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Dramaturgy

 List  for  FUN  HOME  


 
1. Alison  Bechdel  
(born  September  10,  1960,  Lock  Haven,  Pennsylvania,  U.S.),  American  
cartoonist  and  graphic  novelist  who  was  perhaps  best  known  for  the  comic  
strip  Dykes  to  Watch  Out  For  (1983–2008),  which  introduced  the  so-­‐called  
Bechdel  Test;  it  evaluates  movies  on  the  basis  of  gender  inequality.  
 
Bechdel’s  parents  were  teachers,  and  her  father  was  a  part-­‐time  funeral  
director  (the  funeral  home  was  nicknamed  the  “fun  home”  by  Bechdel  and  
her  siblings).  When  Bechdel  was  19  years  old,  just  months  after  she  had  
revealed  to  her  parents  that  she  was  a  lesbian,  her  father  was  struck  and  
killed  by  a  truck,  an  event  that  Bechdel  later  theorized  was  actually  an  act  of  
suicide.  After  she  earned  a  B.A.  (1981)  from  Oberlin  College,  she  moved  to  
New  York  City.  
 
In  1983  Bechdel  began  writing  and  drawing  Dykes  to  Watch  Out  For,  a  comic  
strip  that  soon  became  a  mainstay  in  gay  and  alternative  news  weeklies  
across  the  United  States.  Dykes  to  Watch  Out  For  ran  for  25  years,  with  
Bechdel  self-­‐syndicating  the  strip  and  eventually  publishing  it  on  the  
Internet.  There  the  strip  gained  new  life,  and  one  particular  cartoon  would  
embed  Bechdel’s  name  in  the  popular  culture  lexicon.  In  the  1985  strip  “The  
Rule,”  a  character  states  that  she  will  watch  a  movie  only  if  it  has  at  least  two  
women  who  talk  to  each  other  about  a  topic  other  than  men.  In  the  21st  
century  those  guidelines  became  known  as  the  Bechdel  Test,  a  shorthand  
method  to  illustrate  the  dramatic  gender  disparity  in  Hollywood.  (Bechdel  
herself  preferred  to  call  it  the  Bechdel-­‐Wallace  Test  to  acknowledge  the  
friend  who  inspired  “The  Rule”).  Bechdel  published  a  number  of  Dykes  to  
Watch  Out  For  printed  collections,  and  although  the  strip’s  main  character  
bore  a  passing  resemblance  to  her,  the  comic  was  not  overtly  
autobiographical.  The  series  ended  in  2008.  
 
In  2006  Bechdel  published  the  graphic  memoir  Fun  Home,  a  coming-­‐of-­‐age  
story  that  detailed  her  relationship  with  her  father,  a  closeted  gay  man  with  
an  obsessive  eye  for  decorative  detail,  and  her  own  emerging  lesbian  
consciousness.  The  critically  acclaimed  work  was  named  a  finalist  for  the  
National  Book  Critics  Circle  Award,  and  it  won  the  Eisner—the  most-­‐
prestigious  award  in  the  comics  industry—for  best  reality-­‐based  work.  In  
October  2013  Fun  Home  was  brought  to  the  stage  by  Lisa  Kron  (book)  and  
Jeanine  Tesori  (score,  with  Kron).  It  captured  a  string  of  awards  during  its  
Off-­‐Broadway  run,  and  in  2014  it  was  named  a  finalist  for  the  Pulitzer  Prize  
for  drama.  The  musical  made  its  Broadway  debut  in  April  2015,  and  it  went  
on  to  garner  a  dozen  Tony  Award  nominations,  winning  for  best  musical,  
best  actor,  best  direction,  best  book,  and  best  score.  
 
In  2012  Bechdel  released  Are  You  My  Mother?:  A  Comic  Drama,  a  graphic  
novel  that  explored  the  mother-­‐child  bond  through  Bechdel’s  relationship  
with  her  own  mother,  as  well  as  the  writings  of  Virginia  Woolf  and  
psychoanalysts  Alice  Miller  and  Donald  Winnicott.  In  2014  Bechdel  was  
awarded  a  John  D.  and  Catherine  T.  MacArthur  Foundation  “genius  grant.”  
2. Jeanine  Tesori  won  the  Tony  Award  for  Best  Original  Score  with  Lisa  Kron  
for  the  musical  Fun  Home,  which  is  currently  playing  on  Broadway.  She  has  
also  written  Tony-­‐nominated  scores  for  Twelfth  Night  at  Lincoln  Center;  
Thoroughly  Modern  Millie  (lyrics,  Dick  Scanlan);  Caroline,  or  Change  (lyrics,  
Tony  Kushner);  and  Shrek  The  Musical  (lyrics,  David  Lindsay-­‐Abaire).  The  
production  of  Caroline,  or  Change  at  the  National  Theatre  in  London  received  
the  Olivier  Award  for  Best  New  Musical.  Her  1997  Off-­‐Broadway  musical  
Violet  (lyrics,  Brian  Crawley)  opened  on  Broadway  in  2014  and  garnered  four  
Tony  nominations,  including  Best  Musical  Revival.  Opera:  A  Blizzard  on  
Marblehead  Neck  (libretto,  Tony  Kushner;  Glimmerglass)  and  The  Lion,  The  
Unicorn,  and  Me  (libretto,  J.  D.  McClatchy,  Kennedy  Center).  Music  for  plays:  
Mother  Courage  (dir.  George  C.  Wolfe,  with  Meryl  Streep  and  Kevin  Kline),  
John  Guare's  A  Free  Man  of  Color  (Lincoln  Center  Theater,  dir.  George  C.  
Wolfe),  and  Romeo  and  Juliet  (Delacorte  Gala).  Film  scores:  Nights  in  
Rodanthe,  Every  Day,  and  You're  Not  You.  Ms.  Tesori  is  a  member  of  the  
Dramatists  Guild  and  was  cited  by  the  ASCAP  as  the  first  female  composer  to  
have  two  new  musicals  running  concurrently  on  Broadway.  She  is  the  
founding  artistic  director  of  Encores!  Off-­Center  at  New  York  City  Center,  and  
is  a  lecturer  in  music  at  Yale  University.  Most  of  all,  she  is  the  proud  parent  of  
Siena  Rafter,  a  senior  at  LaGuardia  High  School  for  the  Arts.  
3. Lisa  Kron  has  been  writing  and  performing  theater  since  coming  to  New  York  
from  Michigan  in  1984.  Her  work  has  been  widely  produced  in  New  York,  
regionally,  and  internationally.  
 
Her  plays  include  the  musical  Fun  Home,  a  musical  written  with  composer  
Jeanine  Tesori  and  based  on  the  graphic  novel  by  Alison  Bechdel;  The  
Ver**zon  Play,  which  premiered  2012  Humana  Festival;  In  The  Wake  which  
received  Lortel  and  GLAAD  Media  Award  nominations,  was  a  finalist  for  the  
Susan  Smith  Blackburn  Prize,  named  a  “Best  Play  of  2010”  by  TimeOut  and  
Backstage,  and  was  included  in  the  Best  Plays  Theater  Yearbook  2010-­‐2011;  
Well,  which  premiered  at  the  Public  Theater,  was  named  a  “Best  Play  of  
2004”  by  the  New  York  Times,  the  Associated  Press,  the  Newark  Star  Ledger,  
Backstage,  and  the  Advocate,  included  in  the  Best  Plays  Theater  Yearbook  of  
2003-­‐2004,  and  moved  to  Broadway  where  both  she  and  Jayne  Houdyshell  
received  Tony  nominations  for  their  performances.  2.5  Minute  Ride,  which  
had  its  New  York  premiere  at  the  Public  Theater,  received  OBIE,  L.A.  Drama-­‐
Logue,  New  York  Press,  and  GLAAD  Media  Awards,  and  continues  to  be  
performed  by  Lisa  and  others  all  over  the  world;  101  Humiliating  Stories,  
which  received  a  Drama  Desk  nomination  for  its  PS122  premiere  and  was  a  
part  of  Lincoln  Center’s  1993  “Serious  Fun!”  performance  series.  
 
Lisa  is  a  founding  member  of  the  legendary  OBIE  and  Bessie  Award-­‐winning  
collaborative  theater  company  The  Five  Lesbian  Brothers  whose  plays,  
Oedipus  at  Palm  Springs,  Brave  Smiles,  Brides  of  the  Moon  and  The  Secretaries  
have  all  been  produced  by  their  theatrical  home,  New  York  Theater  
Workshop,  and  have  been  performed  widely  throughout  the  country  both  by  
the  Brothers  and  by  other  companies.  Their  plays  are  published  by  T.C.G.  in  
the  anthology,  “Five  Lesbian  Brothers/Four  Plays”  and  also  by  Samuel  
French.  
 
Lisa  has  received  playwriting  fellowships  from  the  Lortel  and  Guggenheim  
Foundations,  Sundance  Theater  Lab,  the  Lark  Play  Development  Center,  and  
the  MacDowell  Colony,  the  Cal  Arts/Alpert  Award,  a  Helen  Merrill  Award,  
and  grants  from  the  Creative  Capital  Foundation  and  New  York  Foundation  
for  the  Arts.  She  was  a  resident  playwright  at  the  American  Voices  New  Play  
Initiative  at  Arena  Stage.  
 
As  an  actor,  Lisa’s  professional  career  as  began  in  1983  when  Michael  Kahn  
chose  her  as  member  of  the  ANTA  Company,  which  toured  three  plays  in  rep  
for  a  season.  Since  then  she  has  acted  in  her  own  plays  and  the  plays  of  the  
Five  Lesbian  Brothers,  and  also  seen  in  such  productions  as  the  Foundry’s  
Good  Person  of  Szechwan  at  LaMama,  The  Normal  Heart  at  the  Public  Theater,  
Spain  at  M.C.C.,  and  The  Most  Fabulous  Story  Ever  Told,  at  NYTW.  
 
4. Original  Production  
Fun  Home  premiered  Off-­‐Broadway  at  The  Public  Theater  in  previews  on  
September  30,  2013,  and  opened  officially  on  October  22,  2013.  Originally  
scheduled  to  run  through  November  3,  2013,  the  run  was  extended  several  
times,  and  the  musical  closed  on  January  12,  2014.  The  production  was  
directed  by  Sam  Gold,  with  sets  and  costumes  by  David  Zinn,  lighting  by  Ben  
Stanton,  projections  by  Jim  Findlay  and  Jeff  Sugg,  and  choreography  by  
Danny  Mefford.  In  response  to  a  controversy  in  which  the  legislature  of  South  
Carolina  attempted  to  financially  punish  the  College  of  Charleston  for  
choosing  the  original  graphic  novel  of  Fun  Home  as  a  reading  selection  for  
incoming  freshmen,  the  off-­‐Broadway  cast  presented  a  concert  of  songs  from  
the  musical  to  a  full  house  in  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  in  April  2014.  
Bechdel,  Kron,  Tesori  and  musical  director  Chris  Fenwick  accompanied  the  
cast.  
5. Broadway  Production  
The  musical  began  previews  at  Broadway's  Circle  in  the  Square  Theatre  on  
March  27,  2015,  with  an  official  opening  on  April  19,  2015.  Gold  directed  the  
show  on  Broadway,  with  the  same  production  team  as  the  Off-­‐Broadway  
production,  including  Zinn,  Mefford  and  Stanton.  The  Off-­‐Broadway  cast  
reprised  their  roles  on  Broadway,  except  for  the  actors  playing  Medium  
Alison,  John  and  Christian  Bechdel.  In  December  2015,  eight  months  after  
opening  on  Broadway,  the  show  recouped  its  capitalization  and  began  to  
make  a  profit.  Costs  for  the  show  were  relatively  low  due  to  a  small  cast  and  
orchestra.  The  production  closed  on  September  10,  2016,  after  26  previews  
and  582  regular  performances.  
6. Red  Baron  with  his  Sopwith  Camel:    
The  Red  Baron  was  the  name  applied  to  Manfred  von  Richthofen,  a  German  
fighter  pilot  who  was  the  deadliest  flying  ace  of  World  War  I.  During  a  19-­‐
month  period  between  1916  and  1918,  the  Prussian  aristocrat  shot  down  80  
Allied  aircraft  and  won  widespread  fame  for  his  scarlet-­‐colored  airplanes  and  
ruthlessly  effective  flying  style.  Richthofen’s  legend  only  grew  after  he  took  
command  of  a  German  fighter  wing  known  as  the  Flying  Circus,  but  his  career  
in  the  cockpit  was  cut  short  in  April  1918,  when  he  was  killed  in  a  dogfight  
over  France.    
 
With  one  pilot,  two  machine  guns,  four  wings  and  nine  cylinders  in  its  engine,  
no  other  Allied  craft  achieved  more  aerial  victories  in  World  War  One  than  
the  quick  and  powerful  Sopwith  Camel.  
 
With  the  right  pilot,  it  was  a  manoeuvring  masterpiece,  as  it  was  more  agile  
than  its  predecessor,  the  Sopwith  Pup,  and  its  German  foes.  Several  
celebrated  pilots  made  their  names  in  a  Camel  –  from  Canadian  Billy  Barker  
(who  shot  down  46  enemy  craft,  including  the  Red  Baron)  to  Snoopy,  who  
pretends  to  fly  one  while  taking  on  the  Red  Baron  in  the  beloved  Peanuts  
comic.  
 
To  the  inexperienced,  however,  the  Camel  was  a  temperamental  beast,  even  a  
dangerous  one.  Devilishly  tricky  to  control,  hundreds  of  trainee  pilots  died  
when  their  plane  would  stall  and  spin.  No  wonder  the  men  of  the  Royal  
Flying  Corps  would  joke  that  the  Camel  offered  a  choice  between,  “a  wooden  
cross,  the  Red  Cross  or  a  Victoria  Cross”.  
 
7. Lock  Haven,  PA/Beech  Creek  
 
The  city  of  Lock  Haven  is  the  county  seat  of  Clinton  County,  in  the  U.S.  state  of  
Pennsylvania.  Located  near  the  confluence  of  the  West  Branch  Susquehanna  
River  and  Bald  Eagle  Creek,  it  is  the  principal  city  of  the  Lock  Haven  
Micropolitan  Statistical  Area,  itself  part  of  the  Williamsport–Lock  Haven  
combined  statistical  area.  At  the  2010  census,  Lock  Haven's  population  was  
9,772.    
 
Built  on  a  site  long  favored  by  pre-­‐Columbian  peoples,  Lock  Haven  began  in  
1833  as  a  timber  town  and  a  haven  for  loggers,  boatmen,  and  other  travelers  
on  the  river  or  the  West  Branch  Canal.  Resource  extraction  and  efficient  
transportation  financed  much  of  the  city's  growth  through  the  end  of  the  
19th  century.  In  the  20th  century,  a  light-­‐aircraft  factory,  a  college,  and  a  
paper  mill,  along  with  many  smaller  enterprises,  drove  the  economy.  
Frequent  floods,  especially  in  1972,  damaged  local  industry  and  led  to  a  high  
rate  of  unemployment  in  the  1980s.    
 
The  city  has  three  sites  on  the  National  Register  of  Historic  Places—
Memorial  Park  Site,  a  significant  pre-­‐Columbian  archaeological  find;  Heisey  
House,  a  Victorian-­‐era  museum;  and  Water  Street  District,  an  area  with  a  mix  
of  19th-­‐  and  20th-­‐century  architecture.  A  levee,  completed  in  1995,  protects  
the  city  from  further  flooding.  While  industry  remains  important  to  the  city,  
about  a  third  of  Lock  Haven's  workforce  is  employed  in  education,  health  
care,  or  social  services.    
 
Beech  Creek  is  a  borough  in  Clinton  County,  Pennsylvania,  United  States.  The  
population  was  701  at  the  2010  census.  It  is  the  setting  for  Fun  Home,  a  2006  
graphic  memoir  by  Alison  Bechdel,  who  grew  up  there.  Brittani  Kline,  winner  
of  America's  Next  Top  Model,  Cycle  16,  was  born  there.    
 

8. Damask:    
·    1.  a  figured  woven  fabric  with  a  pattern  visible  on  both  sides,  typically  used  
for  table  linen  and  upholstery.  
·    2.  short  for  damask  rose.  
 
9. Irish  Linen

 
Irish  linen  (Irish:  Línéadach  Éireannach)  is  the  brand  name  given  to  linen  
produced  in  Ireland.  Linen  is  cloth  woven  from,  or  yarn  spun  from  the  flax  
fibre,  which  was  grown  in  Ireland  for  many  years  before  advanced  
agricultural  methods  and  more  suitable  climate  led  to  the  concentration  of  
quality  flax  cultivation  in  northern  Europe  (Most  of  the  world  crop  of  quality  
flax  is  now  grown  in  Northern  France,  Belgium  and  the  Netherlands).  Since  
about  the  1950s  to  1960s  the  flax  fibre  for  Irish  Linen  yarn  has  been,  almost  
exclusively,  imported  from  France,  Belgium  and  the  Netherlands.  It  is  bought  
by  spinners  who  produce  yarn,  and,  this,  in  turn,  is  sold  to  weavers  (or  
knitters)  who  produce  fabric.  Irish  linen  spinning  has  now  virtually  ceased,  
yarns  being  imported  from  places  such  as  the  Eastern  part  of  the  European  
Union  and  China.    
 
Weaving  continues  mainly  of  plain  linens  for  niche,  top  of  the  range,  apparel  
uses.  Linen  damask  weaving  in  Ireland  has  less  capacity,  and  it  is  confined  at  
very  much  the  top  end  of  the  market  for  luxury  end  uses.  Companies  
including  Thomas  Ferguson  &  Co  Ltd  continue  to  weave  in  Ireland  tend  to  
concentrate  on  the  quality  end  of  the  market,  and  Jacquard  weaving  is  
moving  towards  the  weaving  of  specials  and  custom  damask  pieces,  made  to  
the  customers'  own  individual  requirements.  Fabric,  which  is  woven  outside  
Ireland  and  brought  to  Ireland  to  be  bleached/dyed  and  finished,  cannot  
carry  the  Irish  Linen  Guild  logo,  which  is  the  Guild  trademark,  and  signifies  
the  genuine  Irish  Linen  brand.    
 
The  Irish  Linen  Guild  has  defined  Irish  linen  as  yarn,  which  is  spun  in  Ireland  
from  100%  flax  fibres.  Irish  linen  fabric  is  defined  as  fabric,  which  is  woven  
in  Ireland  from  100%  linen  yarns.  It  is  not  required  that  every  stage  from  the  
growing  of  the  flax  to  the  weaving  must  take  place  in  Ireland.  To  be  Irish  
linen  fabric  the  yarns  do  not  necessarily  have  to  come  from  an  Irish  spinner,  
and  to  be  Irish  linen  (yarn)  the  flax  fibre  does  not  have  to  be  grown  in  
Ireland.  However,  the  skills,  craftsmanship,  and  technology  that  go  into  
spinning  the  yarn  must  be  Irish,  as  is  the  case  with  Irish  linen  fabric;  where  
the  design  and  weaving  skills  must  be  Irish,  and  all  of  such  must  take  place  in  
Ireland.    
 
Finished  garments,  or  household  textile  items  can  be  labelled  Irish  linen,  
although  they  may  have  been  made  up  in  another  country.  Irish  linen  does  
not  refer  to  the  making  up  process  (such  as  cutting  and  sewing).  It  refers  to  
where  the  constituent  fabric  was  woven  or  knitted.    
 
10. Hepplewhite  Suite  Chairs

 
George  Hepplewhite  (1727?  –  21  June  1786)  was  a  cabinetmaker.  He  is  
regarded  as  having  been  one  of  the  "big  three"  English  furniture  makers  of  
the  18th  century,  along  with  Thomas  Sheraton  and  Thomas  Chippendale.  
There  are  no  pieces  of  furniture  made  by  Hepplewhite  or  his  firm  known  to  
exist  but  he  gave  his  name  to  a  distinctive  style  of  light,  elegant  furniture  that  
was  fashionable  between  about  1775  and  1800  and  reproductions  of  his  
designs  continued  through  the  following  centuries.  One  characteristic  that  is  
seen  in  many  of  his  designs  is  a  shield-­‐shaped  chair  back,  where  an  expansive  
shield  appeared  in  place  of  a  narrower  splat  design.    
11. Quixote  
12.  
The  Rococo  Revival

style  emerged  in  Second  Empire  France  and  then  was  adapted  in  England.  
Revival  of  the  rococo  style  was  seen  all  throughout  Europe  during  the  19th  
century  within  a  variety  of  artistic  modes  and  expression  including  
decorative  objects  of  art,  paintings,  art  prints,  furniture,  and  interior  design.  
In  much  of  Europe  and  particularly  in  France,  the  original  rococo  was  
regarded  as  a  national  style,  and  to  many,  its  reemergence  recalled  national  
tradition.  Rococo  revival  epitomized  grandeur  and  luxury  in  European  style  
and  was  another  expression  of  19th  century  romanticism  and  the  growing  
interest  and  fascination  with  natural  landscape.    
 
During  the  later  half  of  the  nineteenth  century,  Rococo  Revival  was  also  
fashionable  in  American  furniture  and  interior  design.  John  Henry  Belter  was  
considered  the  most  prominent  figure  of  rococo  revival  furniture  making.  
Revival  of  the  rococo  style  was  not  restricted  to  a  specific  time  period  or  
place,  but  occurred  in  several  waves  throughout  the  19th  century.    
 
13. 1970s  cameras,  

tape  recorders,  
clothes,

   
vacuum  cleaners,

diaries

TVs
sleeping  bags

 
 
 
 
 
toothbrushes,

 coat  hooks,

   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Village  Voice,

 diners,  
toolbags

 
14. Oberlin  College:  dorm  rooms

 
15. Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates:      
Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  is  Manhattan’s  oldest  chocolate  house  –  Since  1923.    They  
make  old-­‐world  artisan  chocolate  in  small  batches  for  exceptional  quality  
and  superior  taste  –  using  original  recipes,  time-­‐honored  techniques,  and  
quality  ingredients.    Their  selection  of  fresh  chocolate  –  more  than  120  items  
–  is  one  of  the  largest  selections  of  fresh  gourmet  chocolate  in  America.    
Every  delicious  item  is  made  by  hand,  locally  in  New  York  City,  and  
guaranteed  for  freshness.  
 
The  history  of  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  dates  back  to  1923  when  George  Demetious,  
a  native  of  Greece  who  studied  the  art  of  chocolate  making  in  France,  
emigrated  to  New  York  and  opened  his  shop  at  120  Christopher  Street  in  the  
heart  of  Greenwich  Village.    During  the  1920s,  Greenwich  Village  was  a  
destination  for  artists,  intellectuals  and  innovators.  It  was  in  this  context  that  
Mr.  Demetrious  applied  his  chocolate-­‐making  expertise,  creating  and  
perfecting  his  recipes  for  such  items  as  Almond  Bark,  Butter  Crunch,  
Hazelnut  Truffle  Squares,  Legendary  Fudge,  and  other  favorites,  steadily  
building  a  loyal  customer  following  among  his  quirky  and  demanding  
neighbors.    Over  the  ensuing  9  decades,  Li-­‐Lac  became  a  New  York  favorite.    
When  trendy  ingredients  and  mass  production  emerged  as  the  model  for  the  
modern  chocolatier,  Li-­‐Lac  remained  true  to  its  history  and  tradition,  
eschewing  automation  and  trendiness.    Deemed  “stubbornly  old  fashioned”  
by  the  Wall  Street  Journal,  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  is  one  of  the  few  old-­‐school  
chocolate  companies  to  survive  into  the  modern  era.  
 
Mr.  Demetrious  used  large  marble-­‐top  tables  and  copper  kettles  to  perfect  
his  signature  recipes.    He  employed  a  staff  of  dippers  and  packers  who  
contributed  their  own  specialized  care  and  attention  to  detail  still  found  in  
every  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolate  box  made  today.    When  Demetrious  passed  away  in  
1972,  he  entrusted  his  recipes  and  beloved  company  to  Marguerite  Watt,  his  
devoted  employee  of  25  years.    Marguerite  carried  on  Demetrious’  high  
standards  for  chocolate  making  until  she  retired,  selling  the  business  to  
Edward  Bond  in  1978.  
 
“Edward  Bond,”  Marguerite  would  often  say,  “is  the  quintessential  Southern  
gentleman.”    On  many  occasions,  she  told  him  that  she  wouldn’t  sell  the  
company  to  just  anyone:  “Whoever  comes  in  here  after  me,  will  be  seeing  to  
it  that  quality,  caring,  and  commitment  still  count.”    Bond  was  her  man,  a  
Mississippi  native,  who  relocated  to  New  York  City,  and  a  regular  patron  who  
purchased  dessert  items  from  Li-­‐Lac  for  his  catering  business.    Whenever  he  
visited  the  store,  he  allowed  other  customers  to  be  served  first  so  he  could  
stay  behind  and  visit  with  Marguerite.    During  the  years,  they  became  good  
friends  and  she  was  convinced  that  Ed  was  the  individual  who  best  
understood  the  importance  of  quality  and  respect  for  the  Li-­‐Lac  tradition.    
marguerite  offered  to  sell  him  the  business,  and  it  wasn’t  long  after  that  Bond  
became  the  third  owner  of  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates.      
 
While  upholding  the  company’s  tradition,  Ed  expanded  the  business  and  
introduced  a  few  items  of  his  own,  including  Mr.  Bond’s  Special  Pralines.    he  
also  acquired  a  large  selection  of  chocolate  molds  and  designed  Li-­‐Lac’s  first  
signature  floral  gift  box  packaging.    Loyal  to  both  Demetious  and  Marguerite,  
Ed  kept  in  his  employ  all  of  the  devoted  staff  who  had  been  working  at  Li-­‐Lac  
since  Mr.  Demetrious  owned  the  shop.    In  1981,  Ed’s  sister,  Martha,  joined  
him  in  the  chocolate-­‐making  business.    For  Martha,  “it  was  love  at  first  
sight!”.    She  quickly  learned  the  old  master’s  recipes,  perfected  his  
techniques,  assisted  customers,  and  helped  Ed  with  day-­‐to-­‐day  operations.    
Together,  Martha  and  Ed  developed  new  recipes  –  most  notable  the  Specialty  
Truffles  that  are  still  a  best-­‐selling  item  today.    Martha’s  efforts  were  
recognized  in  1996,  when  her  recipe  won  an  award  for  the  “Best  Raspberry  
Truffle  in  the  Tri-­‐State  Area.”    With  their  dual  leadership,  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  
continued  to  grow  but  never  at  the  expense  of  freshness  or  quality.  
 
After  Ed’s  death  in  1990,  Martha  Bond  inherited  the  stewardship  of  Li-­‐Lac  
Chocolates,  nurturing  the  business  and  maintaining  the  same  single-­‐minded  
focus  on  product  quality  as  Demetrious,  Marguerite,  and  Ed.    In  1999,  she  
opened  a  second  location  in  Grand  Central  Market,  brining  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  
into  the  world’s  busiest  train  station.    When  rent  became  too  high  in  2005  to  
continue  at  the  Christopher  Street  location,  she  had  to  make  the  most  heart-­‐
wrenching  decision  in  Li-­‐Lac’s  history.  After  eight  decades,  the  iconic  store  
was  forced  to  relocate  a  few  blocs  north,  while  the  production  facility  moved  
to  Sunset  Park,  Brooklyn.    The  move  was  difficult  for  everyone,  but  especially  
sad  was  moving  away  from  P.S.  3  and  St.  Luke’s  Parish,  who  represented  
three  generations  of  loyal  Li-­‐Lac  customers.    Their  hearts  continue  to  be  
touched  by  the  people  who  communicate  to  them  of  their  fond  memories  of  
stopping  by  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  on  their  way  home  from  school!    In  2009,  
Martha  retired  to  Mississippi  to  be  with  her  beloved  grandchildren.  
 
Today,  Li-­‐Lac  Chocolates  is  in  the  hands  of  three  long-­‐time  NYC  residents:  
Anthony  Cirone,  Anwar  Khoder  and  Christopher  Taylor.      
   
16. 1980s  phones

clothes,  

stationary,  pens,  
sketch  books

 
diaries,  

duffle  bags,
 back  packs

 
17. embalming  and  running  a  funeral  home:      
 
Opening  your  own  funeral  home  requires  experience  in  and  knowledge  of  
mortuary  services.  You  also  need  compassion  and  strong  customer  service  
skills  to  work  with  families  that  need  help  making  arrangements  to  bury  
their  loved  ones.  In  addition  to  business  and  marketing  expertise,  you  must  
be  knowledgeable  about  different  faiths  and  the  funeral  and  burial  customs  
of  each  one.  
 
Obtain  Your  License  
Most  states  require  funeral  directors  to  have  a  minimal  amount  of  college  
education  in  mortuary  science.  An  associate  degree  in  funeral  service  
education  is  commonly  required,  according  to  the  American  Board  of  Funeral  
Service  Education.  In  addition,  many  states  require  you  to  obtain  a  funeral  
home  license  administered  through  a  state  board  exam.  Before  you  seek  your  
license,  check  with  your  state  about  apprenticeship  requirements.  Most  
states  require  at  least  a  one-­‐year  apprenticeship  under  a  licensed  funeral  
director  before  taking  the  exam.  A  handful  of  states  require  continuing  
education  classes.  For  instance,  Indiana  requires  funeral  directors  or  
embalmers  to  take  10  hours  of  classes  every  two  years.  
 
Secure  Space  
As  you  look  for  space  for  your  funeral  home,  keep  in  mind  that  you  may  need  
room  to  add  crematory  and  embalming  areas.  Refrigeration  is  another  
requirement  for  embalming.  In  addition,  you  need  space  to  handle  body  
preparation.  Other  necessities  are  a  reception  area  and  rooms  to  hold  funeral  
services.  Selling  caskets  and  urns  requires  space  to  set  up  a  showroom.  You  
may  also  want  to  offer  private  meeting  rooms  and  a  children’s  playroom  
during  funeral  memorials  or  wakes.  
 
Create  A  GPL  
The  Federal  Trade  Commission’s  Funeral  Rule  requires  you  to  develop  and  
hand  out  to  prospects  a  comprehensive  list,  known  as  a  General  Price  List,  of  
the  services  and  products  you  sell.  Include  the  prices  of  individual  services  
and  products,  such  as  embalming  fees,  transportation  of  the  body  to  the  
funeral  home  and  memorial  service  arrangements.  The  FTC  also  requires  you  
to  provide  specific  disclosures  to  your  GPL,  such  as  mentioning  that  
alternative  containers  like  cardboard  boxes  are  available  for  use  in  cremation  
services.  In  addition,  you  must  let  customers  know  they  are  not  obliged  to  
buy  a  package  of  funeral  services  and  can  instead  purchase  their  choice  of  
individual  services  and  products.  
 
Offer  Pre-­Arranged  Funerals  
Pre-­‐arranged  funerals  are  a  valuable  product  to  offer  while  also  providing  
cash  flow  with  which  to  grow  your  business.  Before  you  start  selling  prepaid  
funerals,  however,  check  into  state  regulations.  For  instance,  in  Tennessee  
you  must  register  with  the  State  Department  of  Commerce  and  Insurance  
Burial  Services  to  sell  funded,  prearranged  funeral  plans.  The  state  also  
requires  you  to  obtain  approval  for  your  pre-­‐need  funeral  contract  with  any  
financial  institutions  you  plan  to  use.  
 
Hire  Staff  
As  a  funeral  director,  you'll  handle  a  variety  of  daily  activities,  including  
working  with  families,  making  arrangements  on  how  to  handle  the  body  and  
taking  care  of  the  administration  of  your  business.  If  you  plan  to  offer  
embalming  or  cremation  services  and  do  not  have  the  experience  with  these  
procedures,  you  must  hire  experienced  staff.  Hiring  a  part-­‐time  receptionist  
to  greet  and  direct  people  during  memorial  services  gives  you  the  support  
needed  while  you  work  with  the  families  and  handle  last-­‐minute  tasks.  
 
Embalming  
The  treatment  of  a  dead  body  so  as  to  sterilize  it  or  to  protect  it  from  decay.  
For  practical  as  well  as theological  reasons  a  well-­‐preserved  body  has  long  
been  a  chief  mortuary  concern.  The  ancient  Greeks,  who  demanded  
endurance  of  their  heroes  in  death  as  in  life,  expected  the  bodies  of  their  
dead  to  last  without  artificial  aid  during  the  days  of  mourning  that  preceded  
the  final  rites.  Other  societies,  less  demanding  of  their  greats,  developed  a  
wide  variety  of  preservatives  and  methods  to  stave  off  decay  or  minimize  its  
effects.  Corpses  have  been  pickled  in  vinegar,  wine,  and  stronger  spirits:  the  
body  of  the  British  admiral  Lord  Nelson  was  returned  from  Trafalgar  to  
England  in  a  cask  of  brandy.  Even  the  Greeks  sometimes  made  concessions:  
the  body  of  Alexander  the  Great,  for  example,  was  returned  from  Babylon  to  
Macedonia  in  a  container  of  honey.  The  application  of  spices  and  perfumed  
unguents  to  minimize  putrefaction  was  so  common  a  practice  that  the  
English  word  embalming  had  as  its  original  meaning  “to  put  on  balm.”  
Generally,  however,  the  word  is  used  to  describe  a  less  superficial  procedure,  
the  introduction  of  agents  into  the  body  to  ensure  preservation.  
 
Embalming  by  arterial  injection  as  a  mortuary  practice  is  considered  to  have  
begun  in  England  in  the  18th  century.  The  technique  had  actually  been  
developed  in  the  first  half  of  the  17th  century  by  the  noted  English  
physiologist  William  Harvey  in  experiments  leading  to  his  discovery  of  the  
circulation  of  blood,  during  which  he  injected  coloured  solutions  into  the  
arteries  of  cadavers.  Later  the  Dutch  and  German  scientists  Frederik  Ruysch  
and  Gabriel  Clauderus  are  believed  to  have  used  similar  arterial-­‐injection  
techniques  to  prevent  cadavers  from  decomposing.  The  Scottish  anatomist  
William  Hunter  (1718–83),  however,  is  credited  with  being  the  first  to  report  
fully  on  arterial  and  cavity  embalming  as  a  way  to  preserve  bodies  for  burial.  
His  discovery  attracted  wide  attention  after  his  younger  brother,  John  
Hunter,  in  1775  embalmed  the  body  of  a  Mrs.  Martin  Van  Butchell,  whose  will  
specified  that  her  husband  had  control  of  her  fortune  only  as  long  as  her  
body  remained  above  ground.  To  meet  that  condition,  Van  Butchell  had  her  
embalmed,  placed  her  fashionably  dressed  body  in  a  glass-­‐lidded  case  in  a  
sitting  room,  and  held  regular  visiting  hours.  
 
The  demand  for  embalming  grew  in  England  and  particularly  in  the  United  
States,  where  it  was  promoted  by  a  newly  emerging  group  of  undertaker-­‐
businessmen  as  superior  to  the  customary  but  awkward  and  often  
unsatisfactory  method  of  preserving  bodies  for  transportation  or  for  viewing  
by  packing  them  in  ice  or  laying  them  on  “cooling  boards,”  with  a  concave,  
ice-­‐filled  box  fitted  over  the  torso  and  head.  Some  of  the  more  enterprising  
entrepreneurs  exhibited  well-­‐preserved  “cases”  in  the  windows  of  shops,  or  
took  them  on  tour  so  that  persons  in  rural  areas  and  small  towns  could  see  
the  latest  development.  
 
The  U.S.  Civil  War  was  the  turning  point  in  breaking  down  public  resistance  
to  “mutilating”  the  body  and  in  establishing  arterial  embalming  as  a  common  
practice  in  the  United  States.  Although  the  government  had  established  
national  cemeteries  for  the  war  dead,  it  freely  awarded  contracts  to  
undertakers  and  embalmers  to  prepare  the  bodies  of  soldiers  for  shipment  
home.  The  widespread  use  of  this  service  by  soldiers’  families  and  the  
embalming  of  such  notable  dead  as  Pres.  Abraham  Lincoln’s  son  Willie  and  
later  of  Lincoln  himself  brought  about  increased  acceptance  of  the  practice  
and  even  caused  it  to  become  associated  with  patriotic  activity.  Early  
practitioners  included  a  number  of  vigorous  salesmen,  including  Joseph  H.  
Clarke,  a  road  salesman  for  a  coffin  company.  Impressed  by  embalming’s  
possibilities  and  profits,  he  persuaded  a  staff  member  of  a  medical  college  in  
Cincinnati  to  institute  a  brief  course  in  embalming  in  1882,  thus  establishing  
the  basis  of  mortuary  education  in  the  United  States.  Embalming  remains  the  
only  specific  skill  required  in  the  undertaking  business.  
In  the  modern  procedure  of  embalming,  the  blood  is  drained  from  one  of  the  
veins  and  replaced  by  a  fluid,  usually  based  on  Formalin  (a  solution  of  
formaldehyde  in  water),  injected  into  one  of  the  main  arteries.  Cavity  fluid  is  
removed  with  a  long  hollow  needle  called  a  trocar  and  replaced  with  
preservative.  This  fluid  is  also  based  on  Formalin  mixed  with  alcohols,  
emulsifiers,  and  other  substances  (like  embalming  fluid)  to  keep  the  body  
temporarily  from  shriveling  and  turning  brown.  Arterial  embalming  is  not  
permanent;  even  such  carefully  prepared  corpses  as  that  of  Lenin,  on  view  in  
the  Kremlin,  must  be  given  periodic  renewal  treatment.  The  chief  purpose  of  
embalming  is  rather  to  give  the  body  a  lifelike  appearance  during  the  days  in  
which  it  is  being  viewed  by  mourners.  To  enhance  this,  cosmetics  and  
masking  pastes  are  often  applied.  
 
18. 1970s  Jackson  5  
It's  difficult  to  believe  now,  but  Motown  Records'  Berry  Gordy  was  initially  
hesitant  to  sign  the  Jackson  5—a  Gary,  Indiana  quintet  comprised  of  brothers  
Michael,  Jermaine,  Tito,  Marlon  and  Jackie  Jackson—when  they  auditioned  
for  his  label.  
 
Not  only  did  Gordy  have  an  aversion  to  what  he  called  "kids  groups,"  which  
was  a  problem  since  lead  singer  Michael  was  only  turning  ten  in  a  few  weeks,  
but  Motown  already  had  another  young  prodigy,  Stevie  Wonder,  on  the  
roster.  
 
Still,  the  industry  legend  saw  something  special  in  the  young  vocalist,  what  
with  his  James  Brown-­‐esque  moves  and  soulful  performance  of  Smokey  
Robinson's  "Who's  Lovin'  You,"  and  decided  to  give  the  Jackson  Five  a  record  
deal.  
 
In  1969  Gordy  moved  the  troupe  to  Los  Angeles,  where  they  lived  while  
working  with  "The  Corporation,"  Motown's  in-­‐house  team  of  songwriters  and  
producers.  The  label's  early  tactics  also  included  aligning  the  group  with  the  
Supremes—the  Jackson  5  opened  for  the  group  in  August  and  appeared  on  
the  TV  show  Hollywood  Palace  when  Diana  Ross  guest  hosted—and  having  
the  troupe  perform  on  The  Ed  Sullivan  Show  later  in  the  year.  
 
As  it  turns  out,  this  strategy  was  genius.  In  1970  the  group's  first  four  singles  
("I  Want  You  Back,"  "ABC,"  "The  Love  You  Save"  and  "I'll  Be  There")  peaked  
at  Number  1  on  the  charts.  By  the  summer  they  were  headlining  arenas;  a  
year  later,  they  had  a  Saturday  morning  cartoon,  TV  specials  and  
merchandise  galore.  
 
It  was  a  meteoric  rise,  but  the  Jackson  5  were  certainly  performance  veterans  
by  this  point.  In  1964  the  group's  father,  Joe  Jackson,  saw  musical  potential  in  
his  sons,  and  spearheaded  the  group's  formation.  The  brothers  spent  the  next  
few  years  playing  talent  shows  and  making  a  name  for  themselves  on  the  
circuit  of  black  theaters  and  nightclubs;  in  1967  the  group  even  won  amateur  
night  at  Harlem's  famed  Apollo  Theater.  
 
However,  the  Jackson  5's  true  lucky  break  happened  the  following  
year,  thanks  to  a  string  of  shows  at  Chicago's  Regal  Theater  opening  for  
Bobby  Taylor.  The  Motown-­‐associated  musician  was  duly  impressed  by  the  
young  band,  and  connected  the  dots  to  send  the  troupe  to  Detroit  for  the  
deal-­‐making  label  audition.  
 
Natural  talent  and  Michael  Jackson's  preternatural  charisma  certainly  had  
something  to  do  with  the  Jackson  5's  immediate  appeal.  However,  the  group  
also  studied  contemporary  soul,  funk  and  R&B  greats—Sam  &  Dave,  Jackie  
Wilson,  Marvin  Gaye,  Etta  James,  Sly  &  The  Family  Stone—and  were  indebted  
to  the  vocal  group  stylings  of  early  rock  &  rollers  Frankie  Lymon  and  the  
Teenagers.  These  nods  to  tradition  kept  the  Jackson  5's  music  from  sounding  
like  a  novelty  and  gave  the  band  credibility.  
 
Motown  also  made  sure  the  band  were  constantly  releasing  albums:  by  the  
end  of  1973,  the  group  had  released  ten  LPs,  including  two  live  records  and  a  
holiday  collection.  Both  Jermaine  and  Michael  Jackson  also  released  solo  
work.  
 
As  the  decade  progressed,  the  Jackson  5's  sound  reflected  current  trends  and  
the  brothers'  move  toward  adulthood:  funk,  disco  and  more  mature  lyrical  
content  became  a  part  of  their  music,  especially  on  1973's  sizzling  "Get  It  
Together"  and  1974's  moving-­‐and-­‐grooving  "Dancing  Machine."  Still,  the  
group's  popularity  waned,  and  the  Jackson  5  (sans  Jermaine)  left  Motown  for  
a  deal  with  Epic  Records.  
 
Now  recording  as  the  Jacksons  for  legal  reasons,  the  group  added  youngest  
brother  Randy  and  teamed  up  with  legendary  producers  Gamble  and  Huff  for  
1976's  The  Jacksons  and  1977's  Goin'  Places.  The  partnership  (and  a  
pronounced  Philadelphia  soul  vibe)  revitalized  and  emboldened  the  group:  
they  self-­‐produced  and  largely  wrote  the  songs  on  their  next  two  LPs,  1978's  
Destiny  and  1980's  Triumph,  both  commercial  successes.  
 
With  Michael  Jackson's  solo  career  taking  off,  he  left  the  group  after  1984's  
Victory  LP  and  its  accompanying  tour  of  the  same  name.  The  Jacksons  
released  one  more  album  after  that,  1989's  poorly  received  2300  Jackson  
Street,  and  then  went  on  hiatus.  Save  for  a  2001  reunion  on  a  TV  special  to  
celebrate  Michael's  solo  career,  the  brothers  have  largely  stuck  to  separate  
endeavors.  
 
Inductees:  Jackie  Jackson  (born  May  4,  1951),  Jermaine  Jackson  (born  
December  11,  1954),  Marlon  Jackson  (born  March  12,  1957),  Michael  Jackson  
(born  August  19,  1958,  died  June  25,  2009),  Tito  Jackson  (born  October  15,  
1953)  
 
19. Irma  Hornbacher:  There  isn’t  any  information  about  her,  so,  I  assume  that  
she  must  have  been  a  local  actress  in  the  Beech  Creek/Lock  Haven  
community  theater  scene.  
20. Mrs.  Warren’s  Profession  
Mrs.  Warren’s  Profession,  play  in  four  acts  by  George  Bernard  Shaw,  
written  in  1893  and  published  in  1898  but  not  performed  until  1902  because  
of  government  censorship;  the  play’s  subject  matter  is  organized  
prostitution.  
 
Vivie  Warren,  a  well-­‐educated  young  woman,  discovers  that  her  mother  
attained  her  present  status  and  affluence  by  rising  from  poverty  through  
prostitution  and  that  she  now  has  financial  interests  in  several  brothels  
throughout  Europe.  For  years  an  aristocratic  friend  of  the  family  has  been  
her  partner.  Vivie  also  discovers  that  the  clergyman  father  of  Frank,  her  
suitor,  was  once  a  client  of  her  mother.  
 
Mrs.  Warren’s  position  is  that  poverty  and  a  society  that  condones  it  
constitute  true  immorality.  She  asserts  that  life  in  a  brothel  is  preferable  to  a  
life  of  grinding  poverty  as  a  factory  worker.  Vivie  acknowledges  her  mother’s  
courage  in  overcoming  her  past  but  rejects  her  continued  involvement  in  
prostitution.  She  severs  her  relationship  with  her  mother,  also  rejecting  
Frank  and  the  possibility  of  other  suitors.  
 
21. Uta  Hagen  
Uta  Thyra  Hagen  was  a  German  American  actress  and  drama  teacher.  Hagen  
was  cast,  early  on,  as  Ophelia  by  the  actress-­‐manager  Eva  Le  Gallienne.  From  
there,  Hagen  went  on  to  play  the  leading  ingenue  role  of  Nina  in  a  Broadway  
production  of  Anton  Chekhov’s  The  Seagull.  It  was  1938;  Hagen  was  just  18.  
 
Primarily  noted  for  stage  roles,  Hagen  won  her  first  Tony  Award  in  1951  for  
her  performance  in  Clifford  Odets’  The  Country  Girl.  She  won  again  in  1963  
for  originating  the  role  of  the  Martha  in  Edward  Albee’s  Who’s  Afraid  of  
Virginia  Woolf?.  She  taught  at  HB  Studio  in  the  West  Village.  Hagen  was  an  
influential  acting  teacher  who  taught,  among  others,  Matthew  Broderick,  
Sigourney  Weaver,  Liza  Minnelli,  Whoopi  Goldberg,  Jack  Lemmon,  and  Al  
Pacino.  She  was  a  voice  coach  to  Judy  Garland.  
 
She  also  wrote  Respect  for  Acting  (1973)  and  A  Challenge  for  the  Actor  
(1991).  She  was  elected  to  the  American  Theatre  Hall  of  Fame  in  1981.  She  
received  a  Special  Tony  Award  for  Lifetime  Achievement  in  1999.  In  2002,  
she  was  awarded  the  National  Medal  of  the  Arts  by  President  George  W.  Bush  
at  a  ceremony  held  at  the  White  House.  
 
22. Herbie  Rides  Again  and  The  Love  Bug  
 
Herbie  is  back!  And  this  time  Herbie's  leading  lady  is  award-­‐winning  actress  
Helen  Hayes,  out  to  save  her  beloved  Victorian  firehouse  home  from  the  
wrecking  ball  of  greedy  real  estate  tycoon  Keenan  Wynn.    
 
Herbie,  the  lovable  car  with  a  mind  of  his  own.  Dean  Jones,  Michele  Lee,  and  
Buddy  Hackett  join  Herbie  in  this  revved-­‐up  comedy  classic.  Jones  plays  
down-­‐on-­‐his-­‐luck  race  car  driver  Jim  Douglas,  who  reluctantly  teams  up  with  
the  little  machine.  Douglas  thinks  his  sudden  winning  streak  is  due  to  his  
skill,  not  Herbie's.  He  finally  realizes  the  car's  worth  when  a  sneaky  rival  
plots  to  steal  Herbie  for  himself.    
 
23. William  Morris  Wallpaper:

 William  Morris  (1834-­‐1896),  artist,  philosopher  and  political  theorist,  was  


one  of  the  most  outstanding  and  influential  designers  of  the  Arts  and  Crafts  
Movement  and  through  his  company,  Morris  &  Co.,  he  produced  some  of  the  
most  fashionable  and  exciting  textiles  and  wallpapers  of  his  era.  
 
His  legacy  continues  today  with  Morris  &  Co.  producing  authentic  versions  of  
his  original  designs  alongside  new  interpretations  to  create  up  to  date  fabrics  
and  wallpapers  with  timeless  appeal.  
24. etudes:    Their  main  purpose  is  to  develop  technique  on  an  instrument.  Most  
etudes  are  simply  a  series  of  repeated  note  patterns.  They  are  valuable  for  
younger  students  to  develop  strength.  
25. Lesbian  Pulp  Novels  
1950s  lesbian  pulp  novel:  Pulp  fiction  had  been  present  in  its  basic  form  
since  the  1890s.  By  1952  the  genre  had  expanded  to  include  the  lesbian  pulp  
novel.  For  the  rest  of  that  decade  a  series  of  books  became  one  of  the  few  
media  to  represent  lesbian  lives  in  any  way  whatsoever,  to  the  gratitude  of  
thousands  of  gay  women  in  America.  
 
As  censorship  standards  relaxed  late  in  the  decade,  the  content  of  these  
books  in  turn  became  more  rich  and  textured,  foreshadowing  the  gay  rights  
movement  that  would  emerge  a  decade  later.  
26. Chopin:  
Frédéric  Chopin,  French  in  full  Frédéric  François  Chopin,  Polish  Fryderyk  
Franciszek  Szopen,  (born  March  1,  1810,  Żelazowa  Wola,  near  Warsaw,  
Duchy  of  Warsaw  [now  in  Poland]—died  October  17,  1849,  Paris,  France),  
Polish  French  composer  and  pianist  of  the  Romantic  period,  best  known  for  
his  solo  pieces  for  piano  and  his  piano  concerti.  Although  he  wrote  little  but  
piano  works,  many  of  them  brief,  Chopin  ranks  as  one  of  music’s  greatest  
tone  poets  by  reason  of  his  superfine  imagination  and  fastidious  
craftsmanship.  
27. Colette  
Colette,  in  full  Sidonie-­Gabrielle  Colette,  (born  Jan.  28,  1873,  Saint-­‐
Sauveur-­‐en-­‐Puisaye,  France—died  Aug.  3,  1954,  Paris),  outstanding  French  
writer  of  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century  whose  best  novels,  largely  
concerned  with  the  pains  and  pleasures  of  love,  are  remarkable  for  their  
command  of  sensual  description.  Her  greatest  strength  as  a  writer  is  an  exact  
sensory  evocation  of  sounds,  smells,  tastes,  textures,  and  colours  of  her  
world.  
28. Paris  Bohemian  Scene:  
Every  era  in  history  has  its  own  counter-­‐culture  movement,  and  these  
movements  tend  to  come  in  waves.  The  Bohemian  "movement"  of  19th  
Century  Paris  had  two  generations  before  it  died  off  with  the  onset  of  World  
War  I.  Bohemia,  like  any  other  counter-­‐culture  movement,  is  an  important  
ingredient  for  historical  change  over  time.  
 
1st  Generation  Bohemia:  Bohemia  first  began  with  Henry  Murger  and  the  
Water  Drinkers,  in  the  cafe  he  discovered,  the  Cafe  Momus  (pictured  at  right).  
For  many  of  these  bohemians,  the  lifestyle  was  merely  a  stepping  stone  and  
not  a  full-­‐blown  profession.  Murger  himself  always  insisted  that  living  in  the  
world  of  bohemia  without  the  ambition  to  leave  it  would  destroy  a  person.  
 
2nd  Generation  Bohemia:  As  with  most  counter-­‐culture  movements  
throughout  history,  as  the  1st  Generation  of  the  bohemian  movement  came  
to  be  known  by  the  wider  public,  many  members  of  that  public  found  it  
mysterious  and  intriguing,  and  willingly  descended  into  its  ranks.  Many  
second  generation  bohemians  did  not  see  bohemia  as  a  means  to  an  end,  
however,  and  so  the  movement  began  to  degrade.  
 
"In  his  survey  Le  Boheme,  in  1868,  Gabriel  Guillemot  had  pointed  out  that  the  
word  'Bohemian'  had  dated.  Bohemian,  as  he  explained,  was  a  word  in  the  
current  vocabulary  of  1840:  it  had  meant  the  artist  or  student,  gay  and  
carefree,  idle  and  boisterous,  the  characters  whom  Murger  had  painted  in  
bright,  attractive  colours.  But  that  Bohemia,  wrote  Guillemot,  'which  one  
might  call  the  Bohemia  of  legend,  is  well  and  truly  dead'"  (from  
bohemiabooks.com,  whose  info  was  taken  from  Joanna  Richardson's  The  
Bohemians).  
29. Toulouse-­‐Latrec:    
Henri  de  Toulouse-­Lautrec,  in  full  Henri-­Marie-­Raymonde  de  Toulouse-­
Lautrec-­Monfa,  (born  November  24,  1864,  Albi,  France—died  September  9,  
1901,  Malromé),  French  artist  who  observed  and  documented  with  great  
psychological  insight  the  personalities  and  facets  of  Parisian  nightlife  and  the  
French  world  of  entertainment  in  the  1890s.  His  use  of  free-­‐flowing,  
expressive  line,  often  becoming  pure  arabesque,  resulted  in  highly  
rhythmical  compositions  (e.g.,  In  the  Circus  Fernando:  The  Ringmaster,  1888).  
The  extreme  simplification  in  outline  and  movement  and  the  use  of  large  
colour  areas  make  his  posters  some  of  his  most  powerful  works.  
30. Word  is  Out  
A  Queer  Film  Classic  on  the  groundbreaking  1977  documentary  that  profiles  
the  lives  of  gay  men  and  lesbians  of  different  ages,  races,  and  backgrounds,  
and  played  a  role  in  the  then-­‐nascent  struggle  for  gay  rights  (being  released  
at  the  same  time  as  Anita  Bryant  waged  her  anti-­‐gay  campaign  in  Florida).  
Greg  Youmans  is  a  scholar,  maker,  and  programmer  of  queer  film  and  video.  
Arsenal's  Queer  Film  Classics  series  cover  some  of  the  most  important  and  
influential  films  about  and  by  LGBTQ  people.    A  book  was  published  in  1978,  
to  accompany  the  film.  
31. Bleecker  Street  
An  early  twentieth-­‐century  song  entitled  ‘The  Greenwich  Village  Epic’  
declares:  ‘Fairyland’s  not  far  from  Washington  Square.’  By  this  time,  park  
police  had  arrested  men  for  having  sex  with  male  partners  multiple  times  in  
Washington  Square  Park,  as  they  had  in  Central  Park,  Battery  Park,  Tomkins  
Square  Park,  and  seemingly  just  about  every  other  park  in  the  city  in  the  
early  twentieth  century.  Meanwhile,  the  Bowery  was  dotted  with  bars,  beer  
gardens,  and  resorts  that  catered  to  men  interested  in  men  by  the  late  
nineteenth  century,  and  Bleecker  Street  and  was  already  a  hotspot  for  
‘homosexual’  activities.  
 
Mills  House  No.  1  was  built  at  156  Bleecker  Street  in  1896,  by  the  
philanthropist  Darius  O.  Mills.  It  was  the  first  of  two  massive  houses  meant  to  
provide  a  ‘moral’  alternative  to  rooming  houses,  hotels,  etc.,  where  freedom  
from  supervision  allowed  unmarried  men  to  take  both  women,  and  other  
men,  back  to  their  rooms,  among  other  things.  The  same  idea  was  taken  up  
by  the  YMCA  in  building  their  dormitories,  beginning  in  the  same  year.  The  
idea,  however,  did  not  necessarily  work  in  practice.  By  the  First  World  War,  
New  York’s  YMCAs  had  established  a  reputation  as  centers  of  gay  social  and  
sexual  life.  The  Mills  Houses  acquired  a  similar  reputation:  in  March  of  1920,  
at  least  three  men  quartered  there  were  arrested  on  homosexual  charges.  
 
Either  in  an  ironic  coincidence,  or  in  an  attempt  to  reestablish  morality  in  the  
area,  Mills  House  No.  1  had  been  built  directly  across  from  ‘one  of  the  most  
vile,  vulgar  resorts  in  the  city’:  the  Slide.  
 
The  Slide  at  No.  157,  owned  by  Frank  Stevenson,  was  popularly  known  as  the  
center  of  New  York’s  gay  nightlife  in  the  1890s.  A  New  York  Herald  reporter  
wrote:  
 
‘It  is  a  fact  that  the  Slide  and  the  unspeakable  nature  of  the  orgies  practised  
there  are  a  matter  of  common  talk  among  men  who  are  bent  on  taking  in  the  
town,  making  a  night  of  it…’  (Gay  New  York,  37)  
 
In  1915,  one  retrospective  account  described  the  Slide  as:  
 
one  of  the  most  vile,  vulgar  resorts  in  the  city,  where  no  man  of  decent  
inclinations  would  remain  for  five  minutes  without  being  nauseated.  Here  men  
of  degenerate  type  were  the  waiters,  some  of  them  going  to  the  extent  of  
rouging  their  necks.  In  falsetto  voices  they  sang  filthy  ditties,  and  when  not  
otherwise  busy  would  drop  into  a  chair  at  the  table  of  any  visitor  who  would  
brook  their  awful  presence.’  (Gay  New  York,  39)  
 
The  Slide  was  a  ‘fairy  resort,’  or  a  place  where  men  could  pay  for  sex  with  
male  prostitutes.  However,  it  was  more  than  simply  a  brothel  that  catered  to  
men  who  desired  sex  with  ‘fairies’.  It  was  a  place  where  they  could  socialize  
with  friends,  and  entertain  regulars,  tourists,  and  each  other.  Here,  one  
Charles  Nesbitt,  a  medical  student,  met  a  man  known  as  ‘Princess  Toto.’  
‘Princess  Toto’  told  Nesbitt  that  ‘nature  had  made  him  this  way,’  and  that  
there  were  ‘many  men  such  as  he.’  He  invited  Nesbitt  to  a  Walhalla  Hall  ball,  
where  he  saw  ‘some  five  hundred  same-­‐sex  male  and  female  couples  in  
attendance,  “waltzing  sedately  to  the  music  of  a  good  band.”’  Apart  from  
being  a  spectacle  for  moralizing  tourists,  then,  the  Slide  also  served  as  a  way  
for  gay  men  to  find  emotional  support,  and  an  entry  point  into  a  much  larger  
‘gay’  world.  (Gay  New  York,  40-­‐41)  
 
The  Slide  was  closed  by  the  police  in  1892.  From  1976  to  2012,  No.  157  
housed  a  rock  club  called  Kenny’s  Castaways.  The  large  mahogany  bar  in  
front,  and  the  high  gallery  in  the  back  of  the  club,  both  dated  back  to  the  
nineteenth  century,  and  the  building’s  days  as  ‘the  worst  dive  in  New  York.’  
 
This  was  not  the  end  of  Bleecker  Street’s  LGBTQ  institutions,  however.  
Numerous  beer  gardens  that  catered  to  the  working  class  and  its  ‘gay’  
community  survived  the  1890s,  serving,  just  as  the  Slide  did,  as  centers  of  
support  in  addition  to  providing  social  (and  sometimes  sexual)  services.  The  
Slide  was  also  survived  by  the  Black  Rabbit,  at  183  Bleecker  Street.  
 
In  the  1890s,  the  Black  Rabbit  offered  live  sex  shows  as  part  of  its  draw.  It  
was  closed  by  the  police  in  1899,  reopened,  and  was  raided  again  in  1900  by  
the  Society  for  the  Suppression  of  Vice.  Those  arrested  during  this  raid  
included  a  French  floorman  known  as  the  ‘Jarbean  Fairy,’  a  woman  who  anti-­‐
vice  crusader  Anthony  Comstock  called  a  ‘sodomite  for  pay,’  and  a  person  
who  Comstock  called  a  ‘hermaphrodite,’  who  apparently  displayed  their  
genitalia  as  part  of  the  show.  (Gay  New  York,  37)  
 
The  Black  Rabbit  and  the  Slide,  together,  represent  the  earliest  known  sites  
of  LGBTQ  activity  in  New  York  in  the  nineteenth  century.  Of  course,  there  had  
been  sodomy  trials  in  the  17th  and  18th  centuries.  These  two  institutions,  
however,  represent  some  of  the  earliest  evidence  of  a  ‘gay’  community  in  New  
York.  
 
32. West  German  army  bases:    There  is  a  YouTube  video  that  details  this  in  the  
FUN  HOME  YouTube  playlist  sent  to  the  cast.  
33. Leaning  Tower  of  Pisa  
Leaning  Tower  of  Pisa,  Italian  Torre  Pendente  di  Pisa,  medieval  structure  
in  Pisa,  Italy,  that  is  famous  for  the  settling  of  its  foundations,  which  caused  it  
to  lean  5.5  degrees  (about  15  feet  [4.5  metres])  from  the  perpendicular  in  the  
late  20th  century.  Extensive  work  was  subsequently  done  to  straighten  the  
tower,  and  its  lean  was  ultimately  reduced  to  less  than  4.0  degrees.  
 
The  bell  tower,  begun  in  1173  as  the  third  and  final  structure  of  the  city’s  
cathedral  complex,  was  designed  to  stand  185  feet  (56  metres)  high  and  was  
constructed  of  white  marble.  Three  of  its  eight  stories  had  been  completed  
when  the  uneven  settling  of  the  building’s  foundations  in  the  soft  ground  
became  noticeable.  At  that  time,  war  broke  out  between  the  Italian  city-­‐
states,  and  construction  was  halted  for  almost  a  century.  This  pause  allowed  
the  tower’s  foundation  to  settle  and  likely  prevented  its  early  collapse.  
 
Giovanni  di  Simone,  the  engineer  in  charge  when  construction  resumed,  
sought  to  compensate  for  the  lean  by  making  the  new  stories  slightly  taller  
on  the  short  side,  but  the  extra  masonry  caused  the  structure  to  sink  still  
further.  The  project  was  plagued  with  interruptions,  as  engineers  sought  
solutions  to  the  leaning  problem,  but  the  tower  was  ultimately  topped  out  in  
the  14th  century.  Twin  spiral  staircases  lined  the  tower’s  interior,  with  294  
steps  leading  from  the  ground  to  the  bell  chamber  (one  staircase  
incorporates  two  additional  steps  to  compensate  for  the  tower’s  lean).  Over  
the  next  four  centuries  the  tower’s  seven  bells  were  installed;  the  largest  
weighed  more  than  3,600  kg  (nearly  8,000  pounds).  By  the  early  20th  
century,  however,  the  heavier  bells  were  silenced,  as  it  was  believed  that  
their  movement  could  potentially  worsen  the  tower’s  lean.  
The  foundations  have  been  strengthened  by  the  injection  of  cement  grout  
and  various  types  of  bracing  and  reinforcement,  but  in  the  late  20th  century  
the  structure  was  still  subsiding,  at  the  rate  of  0.05  inch  (1.2  mm)  per  year,  
and  was  in  danger  of  collapse.  In  1990  the  tower  was  closed  and  all  the  bells  
silenced  as  engineers  undertook  a  major  straightening  project.  Earth  was  
siphoned  from  underneath  the  foundations,  decreasing  the  lean  by  17  inches  
(44  cm)  to  13.5  feet  (4.1  metres);  the  work  was  completed  in  May  2001,  and  
the  structure  was  reopened  to  visitors.  The  tower  continued  to  straighten  
without  further  excavation,  until  in  May  2008  sensors  showed  that  the  
motion  had  finally  stopped,  at  a  total  improvement  of  19  inches  (48  cm).  
Engineers  expected  the  tower  to  remain  stable  for  at  least  200  years.  
 
34. Keystone  State  
Pennsylvania's  nickname  is  "The  Keystone  State"  because  it  was  the  middle  
colony  of  the  original  thirteen  colonies,  and  because  Pennsylvania  has  held  a  
key  position  in  the  economic,  social,  and  political  development  of  the  United  
States.  
 
The  word  keystone  is  from  architecture,  it  describes  the  central  wedge-­‐
shaped  stone  in  an  arch,  which  holds  all  the  other  stones  in  place.  
 
35. Allegheny  Plateau  
Allegheny  Plateau,  western  section  of  the  Appalachian  Mountains,  U.S.,  
extending  southwestward  from  the  Mohawk  River  valley  in  central  New  York  
to  the  Cumberland  Plateau  in  southern  West  Virginia.  Generally  sloping  
toward  the  northwest,  the  plateau  has  been  dissected  by  streams  to  form  the  
Catskill,  Allegheny,  and  other  mountain  ranges.  The  Allegheny,  Delaware,  and  
Susquehanna  rivers  drain  its  northern  portion,  while  the  Ohio  River  system  
drains  the  southern  part.  The  plateau  is  mainly  covered  by  hardwood  forest.  
 
With  the  discovery  of  coal,  a  large  influx  of  settlers  led  to  an  early  breakdown  
of  the  isolation  of  this  part  of  the  Appalachians.  The  regional  economy  
depends  heavily  upon  the  extraction  of  coal,  natural  gas,  and  petroleum.  

36. Beech  Creek  


Beech  Creek  is  a  borough  in  Clinton  County,  Pennsylvania,  United  States.  
The  population  was  701  at  the  2010  census.    It  is  the  setting  for  Fun  Home,  a  
2006  graphic  memoir  by  Alison  Bechdel.  
 
37. Topographic  Codes:    indicate  specific  locations  in  the  body.  
38. I-­‐80:      
Interstate  80  (I-­80)  is  an  east–west  transcontinental  limited-­‐access  highway  
in  the  United  States  that  runs  from  downtown  San  Francisco,  California,  to  
Teaneck,  New  Jersey,  in  the  New  York  City  Metropolitan  Area.  The  highway  
was  designated  in  1956  as  one  of  the  original  routes  of  the  Interstate  
Highway  System.  Its  final  segment  was  opened  to  traffic  in  1986.  It  is  the  
second-­‐longest  Interstate  Highway  in  the  United  States,  following  I-­‐90.  The  
Interstate  runs  through  many  major  cities  including  Oakland,  Sacramento,  
Reno,  Salt  Lake  City,  Omaha,  Des  Moines,  and  Toledo,  and  passes  within  10  
miles  (16  km)  of  Chicago,  Cleveland,  and  New  York  City.    
 
I-­‐80  is  the  Interstate  Highway  that  most  closely  approximates  the  route  of  
the  historic  Lincoln  Highway,  the  first  road  across  the  United  States.  The  
highway  roughly  traces  other  historically  significant  travel  routes  in  the  
Western  United  States:  the  Oregon  Trail  across  Wyoming  and  Nebraska,  the  
California  Trail  across  most  of  Nevada  and  California,  the  first  
transcontinental  airmail  route,  and  except  in  the  Great  Salt  Lake  area,  the  
entire  route  of  the  First  Transcontinental  Railroad.  From  near  Chicago  east  to  
near  Youngstown,  Ohio,  I-­‐80  is  a  toll  road,  containing  the  majority  of  both  the  
Indiana  Toll  Road  and  the  Ohio  Turnpike.  I-­‐80  runs  concurrently  with  I-­‐90  
from  near  Portage,  Indiana,  to  Elyria,  Ohio.  In  Pennsylvania,  I-­‐80  is  known  as  
the  Keystone  Shortway,  a  non-­‐tolled  freeway  that  crosses  rural  north-­‐central  
portions  of  the  state  on  the  way  to  New  Jersey  and  New  York  City.    
 
39. Castro  
No  visit  to  San  Francisco  would  be  complete  without  a  trip  to  the  Castro,  San  
Francisco's  own  gay  village.  The  main  drag  of  the  Castro  runs  on  Castro  
Street  from  Market  to  19th  although  the  neighborhood  extends  a  few  blocks  
in  either  direction.  You  can  tell  you're  in  the  Castro  by  looking  up,  if  there  are  
rainbow  banners  lining  the  streets  then  you  are  in  the  right  place.  
 
The  Castro  is  also  the  home  of  the  Castro  Theater,  a  popular  cinema  and  
historical  monument  that  was  built  in  1922.  Be  sure  to  include  a  movie  in  
your  agenda  as  the  exterior  of  the  Castro  Theater  does  not  do  the  ornate  
interior  justice  and  you  can't  hear  the  live  organ  music  from  outside  either.  
Organ  player?  Yes,  the  Castro  Theater  has  a  resident  Wurlitzer  organ  player  
who  comes  out  about  fifteen  minutes  before  a  movie  starts  and  warms  the  
crowd  up  with  an  eclectic  mix  of  tunes  that  can  range  from  ragtime  to  rock-­‐n-­‐
roll.  
 
San  Francisco's  Castro  District  is  one  of  the  safest  neighborhoods  in  the  city  
and  it  tends  to  be  a  little  cleaner  than  most  as  well.  Since  it  is  easily  accessible  
with  public  transportation  you  can  expect  to  find  a  lively  crowd  of  all  types;  
families,  singles,  couples  both  gay  and  straight,  and  even  those  people  that  
can't  quite  be  identified  by  either  gender  or  sexuality.  
 
The  Castro  became  a  hotbed  of  political  activity  in  the  seventies  when  a  local  
businessman  and  gay  activist,  Harvey  Milk,  became  a  City  Supervisor.  Harvey  
was  one  of  the  first  openly-­‐gay  politicians  in  America  and  fought  for  equality  
and  basic  human  rights  for  gay  people.  Milk  was  later  assassinated,  along  
with  Mayor  George  Moscone,  by  disgruntled  former  Supervisor  Dan  White  
who  beat  a  double-­‐murder  rap  with  the  infamous  "Twinkie  Defense."  
 
40. Christopher  Street  
In  the  1970s,  Christopher  Street  became  the  "Main  Street"  of  gay  New  York.  
Large  numbers  of  gay  men  would  stroll  its  length  at  seemingly  all  hours.  Gay  
bars  and  stores  selling  leather  fetish  clothing  and  artistic  decorative  items  
flourished  at  that  time.  This  changed  dramatically  with  the  loss  of  many  gay  
men  during  the  AIDS  epidemic  in  the  1980s.  The  apparent  center  of  gay  life  
subsequently  shifted  north  of  14th  Street  to  Chelsea.    
 
Christopher  Street  is  the  site  of  the  Stonewall  Inn,  the  bar  whose  patrons  
fought  back  against  a  police  raid,  starting  the  1969  Stonewall  riots  that  are  
widely  seen  as  the  birth  of  the  gay  liberation  movement.  The  Christopher  
Street  Liberation  Day  Committee  formed  to  commemorate  the  first  
anniversary  of  that  event,  the  beginning  of  the  international  tradition  of  a  
late-­‐June  event  to  celebrate  gay  pride.    The  annual  gay  pride  festivals  in  
Berlin,  Cologne,  and  other  German  cities  are  known  as  Christopher  Street  
Days  or  "CSD".    
 
Christopher  Street  magazine,  a  respected  gay  magazine,  began  publication  in  
July  1976  and  folded  in  December  1995.  
 
41. Partridge  Family  TV  show  
The  Partridge  Family  is  an  American  musical  sitcom  starring  Shirley  Jones  
and  featuring  David  Cassidy.  Jones  played  a  widowed  mother,  and  Cassidy  
played  the  oldest  of  her  five  children  who  embarked  on  a  music  career.  It  ran  
from  September  25,  1970,  until  March  23,  1974,  on  the  ABC  network  as  part  
of  a  Friday-­‐night  lineup,  and  had  subsequent  runs  in  syndication.  The  family  
was  loosely  based  on  the  real-­‐life  musical  family  The  Cowsills,  a  popular  
band  in  the  late  1960s  and  early  1970s.    
42. Danville  Mental  Hospital  
Danville  State  Hospital  in  Danville,  Pennsylvania  is  a  mental  health  facility  
operated  by  the  Pennsylvania  Department  of  Public  Welfare.  It  was  
Pennsylvania’s  third  public  facility  to  house  the  mentally  ill  and  disabled.    
 
It  is  about  an  hour  from  Beech  Creek  on  I-­‐80.  
43. Bobby  Jeremy:  I  believe  that  this  is  a  smushing  of  names  of  actors  who  play  
the  Partridge  Family  characters,  possibly  Jeremy  Gelbwaks  and  Donny  
Bonaduce,  who  played  Chris  and  Danny  Partridge,  respectively.  
44. Susan  Deys:  Actress  who  played  Laurie  Partridge  on  the  Partridge  Family  
45. Greenwich  Village  apartments  in  the  1970s

 
46. Rizzoli  Bag  
47. Baryshnikov  book  from  the  1970s

 
48. Humectant:  retaining  or  preserving  moisture.  
49. James  Joyce’s  A  PORTRAIT  OF  THE  ARTIST  AS  A  YOUNG  MAN  
In  this  novel,  Joyce  sets  forth  the  childhood,  adolescence  and  early  manhood  
of  Stephen  Dedalus,  a  character  who  represents  his  own  alter  ego  in  both  A  
Portrait  and  Ulysses.  He  travels  through  Stephen’s  mind  and  soul  allowing  us  
to  experience  his  mental  and  spiritual  development  whilst  witnessing  the  
physical  changes  he  goes  through  as  he  matures.  Joyce,  as  part  of  the  early  
twentieth  century  modernist  movement,  was  involved  in  reinterpreting  the  
form  of  the  traditional  novel  as  plot  driven  narrative.  By  rejecting  traditional  
narrative  form  in  A  Portrait,  Joyce  moved  towards  internalising  the  action  
within  Stephen’s  mind;  a  movement  from  narrative  driven  plot  to  
internalised  rhythmic  moods.  
 
In  A  Portrait  of  the  Artist  as  a  Young  Man  what  happens  inside  Stephen’s  
head  is  actually  more  important  than  what  happens  in  the  physical  world.  
The  other  characters  in  the  novel  exist  to  further  display  Stephen’s  character  
and  its  development  in  relation  to  their  own  singular  lack  of  artistic  
awareness.  
 
As  Stephen  gets  older  and  more  introspective  the  other  characters  become  
less  well  defined.  We  get  quite  detailed  snippets  on  his  mother,  father  and  
siblings  that  are  more  telling  in  their  brevity  than  in  their  detail.  This  novel  is  
a  work  of  highly  polished  precision  writing,  lyrical  and  poetic  in  its  
observations  of  both  poverty  and  intellectual  reverie.  
 
50. Mavis,  Pearl,  and  Carol  in  a  barrel  over  Niagara  Falls  
Fictional  version  of  several  people  who  attempted  this  feat  and  either  died  in  
the  process  or  lived.    Numerous  objects,  both  natural  and  artificial,  have  gone  
over  the  Niagara  Falls.  These  events  have  been  the  result  of  both  stunts  and  
accidents,  some  of  which  have  resulted  in  fatalities.  The  first  recorded  person  
to  survive  going  over  the  falls  was  Annie  Edson  Taylor,  who  went  over  the  
falls  in  a  barrel  in  1901.    She  stated  that  it  was  the  dumbest  thing  she  ever  
did.  
51. Jean  Stafford  
(born  July  1,  1915,  Covina,  California,  U.S.—died  March  26,  1979,  White  
Plains,  New  York),  American  short-­‐story  writer  and  novelist  noted  for  her  
disaffected  female  characters,  who  often  must  confront  restrictive  societal  
conventions  and  institutions  as  they  come  of  age.  
 
After  graduating  from  the  University  of  Colorado  at  Boulder  (B.A.,  1936;  M.A.,  
1936),  Stafford  studied  at  Heidelberg  University  in  Germany  (1936–37).  
When  she  returned  to  the  United  States  and  settled  in  Boston,  she  
painstakingly  completed  a  four-­‐year  effort,  the  novel  Boston  Adventure  
(1944),  which  presents  the  experiences  of  a  young  woman  who  leaves  her  
working-­‐class  immigrant  family  to  work  for  a  wealthy  Boston  spinster.  The  
book  became  a  best  seller,  with  sales  reaching  400,000  copies,  and  its  
publication  launched  Stafford’s  career.  
 
Her  second  and  most  critically  acclaimed  novel,  The  Mountain  Lion  (1947),  
reinforced  her  position  of  prominence  in  literary  circles.  An  examination  of  
the  influence  of  gender  roles  on  identity  and  development,  it  details  the  
coming  of  age  of  a  brother  and  sister  who  spend  summers  at  their  uncle’s  
ranch.  Stafford  later  published  The  Catherine  Wheel  (1952)  as  well  as  
children’s  books.  
 
An  accomplished  short-­‐story  writer,  she  contributed  frequently  to  such  
journals  as  The  New  Yorker,  Kenyon  Review,  Partisan  Review,  and  Harper’s  
Bazaar.  The  Collected  Stories  of  Jean  Stafford  (1969)  won  a  Pulitzer  Prize  in  
1970.  
 
Stafford’s  personal  life  was  marked  by  bouts  of  alcoholism  and  illnesses  and  
by  three  troubled  marriages  (to  writers  Robert  Lowell,  Oliver  Jensen,  and  A.J.  
Liebling).  
 
52. Robert  Lowell  
(born  March  1,  1917,  Boston,  Massachusetts,  U.S.—died  September  12,  1977,  
New  York,  New  York),  American  poet  noted  for  his  complex,  
autobiographical  poetry.  
 
Lowell  grew  up  in  Boston.  James  Russell  Lowell  was  his  great-­‐granduncle,  
and  Amy,  Percival,  and  A.  Lawrence  Lowell  were  distant  cousins.  Although  he  
turned  away  from  his  Puritan  heritage—largely  because  he  was  repelled  by  
what  he  felt  was  the  high  value  it  placed  on  the  accumulation  of  money—he  
continued  to  be  fascinated  by  it,  and  it  forms  the  subject  of  many  of  his  
poems.  Lowell  attended  Harvard  University,  but,  after  falling  under  the  
influence  of  the  Southern  formalist  school  of  poetry,  he  transferred  to  
Kenyon  College  in  Gambier,  Ohio,  where  he  studied  with  John  Crowe  Ransom,  
a  leading  exponent  of  the  Fugitives,  and  began  a  lifelong  friendship  with  
Randall  Jarrell.  Lowell  graduated  in  1940  and  that  year  married  the  novelist  
Jean  Stafford  and  converted  temporarily  to  Roman  Catholicism.  
 
During  World  War  II,  Lowell  was  sentenced,  for  conscientious  objection,  to  a  
year  and  a  day  in  the  federal  penitentiary  at  Danbury,  Connecticut,  and  he  
served  five  months  of  his  sentence.  His  poem  “In  the  Cage”  from  Lord  Weary’s  
Castle  (1946)  comments  on  this  experience,  as  does  in  greater  detail  
“Memories  of  West  Street  and  Lepke”  in  Life  Studies  (1959).  His  first  volume  
of  poems,  Land  of  Unlikeness  (1944),  deals  with  a  world  in  crisis  and  the  
hunger  for  spiritual  security.  Lord  Weary’s  Castle,  which  won  the  Pulitzer  
Prize  in  1947,  exhibits  greater  variety  and  command.  It  contains  two  of  his  
most  praised  poems:  “The  Quaker  Graveyard  in  Nantucket,”  elegizing  
Lowell’s  cousin  Warren  Winslow,  lost  at  sea  during  World  War  II,  and  
“Colloquy  in  Black  Rock,”  celebrating  the  feast  of  Corpus  Christi.  In  1947  
Lowell  was  named  poetry  consultant  to  the  Library  of  Congress  (now  poet  
laureate  consultant  in  poetry),  a  position  he  held  for  one  year.  
 
After  being  divorced  in  1948,  Lowell  married  the  writer  and  critic  Elizabeth  
Hardwick  the  next  year  (divorced  1972);  his  third  wife  was  the  Irish  
journalist  and  novelist  Lady  Caroline  Blackwood  (married  1972).  In  1951  he  
published  a  book  of  dramatic  monologues,  Mills  of  the  Kavanaughs.  After  a  
few  years  abroad,  Lowell  settled  in  Boston  in  1954.  His  Life  Studies  (1959),  
which  won  the  National  Book  Award  for  poetry,  contains  an  autobiographical  
essay,  “91  Revere  Street,”  as  well  as  a  series  of  15  confessional  poems.  Chief  
among  these  are  “Waking  in  Blue,”  which  tells  of  his  confinement  in  a  mental  
hospital,  and  “Skunk  Hour,”  which  conveys  his  mental  turmoil  with  dramatic  
intensity.  
 
Lowell’s  activities  in  the  civil-­‐rights  and  antiwar  campaigns  of  the  1960s  lent  
a  more  public  note  to  his  next  three  books  of  poetry:  For  the  Union  Dead  
(1964),  Near  the  Ocean  (1967),  and  Notebook  1967–68  (1969).  The  last-­‐
named  work  is  a  poetic  record  of  a  tumultuous  year  in  the  poet’s  life  and  
exhibits  the  interrelation  between  politics,  the  individual,  and  his  culture.  
Lowell’s  trilogy  of  plays,  The  Old  Glory,  which  views  American  culture  over  
the  span  of  history,  was  published  in  1965  (rev.  ed.  1968).  His  later  poetry  
volumes  include  The  Dolphin  (1973),  which  won  him  a  second  Pulitzer  Prize,  
and  Day  by  Day  (1977).  His  translations  include  Phaedra  (1963)  and  
Prometheus  Bound  (1969);  Imitations  (1961),  free  renderings  of  various  
European  poets;  and  The  Voyage  and  Other  Versions  of  Poems  by  Baudelaire  
(1968).  
 
In  his  poetry  Lowell  expressed  the  major  tensions—both  public  and  
private—of  his  time  with  technical  mastery  and  haunting  authenticity.  His  
earlier  poems,  dense  with  clashing  images  and  discordant  sounds,  convey  a  
view  of  the  world  whose  bleakness  is  relieved  by  a  religious  mysticism  
compounded  as  much  of  doubt  as  of  faith.  Lowell’s  later  poetry  is  composed  
in  a  more  relaxed  and  conversational  manner.  
 
53. Plath  
Sylvia  Plath  was  born  on  October  27,  1932,  in  Boston,  Massachusetts.  Her  
mother,  Aurelia  Schober,  was  a  master’s  student  at  Boston  University  when  
she  met  Plath’s  father,  Otto  Plath,  who  was  her  professor.  They  were  married  
in  January  of  1932.  Otto  taught  both  German  and  biology,  with  a  focus  on  
apiology,  the  study  of  bees.  
 
In  1940,  when  Plath  was  eight  years  old,  her  father  died  as  a  result  of  
complications  from  diabetes.  He  had  been  a  strict  father,  and  both  his  
authoritarian  attitudes  and  his  death  drastically  defined  her  relationships  
and  her  poems—most  notably  in  her  elegaic  and  infamous  poem  "Daddy."  
 
Even  in  her  youth,  Plath  was  ambitiously  driven  to  succeed.  She  kept  a  
journal  from  the  age  of  eleven  and  published  her  poems  in  regional  
magazines  and  newspapers.  Her  first  national  publication  was  in  the  
Christian  Science  Monitor  in  1950,  just  after  graduating  from  high  school.  
 
In  1950,  Plath  matriculated  at  Smith  College.  She  was  an  exceptional  student,  
and  despite  a  deep  depression  she  went  through  in  1953  and  a  subsequent  
suicide  attempt,  she  managed  to  graduate  summa  cum  laude  in  1955.  
 
After  graduation,  Plath  moved  to  Cambridge,  England,  on  a  Fulbright  
Scholarship.  In  early  1956,  she  attended  a  party  and  met  the  English  poet  Ted  
Hughes.  Shortly  thereafter,  Plath  and  Hughes  were  married,  on  June  16,  
1956.  
 
Plath  returned  to  Massachusetts  in  1957  and  began  studying  with  Robert  
Lowell.  Her  first  collection  of  poems,  Colossus,  was  published  in  1960  in  
England,  and  two  years  later  in  the  United  States.  She  returned  to  England,  
where  she  gave  birth  to  her  children  Frieda  and  Nicholas,  in  1960  and  1962,  
respectively.  
 
In  1962,  Ted  Hughes  left  Plath  for  Assia  Gutmann  Wevill.  That  winter,  in  a  
deep  depression,  Plath  wrote  most  of  the  poems  that  would  comprise  her  
most  famous  book,  Ariel.  
 
In  1963,  Plath  published  a  semi-­‐autobiographical  novel,  The  Bell  Jar,  under  
the  pseudonym  Victoria  Lucas.  Then,  on  February  11,  1963,  during  one  of  the  
worst  English  winters  on  record,  Plath  wrote  a  note  to  her  downstairs  
neighbor  instructing  him  to  call  the  doctor,  then  she  died  by  suicide  using  her  
gas  oven.  
 
Plath’s  poetry  is  often  associated  with  the  Confessional  movement,  and  
compared  to  the  work  of  poets  such  as  Lowell  and  fellow  student  Anne  
Sexton.  Often,  her  work  is  singled  out  for  the  intense  coupling  of  its  violent  or  
disturbed  imagery  and  its  playful  use  of  alliteration  and  rhyme.  
 
Although  only  Colossus  was  published  while  she  was  alive,  Plath  was  a  
prolific  poet,  and  in  addition  to  Ariel,  Hughes  published  three  other  volumes  
of  her  work  posthumously,  including  The  Collected  Poems,  which  was  the  
recipient  of  the  1982  Pulitzer  Prize.  She  was  the  first  poet  to  posthumously  
win  a  Pulitzer  Prize.  
54. Hughes  
Edward  James  (Ted)  Hughes  was  born  in  Mytholmroyd,  in  the  West  Riding  
district  of  Yorkshire,  on  August  17,  1930.  His  childhood  was  quiet  and  
dominately  rural.  When  he  was  seven  years  old  his  family  moved  to  the  small  
town  of  Mexborough  in  South  Yorkshire,  and  the  landscape  of  the  moors  of  
that  area  informed  his  poetry  throughout  his  life.  
 
After  high  school,  Hughes  entered  the  Royal  Air  Force  and  served  for  two  
years  as  a  ground  wireless  mechanic.  He  then  moved  to  Cambridge  to  attend  
Pembroke  College  on  an  academic  scholarship.  While  in  college  he  published  
a  few  poems,  majored  in  Anthropolgy  and  Archaeology,  and  studied  
mythologies  extensively.  
 
Hughes  graduated  from  Cambridge  in  1954.  A  few  years  later,  in  1956,  he  
cofounded  the  literary  magazine  St.  Botolph’s  Review  with  a  handful  of  other  
editors.  At  the  launch  party  for  the  magazine,  he  met  Sylvia  Plath.  A  few  short  
months  later,  on  June  16,  1956,  they  were  married.  
 
Plath  encouraged  Hughes  to  submit  his  first  manuscript,  The  Hawk  in  the  
Rain,  to  The  Poetry  Center’s  First  Publication  book  contest.  The  judges—
Marianne  Moore,  W.  H.  Auden,  and  Stephen  Spender—awarded  the  
manuscript  first  prize,  and  it  was  published  in  England  and  America  in  1957,  
to  much  critical  praise.  
 
Hughes  lived  in  Massachusetts  with  Plath  and  taught  at  University  of  
Massachusetts,  Amherst.  They  returned  to  England  in  1959,  and  their  first  
child,  Freida,  was  born  the  following  year.  Their  second  child,  Nicholas,  was  
born  two  years  later.  
 
In  1962,  Hughes  left  Plath  for  Assia  Gutmann  Wevill.  Less  than  a  year  later,  
Plath  committed  suicide.  Hughes  did  not  write  again  for  years,  as  he  focused  
all  of  his  energy  on  editing  and  promoting  Plath’s  poems.  He  was  also  
roundly  lambasted  by  the  public,  who  saw  him  as  responsible  for  his  wife’s  
suicide.  Controversy  surrounded  his  editorial  choices  regarding  Plath’s  
poems  and  journals.  
 
In  1965,  Wevill  gave  birth  to  their  only  child,  Shura.  Four  years  later,  like  
Plath,  she  also  commited  suicide,  killing  Shura  as  well.  The  following  year,  in  
1970,  Hughes  married  Carol  Orchard,  with  whom  he  remained  married  until  
his  death.  
 
Hughes’s  lengthy  career  included  over  a  dozen  books  of  poetry,  translations,  
non-­‐fiction  and  children’s  books,  such  as  the  famous  The  Iron  Man  (1968).  
His  books  of  poems  include:  Wolfwatching  (1990),  Flowers  and  Insects  
(1986),  Selected  Poems  1957–1981  (1982),  Moortown  (1980),  Cave  Birds  
(1979),  Crow  (1971),  and  Lupercal  (1960).  His  final  collection,  The  Birthday  
Letters  (Farrar,  Straus  &  Giroux,  1998),  published  the  year  of  his  death,  
documented  his  relationship  with  Plath.  
 
Hughes’s  work  is  marked  by  a  mythical  framework,  using  the  lyric  and  
dramatic  monologue  to  illustrate  intense  subject  matter.  Animals  appear  
frequently  throughout  his  work  as  deity,  metaphor,  persona,  and  icon.  
Perhaps  the  most  famous  of  his  subjects  is  “Crow,"  an  amalgam  of  god,  bird  
and  man,  whose  existence  seems  pivotal  to  the  knowledge  of  good  and  evil.  
 
Hughes  won  many  of  Europe’s  highest  literary  honors,  and  was  appointed  
Poet  Laureate  of  England  in  1984,  a  post  he  held  until  his  death.  He  passed  
away  in  October  28,  1998,  in  Devonshire,  England,  from  cancer.  
 
55. Jack  in  the  pulpit  
also  commonly  called  Indian  turnip,  is  a  shade  requiring  species  found  in  
rich,  moist,  deciduous  woods  and  floodplains.  A  long  lived  perennial  (25+  
years),  it  will  spread  and  colonize  over  time  from  an  acidic  corm.  
56. Winogrand  
Garry  Winogrand  (1928–1984)  was  born  in  New  York,  where  he  lived  and  
worked  during  much  of  his  life.  Winogrand  photographed  the  visual  
cacophony  of  city  streets,  people,  rodeos,  airports  and  animals  in  zoos.  These  
subjects  are  among  his  most  exalted  and  influential  work.  Winogrand  was  
the  recipient  of  numerous  grants,  including  several  Guggenheim  Fellowships  
and  a  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts  Fellowship.  His  work  has  been  the  
subject  of  many  museum  and  gallery  exhibition,  and  was  included  in  the  
1967  “New  Documents”  exhibition,  curated  by  John  Szarkowski  at  the  
Museum  of  Modern  Art,  New  York.  
57. Araby  
A  short  story  by  James  Joyce  that  is  featured  in  The  Dubliners.    The  plot  
follows  a  young  boy  who  is  similar  in  age  and  temperament  to  those  in  "The  
Sisters"  and  "An  Encounter"  develops  a  crush  on  Mangan's  sister,  a  girl  who  
lives  across  the  street.  One  evening  she  asks  him  if  he  plans  to  go  to  a  bazaar  
(a  fair  organized,  probably  by  a  church,  to  raise  money  for  charity)  called  
Araby.  
 

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