the  second  wave  of  
Korean  immigration  came  from  lower  socio-­‐economic  levels  in  Korea  and  were  
married  to  American  servicemen.    Although  not  a  single  study  was  produced  to  
validate  this  point,  Sue-­‐Jean  Cho  (2008)  asserts  that  most  Korean  women  who  were  
married  to  American  servicemen  during  and  following  the  Korean  War  were  
prostitutes  and  “barmaids.”    Because  of  their  socioeconomic  status,  these  women  
had  very  limited  opportunities  for  education  in  Korea,  so  they  were  not  prepared  to  
been  par  with  people  for  the  outside  world.  Most  of  these  women  came  from  Korean  
traditional  rural  areas  were  there  were  few  economic  developments  and  
opportunities,  so  they  tried  to  find  jobs  in  larger  cities  such  as  in  factories  and  small  
businesses.    Frustrated  by  their  search  for  jobs  and  because  of  their  poorly  educated  
backgrounds,  they  eventually  met  American  servicemen  who  hoped  to  get  comfort  
and  companionship  from  these  women  in  a  foreign  country.    In  turn,  these  Korean  
women  thought  of  marriage  to  those  American  servicemen  as  an  alternative  and  an  
excellent  way  out  of  their  unstable  lives.    A  social  work  related  study  on  Korean  
woman-­‐American  GI  marriage  puts  these  women  at  the  bottom  of  the  invisible  
social  hierarchy.    For  instance,  Galbraith  and  Barnard  suggests  that  KMBs  “appear  to  
be  loners,  they  are  dependent  upon  their  associates  for  direction  and  control  of  their  
life.    KMBs  may  simply  be  socialized  to  tolerate  domination  from  males  and  some  
other  females,  while  being  something  of  passive/aggressive;  materialism,  envy,  
jealousy,  competitiveness,  withdrawal,  etc.    An  intermarried  Korean  woman  is  
suspicious  of  affection;  she  is  considered  dangerous.    She  is,  by  nature,  “a  pessimist,  
in  order  to  be  protected  from  being  hurt.”    There  are  push  factors  that  drove  many  
Korean  women  to  migrate  through  exogamy  to  American  servicemen  because  of  
their  socio-­‐economic  needs.    “Economic  disparity,  resource  scarcity,  political  
instability,  war  threat,  traditional  rigidity,  extended  family  pressures  and  western  
influences”  push  many  individuals  to  move  to  the  advanced  nations.    He  adds  that  
the  prolonged  presence  of  American  forces  throughout  South  Korea  simulated  a  
larger  number  of  opportunity-­‐seeking  individuals,  especially  women  intent  on  

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marrying  American  servicemen  to  come  to  the  United  States  and  realize  their  
American  Dream.    [Many  of  these  women]  are  the  product[s]  of  their  generation,  the  
one  that  had  endured  colonization,  the  war,  and  devastated  post-­‐war  economy  in  a  
society  where  rigid  gender  norms  were  still  severely  imposed  on  women.    [Many  
were  born]  at  the  peak  of  the  Japanese  colonial  period,  during  which  time  [they  
were]  not  allowed  to  speak  and  learn  Korean  in  school  or  in  public.    When  [these  
women]  turned  17,  the  Korean  War  broke  out.    [Many]  married  servicemen  in  1958,  
[and  moved  with  them]  to  the  U.S.  in  1960,  and  permanently  settled  down  in  
Junction  City,  KS,  in  1964ish.    The  entire  dissertation  is  located  at  this  link:    
https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/10252/Kim_ku_0099D_12
209_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y  
 

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Krystal  Nacht  (pg.  25):    

(German:  “Crystal  Night”),  also  called  Night  of  Broken  Glass  or  November  Pogroms,  
the  night  of  November  9-­‐10,  1938,  when  German  Nazis  attacked  Jewish  persons  and  
property.    The  name  Kristallnacht  referes  ironically  to  the  litter  of  broken  glass  left  
in  the  streets  after  these  pogroms.      
 
Krzyzhtof  (pg.  24):    Originally  played  by  Chris  Weilding  from  Stephen  Trask’s  band  
Cheater.    Means  “Christ-­‐bearer”.    A  Polish  given  name,  equivalent  to  English  
Christopher.    The  name  became  popular  in  the  15th  century.    Its  diminutive  forms  
include  Krzys,  Krzysiek,  and  Krzysio.    Individuals  named  Krzysztof  may  choose  to  
celebrate  their  name  day  on  March  15,  July  25,  March  2,  May  21,  August  20  or  
October  31.      

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Lacedaemonians  (pg.  41):  

 A  native  or  inhabitant  of  Lacedaemon,  an  area  of  ancient  Greece  comprising  the  city  
of  Sparta  and  its  surroundings.      
 
Leute,  wir  improvisieren  jetzt!    Bleibt  Dran!  (pg.  25):    Guys,  we’re  improvising  now!    
Stay  tuned!  
 

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Licorice  Drops  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  17):

 
 
lispyboy  (pg.  30):    a  epithet  thrown  towards  homosexual  or  effeminate  men.    The  
gay  lisp  is  one  manner  of  speech  stereotypically  associated  with  gay  speakers  of  
American  English,  and  perhaps  other  dialects  or  languages.    It  involves  a  marked  
pronunciation  of  sibilant  consonants  (particularly  /s/  and  /z/).  
 
lucre  (pg.  16):  [lu:ker]  money,  especially  when  regarded  as  sordid  or  distasteful  or  
gained  in  a  dishonorable  way.    late  Middle  English:  form  French  lucre  or  Latin  
lucrum  (reward);  the  phrase  filthy  lucre  is  with  biblical  allusion.  
 
Lillian  Vernon  Catalogue  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  18):

 
 

  176  
Marshmallow  Foam  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  19):  
 

  177  
Maybelline  in  the  1990s  (pg.  30):    

  178  
 

  179  
Meat  Packing  district  /  MePa  (pg.  15):    

In  the  late  1800s,  New  York  decided  to  name  two  acres  of  lower  Manhattan’s  west  
side  after  General  Peter  Gansevoort.    This  area  became  a  commercial  district  known  
as  Gansevoort  Market.    By  1900,  the  market  would  boast  more  than  250  
slaughterhouses  and  meatpacking  plants.    It  is  a  neighborhood  that  runs  roughly  
from  West  14th  Street  south  to  Gansevoort  Street,  and  from  the  Hudson  River  east  to  
Hudson  Street.    In  the  1980s,  as  the  industrial  activities  in  the  area  continued  their  
downturn,  it  became  known  as  a  center  for  drug  dealing  and  prostitution,  
particularly  involving  transsexuals.    Concurrent  with  the  rise  in  illicit  sexual  activity,  
the  sparsely  populated  industrial  area  became  the  focus  of  the  city’s  burgeoning  
BDSM  (bondage,  discipline,  dominance  and  submission,  and  sadomasochism)  
subculture;  over  a  dozen  sex  clubs  –  including  such  notable  ones  as  The  Anvil,  The  
Manhole,  the  Mineshaft,  and  the  heterosexual-­‐friendly  Hellfire  Club  –  flourished  in  
the  area.    Many  of  these  establishments  were  under  the  direct  control  of  the  Mafia  or  
subject  to  NYPD  protection  rackets.    In  1985  The  Mineshaft  was  forcibly  shuttered  
by  the  city  at  the  height  of  AIDS  prevention.    Beginning  in  the  late  1990s,  the  
Meatpacking  District  went  through  a  transformation.    High-­‐end  boutiques  catering  
to  young  professionals  and  hipsters  opened,  including  Diane  von  Fürstenberg,  
Christian  Louboutin,  Alexander  McQueen,  Stella  McCartney,  Barbour,  Rubin  &  
Chapelle,  Theory,  Ed  Hardy,  Puma,  Moschino,  ADAM  by  Adam  Lippes,  and  an  Apple  
Store;  restaurants  such  as  Pastis  –  which  closed  in  2014  –  and  5  Ninth;  and  
nightclubs  such  as  Tenjune.    In  2004,  NEW  YORK  MAGAZINE  called  the  Meatpacking  
District  “New  York’s  most  fashionable  neighborhood”.    A  catalyst  for  even  greater  
transformation  of  the  area  was  the  opening  in  June  2009  of  the  first  segment  of  the  
High  Line  linear  park.    A  former  elevated  freight  railroad  built  under  the  aegis  of  

  180  
Robert  Moses,  it  opened  to  great  reviews  in  the  District  (and  in  Chelsea  to  the  north)  
as  a  greenway  modeled  after  Paris’s  Promenade  Plantée.  Thirteen  months  earlier,  
the  Whitney  Museum  of  American  Art  had  announced  that  it  would  build  a  second,  
Renzo  Piano-­‐designed  home  at  99  Gansevoort  Street,  just  west  of  Washington  Street  
and  adjacent  to  the  southernmost  entrance  to  the  High  Line;  and  on  May  1,  2015,  the  
museum  opened  at  this  site.    These  were  turning  points  in  the  changes  experienced  
by  the  neighborhood  over  the  first  two  decades  of  the  21st  century,  transforming  it  
from  a  gritty  manufacturing  district  into  a  bustling  high-­‐end  retail,  dining,  and  
residential  area,  as  documented  by  photographer  Brian  Rose  in  his  2014  book  
METAMORPHOSIS.      
 
Mick  Jagger’s  backup  singer  (pg.  29):  

 Merry  Clayton  is  an  American  soul  and  gospel  singer  and  an  actress.    She  provided  a  
number  of  backing  vocal  tracks  for  major  performing  artists  in  the  1960s,  most  
notably  in  her  duet  with  Mick  Jagger  on  the  Rolling  Stones’  song  “Gimme  Shelter”.    
Clayton  is  featured  in  20  FEET  FROM  STARDOM,  the  Oscar-­‐winning  documentary  
about  background  singers  and  their  contributions  to  the  music  industry.    In  2013,  
she  released  THE  BEST  OF  MERRY  CLAYTON,  a  compilation  of  her  favorite  song.      

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Milky  Ways  in  late  1980s  (pg.  17):

 
 
muskrat  love  (pg.  11):    A  soft  rock  song  written  by  Willis  Alan  Ramsey.  The  song  
depicts  a  romantic  liason  between  two  anthropomorphic  muskrats  named  Susie  and  
Sam.    It  was  first  recorded  in  1972  by  Ramsey  himself  for  his  sole  album  release  
WILLIS  ALAN  RAMSEY.    The  song  was  originally  titled  “Muskrat  Candlelight”  
referencing  the  song’s  opening  lyric.    A  1973  cover  version  by  the  rock  band  
America  –  retitled  “Muskat  Love”  for  the  lyrics  that  close  the  chorus  –  was  a  minor  
hit  reaching  number  67  on  the  Billboard  Hot  100  chart.    In  1976,  a  cover  by  pop  
music  Captain  &  Tennille  resulted  in  the  song’s  highest  profile,  peaking  at  number  
four  on  the  Hot  100  chart.    It  also  reached  number  two  on  the  Cash  Box  chart,  which  
ranked  it  a  the  30th  biggest  hit  of  1976.  
 
Nail  Color  (pg.  29)  
• Harlem  Spice:  probably  a  brown-­‐ish  color  –  alluding  to  skin  color  
• Dusty  Menses:  probably  a  pink  color  –  alluding,  again,  to  skin  color  
 
Nancy  (pg.  30):    an  effeminate  or  homosexual  man.    late  19th  century:  pet  form  of  the  
given  name  Ann.    A  post-­‐war  term  for  a  homosexual  male.    It  is  a  softer  word  than  
faggot,  queer,  or  dick-­‐smoker.    “Nancy-­‐boy”  is  synonymous  with  “that  way,”  
meaning  light-­‐in-­‐the-­‐loafers,  but  harmless  and  not  at  all  threatening  or  predatory.  
 

  182  
Necco  Wafers  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  17):

 
 
New  York  Post  newspaper  cover  (pg.  9  projection  reference):  
 
November  9,  1988  (pg.  22):    “Prince  of  Central  Park”  opens  at  Belasco  Theater  NYC  
for  4  performances.    MLB  All-­‐Star  team  beat  Japan  8-­‐2  in  Nishinomya,  (Game  4  of  7).  
 

  183  
November  9,  1989  (pg.  22):  

The  Cold  War  begins  to  thaw  across  Eastern  Europe,  the  spokesman  for  Berlin’s  
Communist  Party  announced  a  change  in  his  city’s  relations  with  the  West.    Soon  the  
wall  was  gone  and  Berlin  as  united  for  first  time  since  1945.  
 

  184  
one  blue  and  one  pink  –  lenses  in  the  1990s  (pg.  29):

 
 

  185  
Osiris  (pg.  13):  Egyptian  god  of  fertility,  
alcohol,  agriculture,  the  afterlife,  the  dead,  resurrection,  life,  and  vegetation.    He  was  
classically  depicted  as  a  green-­‐skinned  deity  with  a  pharaoh’s  beard,  partially  
mummy-­‐wrapped  at  the  legs,  wearing  a  distinctive  atef  crown,  and  holding  a  
symbolic  crook  and  flail.    He  was  one  of  the  first  to  be  associated  with  the  mummy  
wrap.    When  his  brother,  Set,  cut  him  up  into  pieces  after  killing  him,  Isis,  his  wife,  
found  all  the  pieces  and  wrapped  his  body  up.    Osiris  was  at  times  considered  the  
eldest  son  of  the  god  Geb  and  the  sky  goddess  Nut,  as  well  as  being  brother  and  
husband  of  Isis,  with  Horus  being  considered  his  posthumously  begotten  son.    He  
was  also  associated  with  the  epithet  Khenti-­‐Amenitiu,  meaning  “Foremost  of  the  
Westerners”,  a  reference  to  the  kingship  in  the  land  of  the  dead.    As  ruler  of  the  
dead,  Osiris  was  also  sometimes  called  “king  of  the  living”:  ancient  Egyptians  
considered  the  blessed  dead  “the  living  ones”.    Through  syncretism  with  lah,  he  is  
also  the  god  of  the  Moon.    Osiris  was  the  judge  of  the  dead  and  the  underworld  
agency  that  granted  all  life,  including  sprouting  vegetation  and  the  fertile  flooding  of  
the  Nile  River.    He  was  described  as  “He  Who  is  Permanently  Benign  and  Youthful”  
and  the  “Lord  of  Silence”.    The  Kings  of  Egypt  were  associated  with  Osiris  in  death  –  
as  Osiris  rose  from  the  dead  so  they  would  be  in  union  with  him,  and  inherit  eternal  
life  through  a  process  of  imitative  magic.    Through  the  hope  of  new  life  after  death,  
Osiris  began  to  be  associated  with  the  cycles  observed  in  nature,  in  particular  
vegetation  and  the  annual  flooding  of  the  Nile,  through  his  links  with  the  heliacal  
rising  of  Orion  and  Sirius  at  the  start  of  the  new  year.    Osiris  was  widely  worshipped  

  186  
until  the  decline  of  ancient  Egyptian  religion  during  the  rise  of  Christianity  in  the  
Roman  Empire.      
 
Otys  (pg.  39):    

Otus  and  Ephialtes  –  Sons  of  Iphimedia,  wife  of  Aloeus,  by  Poseidon,  whom  she  
induced  to  make  her  pregnant  by  going  to  the  seashore  and  disporting  herself  in  the  
surf  or  scooping  seawater  into  her  bosom.    From  Aloeus  they  received  the  
patronymic,  the  Aloadae.    They  were  strong  and  aggressive  giants,  growing  by  nine  
fingers  every  month  nine  fathoms  tall  at  age  nine,  and  only  outshone  in  beauty  by  
Orion.    The  brothers  wanted  to  storm  Mt.  Olympus  and  gain  Artemis  for  Otus  and  
Hera  for  Ephialtes.    Their  plan,  or  construction,  of  a  pile  of  mountains  atop  which  
they  would  confront  the  gods  is  described  differently  according  to  the  author  
(including  Homer,  Virgil,  and  Ovid),  and  occasionally  changed  by  translators.    Mount  
Olympus  is  usually  said  to  be  on  the  bottom  mountain,  with  Mounts  Ossa  and  Pelion  
upon  Ossa  as  second  and  third,  either  respectively  or  vice  versa.    Homer  says  they  
were  killed  by  Apollo  before  they  had  any  beards,  consistent  with  their  being  bound  
to  column  in  the  Underworld  by  snakes,  the  nymph  of  the  Styx  in  the  form  of  an  owl  
over  them.      
 

  187  
Phyllis  Stein  (pg.  10,  24):    
Hedwig’s  manager.    Might  be  based  off  the  personality  that  was  friends  and  lovers  
with  a  lot  of  the  players  in  the  punk  movement:    She  dated  and  was  the  partner  of  
Jerry  Nolan  of  the  New  York  Dolls.    She  lived  with  Sal  Maida  in  London  during  the  
70s  and  befriended  Patti  Palladin  while  she  lived  in  London.    She  was  friends  with  
Nancy  Spungen  (Sid  Vicious’  amor,  whom  he  killed).    She  is  friends  with  Vera  
Ramone  (muse  of  the  Ramones).    She  was  friends  with  Debbie  Harry.    She  hung  out  
at  all  the  major  clubs:  CBGBS  Max’s  Kansas  City,  and  took  photos  of  the  scene.    She  
was  also  friends  with  the  famous  groupie  Sable  Starr.    
 
piety  (pg.  41):    the  quality  of  being  religious  or  reverent.    a  belief  or  point  of  view  
that  is  accepted  with  unthinking  conventional  reverence.    early  16th  century  (in  the  
sense  ‘devotion  to  religious  observances’):  from  Old  French  piete,  from  Latin  pietas  
‘dutifulness’,  from  pius.  
 

  188  
Plato  (pg.  39):    

An  Athenian  philosopher  during  the  Classical  period  in  Ancient  Greece,  founder  of  
the  Platonist  school  of  thought,  and  the  Academy,  the  first  institution  of  higher  
learning  in  the  Western  world.    He  is  widely  considered  the  pivotal  figure  in  the  
history  of  Ancient  Greek  and  Western  philosophy,  along  with  his  teacher,  Socrates,  
and  his  most  famous  student,  Aristotle.    Plato  has  also  often  been  cited  as  one  of  the  
founders  of  Western  religion  and  spirituality.    The  so-­‐called  Neoplatonism  of  
philosophers  like  Plotinus  and  Porphyry  influenced  Saint  Augustine  and  thus  
Christianity.    Alfred  North  Whitehead  once  noted:  “the  safest  general  

  189  
characterization  of  the  European  philosophical  tradition  is  that  it  consists  of  a  series  
of  footnotes  to  Plato.    Plato  was  the  innovator  of  the  written  dialogue  and  dialectic  
forms  in  philosophy.    Plato  also  appears  to  have  been  the  founder  of  Western  
political  philosophy.    His  most  famous  contribution  bears  his  name,  Platonism  (also  
ambiguously  called  either  Platonic  realism  or  Platonic  idealism),  the  doctrine  of  the  
Forms  known  by  pure  reason  to  provide  a  realist  solution  to  the  problem  of  the  
universals.    He  is  also  the  namesake  of  Platonic  love  and  the  Platonic  solids.    His  own  
most  decisive  philosophical  influences  are  usually  thought  to  have  been  along  with  
Socrates,  the  pre-­‐Socratics,  Pythagoras,  Heraclitus,  and  Parmenides,  although  few  of  
his  predecessors’  works  remain  extant  and  much  of  what  we  know  about  these  
figures  today  derives  from  Plato  himself.    Unlike  the  work  of  nearly  all  of  his  
contemporaries,  Plato’s  entire  body  of  work  is  believed  to  have  survived  intact  for  
over  2,400  years.    Although  their  popularity  has  fluctuated  over  the  years,  the  works  
of  Plato  have  never  been  without  readers  since  the  time  they  were  written.  
 

  190  
Plato’s  Symposium  (pg.  12-­‐14):  

 A  philosophical  
text  by  Plato  that  depicts  a  friendly  contest  of  extemporaneous  speeches  given  by  a  
group  of  notable  men  attending  a  banquet.    The  men  include  the  philosopher  
Socrates,  the  general  and  political  figure  Alcibiades,  and  the  comic  playwright  
Aristophanes.    The  speeches  are  to  be  given  in  praise  of  Eros,  the  god  of  love  and  
desire.    In  the  SYMPOSIUM,  Eros  is  recognized  both  as  erotic  love  and  as  a  
phenomenon  capable  of  inspiring  courage,  valor,  great  deeds  and  works,  and  
vanquishing  man’s  natural  fear  of  death.    It  is  seen  as  transcending  its  earthly  
origins  and  attaining  spiritual  heights.    This  extraordinary  elevation  of  the  concept  
of  love  raises  a  question  of  whether  some  of  the  most  extreme  extents  of  meaning  

  191  
might  be  intended  as  humor  or  farce.    Eros  is  almost  always  translated  as  “love”,  and  
the  English  word  has  its  own  varieties  and  ambiguities  that  provide  additional  
challenges  to  the  effort  to  understand  the  Eros  of  ancient  Athens.    The  event  
depicted  in  the  SYMPOSIUM  is  a  banquet  attended  by  a  group  of  men,  who  have  
come  to  the  symposium,  which  was,  in  ancient  Greece,  a  traditional  part  of  the  same  
banquet  that  took  place  after  the  meal,  when  drinking  for  pleasure  was  
accompanied  by  music,  dancing,  recitals,  or  conversation.    The  setting  means  that  
the  participants  will  be  drinking  wine,  meaning  that  the  men  might  be  induced  to  
say  things  they  wouldn’t  say  elsewhere  or  when  sober.    They  might  speak  more  
frankly,  or  take  more  risks,  or  else  be  prone  to  hubris  –  they  might  even  be  inspired  
to  make  speeches  that  are  particularly  heartfelt  and  noble.    The  host  has  challenged  
the  men  to  deliver,  each,  in  turn,  an  encomium  –  a  speech  in  praise  of  Love  (Eros).    
Though  other  participants  comply  with  this  challenge,  Socrates  notably  refuses  to  
participate  in  such  an  act  of  praise  and  instead  takes  a  very  different  approach  to  the  
topic.    The  party  takes  place  at  the  house  of  the  tragedian  Agathon  in  Athens.    This  
dialogue  is  one  of  Plato’s  major  works,  and  is  appreciated  for  both  its  philosophical  
content  and  its  literary  qualities.    The  Text:    Aristophanes  professed  to  open  another  
vein  of  discourse;  he  had  a  mind  to  praise  Love  in  another  way,  unlike  that  either  of  
Pausanias  or  Eryximachus.  Mankind;  he  said,  judging  by  their  neglect  of  him,  have  
never,  as  I  think,  at  all  understood  the  power  of  Love.  For  if  they  had  understood  
him  they  would  surely  have  built  noble  temples  and  altars,  and  offered  solemn  
sacrifices  in  his  honour;  but  this  is  not  done,  and  most  certainly  ought  to  be  done:  
since  of  all  the  gods  he  is  the  best  friend  of  men,  the  helper  and  the  healer  of  the  ills  
which  are  the  great  impediment  to  the  happiness  of  the  race.  I  will  try  to  describe  
his  power  to  you,  and  you  shall  teach  the  rest  of  the  world  what  I  am  teaching  you.  
In  the  first  place,  let  me  treat  of  the  nature  of  man  and  what  has  happened  to  it;  for  
the  original  human  nature  was  not  like  the  present,  but  different.  The  sexes  were  
not  two  as  they  are  now,  but  originally  three  in  number;  there  was  man,  woman,  and  
the  union  of  the  two,  having  a  name  corresponding  to  this  double  nature,  which  had  
once  a  real  existence,  but  is  now  lost,  and  the  word  "Androgynous"  is  only  preserved  
as  a  term  of  reproach.  In  the  second  place,  the  primeval  man  was  round,  his  back  
and  sides  forming  a  circle;  and  he  had  four  hands  and  four  feet,  one  head  with  two  
faces,  looking  opposite  ways,  set  on  a  round  neck  and  precisely  alike;  also  four  ears,  
two  privy  members,  and  the  remainder  to  correspond.  He  could  walk  upright  as  
men  now  do,  backwards  or  forwards  as  he  pleased,  and  he  could  also  roll  over  and  
over  at  a  great  pace,  turning  on  his  four  hands  and  four  feet,  eight  in  all,  like  
tumblers  going  over  and  over  with  their  legs  in  the  air;  this  was  when  he  wanted  to  
run  fast.  Now  the  sexes  were  three,  and  such  as  I  have  described  them;  because  the  
sun,  moon,  and  earth  are  three;-­‐and  the  man  was  originally  the  child  of  the  sun,  the  
woman  of  the  earth,  and  the  man-­‐woman  of  the  moon,  which  is  made  up  of  sun  and  
earth,  and  they  were  all  round  and  moved  round  and  round:  like  their  parents.  
Terrible  was  their  might  and  strength,  and  the  thoughts  of  their  hearts  were  great,  
and  they  made  an  attack  upon  the  gods;  of  them  is  told  the  tale  of  Otys  and  Ephialtes  
who,  as  Homer  says,  dared  to  scale  heaven,  and  would  have  laid  hands  upon  the  
gods.  Doubt  reigned  in  the  celestial  councils.  Should  they  kill  them  and  annihilate  
the  race  with  thunderbolts,  as  they  had  done  the  giants,  then  there  would  be  an  end  

  192  
of  the  sacrifices  and  worship,  which  men  offered  to  them;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  the  
gods  could  not  suffer  their  insolence  to  be  unrestrained.  At  last,  after  a  good  deal  of  
reflection,  Zeus  discovered  a  way.  He  said:  "Methinks  I  have  a  plan  which  will  
humble  their  pride  and  improve  their  manners;  men  shall  continue  to  exist,  but  I  
will  cut  them  in  two  and  then  they  will  be  diminished  in  strength  and  increased  in  
numbers;  this  will  have  the  advantage  of  making  them  more  profitable  to  us.  They  
shall  walk  upright  on  two  legs,  and  if  they  continue  insolent  and  will  not  be  quiet,  I  
will  split  them  again  and  they  shall  hop  about  on  a  single  leg."  He  spoke  and  cut  men  
in  two,  like  a  sorb-­‐apple  which  is  halved  for  pickling,  or  as  you  might  divide  an  egg  
with  a  hair;  and  as  he  cut  them  one  after  another,  he  bade  Apollo  give  the  face  and  
the  half  of  the  neck  a  turn  in  order  that  the  man  might  contemplate  the  section  of  
himself:  he  would  thus  learn  a  lesson  of  humility.  Apollo  was  also  bidden  to  heal  
their  wounds  and  compose  their  forms.  So  he  gave  a  turn  to  the  face  and  pulled  the  
skin  from  the  sides  all  over  that  which  in  our  language  is  called  the  belly,  like  the  
purses  which  draw  in,  and  he  made  one  mouth  at  the  centre,  which  he  fastened  in  a  
knot  (the  same  which  is  called  the  navel);  he  also  moulded  the  breast  and  took  out  
most  of  the  wrinkles,  much  as  a  shoemaker  might  smooth  leather  upon  a  last;  he  left  
a  few,  however,  in  the  region  of  the  belly  and  navel,  as  a  memorial  of  the  primeval  
state.  After  the  division  the  two  parts  of  man,  each  desiring  his  other  half,  came  
together,  and  throwing  their  arms  about  one  another,  entwined  in  mutual  embraces,  
longing  to  grow  into  one,  they  were  on  the  point  of  dying  from  hunger  and  self-­‐
neglect,  because  they  did  not  like  to  do  anything  apart;  and  when  one  of  the  halves  
died  and  the  other  survived,  the  survivor  sought  another  mate,  man  or  woman  as  we  
call  them,  being  the  sections  of  entire  men  or  women,  and  clung  to  that.  They  were  
being  destroyed,  when  Zeus  in  pity  of  them  invented  a  new  plan:  he  turned  the  parts  
of  generation  round  to  the  front,  for  this  had  not  been  always  their  position  and  they  
sowed  the  seed  no  longer  as  hitherto  like  grasshoppers  in  the  ground,  but  in  one  
another;  and  after  the  transposition  the  male  generated  in  the  female  in  order  that  
by  the  mutual  embraces  of  man  and  woman  they  might  breed,  and  the  race  might  
continue;  or  if  man  came  to  man  they  might  be  satisfied,  and  rest,  and  go  their  ways  
to  the  business  of  life:  so  ancient  is  the  desire  of  one  another  which  is  implanted  in  
us,  reuniting  our  original  nature,  making  one  of  two,  and  healing  the  state  of  man.  
Each  of  us  when  separated,  having  one  side  only,  like  a  flat  fish,  is  but  the  indenture  
of  a  man,  and  he  is  always  looking  for  his  other  half.  Men  who  are  a  section  of  that  
double  nature  which  was  once  called  Androgynous  are  lovers  of  women;  adulterers  
are  generally  of  this  breed,  and  also  adulterous  women  who  lust  after  men:  the  
women  who  are  a  section  of  the  woman  do  not  care  for  men,  but  have  female  
attachments;  the  female  companions  are  of  this  sort.  But  they  who  are  a  section  of  
the  male  follow  the  male,  and  while  they  are  young,  being  slices  of  the  original  man,  
they  hang  about  men  and  embrace  them,  and  they  are  themselves  the  best  of  boys  
and  youths,  because  they  have  the  most  manly  nature.  Some  indeed  assert  that  they  
are  shameless,  but  this  is  not  true;  for  they  do  not  act  thus  from  any  want  of  shame,  
but  because  they  are  valiant  and  manly,  and  have  a  manly  countenance,  and  they  
embrace  that  which  is  like  them.  And  these  when  they  grow  up  become  our  
statesmen,  and  these  only,  which  is  a  great  proof  of  the  truth  of  what  I  am  saving.  
When  they  reach  manhood  they  are  loves  of  youth,  and  are  not  naturally  inclined  to  

  193  
marry  or  beget  children,-­‐if  at  all,  they  do  so  only  in  obedience  to  the  law;  but  they  
are  satisfied  if  they  may  be  allowed  to  live  with  one  another  unwedded;  and  such  a  
nature  is  prone  to  love  and  ready  to  return  love,  always  embracing  that  which  is  
akin  to  him.  And  when  one  of  them  meets  with  his  other  half,  the  actual  half  of  
himself,  whether  he  be  a  lover  of  youth  or  a  lover  of  another  sort,  the  pair  are  lost  in  
an  amazement  of  love  and  friendship  and  intimacy,  and  would  not  be  out  of  the  
other's  sight,  as  I  may  say,  even  for  a  moment:  these  are  the  people  who  pass  their  
whole  lives  together;  yet  they  could  not  explain  what  they  desire  of  one  another.  For  
the  intense  yearning  which  each  of  them  has  towards  the  other  does  not  appear  to  
be  the  desire  of  lover's  intercourse,  but  of  something  else  which  the  soul  of  either  
evidently  desires  and  cannot  tell,  and  of  which  she  has  only  a  dark  and  doubtful  
presentiment.  Suppose  Hephaestus,  with  his  instruments,  to  come  to  the  pair  who  
are  lying  side,  by  side  and  to  say  to  them,  "What  do  you  people  want  of  one  
another?"  they  would  be  unable  to  explain.  And  suppose  further,  that  when  he  saw  
their  perplexity  he  said:  "Do  you  desire  to  be  wholly  one;  always  day  and  night  to  be  
in  one  another's  company?  for  if  this  is  what  you  desire,  I  am  ready  to  melt  you  into  
one  and  let  you  grow  together,  so  that  being  two  you  shall  become  one,  and  while  
you  live  a  common  life  as  if  you  were  a  single  man,  and  after  your  death  in  the  world  
below  still  be  one  departed  soul  instead  of  two-­‐I  ask  whether  this  is  what  you  
lovingly  desire,  and  whether  you  are  satisfied  to  attain  this?"-­‐there  is  not  a  man  of  
them  who  when  he  heard  the  proposal  would  deny  or  would  not  acknowledge  that  
this  meeting  and  melting  into  one  another,  this  becoming  one  instead  of  two,  was  
the  very  expression  of  his  ancient  need.  And  the  reason  is  that  human  nature  was  
originally  one  and  we  were  a  whole,  and  the  desire  and  pursuit  of  the  whole  is  called  
love.  There  was  a  time,  I  say,  when  we  were  one,  but  now  because  of  the  wickedness  
of  mankind  God  has  dispersed  us,  as  the  Arcadians  were  dispersed  into  villages  by  
the  Lacedaemonians.  And  if  we  are  not  obedient  to  the  gods,  there  is  a  danger  that  
we  shall  be  split  up  again  and  go  about  in  basso-­‐relievo,  like  the  profile  figures  
having  only  half  a  nose  which  are  sculptured  on  monuments,  and  that  we  shall  be  
like  tallies.  Wherefore  let  us  exhort  all  men  to  piety,  that  we  may  avoid  evil,  and  
obtain  the  good,  of  which  Love  is  to  us  the  lord  and  minister;  and  let  no  one  oppose  
him-­‐he  is  the  enemy  of  the  gods  who  oppose  him.  For  if  we  are  friends  of  the  God  
and  at  peace  with  him  we  shall  find  our  own  true  loves,  which  rarely  happens  in  this  
world  at  present.  I  am  serious,  and  therefore  I  must  beg  Eryximachus  not  to  make  
fun  or  to  find  any  allusion  in  what  I  am  saying  to  Pausanias  and  Agathon,  who,  as  I  
suspect,  are  both  of  the  manly  nature,  and  belong  to  the  class  which  I  have  been  
describing.  But  my  words  have  a  wider  application-­‐they  include  men  and  women  
everywhere;  and  I  believe  that  if  our  loves  were  perfectly  accomplished,  and  each  
one  returning  to  his  primeval  nature  had  his  original  true  love,  then  our  race  would  
be  happy.  And  if  this  would  be  best  of  all,  the  best  in  the  next  degree  and  under  
present  circumstances  must  be  the  nearest  approach  to  such  an  union;  and  that  will  
be  the  attainment  of  a  congenial  love.  Wherefore,  if  we  would  praise  him  who  has  
given  to  us  the  benefit,  we  must  praise  the  god  Love,  who  is  our  greatest  benefactor,  
both  leading  us  in  this  life  back  to  our  own  nature,  and  giving  us  high  hopes  for  the  
future,  for  he  promises  that  if  we  are  pious,  he  will  restore  us  to  our  original  state,  
and  heal  us  and  make  us  happy  and  blessed.  This,  Eryximachus,  is  my  discourse  of  

  194  
love,  which,  although  different  to  yours,  I  must  beg  you  to  leave  unassailed  by  the  
shafts  of  your  ridicule,  in  order  that  each  may  have  his  turn;  each,  or  rather  either,  
for  Agathon  and  Socrates  are  the  only  ones  left.    
 

Pop  Rocks  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  17):  


 

PX  (pg.  25):   Post  exchange  is  a  


type  of  retail  store  found  on  United  States  military  installations  worldwide.    

  195  
Originally  akin  to  trading  posts,  they  now  resemble  contemporary  department  
stores.  
 
Rhone  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  19):    

A  river  that  is  one  of  the  major  rivers  of  Europe  and  has  twice  the  average  discharge  
of  the  Loire  (which  is  the  longest  French  river)  rising  in  the  Rhône  Glacier  in  the  
Swiss  Alps  at  the  far  eastern  end  of  the  Swiss  canton  of  Valais,  passing  through  Lake  
Geneva  and  running  through  southeastern  France.    At  Arles,  near  its  mouth  on  the  
Mediterranean  Sea,  the  river  divides  into  two  branches,  known  as  the  Great  Rhône  
and  the  Little  Rhône.  
 
Schlatko  (pg.  24):    North  German.    Nickname  for  a  weak  or  listless  person.    Drums.    
Originally  played  by  Dave  McKinley  of  Stephen  Trask’s  band  Cheater.  
 

  196  
Sergio  Valente  (pg.  15):     An  American  
clothing  brand  best  known  for  juniors’  and  womens’  designer  jeans  and  stretch-­‐
denim  fabrics.    It  is  currently  owned  by  the  privately  held  Seattle  Pacific  Industries  
Inc.  of  Kent,  Washington,  which  additionally  owns  the  Reunion  and  Saltaire  
menswear  brands  and  the  Unionbay  teen-­‐clothing  brand.    The  brand  dates  to  1975,  
but  its  supposed  original  designer  –  ‘Sergio  Valente’  –  is  ficticious.    Mr.  Valente,  in  
fact,  never  existed.    The  actual  creator  of  Sergio  Valente  brand  jeans,  was  
Englishtown  Sportswear  Ltd.,  a  New  York  City-­‐based  company  formed  by  William  
Hsu,  Martin  Heinfling,  Brian  Leung,  Tony  Lau,  Eli  Kaplan,  and  Leo  Zelkin.      
 
Sex  Changes  in  East  Germany  in  the  1980s:    The  first  sex  change  operation  actually  
occurred  in  Berlin  in  1906  for  Martha  Baer,  the  details  of  which  were  burned  by  the  
Nazis.    The  operation  was  a  success.    West  Germany  passed  a  transgender  rights  act  
in  1980  that  required  trans  people  to  undergo  surgical  alteration  of  their  genitals  in  
order  to  have  key  identity  documents  changed.    It  was  also  common  for  the  East  
German  sports  officials  to  dope  their  female  and  male  athletes.    They  did  this  so  
heavily  to  Heidi  Krieger  that  her  body  chemistry  was  changed  and  she  underwent  
reassignment  surgery  and  became  Andreas  Krieger.    So,  the  conclusion  is  that  
gender  reassignment  surgery  was  possible  in  East  Germany,  and  necessary  in  order  
to  leave  Germany  with  an  American  citizen.  
 

  197  
shoulder  pads  (pg.  7): As  the  decade  of  the  
1980s  wore  on,  shoulder  pads  became  the  defining  fashion  statement  of  the  era,  
known  as  power  dressing  and  bestowing  the  perception  of  status  and  position  onto  
those  who  wore  them.    They  became  both  larger  and  more  ubiquitous  –  every  
garment  from  the  brassiere  upwards  would  come  with  its  own  set  of  shoulder  pads.    
They  were  based  on  styles  from  the  1890s  from  men’s  wear.    They  would  
compensate  for  sloping  shoulders  or  to  maintain  the  structural  integrity  of  the  
fabric  used  in  suits,  due  to  the  weight  of  some  fabrics.  
 
Shroud  (pg.  27):    a  length  of  cloth  or  an  enveloping  garment  in  which  a  dead  person  
is  wrapped  for  burial.    a  thing  that  envelops  or  obscures  something.    wrap  or  dress  
(a  body)  in  a  shroud  for  burial.    cover  or  envelop  so  as  to  conceal  from  view.    late  
Old  English  scrud  ‘garment,  clothing’,  of  Germanic  origin,  from  a  base  meaning  ‘cut’;  
related  to  shred.    An  early  sense  of  the  verb  (Middle  English)  was  ‘cover  so  as  to  
protect’.  
 

  198  
Sizzler  in  the  late  1980s  early  1990s  (pg.  28):

   
 
Skszp  (pg.  24):    Stephen  Trask  played  him  originally.    Typically  an  Albanian  name  
pronounced  Shkip.    Skop  (another  surname)  is  of  Polish,  Czech,  and  Jewish  
(Ashkenazic):    nickname  from  Slavic  skop  ‘wether’,  ‘castrated  ram’.      
 
slopes  (pg.  15):    (of  a  surface  or  line)  be  inclined  from  a  horizontal  or  vertical  line;  
slant  up  or  down.      
 
Socialism  (pg.  11):    a  political  and  economic  theory  of  social  organization  which  
advocates  that  the  means  of  production,  distribution,  and  exchange  should  be  
owned  or  regulated  by  the  community  as  a  whole.      
 

  199  
Some  Indian  God  (pg.  13):    

Probably  Shiva  –  “God  of  healing”  and  “Destruction/Renewal”.    Shiva  is  known  as  
“The  Destroyer”  within  the  Trimurti,  the  Hindu  trinity  that  includes  Brahma  and  
Vishnu.    In  Shaivism  tradition,  Shiva  is  one  of  the  supreme  beings  who  creates,  
protects  and  transforms  the  universe.    
 

  200  
sorb-­‐apple  (pg.  39):  

 the  fruit  of  the  true  service  tree.    early  16th  century:  from  French  sorbe  or  Latin  
sorbus  ‘service  tree’,  sorbum  ‘serviceberry’.  

  201  
stone-­‐washed  denim  (pg.  7):

 
 
succor  (pg.  9):  assistance  and  support  in  times  of  hardship  and  distress.    Latin  
succurrere  ‘run  to  the  help  of’.  
 

  202  
Sugar  Daddy’s  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  17):

 
 
Tear  Away  Costume  Techniques  (pg.  24):    Tear  away  clothes  are  not  just  for  
strippers.    A  ragged  dress  can  be  torn  away  to  reveal  Cinderella’s  ball  gown.    They  
will  speed  up  any  theater  quick  change.    Warm-­‐up  pants  that  can  open  on  the  sides  
allow  an  ice  skater  to  remover  her  pants  without  taking  off  her  skates.      
• Pants:    Add  1  inch  to  sides  of  the  front  and  back  of  your  pants  pattern.    Cut  
out  the  pants.    Iron  down  1  inch  on  the  wrong  side  of  the  fabric  along  side  
edges.    Construct  the  pants  according  to  your  pattern  directions,  but  don’t  
sew  the  side  seams.    Sew  2-­‐inch  lengths  of  hook-­‐and-­‐loop  tape  along  the  
folded  down  fabric  on  the  side  edges,  leaving  a  1-­‐inch  gap  between  the  pieces  
of  tape.    Sew  the  tape  on  by  sewing  along  both  edges  of  the  tape  with  a  
straight  stitch.    Place  the  loop  on  the  outside  of  the  pants  on  the  back  edge  
and  the  hook  tape  on  the  inside  front  edge.  
• Shirt  or  Dress:    Pin  the  center  back  of  your  pattern  pieces  1  ½  inches  away  
from  the  fold  in  the  fabric.    Pin  the  center  back  of  all  back  collar  pieces  the  
same  distance  from  the  fold.    Cut  out  the  pattern.    Cut  the  back  of  the  garment  
and  all  collar  pieces  along  the  fold  of  the  fabric.    Iron  down  1  inch  on  the  
wrong  side  of  the  fabric  on  the  back  pieces  along  the  cut  fold.    Construct  the  
shirt  or  dress  according  to  your  pattern.    Sew  2-­‐inch  lengths  of  hook-­‐and-­‐
loop  tape  along  the  folded  down  fabric  along  the  back  edges,  leaving  a  1-­‐inch  
gap  between  the  pieces  of  tape.    Sew  the  tape  on  by  sewing  along  both  edges  
of  the  tape  with  a  straight  stitch.    Place  the  loop  on  the  outside  of  the  shirt  or  
dress  on  the  right  edge  and  the  hook  tape  on  the  inside  along  the  left  edge.      
 
transposition  (pg.  40):    to  change  the  relative  position,  order,  or  sequence  of;  cause  
to  change  places;  interchange.  
 

  203  
Tree  of  Knowledge  (pg.  28):    

One  of  the  two  specific  trees  


in  the  story  of  the  Garden  of  Eden  in  Genesis  2-­‐3,  along  with  the  tree  of  life.    Genesis  
2  narrates  that  God  places  the  first  man  and  woman  in  a  garden  with  trees  of  whose  
fruits  them  may  eat,  but  forbids  them  to  eat  from  “the  tree  of  knowledge  of  good  and  
evil.”    When,  in  Genesis  3,  a  serpent  persuades  the  woman  to  eat  from  its  forbidden  
fruit  and  she  also  lets  the  man  taste  it,  God  expels  them  from  the  garden  and  thereby  
from  eternal  life.      
 
Uber  Alles  (pg.  19):    Above  all  else.    Part  of  the  German  national  anthem  until  the  
end  of  World  War  II,  and  is  closely  associated  with  the  Nazis.  
 
Ukraine’s  relationship  to  East  Germany  in  the  1980s  (pg.  19):    East  Germany  
downplayed  the  Chernobyl  disaster  as  an  “incident”.    More  than  five  million  
Ukrainians  die  fighting  Nazi  Germany,  most  of  the  Ukraine’s  1.5  million  Jews  are  
killed  by  the  Nazis.    When  Adolf  Hitler  decided  who  the  slaves  would  be  in  the  
German  Eastern  empire,  the  answer  he  gave  was  the  Ukrainians.    The  Ukrainians  
were  to  be  the  center  of  a  project  of  colonization  and  enslavement.    The  Ukrainians  
were  to  be  treated  as  Afrikaner,  or  as  Neger  –  the  word  was  very  often  used,  as  
those  of  you  who  read  German  documents  from  the  war  will  know.    The  idea  was  to  
create  a  slavery-­‐driven,  exterminatory,  colonial  regime  in  Eastern  Europe  where  the  
center  was  going  to  Ukraine.    The  Ukraine  was  the  center  of  Hitler’s  ideological  
colonialism.    The  Russians,  alone,  suffered  more  deaths  than  any  other  nation  in  
WWII,  and  within  that,  the  Ukraine  had  more  deaths  than  Russia  –  the  greatest  
malicious  intention  and  the  greatest  destructive  practice  of  the  German  war  was  
precisely  in  Ukraine.    Ukrainian  nationalist  is  a  real  historical  tendency  and  a  

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consequence  of  the  German  war  in  Eastern  Europe.    With  Germany  becoming  more  
successful  and  prosperous  in  the  80s,  the  Ukraine,  which  was  still  struggling,  
naturally  blamed  Germany  for  its  problems.  

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  206  
Vermouth  (pg.  23):    An  aromatized,  fortified  white  wine  flavored  with  various  
botanicals  (roots,  barks,  flowers,  seeds,  herbs,  and  spices)  and  sometimes  colored.    
The  modern  versions  of  the  beverage  were  first  produced  in  the  mid  to  late  18th  
century  in  Turin,  Italy.    While  vermouth  was  traditionally  used  for  medicinal  
purposes,  its  true  claim  to  fame  is  as  an  aperitif,  with  fashionable  cafes  in  Turin  
serving  it  to  guests  around  the  clock.    However,  in  the  late  19th  century  it  became  
popular  with  bartenders  as  a  key  ingredient  in  many  classic  cocktails  that  have  
survived  to  date,  such  as  the  Martini,  the  Manhattan,  the  Roby  Roy,  and  the  Negroni.    
In  addition  to  being  consumed  as  an  aperitif  or  cocktail  ingredient,  vermouth  is  
sometimes  used  as  an  alternative  white  wine  in  cooking.    Historically,  there  have  
been  two  main  types  of  vermouth:    sweet  and  dry.    Responding  to  demand  and  
competition,  vermouth  manufacturers  have  created  additional  styles,  including  
extra-­‐dry  white,  sweet  white  (blanc  or  bianco),  red,  amber  (amber  or  rosso),  and  
rosé.  
 

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Versace  jeans  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  17):    

  208  
 
 
vocal  pyrotechnics  (pg.  9):    exciting,  explosive,  dazzling,  sparkling,  or  brilliant  
singing  –  flashy  or  flamboyant.  
 
Was  machst  du  da  verdammt  noch  mal?  (pg.  15):    What  are  you  fucking  doing?  
 

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Waterpick  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  18):

 
 
Wigs  (pg.  23-­‐24):    A  head  covering  made  from  human  hair,  animal  hair,  or  synthetic  
fiber.    The  word  wig  is  short  for  periwig,  which  makes  its  earliest  known  appearance  
in  the  English  language  in  William  Shakespeare’s  THE  TWO  GENTLEMAN  OF  
VERONA.    Some  people  wear  wigs  to  disguise  baldness;  a  wig  may  be  used  as  a  less  
intrusive  and  less  expensive  alternative  to  medical  therapies  for  restoring  hair  or  for  
a  religious  purpose.    In  Egyptian  society  men  and  women  commonly  had  clean  
shaven  or  close  cropped  hair  and  often  wore  wigs.    The  ancient  Egyptians  created  
the  wig  to  shield  shaved,  hairless  heads  from  the  sun.    They  also  wore  the  wigs  on  
top  of  their  hair  using  beeswax  and  resin  to  keep  the  wigs  in  place.    Wealthy  
Egyptians  would  wear  elaborate  wigs  and  scented  cones  of  animal  fat  on  top  of  their  
wigs.    Other  ancient  cultures,  including  the  Assyrians,  Phoenicians,  Jews  in  ancient  
Israel,  Greeks  and  Romans,  also  used  wigs  as  an  everyday  fashion.    In  China,  the  
popularization  of  the  wig  started  from  Spring  and  Autumn  period.    In  Japan,  the  
upper  classes  wearing  wigs  started  from  before  the  Nara  period.    In  Korea,  gache  
were  popular  among  women  during  the  Goryeo  dynasty  until  it  was  banned  in  the  
late  18th  century.    After  the  fall  of  the  Western  Roman  Empire,  the  use  of  wigs  fell  
into  disuse  in  the  West  for  thousands  of  years  until  they  were  revived  in  the  16th  
century  as  a  means  of  compensating  for  hair  loss  or  improving  one’s  personal  

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appearance.    They  also  served  a  practical  purpose:  the  unhygienic  conditions  of  the  
time  meant  that  hair  attracted  head  lice,  a  problem  that  could  be  much  reduced  if  
natural  hair  were  shaved  and  replaced  with  a  more  easily  de-­‐loused  artificial  
hairpiece.    Royal  patronage  was  crucial  to  the  revival  of  the  wig.    Queen  Elizabeth  I  
of  England  famously  wore  a  red  wig,  tightly  and  elaborately  curled  in  a  “Roman”  
style,  while  among  men  King  Louis  XIII  of  France  (1601-­‐1643)  started  to  pioneer  
wig-­‐wearing  in  1624  when  he  had  prematurely  begun  to  bald.    The  fashion  was  
largely  promoted  by  his  son  and  successor  Louis  XIV  of  France  (1638-­‐1715),  which  
contributed  to  its  spread  in  European  and  European-­‐influenced  countries.    The  
wearing  of  wigs  as  a  symbol  of  social  status  was  largely  abandoned  in  the  newly  
created  United  States  and  France  by  the  start  of  the  19th  century.      
• Farrah  Fawcett

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• Shag

  212  
• Bi-­‐level

  213  
• Bob

  214  
• Dorothy  Hamill

  215  
• Sausage  Curls  

  216  
• Chicken  Wings

  217  
• Feather  Back  
• Toni  Home  Wave

  218  
• Flip    

• Fro  

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• Frizz  

• Flop  

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Wichita  (pg.  28):    

The  largest  city  in  the  U.S.  state  of  Kansas  and  the  county  seat  of  Sedgwick  County.    
As  of  2018,  the  estimated  population  of  the  city  was  389,255.    Wichita  is  the  
principal  city  of  the  Wichita  metropolitan  area  which  had  an  estimated  population  
of  644,888  in  2018.    Located  in  south-­‐central  Kansas  on  the  Arkansas  River,  Wichita  
began  as  a  trading  post  on  the  Chisholm  Trail  in  the  1860s  and  was  incorporated  as  
a  city  in  1870.    It  became  a  destination  for  cattle  drives  traveling  north  from  Texas  
to  Kansas  railroads,  earning  it  the  nickname  “Cowtown.”    In  the  1920s  and  1930,  
businessmen  and  aeronautical  engineers  established  aircraft  manufacturing  
companies  in  Wichita,  including  Beechcraft,  Cessna,  and  Stearman  Aircraft.    The  city  
became  a  U.S.  aircraft  production  hub  known  as  “The  Air  Capital  of  the  World.”    
Textron  Aviation,  Learjet,  Airbus,  and  Spirit  AeroSystems  continue  to  operate  design  
and  manufacturing  facilities  in  Wichita,  and  the  city  remains  a  major  center  of  the  
American  aircraft  industry.    Wichita  is  also  home  to  McConnell  Air  Force  Base,  and  
Wichita  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  National  Airport,  the  largest  airport  in  Kansas.    As  an  
industrial  hub,  Wichita  is  a  regional  center  of  culture,  media,  and  trade.    It  hosts  
several  universities,  large  museums,  theaters,  parks,  and  entertainment  venues,  
notably  Intrust  Bank  Arena  and  Century  II  Performing  Arts  &  Convention  Center.    
The  city’s  Old  Cowtown  Museum  maintains  historical  artifacts  and  exhibits  on  the  
city’s  early  history.    Wichita  State  University  is  the  third-­‐largest  post-­‐secondary  
institution  in  the  state.    The  gay  community  in  the  1980s  was  not  very  welcoming,  
especially  since  an  ordinance  to  repeal  gay  rights  in  1978  was  passed  in  response  to  
the  Gay  Rights  Movements  spurred  on  by  the  1969  Stonewall  Riots.    A  Christian  
fundamentalist  movement  “Save  Our  Children”  had  a  success  in  Wichita.      
 

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Yentl  (pg.  25):    

A  1983  American  romantic  musical  drama  film  from  United  Artists  (through  MGM)  
that  was  directed,  co-­‐written,  and  co-­‐produced  by,  and  stars  Barbra  Streisand.    It  is  
based  on  Leah  Napolin  and  Issac  Bashevis  Singer’s  play  of  the  same  name,  itself  
based  on  Singer’s  short  story,  “Yentl  the  Yeshiva  Boy.”    The  dramatic  story  
incorporates  humor  and  music  to  relate  the  story  of  an  Ashkenazi  Jewish  girl  in  
Poland  who  decides  to  dress  and  live  like  a  man  so  that  she  can  receive  an  education  
in  Talmudic  Law  after  her  father  dies.    This  cultural  gender  asymmetry  that  Yentl  
endures  has  been  referenced  in  the  medical  community  with  the  coining  of  the  
phrase  Yentl  Syndrome.    The  film’s  musical  score  and  songs,  composed  by  Michel  
Legrand,  include  the  songs,  “Papa,  Can  You  Hear  Me?”  and  “The  Way  He  Makes  Me  
Feel”,  both  sung  by  Streisand.    The  film  received  the  Academy  Award  for  Best  
Original  Score  and  the  Golden  Globe  Awards  for  Best  Motion  Picture  –  Musical  or  
Comedy  and  Best  Director  for  Streisand,  making  her  the  first  woman  to  have  won  
the  Best  Director  at  the  Golden  Globes.  
 

  222  
Yes  album  cover  (pg.  27):

 
 
Yugoslavia  in  the  late  1980s  (pg.  22):    The  breakup  of  Yugoslavia  occurred  as  a  
result  of  a  series  of  political  upheavals  and  conflicts  during  the  early  1990s.    After  a  
period  of  political  and  economic  crisis  in  the  1980s,  constituent  republics  of  the  
Socialist  Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia  split  apart,  but  the  unresolved  issues  caused  
bitter  inter-­‐ethnic  Yugoslav  wars.    The  wars  primarily  affected  Bosnia  and  
Herzegovina,  neighboring  parts  of  Croatia  and  some  years  later,  Kosovo.    After  the  
Allied  victory  in  World  War  II,  Yugoslavia  was  set  up  as  a  federation  of  six  republics,  
with  borders  drawn  along  ethnic  and  historical  lines:    Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  
Croatia,  Macedonia,  Montenegro,  Serbia,  and  Slovenia.    In  addition,  two  autonomous  
provinces  were  established  within  Serbia:    Vojvodina  and  Kosovo.    Each  of  the  
republics  had  its  own  branch  of  the  League  of  Communists  of  Yugoslavia  party  and  a  
ruling  elite,  and  any  tensions  were  solved  on  the  federal  level.    The  Yugoslav  model  
of  state  organization,  as  well  as  a  “middle  way”  between  planned  and  liberal  
economy,  had  been  a  relative  success,  and  the  country  experienced  a  period  of  
strong  economic  growth  and  relative  political  stability  up  to  the  1980s,  under  the  
rule  of  president-­‐for-­‐life  Josip  Broz  Tito.    After  his  death  in  1980,  the  weakened  
system  of  federal  government  was  left  unable  to  cope  with  rising  economic  and  
political  challenges.    In  the  1980s,  Albanians  of  Kosovo  started  to  demand  that  their  
autonomous  province  be  granted  the  status  of  constituent  republic,  starting  with  the  
1981  protests.    Ethnic  tensions  between  Albanians  and  Kosovo  Serbs  remained  high  
over  the  whole  decade,  which  resulted  in  the  growth  across  Yugoslavia  of  Serb  
opposition  to  the  high  autonomy  of  provinces  and  ineffective  system  of  consensus  at  
the  federal  level,  which  were  seen  as  an  obstacle  for  Serb  interests.    In  1987,  
Slobodan  Milošević  came  power  in  Serbia,  and  through  a  series  of  populist  moves  
acquired  de  facto  control  over  Kosovo,  Vojvodina,  and  Montenegro,  garnering  a  high  
level  of  support  among  Serbs  for  his  centralist  policies.    Milošević  was  met  with  
opposition  by  party  leaders  of  the  western  republics  of  Slovenia  and  Croatia,  who  

  223  
also  advocated  greater  democratization  of  the  country  in  line  with  the  Revolutions  
of  1989  in  Eastern  Europe.    The  League  of  Communists  of  Yugoslavia  dissolved  in  
January  1990  along  federal  lines.    Republican  communist  organizations  became  the  
separate  socialist  parties.    During  1990,  the  socialists  (former  communists)  lost  
power  to  ethnic  separatist  parties  in  the  first  multi-­‐party  elections  held  across  the  
country,  except  in  Serbia  and  Montenegro,  where  Milošević  and  his  allies  won.    
Nationalist  rhetoric  on  all  sides  became  increasingly  heated.    Between  June  1991  
and  April  1992,  four  republics  declared  independence  (only  Serbia  and  Montenegro  
remained  federated),  but  the  status  of  ethnic  Serbs  outside  Serbia  and  Montenegro,  
and  that  of  ethnic  Croats  outside  Croatia,  remained  unsolved.  After  a  string  of  inter-­‐
ethnic  incidents,  the  Yugoslav  Wars  ensued,  first  in  Croatia  and  then,  most  severely,  
in  multi-­‐ethnic  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.    The  wars  left  long-­‐term  economic  and  
political  damage  in  the  region,  which  are  still  felt  there  decades  later.  
Zagred,  Croatia  (pg.  25):

   The  capital  and  


largest  city  of  Croatia.    It  is  located  in  the  northwest  of  the  country,  along  the  Sava  
river,  at  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Medvednica  mountain.    The  population  of  the  
Zagreburban  agglomeration  is  about  1.2  million.    Zagreb  is  a  city  with  a  rich  history  
dating  from  the  Roman  times  to  the  present  day.    The  name  “Zagreb”  is  recorded  in  
1134,  in  reference  to  the  foundation  of  the  settlement  at  Kaptol  in  1094.    Zagreb  
became  a  free  royal  town  in  1242.    Zagreb  is  the  seat  of  the  central  government,  

  224  
administrative  bodies,  and  almost  all  government  ministries.    Almost  all  of  the  
largest  Croatian  companies,  media,  and  scientific  institutions  have  their  
headquarters  in  the  city.    It  is  a  city  known  for  its  diverse  economy,  high  quality  of  
living,  museums,  sporting,  and  entertainment  events.    Its  main  branches  of  economy  
are  high-­‐tech  industries  and  the  service  sector.    The  name  might  be  derived  from  a  
Proto-­‐Slavic  word  which  means  hill,  uplift.    In  Croatian  folk  etymology,  the  name  of  
the  city  has  been  derived  from  either  the  verb  za-­‐grab-­‐,  meaning  “to  scoop”  or  “to  
dig”.    One  folk  legend  illustrating  this  derivation  ties  the  name  to  a  drought  of  the  
early  14th  century,  during  which  Augustin  Kažotić  (a  Dalmatian-­‐Croatian  Roman  
Catholic  humanist  prelate)  is  said  to  have  dug  a  well  which  miraculously  produced  
water.    In  another  legend,  a  city  governor  is  thirty  and  orders  a  girl  named  Manda  to  
“scoop”  water  from  a  well  (nowadays  a  fountain  in  Ban  Jelačić  Square),  using  the  
imperative  “Scoop,  Manda!”    

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During  
World  War  II,  Zagreb  became  the  capital  of  the  Independent  State  of  Croatia,  which  
was  backed  by  Nazi  German  and  the  Italians.    The  history  of  Zagreb  in  World  War  II  
became  rife  with  incidents  of  regime  terror  and  resistance  sabotage,  thousands  of  
people  were  executed  during  the  war  in  and  near  the  city.    The  city  was  liberated  by  
the  Partisans  at  the  end  of  the  war.    From  1945  until  1990,  Zagreb  was  the  capital  of  
the  Socialist  Republic  of  Croatia,  one  of  the  six  constituent  socialist  republics  of  the  
Socialist  Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia.    During  the  1991-­‐1995  Croatian  War  of  
Independence,  it  was  the  scene  of  some  sporadic  fighting  surrounding  its  JNA  army  
barracks,  but  escaped  major  damage.  In  May  1995,  it  was  targeted  by  Serb  rocket  
artillery  in  two  rocket  attacks,  which  killed  seven  civilians.    The  climate  of  Zagreb  is  

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classified  as  an  oceanic  climate:  summers  are  warm,  at  the  end  of  May  the  
temperatures  start  rising  and  it  is  often  pleasant  with  occasional  thunderstorms.    
Heatwaves  can  occur  but  are  short-­‐lived.    Rainfall  is  abundant  in  the  summertime  
and  it  continues  to  be  in  autumn  as  well.    Zagreb  is  Europe’s  9th  wettest  capital,  
behind  Luxembourg  and  ahead  of  Brussels,  Belgium.    Autumn  in  its  early  stages  is  
mild  with  an  increase  of  rainy  days  and  precipitation  as  well  as  a  steady  
temperature  fall  towards  its  end.  Morning  fog  is  common  from  mid-­‐October  to  
January.    Winters  are  cold  with  a  precipitation  decrease  pattern.    Even  though  there  
is  no  discernable  dry  season,  February  is  the  driest  month.    On  average  there  are  29  
days  with  snowfall  with  the  first  snow  falling  in  early  November.    Springs  are  
generally  mild  and  pleasant  with  frequent  weather  changes  and  are  windier  than  
other  seasons.    Most  citizens  are  ethnically  Croatian.    Zagreb  has  been,  and  is,  
hosting  some  of  the  most  popular  mainstream  artists  and  underground  artists.    It  is  
also  the  home  of  the  INmusic  festival,  one  of  the  biggest  open  air  festivals  in  Croatia  
which  is  held  every  year,  usually  at  the  end  of  June.    Catholicism  is  the  predominant  
religion  of  Croatia,  1.1  million  adherents  (almost  the  entire  population).    There  is  a  
smattering  of  Protestant  churches  that  make  up  the  40-­‐non-­‐Catholic  places  of  
worship  in  the  city.    The  history  of  the  Jews  in  Croatia  dates  back  to  at  least  the  3rd  
century,  although  little  is  known  of  the  community  until  the  10th  and  15th  centuries.    
By  the  outbreak  of  World  War  II,  the  community  numbered  approximately  20,000  
members,  most  of  whom  were  murdered  during  the  Holocaust  that  took  place  on  
the  territory  of  the  Nazi  puppet  state  called  Independent  State  of  Croatia.    After  
World  War  II,  half  of  the  survivors  chose  to  settle  in  Israel,  while  an  estimated  2,500  
members  continued  to  live  in  Croatia.    According  to  the  2011  census,  there  were  509  
Jews  living  in  Croatia,  but  that  number  is  believed  to  exclude  those  born  of  mixed  
marriages  or  those  married  to  non-­‐Jews.    More  than  80  percent  of  the  Zagreb  Jewish  
Community  were  thought  to  fall  in  those  two  categories.    Today,  Croatia  is  home  to  
eight  synagogues  and  associated  organizations.    Of  these,  the  Zagreb  community  is  
the  largest  and  most  active,  organizing  events  such  as  the  annual  Zagreb  Jewish  Film  
Festival  to  promote  Jewish  culture  and  identity.    The  most  important  branches  of  
industry  are  chemical,  pharmaceutical,  textile,  food  and  drink  processing.      

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Zeus  (pg.  39):

   
Ancient  Greek.  The  god  of  the  sky,  lightning  and  thunder  in  Ancient  Greek  religion  
and  myth,  and  king  of  the  gods  on  Mount  Olympus.    Zeus  is  the  sixth  child  of  Kronos  
and  Ghea,  king  and  queen  of  the  Titans.    He  controlled  the  weather.    He  had  the  
ability  to  hurl  lightning  bolts  at  those  who  displeased  him.    He  hated  dishonesty,  and  
would  punish  those  who  lied  or  broke  promises.    His  winged  horse  Pegasus  carried  
his  lightning  bolts  and  he  trained  an  eagle  to  retrieve  them.    He  weaknesses  include  
trouble  over  love  affairs,  can  be  moody.      
 

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