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Based on the DreamWorks Animation Motion Picture

and the Book by William Steig
Music by Jeanine Tesori
Book & Lyrics by David Lindsay-Abaire

Originally produced on Broadway by DreamWorks

and Neal Street Productions

Directed by Jessica Barkl for PLAY Conservatory’s

2013 Summer Stock Season
Dramaturgy Compiled by Jessica Barkl

Table of Contents:
Director’s Concept pgs. 5-10
Postmodernism pg. 10
Allusions pgs. 11-17
“Don’t Speak…Don’t speak…”
“Take Me or Leave Me”
Ghost scary black things
Punch buggy = Slug bug
“Mother Hubbard”/ “Mother Trucker”
“Hey Nonny”
“Bring Me Down”
“Piña Coladas and Being Caught in the Rain”
“Are You There God? (It’s Me…Fiona)”
Sunflower Field
Lion King
Knights clapping
“But soft…”
“This tall to get in…”
Boy Bands
“Wowwie Zowwie”
Barry White
“Daddy was…”
“Sleepin’ Bee…”
Black Panthers
Wedding Crashers
“God Bless Us…”
Jurassic Park
Disney-esque/Anti-Disney/Anti-Fairytale pgs. 17-19
Summary pgs. 19-21
Creators pgs. 21-23
Puppetry Referenced for this Production pgs. 23-24
Object Puppetry
Bunraku Puppetry
Marionette Studies
Shadow Puppetry
Physical Theater Techniques Referenced for this Production: pgs. 24-25
Animal Studies (Donkey, Pig, Wolf, Cat, Bears, Butterflies, Birds, Deer, Fireflies)
Tadashi Suzuki Method
Dance Forms Utilized in this Production: pgs. 25-29
Irish Step Dance
Scottish Highland Dancing
Music Forms/References in the Play: pgs. 29-30
‘60s Girl Trios and DREAMGIRLS

Dialect Work in the Play: Liverpool, German, Russian pgs. 30-33
Ogre History pgs. 33
Time Period: circa 17th Century France: conte de fees pgs. 33-40
Heroes and Heroines pgs. 40-41
Characters in Order of Appearance: pgs. 42-65
Teddy Bears
Lord Farquaad
Magic Mirror
Three Little Pigs and the Wolf
Fairy Godmother
Ugly Duckling
Three Bears
Peter Pan
Sugar Plum Fairy
Humpty Dumpty
Tweedle-Dee and Tweedle-Dum
Gingerbread Man
Pied Piper
Princess and the Pea
Three Blind Mice
Mourning Dove
White Rabbit
Vocabulary pgs. 65-84
References pg. 85

Director’s Concept
In general the SHREK franchise is a huge postmodern extravaganza that plays on the idea that it is
an alternative to the Disney universe. Our PLAY Conservatory production will continue to utilize the
original inspiration for SHREK through highlighting all the postmodern jokes and allusions into a fairy-tale
Character breakdown will be as follows:
Princess Fiona
Lord Farquaad
Young Fiona – Young Performer
Teen Fiona
Little Shrek
Mama Ogre
Papa Ogre
King Harold – finger puppet/shadow puppet
Queen Lillian – finger puppet/shadow puppet
Captain of the Guard – Young Performer
Guards (4) – All Young Performers (need to be as short as Lord Farquaad); this will also double as
one set of bunraku team.
Pig 1
Pig 2
Pig 3
White Rabbit
Fairy Godmother
Peter Pan
Ugly Duckling
Sugar Plum Fairy/Gingerbread Man
Mama Bear
Papa Bear
Baby Bear – Young Performer
Humpty Dumpty
Elf – Young Performer
Elves (4) – Young Performers – could be puppets that look like the elves from RISE OF THE
Greeter – Young Performer
Duloc Performers/Choir (8) – Young Performers
Cow - puppet
Dish - puppet
Spoon - puppet
Spinning Antelope (a la Lion King) - puppet
Police (2)
Knights (3)/Skeleton Dancers – bunraku performers
Dragon Voice
Bunraku Performers (9) – Blooming Flower, Birds, Deer, Dragon manipulation, Plastic Horse,
Spinning Antelopes, Bluebird, Mourning Doves, objects for fart/burp scene, flashing red lights,
protest signs, “awww…” signs, etc. Detailed in Props/Puppetry Design.
Pied Piper
Thelonius – mirror (object puppet)
Mouse 1
Mouse 2

Mouse 3
Princess in the Pea
Grumpy – Young Performer
Dwarves (6) – Young Performers
Jack Merridew from LORD OF THE FLIES (with full makeup on and the pig’s head)
Captain Louie
a Dalmatian puppy or puppies (see Young Performer possibilities)
Joseph with his Coat


Young Cast Possibilities:

Captain of the Guard and Guards (4) – also one bunraku team will double here.
Baby Bear
Elf and Elves (4)
Duloc Choir/Performers (8)
Young Fiona
Grumpy and 6 Dwarves
Unicorns (My Little Ponies held by performers)
Teddy Bears (Stuffed animals held by performers)
*So…essentially 100+ characters.

Now, I will break each design concept down below:

SHREK is, obviously, a very well-known franchise and it would not be very intelligent of me to
take away the reality of what the public knows of that franchise and what the franchise has inspired. For
that reason, I would like all the main characters of SHREK to look as they do in the film, to the best of our
ability. This includes the characters of Shrek, Fiona, Lord Farquaad, Donkey, Puss in Boots, Pinocchio,
King Harold, Queen Lillian, Three Little Pigs, Wolf, Fairy Godmother, Peter Pan, the Witch, Humpty
From there, I feel as though this is where my concept for this production will come in. PLAY
Conservatory is a youth theater company, and with that in mind, I would like to make a “youth version” of
SHREK. I would like that all of the other characters to be inspired by anime versions of the fairy tale.
There are many images that I will post here for reference, but, please, oh please, do more research. I will
post images of inspiration in the ‘Characters’ section of this dramaturgy packet.
We will have three teams of bunraku performers and I would like them to be in their traditional
bunraku garb. An image of this will be posted in the puppetry section of this dramaturgy packet.

There are a lot of great opportunities in this production for “insider” PLAY Conservatory jokes, as
well, and, with that in mind, I would like to have some of the banished characters from Duloc to be past
PLAY Conservatory characters. Maybe one from each past production; depending on costume availability.
These might include: Aladdin, Jack Merridew from LORD OF THE FLIES (with full makeup on and the
pig’s head), Mulan, Alice, Jesus, Aslan, Oz, Captain Louie, a Dalmatian puppy or puppies, Ariel, and
Joseph with his Coat.
The Duloc Dancers should somewhat look like the CHILDREN OF THE CORN – blond wigs,
matching, Nazi Youth-esque. I also would like to keep a story going that only people who are short are
allowed to live in Duloc, so in our PLAY Conservatory production, all Duloc characters will be played by
Young Performers, or their costume will have to be adjusted to have puppet legs and they perform on their
knees (which is, traditionally, the way Lord Farquaad is performed).
There, obviously, needs to be a discussion as to how to deal with Princess Fiona’s quick changes
into an ogress from Act 2, Scene 4 to Scene 5…it is very quick. Maybe only a minute…
There will be 9 or 18 rats; it would be great to just get some of the rat costumes from one of the
many Nutcracker ballets that occur in Albuquerque. However many we can drudge up, is how many I will
choreograph into the tap number in “Morning Person.”
In Act 2, Scene 7, the Wolf needs to have a sequined dress on underneath his Granny nightdress
I would like the Bishop to look like the Bishop from THE PRINCESS BRIDE. Fiona and
Farquaad will also need wedding attire. It might be fun to also dress up the Duloc Dancers/Choir and the
Guards/Captain of the Guard in something thematically similar.

Set Design/Projection Design/Live Feed Video

Starting with a book design element, I would like the cyc/backdrop to usually have a fairytale
book cover of some kind or an outline of a book that can have projections put upon it (as the book changes
back and forth from Shrek’s story, to Fiona’s story, to Pinocchio’s story, to the Gingerbread Man’s story,
etc.). If it is possible to have a door cut-out of the cyc/backdrop, that would be great…allowing the
characters to be introduced by their book cover by walking through it.
The only basic set design I would like other than the props asked for in the script is a floor drop
painted with what decide is a map of the Kingdom of Duloc.
Duloc should have a projection of World Disney Orlando.
Calendars for the Fionas should be projections.
In Act One, Scene 7 and 8, there will be a live feed projection sequence in regards to the boiling
lava, castle/Dragon moment. There will be small versions of Shrek, Donkey, and the Dragon that will play
their scene after the “Travel Song” on a little puppet theater that one of the bunraku team members will
film and will need to go into the projector at this point.
There will need to be either a hazer or a fog machine for the cloud of stench moment during “I Got
You Beat.”
A Redwoods projection should be in the Redwoods scene.
“Gonna Build A Wall” should have a projection of the Berlin Wall.
In Act 2, Scene 6, during “Gonna Build a Wall,” Shrek will need to be travelling and a “Time
Passes” sequence should occur at this moment, and then he ends up in the swamp.
Back at the Swamp, we will need a FIDDLER ON THE ROOF-esque, Pogrom projection.
During “Freak Flag” I would like a projection of the Black Panthers.
I would like a WEDDING CRASHERS projection to come up when Shrek and Donkey crash the
One of the bunraku teams will go over and manipulate the Dragon in the toy theater and film it for
live-feed that will go into the projector for the cyc. Then after Shrek and Fiona kiss all bunraku teams need
to have shiny fabric to manipulate and create a “transformation” moment, that will be accompanied by a
projection and lighting effects.

Puppetry Design/Props Design

There are a lot of puppetry elements in this play, and many of the “special effects” that
Broadway/National Tours are capable of, can be solved on a smaller budget with puppets and object/props.
I have detailed each of these histories in the body of the dramaturgy packet, but I will detail specifics here:
Crickets and signs will be an object puppetry element in Scene 3.
Shadow puppetry of a large Lord Farquaad will need to start at the top of Act 1 Scene 4.
The Gingerbread Man is a puppet that is manipulated by the actor playing the Sugar Plum Fairy.
This will have several pieces. Whole and on a cookie sheet with his legs torn off. There will need to be
gumdrop buttons that can be removed and put back on.
We will also, I think, need the mirror (Thelonious) as an object puppet in Act 1 Scene 4.
The flower blossoming can be an object puppetry element.
The nose on Pinocchio can be solved by having the bunraku teams make a nose grow on the actor.
One of the bunraku teams can be the guards for Farquaad. They should be as short as Farquaad.
The cart on pg. 20 can be brought in by one of the bunraku teams.
The bunny, butterflies, birds, moon, police chariot, Lion King puppets, rickety bridge, boiling lake
of lava (dry ice on the puppet theater fanned by the bunraku team), etc., in Scene 7 (object puppetry) and
the Spinning Antelope should be controlled by the bunraku teams. There will be a live feed projection
sequence in regards to the boiling lava, castle/Dragon moment. There will need to be small versions of
Shrek, Donkey, and the Dragon (the actors that play those characters will manipulate the small versions and
the bunraku team will help with the toy theater effects. This will happen in their scene after the “Travel
Song” on a little puppet theater that one of the bunraku team members will film and will need to go into the
projector at this point.
Act One Scene 8 will have the same toy theater from Scene 7. Shrek will need a little helmet for
the toy theater part of the scene, and a real one for his scenes with Fiona. The Knights (4) will also need to
have small versions of themselves for the Dragon Keep Toy Theater.
The Dragon, for the toy theater Dragon Keep, should have design elements that make the face look
like Jennifer Hudson and the back like a Chinese New Year dragon, with poles that allow the bunraku
teams to hold it up. The Dragon should almost be as big as the toy theater.
In Scene 9 we return to the littler versions of Shrek and Donkey and add a puppet version of Fiona
when Shrek drags Fiona out of the tower. Again the bunraku teams will help with the manipulation of the
Dragon Keep Toy Theater and the live-feed video. This transition happens when Fiona begins to sing
“Down a Rope a Steed Awaits…” This sequence ends with Shrek and the bunraku team releasing a toy
theater portcullis with an object puppetry axe to trap the Dragon. We return to regular actors as Fiona sings
“This I How I pictured it/ More or less, I must admit.”
“What I’d Be” will need to have a Shadow Puppetry moment, or just a shadow moment to reveal
Fiona as an ogress. Discussion about this is open.
“Morning Person” will need object puppets on sticks: bluebird in a nest that can explode and die,
more birds on sticks, and a deer (blow-up or otherwise). The deer will also need to eat berries on a bush
manipulated by the bunraku teams. There will need to be 18 rats, two for each bunraku member to
manipulate (they should be made like shoes to go on their hands).
Lord Farquaad is usually partly a puppet. The actor is on his knees and his legs are shorter,
attached to his torso. There will need to be a puppet horse to go underneath this actor for the moment that
he meets Princess Fiona, and blinking lights that are on the back of the horse. This can all be manipulated
by the three bunraku teams. In the horse part Lord Farquaad will need to be on stilts.
One of the bunraku teams in Act 2, Scene 2, will need to manipulate Thelonius, the mirror;
another team will be manipulating Farquaad’s body (if we cast a tall actor); and the last team will be
dealing with Farquaad’s bench press and bathtub (which he starts the song in). One of the bunraku teams
in this scene are also the guards, so they won’t be manipulating anything except, perhaps, Farquaad’s legs.
There also might be some necessary flashback props/etc. for Farquaad’s story: a bed and a pea.
In Act 2, Scene 3, the bunraku teams will need bushes.
In Act 2, Scene 4, the bunraku teams will need fireflies.

In Act 2, Scene 6, the bunraku teams will need to help manipulate a plastic horse that Lord
Farquaad rides when he meets Fiona. This should make it appear that he is tall. This horse will also need
ride lights that blink that the bunraku teams can manipulate for the “backing up” moment.
A whole version of the Gingerbread Man needs to be available in Act 2, Scene 7, to be
manipulated by the actor playing the Sugar Plum Fairy. There will need to be a Les Mis flag with
Pinocchio’s face on it for this scene as well.
The strings on Pinocchio at the end will be controlled by one of the bunraku teams.
I would like the bunraku teams to also have laugh prompt signs and race riot signs for Act 2,
Scene 9. The teams will also need lanterns for the Cathedral Sunset in this scene.
The Dragon in Act 2, Scene 9, needs to be a smaller version with a toy theater of the cathedral
window that it can break through. One of the bunraku teams will go over and manipulate the dragon in the
toy theater and film it for live-feed that will go into the projector for the cyc. A fire-effect will need to
happen, as well. This might need to be a smaller version of the Dragon, and the cathedral window in the
toy theater will need to be breakable. We will block this downstage left so that the audience can see the
Star Wars-esque manipulation.
Also, in this same scene 9 (Act 2), when the toy theater Dragon makes a fire effect the young
performer guards will need to have object puppetry fire effects (cloth), to catch Farquaad on fire.
Then after Shrek and Fiona kiss all bunraku teams need to have shiny fabric to manipulate and
create a “transformation” moment, that will be accompanied by a projection and lighting effects.
The young ensemble guards (creepy black figures like on GHOST the movie) will also have
“awww…” signs and little boy swords for the end. They are one of the bunraku teams.
Other Props include (which will be brought on by bunraku teams): Birthday party wagon, Party
Horns, Dolly, Books, Bubble Gum, picnic baskets, picnic blankets, kindling, puppet fire effect, pitchforks,
pipe for the Pied piper, and a sunflower for Shrek (he wants to give to Fiona – Act 2, Scene 5-6).

Sound Engineering and Design

I would like to have floor mics because there are too many characters and the filming of the play
would be inconsistent. There will need to be head mics for the three Fionas because there’s supposed to be
transitions on their final notes that don’t overlap, and in order to do that, they’ll have to sing together and
the sound engineer will need to bring one mic in as one mic goes out. I would like to also head mic Fiona
and the Pied Piper because we will have to turn off the floor mics during “Morning Person” because it is a
tap number.
Thelonius, the mirror, will probably need to be an actor backstage with a handheld, or a head mic.
Up to you.
In “Morning Person,” a deer goes off a cliff and sound cue will need to be built to indicate its
In “I Think I Got You Beat,” there will need to be burping and farting sound cues. I’m hoping
that the actors can burp on cue, but we might need head mics for that, so…we’ll see…
Lord Farquaad starts in Act 2, Scene 6, offstage with some echo or reverb…think Oz…he may or
may not need a handheld or a head mic. Also in this scene, is a moment with backing up sounds…
In Act 2, Scene 9, after Shrek and Fiona kiss, there will need to be an amazingly designed
“transformation” cue.

Lighting Design
Lots and lots of green (L124 or the like) and gobos. Look at the original Broadway recording of
INTO THE WOODS for inspiration. A Moon Box or projection is also needed on the cyc for the end of
Act 1 that will need to have shadow puppetry lights from behind to do an ogress silhouette.
There is also particular importance put on the sunsets, so…something awesome would be great.
There will need to be a lot of shadows available for Act 2, Scene 5, a sense of a really scary
movie, and barn-like…if possible…
In Act 2, Scene 6, there is “Time Passes,” sequence during “Gonna Build Wall,” indicated from
the Projection Designer that will land Shrek in the swamp. Some matching lighting design would be
helpful here.

In Act 2, Scene 9, the Cathedral Sunset needs to be extra dramatic. Then after Shrek and Fiona
kiss all bunraku teams need to have shiny fabric to manipulate and create a “transformation” moment, that
will be accompanied by a projection and lighting effects.

Stage Hands
So, far, most of the scenery/props will be manipulated by the bunraku teams, but there will need to be
curtain closer in “Morning Person,” the opening of Act 2, to reveal the rat tap dancers, or we will just start
Act II with the curtain closed and Fiona/bunraku teams will just do the beginning on the apron.

*We will be having the Mama Bear sing instead of the Sugar Plum Fairy on pg. 98.

The term "Postmodernism" refers to a philosophical and cultural movement that is notoriously
difficult to define, but distinguished largely by its rejection of modernism. The term is hard to define
precisely due to one of its central premises: the rejection of "meta-narratives", ways of thinking that unite
knowledge and experience to seek to provide a definitive, universal truth. Also adding confusion to the
debate surrounding its definition and significance is the fact that modernity and modernism are not easy to
define. One popular definition is that, given the symptoms of modernism, postmodernism is the pill taken
to alleviate those symptoms.
Postmodernists claim that modernity was characterized by a monolithic mindset impossible to
maintain in the culturally diverse and fragmented world (which is sometimes referred to as postmodernity)
that we live in today. Postmodernism, instead, embraces fluid, and multiple perspectives, typically refusing
to privilege any one 'truth claim' over another. Ideals of universally applicable truths give way to
provisional, de-centered, local petit recits which, rather than referencing some underlying universal reality,
point only to other ideas and cultural artifacts, themselves subject to interpretation and re-interpretation.
The role of individuals (and especially the individual body) and action is emphasized over
standardized or canonical forms of knowledge. Knowledge is interpreted according to our own "local"
experiences, not measured against all encompassing universal structures. In this sense, postmodernity owes
much to its allied school of thought, post-structuralism (or deconstructionism) which sought to destabilize
the relationship between language and the objects to which it referred.
Postmodernists often express a profound skepticism regarding the Enlightenment quest to uncover
the nature of truth and reality. Perhaps the most striking examples of this skepticism are to be found in the
works of French cultural theorist, Jean Baudrillard. In his book Simulations, he contends that social 'reality'
no longer exists in the conventional sense, but has been supplanted by an endless procession of simulcra.
The mass media, and other forms of mass cultural production, generate constant re-appropriation and re-
contextualization of familiar cultural symbols and images, fundamentally shifting our experience away
from 'reality', to 'hyper-reality’.
Postmodernism has applications in many modern academic and non-academic disciplines;
philosophy, art, architecture, film, television, music, sociology, fashion, technology, literature, and
communications are all heavily influenced by postmodern trends and ideas, and are rigorously scrutinized
from postmodern perspectives.
Postmodern culture is ubiquitous and permeates every aspect of our daily lives. From film and
television programs to political personas and our daily clothes, postmodernity, it has been stated, "is the
very air we breathe". (Steven Shaviro, Doom Patrols (
Note: It may be helpful to distinguish between postmodernism in its philosophical, theoretic sense, and as a
cultural phenomenon that can be observed in daily life — often referred to as 'Postmodernity'. Examples of
postmodernity in action abound in Western society; in fact, Wikipedia is a good example of a postmodern
Also note: "post-modern" tends to be used by critics, "postmodern" by supporters. – From

A passing reference or indirect mention.

“Mama’s…”: Lyrics from “Rose’s Turn” from the musical GYPSY, made famous by Ethel Merman, Patti
Lupone, Bette Midler, and Bernadette Peters.
“Mama's talkin' loud.
Mama's doin' fine.
Mama's gettin' hot.
Mama's goin' stong.
Mama's movin' on.
Mama's all alone.
Mama doesn't care.
Mama's lettin' loose.
Mama's got the stuff.
Mama's lettin' go.
Mama's got the stuff.
Mama's gotta move.
Mama's gotta go.
Mama? Mama?
Mama's gotta let go.”

“Don’t Speak…Don’t speak…”: An allusion in the song “Don’t Let Me Go.” The character Helen
Sinclair in BULLETS OVER BROADWAY’s famous quote: “No, no, don't speak. Don't speak. Please
don't speak. Please don't speak. No. No. No. Go. Go, gentle Scorpio, go. Your Pisces wishes you every
happy return.”

“Take Me or Leave Me”: The set up of the song “Don’t Let Me Go” definitely has allusions and
leitmotifs to the song “Take Me or Leave Me” from the musical RENT.

Ghost scary black things: In the 1990 film GHOST, starring Patrick Swayze and Demi Moore the
character Carl, due to transfer the money to a correspondent bank overseas, becomes desperate when he
finds the account closed and empty. Sam (Patrick Swayze) taunts him in the deserted office by moving
objects and making accusations appear on his computer screen, repeatedly typing "MURDERER" and
"SAM". Carl visits Molly (Demi Moore) and declares to Sam that he will kill Molly unless the money is
returned that evening. He and Willie then go to Oda Mae's apartment to find her. Sam manages to get there
first and warns Oda Mae (Whoopi Goldberg) and her two sisters, who quickly escape and take refuge in a
neighbor's apartment. Sam uses his powers to separate and distract Carl and Willie, who are ransacking
Oda Mae's apartment in search of the money. Horrified by the experience, Willie flees and is killed in a
traffic accident. Willie's ghost arises, sees his body, and is told by Sam that he's dead. A group of howling
demons emerge from shadows of ordinary things and pull a screaming Willie into the shadows, while
Sam watches in horror. It is implied they take him to Hell.

Punch buggy = Slug bug: is a car game generally played by children in which participants punch each
other in the arm upon first sight of a Volkswagen Beetle while calling out "Slug bug!" or "Punch buggy!"
in reference to the Beetle's nickname, the Bug. The color of the Beetle is also stated.
Some variations consider Volkswagen's 1998 reintroduction of the New Beetle invalid for game
purposes but, as older models become more rare, variants may choose to include the new Beetles. In one
version played in Newport Beach, Los Angeles and other Southern California cities, the game is played
where any color gets one punch. However, Yellow, Orange or lightly tinged punchbugs earn 2 punches,
followed by "Cheddar"(e.g. Punchbuggy Cheddar). Others allow "classic" bugs to count for two punches.
One author suggests similar games with station wagons, convertibles, trucks and buses. A recent variation
in the United States is the "Fit hit," in which people punch each other when they see a Honda Fit. Another
variant played mainly in the United Kingdom is "Yellow Car," a game in which participants call out that

phrase whilst punching other members of their group in the arm upon seeing a yellow colored vehicle
(which are said to be one of the rarer car colors, compared to red or black, for example). In Brazil, it is only
valid when anyone sees a blue beetle. The person who sees it, shout "blue beetle" and then punches
someone nearby. Games of this type have been suggested for use in helping to engage autistic children
during car rides.

“Mother Hubbard”/ “Mother Trucker”: (N.) A euphemism for Big, Mother F**ker! A profanity
loophole. Also, a crappy video game; meant to be used around parents, teachers, etc.

“Hey Nonny”: Lyrics from the song “Shy” from the musical ONCE UPON A MATTRESS, the Princess
and the Pea musical made famous by Carol Burnett.
“Fred: Hey nonny nonny is it you?
Knight: Hey nonny nonny nonny no.
Fred: Hey nonny nonny is it you?
Knight: Hey nonny nonny nonny no.
Fred: Hey nonny nonny is it you or you or you or you or
Dauntless: Nonny nonny noony noony nonny noonny
Queen: NO NO NO!”

“Bring Me Down”: Lyrics from “Defying Gravity” from the musical Wicked made famous by Idina
“So if you care to find me
Look to the western sky!
As someone told me lately:
"Ev'ryone deserves the chance to fly!"
And if I'm flying solo
At least I'm flying free
To those who'd ground me
Take a message back from me
Tell them how I am
Defying gravity
I'm flying high
Defying gravity
And soon I'll match them in renown
And nobody in all of Oz
No Wizard that there is or was
Is ever gonna bring me down!”

“Piña Coladas and Being Caught in the Rain”: "Escape", also known as "Escape (The Piña Colada
Song)", is a song written and recorded by American singer Rupert Holmes. It was released in September
1979 as the lead single from his album Partners in Crime. It was the last U.S. number one song of the
The song speaks, in three verses and three choruses, of a man who is bored with his current
relationship, as it has become routine and his wife and they never talk. One night, he reads the personals,
and spots an ad that catches his attention: a woman who is seeking a man who, among other little things,
must like piña coladas. Intrigued, he writes back and arranges to meet with the woman "at a bar called
O'Malley's", only to find upon the meeting that the woman is actually his current wife. The song ends on an
upbeat note, showing that the two lovers realized they have more in common than they suspected, and that
they do not have to look any further than each other for what they seek in a relationship.

“Are You There God? (It’s Me…Fiona)”: Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret is a 1970 book by
Judy Blume, typically categorized as a young adult novel, about a girl in sixth grade who grew up without a
religious affiliation. Margaret's mother is Christian and her father is Jewish, and the novel explores her
quest for a single religion. Margaret also confronts many other pre-teen female issues, such as buying her
first bra, having her first period, coping with belted sanitary napkins (changed to adhesive sanitary pads for

recent editions of the book), jealousy towards another girl who has developed a womanly figure earlier than
other girls, liking boys, and whether to voice her opinion if it differs from those of her friends.

The main conflict in the novel comes from Margaret's need to settle her mixed religious heritage. She deals
with her issues of belief in God, as the story is frequently interlaced with her praying by beginning with the
title's words "Are You there, God? it's me, Margaret." In school, she is assigned a year-long independent
study project; she chooses a study on people's beliefs, which proves to be more than she can handle as she
is finding out a lot about herself as well. She also is dealing with conflict between her grandparents on both
sides of her family, as her maternal grandparents are trying to guarantee that she is indeed Christian as she
was born with a Christian mother. Margaret enjoys spending time with her paternal grandmother, who
seems to accept her for who she is and is more accepting of her son's interfaith marriage, although she has
referred to Margaret as "my Jewish girl" and introduced her to synagogue services, for the purpose of
showing her granddaughter what the Jewish faith entails, while her Christian grandparents claim her as a
Christian. When her Jewish grandmother tells Margaret to remember that she's a Jewish girl, Margaret
denies this and claims not to believe in God, which angers her grandmother. The ambiguities of her
interfaith identity are particularly highlighted in a scene — following a heated argument with another girl
— in which Margaret visits a church, finding her way to the confessional booth; there the unseen priest
inquires as to her problems, but — believing at first that the priest is God Himself speaking to her and not
comprehending the concept of Christian confession or its confidential nature — she simply responds "I am
sorry," before running out of the church in tears.
Margaret eventually stops "talking to God" after being in the middle of a confrontation between
her parents and maternal grandparents. She is angry at Him for putting her in such a conflict. In the end of
the book, she goes to the bathroom and finds spots of blood in her underwear. She calls her mom, who was
prepared for this and has bought pads. She puts the pad on, and makes one final prayer to God before the
book ends:
“ Are you still there God? It's me, Margaret. I know you're there God. I know you wouldn't have
missed this for anything! Thank you God. Thanks an awful lot... ”
Margaret moves from New York to the New Jersey suburbs, where she encounters Nancy, who leads her
into a club where they talk about boys, bras, and periods. She becomes attracted to Phillip Leroy, a boy at
school, and kisses him at a party while playing "Spin the Bottle." She does get a bra and is excited but also
confused about growing up.

Sunflower Field: Or… “The Deadly Poppy Field” in the WONDERFUL WIZARD OF OZ. \
When Frank Baum wrote The Wizard of Oz, opium was legal. It is made from the poppy plant.
The poppy is a beautiful flower. The poppy field is a place of beauty where Dorothy gets sidetracked from
her goal of The Emerald City. The opium produced by poppies lead to sleep and death. The poppy field
represents a warning about the dangers of getting sidetracked by something that looks extremely enticing
because it could have a hidden danger.

Lion King: The film THE LION KING is alluded to in SHREK when Shrek and Donkey talk about ogres
from the past while looking at the stars, which is similar to where Mufasa tells Simba about the kings of the
past. In the musical we find puppets and, specifically, the antelopes.

Knights clapping: Is an allusion to MONTY PYTHON AND THE HOLY GRAIL, in Scene 6 “Camelot
is a Silly Place.”
“[clop clop clop]
SIR BEDEVERE: And that, my liege, is how we know the earth to be banana-shaped.
ARTHUR: This new learning amazes me, Sir Bedevere. Explain again how sheep's bladders may be
employed to prevent earthquakes.
BEDEVERE: Oh, certainly, sir.
SIR LANCELOT: Look, my liege!
ARTHUR: Camelot!

LANCELOT: Camelot!
PATSY: It's only a model.
ARTHUR: Shh! Knights, I bid you welcome to your new home. Let us ride... to... Camelot!
[in medieval hall]
KNIGHTS: [singing]
We're Knights of the Round Table. We dance whene'er we're able. We do routines and chorus scenes With
footwork impeccable. We dine well here in Camelot. We eat ham and jam and spam a lot.
We're Knights of the Round Table. Our shows are formidable, But many times we're given rhymes That are
quite unsingable. We're opera mad in Camelot. We sing from the diaphragm a lot.
[in dungeon]
PRISONER: [clap clap clap clap]
[in medieval hall]
KNIGHTS: [tap-dancing]
In war we're tough and able, Quite indefatigable. Between our quests we sequin vests and impersonate
Clark Gable. It's a busy life in Camelot.
MAN: I have to push the pram a lot.
ARTHUR: Well, on second thought, let's not go to Camelot. It is a silly place.
KNIGHTS: Right. Right.”

“But soft…”: Romeo and Juliet: Balcony Scene

But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks...cast it off. (2.2.3-10)
But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief,
That thou her maid art far more fair than she:
Be not her maid, since she is envious;
Her vestal livery is but sick and green
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. (2.2.3-10)
In this passage Romeo uses an intricate conceit to express a simple desire: to take Juliet's virginity.
Romeo begins by saying that the envious moon, i.e., Diana, goddess of the moon and patron of virgins, is
jealous of her servant's (Juliet's) radiance. He then begs Juliet to be Diana’s maid no longer; for the virginal
uniform (vestal livery) she wears as a follower of Diana is sickly green in color, and not to remove it (i.e.,
to remain a virgin) would be foolish.

“This tall to get in…”: If the SHREK franchise is the “anti-Disney,” then this is an obvious allusion to the
sign outside of many Disney Land and World Disney rides…

Boy Bands: The skeleton dance is an allusion to the American Boy Band, i.e. New Kids on the Block, ‘N
Sync, and the Backstreet Boys.
A boy band (or boyband) is loosely defined as a vocal group consisting of young male singers,
usually in their teenage years or in their twenties at the time of formation. Being vocal groups, most boy
band members do not play musical instruments, either in recording sessions or on stage, making the term
somewhat of a misnomer. However, exceptions do exist. Most boy bands dance as well as sing, usually
giving highly choreographed performances.
Some such bands form on their own. They can evolve out of church choral or gospel music
groups, but are often created by talent managers or record producers who hold auditions. Due to this and
their general commercial orientation towards a female audience of preteens, teenyboppers, or teens, the
term may be used with negative connotations in music journalism. Boy bands are similar in concept to their
counterparts, girl groups.

“Wowwie Zowwie”: An allusion to the lyrics of Frank Zappa’s song “Wowie Zowie” from 1966, on the
album “Cruising With Ruben & the Jets: Cheap Thrills.”

“Wowie zowie
Your love's a treat
Wowie zowie
You can't be beat
Wowie zowie, baby
You're so neat
I don't even care
If you shave your legs
Wowie zowie, baby
You're so fine
Wowie zowie, baby
Please be mine
Wowie zowie
Up and down my spine
I don't even care
If you brush your teeth”

Barry White: born Barry Eugene Carter (September 12, 1944 – July 4, 2003), was an American composer
and singer-songwriter.
A two-time Grammy Award-winner known for his distinctive bass voice and romantic image,
White's greatest success came in the 1970s as a solo singer and with the Love Unlimited Orchestra, crafting
many enduring soul, funk, and disco songs such as his two biggest hits, "You're the First, the Last, My
Everything" and "Can't Get Enough of Your Love, Babe." Along with Isaac Hayes, White is considered by as a pioneer of disco music in the early 1970s.
During the course of his career in the music business, White achieved 106 gold albums worldwide,
41 of which also attained platinum status. White had 20 gold and 10 platinum singles, with worldwide sales
in excess of 100 million, according to critics Ed Hogan and Wade Kergan. His influences included Rev.
James Cleveland, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin plus Motown artists The Supremes, The Four Tops and
Marvin Gaye.
The allusion in SHREK, is because Barry White was acknowledged for his distinctive bass voice
and his reputation as one of R&B's most romantic singer. Donkey utilizes this style.

“Daddy was…”: “The Ballad of Farquaad” is an allusion to Johnny Cash’s “The Ballad of Ira Hayes” and
Loretta Lynn’s “Coal Miner’s Daughter.”
“Call him drunken Ira Hayes
He won't answer anymore
Not the whiskey drinkin' Indian
Nor the Marine that went to war

Gather round me people there's a story I would tell

About a brave young Indian you should remember well
From the land of the Pima Indian
A proud and noble band
Who farmed the Phoenix valley in Arizona land

Down the ditches for a thousand years

The water grew Ira's peoples' crops
'Till the white man stole the water rights
And the sparklin' water stopped

Now Ira's folks were hungry

And their land grew crops of weeds
When war came, Ira volunteered
And forgot the white man's greed”

“Well, I was born a coal miner's daughter

In a cabin on a hill in Butcher Holler
We were poor but we had love
That's the one thing that daddy made sure of
He shoveled coal to make a poor man's dollar
My daddy worked all night in the Van Leer coal mine
And all day long in the field a' hoeing corn
Momma rocked the babies at night and read the Bible by the coal oil light
And everything would start all over come break of morn'”

“Sleepin’ Bee…”: The beginning of this song by Harold Arlen with lyrics by Arlen and Truman Capote
from the musical HOUSE OF FLOWERS is a leitmotif in the song

Anatevka: An allusion to the town where the musical FIDDLER ON THE ROOF is set.

Anatevka is a fictional "shtetl", or small Jewish town, in what once known as the "Pale of Settlement", an
area of Imperial Russia where Jews were allowed to set up restricted, but permanent, settlements. Jews
were generally not allowed to reside in Russia outside of the Pale.

The area of the "Pale" was about 20% of what was then European Russia, and is today areas of Poland,
Ukraine, Baltic countries, western Russia, etc.

The Pale was first created by Catherine the Great in 1791, and continued to exist until 1917 when it was
officially dissolved by the post Czarist Provisional Government.

The concentration of Jews in the Pale made them easy targets for pogroms and persecution, but also
fostered the development of a distinct culture, and many of the continuing institutions and traditions of
Jewish life.

At it's peak, about 40% of the world's Jews lived in the Pale (about 5 million). But between 1881 and 1914
due to the harsh conditions, the violence of the pogroms, and the anti-semitic "May Laws", 2 million Jews
migrated from the Pale, mainly to the United States.

The book of stories ("Tevye and his Daughters") on which "Fiddler on the Roof" is based was published in
1894. The author, Sholem Aleichem, was born in 1859 to a poor family in a town called Pereiaslav, near
Kiev and later lived in Odessa and Kiev (all in today's Ukraine). Anatevka, although a fictional name,
would most realistically be a "shtetl" village located in this area around Kiev of the now extinct "Pale of

The story in Fiddler seems to take place around the time of the massive pogroms of 1881-1883 (sparked by
the assassination of the Czar in 1881, which was blamed on the Jews) and the enactment of the "May
Laws" in 1882. But the story also seems to include events that took place in the early 20th century, leading
up to the Russian Revolution 0f 1905.

Black Panthers: An allusion to the revolution during the song “Freak Flag.”
The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a black
revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther
Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement
and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s.
Founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale on October 15, 1966, the
organization initially set forth a doctrine calling primarily for the protection of black neighborhoods from
police brutality. The leaders of the organization espoused socialist and Marxist doctrines; however, the
Party's early black nationalist reputation attracted a diverse membership. The Black Panther Party's
objectives and philosophy expanded and evolved rapidly during the party's existence, making ideological
consensus within the party difficult to achieve, and causing some prominent members to openly disagree
with the views of the leaders.

The organization's official newspaper, The Black Panther, was first circulated in 1967. Also that
year, the Black Panther Party marched on the California State Capitol in Sacramento in protest of a
selective ban on weapons. By 1968, the party had expanded into many cities throughout the United States,
among them, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Kansas City, Los Angeles,
Newark, New Orleans, New York City, Omaha, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle
and Washington, D.C.. Peak membership was near 10,000 by 1969, and their newspaper, under the
editorial leadership of Eldridge Cleaver, had a circulation of 250,000. The group created a Ten-Point
Program, a document that called for "Land, Bread, Housing, Education, Clothing, Justice and Peace", as
well as exemption from conscription for black men, among other demands. With the Ten-Point program,
"What We Want, What We Believe", the Black Panther Party expressed its economic and political
Gaining national prominence, the Black Panther Party became an icon of the counterculture of the
1960s. Ultimately, the Panthers condemned black nationalism as "black racism" and became more focused
on socialism without racial exclusivity. They instituted a variety of community social programs designed to
alleviate poverty, improve health among inner city black communities, and soften the Party's public image.
The Black Panther Party's most widely known programs were its armed citizens' patrols to evaluate
behavior of police officers and its Free Breakfast for Children program. However, the group's political
goals were often overshadowed by their criminality and their confrontational, militant, and violent tactics
against police.
Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover called the party "the greatest threat to
the internal security of the country," and he supervised an extensive program (COINTELPRO) of
surveillance, infiltration, perjury, police harassment, assassination, and many other tactics designed to
undermine Panther leadership, incriminate party members and drain the organization of resources and
manpower. Through these tactics, Hoover hoped to diminish the Party's threat to the general power
structure of the U.S., or even maintain its influence as a strong undercurrent. Angela Davis, Ward
Churchill, and others have alleged that federal, state and local law enforcement officials went to great
lengths to discredit and destroy the organization, including assassination. Black Panther Party membership
reached a peak of 10,000 by early 1969, then suffered a series of contractions due to legal troubles,
incarcerations, internal splits, expulsions and defections. Popular support for the Party declined further after
reports appeared detailing the group's involvement in illegal activities such as drug dealing and extortion
schemes directed against Oakland merchants. By 1972 most Panther activity centered around the national
headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics. Party
contractions continued throughout the 1970s; by 1980 the Black Panther Party comprised just 27 members.

Wedding Crashers: is a 2005 American comedy film directed by David Dobkin. It stars Owen Wilson,
Vince Vaughn and Christopher Walken.
The film opened on July 15, 2005. The DVD was released on January 3, 2006, including an
unrated version, and the Blu-ray version was released on December 30, 2008.
John Beckwith (Owen Wilson) and Jeremy Grey (Vince Vaughn) are divorce mediators in
Washington D.C. The two friends frequently "crash" wedding parties to meet and bed women, working
from a set of rules taught to them by a retired crasher, Chazz Reinhold (Will Ferrell). The duo always has
cover stories for inquisitive guests and inevitably become the hit of every reception by using their charm
and lies to avoid being caught. Their goals are to enjoy the free food and drinks and ultimately to charm
their way into bed with women from the wedding for a one-night stand. After a sequence of successful
crashes, Jeremy takes John to a wedding for the daughter of the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, William
Cleary (Christopher Walken). Once inside, the pair set their sights on Cleary's other daughters, Gloria (Isla
Fisher) and Claire (Rachel McAdams). Jeremy ends up having sex with Gloria on a nearby beach while the
reception is taking place. Gloria is possessive and quickly becomes obsessed with Jeremy. She claims to
have been a virgin until the encounter, which shocks Jeremy, and he tries to get John to bail on the
reception with him.

“God Bless Us…”: Context: "God bless us, every one" is a Tiny Tim's quote from "A Christmas Carol" by
Charles Dickens. The sentence is used twice in the novel, the second one being also the closing.

Jurassic Park: A puddle of water vibrates when we hear the dragon stomp and its roar is similar to the
Tyranosaurous in the 1993 film.

Babe: Shrek says “that’ll do donkey that’ll do,” which is the catchphrase from the 1995 film.

*Resembling or suggestive of the films, television productions, or amusement parks made by Walt Disney
or his organization

*AntiDisneyMovement (commonly shortened to ADM) is a troll cult on YouTube made up of 13 year old
boys that enjoy trolling 12 year old girls that like the Jonas Brothers, Hannah Montana, and anything else
related to Disney. The Anti-Disney Movement started as an account on YouTube in January 2008. Quite
possibly one of the few groups with almost as much cancer as 4chan, these kids spew memes to the point
where even that fifth grader who goes around at recess telling all his friends that his liek for mudkipz is
over 9000 would start to get annoyed. Their era was ended when on June 11, 2009, they were hacked by a
group known as the Unholy Alliance.

Shrek: the anti-fairytale

Forget living happily ever after - Shrek's stars are an ugly beast and an ugly princess who live 'ugly
ever after'.
by Brendan O'Neill

Shrek - the Dreamworks-produced animated movie about a green, ugly but loveable ogre - is
everything the critics says it is: funny, intelligent, with a cast of characters that could show Disney's
all-singing, all-dancing, square-jawed heroes a thing or two.
But one thing about Shrek came as a surprise - how it ruthlessly usurps the traditional fairytale.
Forget handsome princes, damsels in distress and living happily ever after - Shrek's stars are an ugly
beast and an ugly princess, whose best friend is a donkey 'with issues', who all live 'ugly ever after'.
The opening scene shows the pages of a book being turned, complete with 'Once upon a time…', an
imprisoned princess, a brave knight - all written in Ye Olde English calligraphy. Suddenly, a green
hand rips a page from the book and we realise Shrek is using it to wipe his bottom. The message is
clear: Shrek shits on the traditional fairytale. Literally.
Shrek himself (voiced by Mike Myers) is a smelly, swamp-dwelling, but kindly beast - so far, so
familiar. But there is never any hope of him turning into a handsome prince or a gallant knight. So
when he rescues the princess from the dragon's lair, she slates him for deviating from the script:
'You're supposed to be a handsome prince so that I can fall in love with you!'
As for the princess (voiced by Cameron Diaz), she might dream of the fairytale life but she is no
shrinking violet. She belches, kickboxes, blows up frogs with a straw, steals birds' eggs for breakfast,
and, ultimately, sacrifices her beauty to be with the beast she loves. So the beast doesn't magically
come up to the princess's standards of beauty and elegance - she stoops to his standards of ugliness
and freakiness. But hey, they're in love.
The subplot to the love story is that John Lithgow's evil Lord Farquaad (pronounced
'fuckwad'…seriously) is rounding up the town's freaks and weirdoes and casting them out for being
'different'. Out goes Pinocchio for not being a real boy; out go the three blind mice for having a
'visual impairment'; out go the three little piggies for being pathetic ('He huffed and he puffed
and…he served us with an eviction notice').
Even the traditional fearsome dragon is only fearsome because she's lonely
But there's a twist. Farquaad himself is a 'freak' - a four-foot small midget. But unlike Shrek, the
princess and the cast of weirdoes, Farquaad can't face up to his 'difference' and so he pays the
ultimate price - he is eaten by the fearsome dragon. (Incidentally, even the traditional fearsome
dragon is not really a traditional fearsome dragon - it turns out to be a she-dragon who wears lipstick
and is only fearsome because she's lonely and unloved.)

After all this, no wonder Shrek's friend the donkey ends up 'needing therapy'.
'Just what is going on?' asks Eric Metaxas of Christinanity Today. 'Are beauty and nobility and
innocence such medieval concepts that fairytales themselves cannot portray them positively?' He has
a point. Much has been made of Shrek's challenge to the saccharin-sweet Disney fairytales, where
beauty always triumphs over ugliness and good over evil. But at least the old fairytales gave children
something to dream about, rather than telling them that it's okay to be ugly, stupid, weird or ordinary,
and that anybody who says otherwise can 'bite me' (as the Gingerbread Man says to Farquaard…).
But Shrek is funny - and irreverent. The kids I took to see it particularly liked the scene where the
princess sings to a bluebird in such a high-pitch tone that the bluebird explodes, leaving behind a pair
of smoking talons, while the princess steals its eggs so that she can fry them over an open fire. You
won't see that in a Disney cartoon.
It was just that after endless messages about how it's cool to be ugly, I can't have been the only one longing
for a square-jawed Disney character to swing in, in full song, to save the day.

The book opens and on the first page there is a silhouette of a tall, horned ogre. Shrek narrates the
story of his childhood, which tells about how on his 7th birthday he was sent away by his parents. Before
Little Shrek leaves his parents give him some advise to watch out for people with pitchforks. The parents
fade and Big Shrek addresses the audience. Another storybook projection comes up and it’s for Fiona’s
childhood in Far Far Away. Her parents tell her that she is going to be locked away in a tower and guarded
by a fire-breathing dragon. It switches back to Shrek’s story with happy villagers that turn into a mob that
attacks Little Shrek. The mob runs back into the book when Shrek roars. Shrek then sings “Big Bright
Beautiful World” at his swamp.
The second scene begins with Lord Farquaad’s Guards bringing in a chain gang of Fairytale
Characters, who have banished from Duloc City to Shrek’s swamp. Shrek enters and is not happy about
this situation. Shrek decides to visit Lord Farquaad and get the Fairytale characters off his land. There is a
bit of SOUND OF MUSIC/INTO THE WOODS goodbye song at the end of this scene.
Shrek is lost in a Duloc forest when he comes upon a talking Donkey. Guards show up and
scream at Shrek. The guards are looking for Donkey, who they say is a freak of nature. Shrek roars and
the Guards run away. Donkey thinks Shrek is his hero. Donkey wants to join forces, Shrek is dubious.
Shrek roars. Donkey stays and says that Shrek being an ogre doesn’t bother him. Then Donkey sings a
song about not wanting Shrek to let him go. This is clearly a send-up of RENT’s “Take Me or Leave Me.”
Shrek decides he can come as long as he doesn’t talk too much.
The guards sing a song about Farquaad arriving. We think he’s scary and large, and then we see
that he is only 4-ft.-tall. The Gingerbread Man is brought in on a cookie sheet. He’s being tortured
because he is “fairy-tale trash.” Gingy points out that Farquaad is not a king. Farquaad points out that he is
looking for a princess to marry. Muffin Man stychomithia moment happens when Gingy tries to tell of a
princess. He tells of Princess Fiona who is a red-head in the highest room of a tall tower in a dragon-
guarded castle. Gingy is banished to the swamp. Farquaad plans on marrying Fiona and getting his hair
The scene begins with Donkey trying to explain “Punch Buggey” (Slug Bug). Shrek joins in.
They arrive at the Disney-esque Duloc. They have arrived just in time for the “Duloc Fetch a Princess
Festival.” The Greeter screams at Shrek. Shrek tells him/her to stop it. The Greeter slams into a wall.
Duloc Performers and Lord Farquaad sing and dance “What’s Up Duloc” a very Disney World-esque
welcome. Shrek and Donkey come in and the crowd screams at Shrek. Shrek asks for his swamp back.
Shrek is chosen as the warrior to save Princess Fiona. They sing and dance again with a WICKED
Act I Scene 6 is the introduction the audience has to the character of Fiona. We see her at three
different ages, and in all of those she is always hopeful that a prince will come to save her, at some point.
Shrek and Donkey are traveling and Shrek explains that ogres are more than what people assume.
He compares them to onion layers. Donkey says he should’ve compared them to parfaits. Donkey and
Shrek sing the “Travel Song” to pass the time. *They arrive at the lava/castle. Donkey is scared and Shrek
helps him along. They reprise “Don’t Let Me Go.” They are safe at the button of the song.

Donkey thinks Shrek has farted, but Shrek says it's the brimstone. Shrek finds a helmet and puts it
on. Shrek leaves Donkey to wait. While he waits he meets some very Monty Python-esque Knights that
are chained to a wall. Donkey screams for Shrek, but the Knights warn him it might wake up the Dragon.
They say they’re kept around because they sing backup. The Dragon enters. She sings about Donkey
staying forever and the knights, do, indeed, sing back up. The Dragon laments that no one wants her.
Donkey then stops her and tell her that he likes big girls not princesses. The Dragon traps him for herself.
Fiona is in the middle of singing her “I Know It’s Today” when Shrek yells from offstage. He
starts to climb. Fiona prepares to greet her “Knight,” which means she’s going to feign sleeping. Shrek
shakes her to wake her up. Shrek confirms that it is Fiona and says that they should leave. Fiona wants to
act out her fantasy of being rescued. Shrek looks for a door. There isn’t one. Fiona sings her fantasy.
Donkey screams from off-stage. Shrek and Fiona go out of the Tower. Fiona feels as though Shrek is
rushing. Donkey runs in the opposite direction of the amorous Dragon. Fiona meets Donkey as Shrek
battle the Dragon, who is in ‘attack mode,’ while Fiona continues to sing. Fiona finally notices. Shrek
traps the Dragon. Fiona sings victoriously. They are safe and now Fiona wants Shrek to remove his
helmet. He won’t and Fiona wonders how he’ll kiss her. Donkey thinks all of this is funny. He does and
she’s not afraid of him, though confused, Shrek explains that they’re taking her to Farquaad. It’s almost
sunset and she needs to camp, NOW!
Donkey is excited about what they just accomplished and now wants to go on the Crusades circuit.
Shrek doesn’t. Donkey thinks they’ll be bored at the swamp together if they don’t think of a new
adventure. Shrek says there will be no us and he’s building a 10 ft. wall when he gets home. Donkey is
hurt. Shrek projects his anger at how Fiona looked at him. Donkey points out that he didn’t think Shrek
was big and ugly and Shrek softens. Shrek finally joins into Donkey’s crusade fantasy and sings about
being a hero or a poet. Donkey and Fiona join in counterpoint.
Fiona sings about being a morning person. A Bluebird sings to her and Fiona plays call and
response with the bird and, unfortunately, sings a bad note and blows up the Bluebird. She then dances
with a deer and twirls it off a cliff, though manages to hold onto its antlers. Rats begin to enter quickly.
Pied Piper enters complaining that he can’t get the rats to follow him. Fiona grabs his pipe and is swarmed
by the rats. The curtain lowers and then reveals costumed rats that tap dance with Fiona and Pied Piper.
Shrek and Donkey enter to this madness. The Pied Piper exits with his rats. Donkey and Shrek are
concerned about Fiona. She asks about Farquaad, and they can’t stop laughing about how short he is.
Then Shrek and Fiona argue about who had a worse childhood in song. They end up having a moment with
burping and farting.
Farquaad is practicing for his meeting with Fiona. Thelonius suggests that Farquaad invite his
father. Farquaad throws a fit and then sings about his past: Grumpy, the dwarf, his father and the Princess
and the Pea. Then he fantasizes about his wedding.
Shrek and Fiona bonding continues with air guitar fun. Then they have a shoving match and
Shrek accidently shoves Fiona into some bushes. Donkey sees Duloc. Shrek and Fiona seem upset by the
bonding ending, and Fiona suggests that they camp the night so she can try Shrek’s S’nothers. They bump
into each other with excitement. Donkey notices.
Donkey begins to sing about Shrek and Fiona’s need to make a move. Shrek and Fiona are at the
campfire while he starts the song. 3 Blind Mice enter when Donkey talks about love being blind. Shrek
and Fiona talk about the S’nothers. Donkey enters Barry White style to try to subconsciously make Shrek
make a move, but Shrek just asks if he can finish her S’nother. Then Donkey goes Tina Turner on him
talking about a sunset; Fiona freaks out and exits. Donkey points out that Shrek has feelings for Fiona, and
Shrek says that it doesn’t matter because he’s an ogre. Donkey decides to go and fix this himself.
Donkey encounters Fiona as an ogress, and, at first thinks that she has been eaten, and is in the
ogress’ belly. Fiona then tells him of the curse that a witch put on her that makes her into an ogress every
night, when the sun goes down, and that the curse cannot be broken until she has her “true love’s kiss.”
Donkey tries to insinuate that she should kiss Shrek. Fiona doesn’t want Shrek to know about her curse
and she makes Donkey promise he won’t tell. Meanwhile, Shrek is outside practicing what he’s going to
say, in song, but when he garners up the courage, he overhears Fiona calling herself ugly, and he thinks it’s
about him.
Fiona wakes up the next morning and wants to talk to Shrek. Shrek approaches angry and Fiona
runs to him happily. He tells her that he’s heard enough. Farquaad arrives with his army of Duloc guards
and dancers on a plastic horse. Shrek asks about his swamp. Shrek gets the deed from Farquaad. Then
Farquaad’s true height is revealed to Fiona. Farquaad asks for her hand in marriage. There are many looks

going between Shrek and Fiona. Fiona accepts and Farquaad says it will happen tomorrow. Fiona says,
“No,” and Shrek looks hopeful, but she means that she wants it today. They ride off on the horse by
“backing off” stage. Donkey enters stretching, unknowing to what has occurred and Shrek thinks that
Donkey sides with Fiona. Shrek hurts Donkey’s feelings and Donkey leaves. Shrek sings all alone.
All the Fairytale creatures enter Anatevka-like; they’ve been evicted from the swamp. They’re moving to a
landfill 40 miles north. Gingy decides that they need to stand up for themselves, so they sing “Freak Flag”
and decide to go to Duloc.
Donkey has begun constructing a wall for his half of the swamp, since they both rescued Fiona,
then the reward of the Swamp belongs to both of them. Donkey then gets upset with Shrek, and Shrek
wonders why he came back, and Donkey says, “That’s what friends do! They forgive each other!” Shrek
tries to get rid of him and Donkey says this was the same thing he did to Fiona, and maybe she could’ve
loved him. Shrek tells Donkey what he overheard. Donkey tries to tell him that was a misunderstanding,
but because of his promise, he can’t tell him the truth. Shrek apologizes and Shrek decides to ask Fiona
The Wedding has begun. The Bishop starts the wedding. Fiona tries to move it along. Shrek’s
voice is heard before the Bishop can pronounce them King and Queen. Shrek tells Fiona she can’t marry
Farquaad because he’s only marrying her so he can be a King. Shrek tells her Farquaad is not her true love.
Farquaad thinks its hilarious that an ogre has fallen for a princess. Farquaad makes the audience laugh.
Fiona wants to hear what Shrek has to say, so he sings to her. Farquaad screams, “Boo,” a la THE
PRINCESS BRIDE. Fiona says she can’t marry Farquaad. The Fairytale creatures enter to stop the
wedding. The Guards drag off Fiona. The Fairytale Creatures begin their riot. Farquaad’s dad, Grumpy,
shows up. Pinocchio announces that Farquaad is a Halfling, and, thus a freak like all of the Fairytale
Creatures. Fiona enters as an ogress. Farquaad is disgusted. Farquaad thinks he’s king and wants to lock
up Fiona. Shrek calls for the Dragon who catches Farquaad on fire. Fiona and Shrek kiss. Transformation
does not occur, but Shrek loves Fiona anyway. Big Finale.

William Steig (November 14, 1907-October 3, 2003) – Original Creator - was a prolific American
cartoonist, sculptor and, later in life, an illustrator and writer of popular children's literature. Most noted for
the picture books Sylvester and the Magic Pebble, Abel's Island and Doctor De Soto, he was also the
creator of Shrek!, who inspired the popular movie series of the same name. Steig received acclaim not only
for the quality of his illustrations but for the gracefulness of his prose style. The New York Times said
Steig was "triumphant in the quality of his prose."

Jeanine Tesori (1961, originally Jeanine Levenson) – Music - is an American musical arranger and
composer who won the 1999 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Music in a Play for Nicholas Hytner's
production of Twelfth Night at Lincoln Center and the 2004 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Music for
Caroline, or Change.
Tesori made her Broadway debut when she arranged the dance music for the 1995 revival of How
to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying. In 1997 she composed the score for the off-Broadway
musical Violet, which won her an Obie Award, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best
Musical, and the Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Musical, and arranged the music for the Johnny
Mercer revue Dream, a task she repeated with the 1998 revival of The Sound of Music and the 1999 revue
Swing! She also served as associate conductor for the Broadway productions of The Secret Garden and The
Who's Tommy.
In 2000, Tesori joined forces with lyricist Dick Scanlan to write eleven new songs for a stage
adaptation of Thoroughly Modern Millie. A successful run at the La Jolla Playhouse in San Diego prompted
a transfer to Broadway in 2002, and Tesori was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Original Score and
the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Music.
Tesori has collaborated with Tony Kushner twice, supplying music for Caroline, or Change in
2004 and a new translation of Bertolt Brecht's Mother Courage and Her Children, which was produced as
part of the 2006 Shakespeare in the Park season staged at the Delacorte Theater by The Public Theater.
Caroline garnered her a second Tony nomination for Best Original Score.

Tesori has composed music for the films Nights in Rodanthe, The Loss of a Teardrop Diamond,
The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Beginning, Shrek the Third, Mulan II, and The Emperor's New Groove 2:
Kronk's New Groove.
Tesori's most recent Broadway stage project is Shrek the Musical, which earned her both Tony and
Drama Desk Award nominations for her music.
In 2011, she wrote the music to Fun Home with a book and lyrics by Lisa Kron, and based on the
novel by Alison Bechdel. The show is overseen by Philip Himberg while being workshopped at the
Sundance Institute's 2011 Theatre Lab at White Oaks Lab in Yulee, Florida. It was previously developed
during the 2009 Ojai Playwrights Conference. It opened Off-Broadway at the The Public Theater on
October 17, 2012 to a sold out run that played until November 4.

David Lindsay-Abaire (November 30, 1969- ) – book and lyrics - is an American playwright, lyricist and
screenwriter. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 2007 for his play Rabbit Hole, which also earned
several Tony Award nominations.
David Lindsay-Abaire concentrated in theatre at Sarah Lawrence College, where he graduated in
1992. He was accepted into the Lila Acheson Wallace American Playwrights Program at the Juilliard
School, where he wrote under the tutelage of playwrights Marsha Norman and Christopher Durang from
1996 to 1998.
Lindsay-Abaire has received commissions from South Coast Repertory, Dance Theater Workshop,
and the Jerome Foundation, as well as awards from the Berilla Kerr Foundation, the Lincoln Center
LeComte du Nuoy Fund, Mixed Blood Theater, Primary Stages, the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center, the
Tennessee Williams/ New Orleans Literary Festival, and the South Carolina Playwrights Festival. Lindsay-
Abaire had his first theatrical success with Fuddy Meers, which was workshopped as part of the National
Playwrights Conference at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center under Artistic Director Lloyd Richards and
ultimately premiered at the Manhattan Theatre Club. He returned to the Manhattan Theatre Club with
Wonder of the World, starring Sarah Jessica Parker, about a wife who suddenly leaves her husband and
hops a bus to Niagara Falls in search of freedom, enlightenment, and the meaning of life.
His Rabbit Hole, produced in 2006 in New York with Cynthia Nixon, Tyne Daly, and John
Slattery, won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Play, as well
as other Tony awards, and Cynthia Nixon won a Tony as Best Actress.
Lindsay-Abaire also wrote Kimberly Akimbo (2000), Wonder of the World (2000), Dotting and
Dashing (1999), Snow Angel (1999), The L'il Plays (1997), and A Devil Inside (1997).
Lindsay-Abaire also has writing credit on three screenplays, Robots (2005), Inkheart (2007), and
the film adaptation of Rabbit Hole, in which Nicole Kidman starred. She produced the film, which debuted
at the Toronto International Film Festival, and was well received. He has recently written a movie for
DreamWorks Animation, entitled Rise of the Guardians, based on a story by co-director William Joyce.
He wrote the book and lyrics for the new musical Shrek the Musical, which opened on Broadway in 2009
and in London in 2011. The musical ran for 441 performances on Broadway, closing in January 2010.
He wrote the book for the musical High Fidelity, and the book and lyrics for Shrek the Musical. His play
Good People had its official opening on Broadway on March 3, 2011, with Frances McDormand and Tate
Donovan in the lead roles.

Ted Elliott (July 4, 1961 - ) – original screenwriter - is an American screenwriter. Along with his writing
partner Terry Rossio, Elliott has written some of the most successful American films of the past 15 years,
including Aladdin, Shrek and the Pirates of the Caribbean series. In 2004, he was elected to the Board of
Directors of the Writers Guild of America; his term on the board ended in 2006. Along with fellow former
board member Craig Mazin, Elliott runs The Artful Writer, a website aimed at professional screenwriters.
He is also a co-founder with Terry Rossio of Wordplay a.k.a., one of the premier
screenwriting sites on the Internet.
In 2005, Elliott ran for president of the Writers Guild of America, west, but lost to animation
writer and historical figurine maker Patric Verrone. Verrone received 1301 votes; Elliott received 591.

Puppetry Referenced for this Production

Puppetry is an ancient form of performance. Some historians claim that they pre-date actors in the theater.
There is evidence that they were used in Egypt as early as 2000 BC when string-operated figures of wood
were manipulated to perform the action of kneading bread, and other string controlled objects. Wire
controlled, articulated puppets made of clay and ivory have been found in Egyptian tombs.

Puppetry was practiced in Ancient Greece and the oldest written records of puppetry can be found in the
works of Herodotus and Xenophon, dating from the 5th Century BC. The Greek word translated as
“puppet” is nevrospastos, which literally means “drawn by strings, string-pulling”, from nevron, meaning
either “sinew, tendon, muscle, string”, or “wire”, and spao meaning “draw, pull.”

Aristotle discusses puppets in his work ON THE MOTION OF ANIMALS.

“The movements of animals may be compared with those of automatic puppets, which are set going on the
occasion of a tiny movement; the levers are released, and strike the twisted strings against one another.”

Archimedes is known to have worked with marionettes. Plato’s work also contains references to puppetry.
The ILLIAD and the ODYSSEY were presented using puppetry. The roots of European puppetry probably
extend back to the Greek plays with puppets played to the “common people” in the 5th century BC. By the
3rd century BC these plays would appear in the Theater of Dionysus at the Acropolis.

In ancient Greece and Rome clay and ivory dolls, dated from around 500 BC, were found in children’s
tombs. These dolls had articulated arms and legs, some of which had an iron rod extending up from the
tops of their heads. This rod was used to manipulate the doll from above, exactly as is done today in
Sicilian puppetry. A few of these dolls had strings in place of the rods. Some researchers believe these
ancient figures were mere toys and not puppets due to their small size.

The Indian word “sutradhara” refers to the show-manager of theatrical performances (or a puppet-player),
and also means literally “string-puller” or “string-holder”.

Object Puppetry: Object theater explores the expressive, dramatic and narrative power of everyday things.
In the place of crafted puppets, the performers use ordinary/found objects, either in their raw form or
rapidly altered, in front of the audience. Everyday objects displace traditional crafted realistic or fantasy
figures – a little girl might be represented by a napkin; a box becomes a pulpit, a gurney, or a church.
Because they are free of an imposed personality/identity, mundane objects activate the imagination and
creative intelligence of puppeteer and audience.

Bunraku: also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre,
founded in Osaka in 1684.
Three kinds of performers take part in a bunraku performance:
• Ningyōtsukai or Ningyōzukai—puppeteers
• Tayū—the chanters
• Shamisen players
Occasionally other instruments such as taiko drums will be used.
The most accurate term for the traditional puppet theater in Japan is ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃?). The
combination of chanting and shamisen playing is called jōruri and the Japanese word for puppet (or dolls,
generally) is ningyō.
Bunraku puppetry has been a documented traditional activity for Japanese for hundreds of years.
Bunraku puppets are about one-half life size and each operated by three performers: a principal
operator and two assistants. Strings are not used, but rather, the puppeteers co-operate to maneuver the
limbs, eyelids, eyeballs, eyebrows and mouths of the puppets, thereby producing life-like actions and facial
expressions. The puppeteers are in full view of the audience, but are dressed in black to symbolize that
they are to be taken as “invisible”.
The story is narrated by a single person, who also speaks the voice of all the puppets, and
therefore must have a diverse repertoire of vocal expressions to represent both genders and all ages. The
pace of the narration is dictated by accompanying music, played on the shamisen. It is delightful to watch

the sophisticated puppets come to life as the performers create their intricate movements, synchronized
with the narration and the music from the shamisen.
Bunraku and kabuki often depict stories based on adaptations of scripts with similar themes.
Classic tragic love stories, heroic legends and tales based on historical events are popular.

Marionette: is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations. A
marionette’s puppeteer is called a manipulator. Marionettes are operated with the puppeteer hidden or
revealed to an audience by using a vertical or horizontal control bar in different forms of theaters or
entertainment venues. They have also been used in films and on television. The attachment of the strings
varies according to its character or purpose.
In French. marionette = “little Mary”. One of the first figures to be made into a marionette was
the Virgin Mary, hence the name.

Shadow Puppetry: Shadow puppetry is considered the oldest form of puppetry in the world. It began
1,000’s of years ago in China and India. In China the shadow plays are often folk-tales and legends of the
past, many based on Chinese opera themes. In Indonesia shadow plays are an integral part of traditional
culture. The plays are taken from two religious epics where there is often a struggle between good and evil.
Turkey and Greece also have a history of shadow puppetry, where plays are based on everyday life and
contain much physical comedy. In Western Europe shadow puppetry enjoyed popularity during the 1800’s
when the art of cutting silhouettes out of paper was fashionable. In 1926 German shadow puppeteer Lotte
Reiniger made the first full length animated film THE ADVENTURES OF PRINCE ACHMET. She hand-
cut beautiful opaque silhouette figures that were moved on an animation table.
Traditional shadow puppets are flat and made of leather. Areas within the puppet are punched out
with sharp knives. These areas suggest facial features and help define clothing. The puppets are made
from separate pieces and joined together with wire or string. They are controlled by long rods and moved
behind a white translucent screen made form paper or cloth. A lamp on the puppeteer’s side of the stage
provides the light: the audience on the other side sees the moving shadows. Cut-out areas within the
figures allow light to shine through.
Contemporary shadow puppets may be made combining a variety of materials including paper,
plastic, wood, colored theatrical lighting filters, cloth, feathers, dried plants or found objects ranging from
silk scarves to kitchen utensils. Shadow puppets have been made with three-dimensional wire heads and
cloth bodies.
Contemporary shadow puppeteers might employ a host of specialized lighting effects, including
various lighting instruments, overhead projectors, reflected light, projected films, head lamps and hand-
held lights.

Physical Theater Techniques Referenced for

this Production
Animal Studies (Donkey, Pig, Wolf, Cat, Bears, Butterflies, Birds, Deer, Fireflies): (From THE
MOVING BODY by Jaques Lecoq) The analysis of animal movement brings us closer to the study of
the human body and helps with character creation. Broadly, animals resemble us, having bodies, feet,
heads. This makes them easier to approach than materials or the four elements. Research on animal bodies
begins with their purchase on the ground: how do they stand? What is their contact with the ground, and
how does it differ from ours? We discover hooves which trot, making only brief contact with the ground
(reminiscent of women in high heels), the flat feet of plantigrades [e.g., bears]; the webbed feet of ducks
who walk with a rolling gait (like Charlie Chaplin); the feet of flies which work like suction pads, sticking
to the floor, etc. I encourage students to imagine that the floor of the room is burning hot, like a sandy
beach under the midday sun, obliging them to discover the dynamics of that particular kind of walk. Here
we move directly from analysis to performance.
Next we investigate animal attitudes. What are the attitudes available to a dog? On all fours,
sitting up, lying down, ears pricked, etc. Each student comes up with a few attitudes, out of which the
group settles on fifteen or so. Some animals provide cases of slow motion: the chameleon is one: he can

move without a tremor passing from legs to head. Ideal for a spy! The movement from relaxation to being
on the alert is a special element in animal dynamics. A dog can instantly go from defence to attack, from
sleep to the alert. Once analysed, all these dynamics can be built into the performance of character.
Through work on animals, I have gradually come to define what I call animal gymnastics. Work
on flexibility of the spine is done by analogy with cat movements, movements of the shoulder blades refers
to lions and tigers, elongation of the spinal column is done with reference to meerkats standing guard in the
desert. In this kind of gymnastics, we are not attempting to perform exceptional feats, but rather to
discover the elementary, organic movements of the animals. For work on neck-and-head-movements,
reference to dogs is particularly useful.
Locomotion is an important aspect to be observed in animal movement. In particular we deal with
quadrupeds (walking on four feet), but we also touch on reptile crawling (undulation at its most basic), the
flight of birds and the swimming of fish. Once again: earth, air and sea. We walk on all fours, we gallop,
we trot, we gambol, etc., all movements which are particularly difficult for human beings to accomplish
with ease.
At the start of this work, some students reject contact with the ground; they avoid supporting the
whole weight of the body on their arms, they try to use just their fingertips. In so doing, they are trying to
maintain balance on their legs, only pretending to walk on all fours. Not until they meet the ground on its
own terms, and make full contact with it, can they progress.
Real observation of animals is essential here. I can soon tell which students have cats and which
don’t, which have observed insects and which are just imagining them. The first ones act, the others
demonstrate. They have to go to the zoo to observe and to analyse, however difficult it may be: the walk
of a giraffe or a bear are extremely complex and cannot easily be embodied.

Tadashi Suzuki Method: (from The Suzuki Method of Actor Training was
developed by Tadashi Suzuki, Artistic Director of the Suzuki Company of Toga (SCOT). This technique
has gained a broad following in professional theater circles including the Royal Shakespeare Company,
among many. The Suzuki Method develops the actor’s inner physical sensibilities, and builds the will,
stamina and concentration.
The workshop activities include a series of exercises focusing the use of the feet in relation to
one’s center. These exercises are designed to throw the body off center while maintaining a consistent
level of energy and swaying the upper body. The training involves precise physical discipline to bring a
heightened awareness and emotional and physical commitment to each moment on stage. The Suzuki
Method is designed to gain expressive perspective and abilities, and to explore the power of the human
body in the theatrical context.

Dance Forms Utilized in this Production

Ballet: is a type of performance dance that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century
and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread,
highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology. It has been globally
influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres. Ballet may also
refer to a ballet dance work, which consists of the choreography and music for a ballet production. A well-
known example of this is The Nutcracker, a two-act ballet that was originally choreographed by Marius
Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a music score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
Stylistic variations have emerged and evolved since the Italian Renaissance. Early variations are
primarily associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, and Italian
ballet. Later variations include contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet. Perhaps the most widely known
and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet (or Ballet Blanc), which is a classical style that focuses
on female dancers and features pointe work, flowing and precise acrobatic movements, and often presents
the female dancers in traditional, short white French tutus.
Ballet dance works (ballets) are choreographed and performed by trained artists, and often
performed with classical music accompaniment. Early ballets preceded the invention of the proscenium
stage and were performed in large chambers with the audience seated on tiers or galleries on three sides of

the dance floor. Modern ballets may include mime and acting, and are usually set to music (typically
orchestral but occasionally vocal).
Ballet requires years of training to learn and master, and much practice to retain proficiency. It has
been taught in ballet schools around the world, which have historically used their own cultures to evolve
the art.
The word ballet comes from the French and was borrowed into English around 1630. The French
word in turn has its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo (dance) which comes from Latin ballo,
ballare, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω" (ballizo), "to dance, to jump
The history of ballet began in the Italian Renaissance courts of the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries. It quickly spread to the French court of Catherine de' Medici where it was further developed. The
creation of classical ballet as it is known today occurred under Louis XIV, who in his youth was an avid
dancer and performed in ballets by Pierre Beauchamp and Jean-Baptiste Lully. In 1661 Louis founded the
Académie Royale de Danse (Royal Dance Academy), which was charged with establishing standards for
the art of dance and the certification of dance instructors. In 1672, following his retirement from the stage,
Louis XIV made Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique (Paris Opera) in which the first
professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. This origin is reflected in the predominance of
French in the vocabulary of ballet.
Despite the great reforms of Jean-Georges Noverre in the eighteenth century, ballet went into
decline in France after 1830, though it was continued in Denmark, Italy, and Russia. It was reintroduced to
Western Europe on the eve of the First World War by a Russian company, the Ballets Russes of Sergei
Diaghilev, who ultimately influenced ballet around the world. Diaghilev's company became a destination
for many of the Russian-trained dancers fleeing the famine and unrest that followed the Bolshevik
revolution. These dancers brought back to their place of origin many of the choreographic and stylistic
innovations that had been flourishing under the czars.
In the 20th century, ballet had a strong influence on broader concert dance. For example, in the
United States, choreographer George Balanchine developed what is now known as neoclassical ballet.
Subsequent developments include contemporary ballet and post-structural ballet, seen in the work of
William Forsythe in Germany. Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical
ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in both the United States and

Irish Step Dance is a style of dance with its roots in traditional Irish dance. It can be performed solo or by
troupes. Two types of shoes are worn; hard shoes, which make sounds similar to tap shoes, and soft shoes,
which are similar to ballet slippers. Dancers stiffen their upper bodies while performing quick, intricate
footwork. Costumes are considered important for stage presence in competitive Irish stepdance. There are
several levels of competition available for both individuals and groups. Riverdance, an Irish stepdancing
interval act in the 1994 Eurovision Song Contest, greatly contributed to its popularity.
The dancing traditions of Ireland are likely to have grown in tandem with Irish traditional music.
Its first roots may have been in Pre-Christian Ireland, but Irish dance was also partially influenced by dance
forms on the Continent, especially the quadrille dances. Traveling dancing masters taught all over Ireland
as late as the early 1900s.
Professor Margaret Scanlan, author of Culture and customs of Ireland, points out that the earliest
feis or stepdancing competition dates no earlier than 1897, and states: "Although the feis rhetoric suggests
that the rules [for international stepdancing competitions] derive from an ancient past, set dances are a
product of modern times". There are many other forms of stepdancing in Ireland (such as the Connemara
style stepdancing), but the style most familiar is the Munster, or southern, form, which has been formalized
by An Coimisiún le Rincí Gaelacha (English: The Gaelic Dancing Commission), which first met in 1930.
The Commission (abbreviated as CLRG) was formed from a directorate of the Gaelic League that was
formed during the Gaelic Revival and agreed the modern rules.
In the 19th century, the Irish diaspora had spread Irish dance all over the world, especially to
North America and Australia. However, schools and feiseanna were not established until the early 1900s:
in America these tended to be created within Irish-American urban communities, notably in Chicago. The
first classes in stepdancing were held there by the Philadelphia-born John McNamara.
The nature of the Irish dance tradition has changed and adapted over the centuries to accommodate
and reflect changing populations and the fusion of new cultures. The history of Irish dancing is as a result a

fascinating one. The popular Irish dance stage shows of the past ten years have reinvigorated this cultural
art, and today Irish dancing is healthy, vibrant, and enjoyed by people across the globe.
One explanation for the unique habit of keeping the hands and upper body stiff relates to the stage.
In order to get a hard surface to dance on, people would often unhinge doors and lay them on the ground.
Since this was clearly a very small "stage," there was no room for arm movement. The solo dances are
characterized by quick, intricate movements of the feet.
Sometime in that decade or the one following, a dance teacher had his students compete with arms
held firmly down to their sides, hands in fists, to call more attention to the intricacy of the steps. The
adjudicator approved by placing the students well. Other teachers and dancers quickly followed the new
trend. Movement of the arms is sometimes incorporated into modern Irish stepdance, although this is
generally seen as a hybrid and non-traditional addition and is only done in shows and performances, not
Irish stepdance has precise rules about what one may and may not do, but within these rules
leeway is provided for innovation and variety. Thus, stepdance can evolve while still remaining confined
within the original rules.

Tap: is a form of dance characterized by using the sound of one's tap shoes hitting the floor as a percussive
instrument. As such, it is also commonly considered to be a form of music. Two major variations on tap
dance exist: rhythm (Jazz) tap and Broadway tap. Broadway tap focuses more on the dance. It is widely
performed as a part of musical theater. Rhythm tap focuses more on musicality, and practitioners consider
themselves to be a part of the Jazz tradition.
The sound is made by shoes with a metal "tap" on the heel and toe. Tap shoes can be bought at
most dance shops. There are different brands of shoes which sometimes differ in the way they sound.
"Soft-Shoe" is a rhythm form of tap dancing that doesn't require special shoes, and while rhythm is
generated by tapping of the feet, it also uses sliding of the feet (even sometimes using scattered sand on the
stage to enhance the sound of the performer's sliding feet) more often than modern rhythm tap. It preceded
what is currently considered to be modern tap, but has since declined in popularity.
Tap dance has roots in dancing such as the Juba Dance, English Lancashire Clog dancing, and
probably most notably Irish stepdancing. It is believed to have begun in the mid-1800s during the rise of
minstrel shows. White performers would imitate Southern blacks and satirize their dance forms while
incorporating step-dancing. In later minstrel shows, black performers in blackface would play roles in
which they imitated the Irish imitation of black dance forms, further mixing the two. Famous as Master
Juba, William Henry Lane became one of the few black performers to join an otherwise white minstrel
troupe, and is widely considered to be the most famous forebear of tap dance.
As the minstrel shows began to decline in popularity, tap dance moved to the increasingly popular
Vaudeville stage. Due to the two-colored rule, which forbade blacks from performing solo, the majority of
Vaudeville tap acts were duets. This gave rise to the famous pair "Buck and Bubbles," which consisted of
John "Bubbles" Sublett tap dancing and Ford "Buck" Washington on piano. The duo perfected the "Class
Act", a routine in which the performers wore impeccable tuxedos, which has since become a common
theme in tap dance. The move is seen by some as a rebuttal to the older minstrel show idea of the tap
dancer as a "grinning-and-dancing clown."
Another notable figure to emerge during this period is Bill "Bojangles" Robinson. Well versed in
both Buck and Wing dancing and Irish Step dancing, Bill Robinson joined the Vaudeville circuit in 1902,
in a duo with George W. Cooper. The act quickly became famous, headlining events across the country,
and touring England as well. In 1908, however, the two had an altercation, and the partnership was ended.
Gambling on his popularity, Robinson decided to form a solo act, which was extremely rare for a black
man at that time. Despite this, he had tremendous success and soon became a world famous celebrity. He
went on to have a leading role in many films, notably in the Shirley Temple franchise.
During the 1930s tap dance mixed with Lindy Hop. "Flying swing outs" and "flying circles" are
Lindy Hop moves with tap footwork. In the 1950s, the style of entertainment changed. Jazz music and tap
dance declined, while rock and roll and pop music and the new jazz dance emerged. What is now called
jazz dance evolved out of tap dance, so both dances have many moves in common. But jazz evolved
separately from tap dance to become a new form in its own right. Well-known dancers during the 1960s
and 1970s included Arthur Duncan and Tommy Tune.
No Maps on My Taps, the Emmy award winning PBS documentary of 1979, helped begin the
recent revival of tap dance. The outstanding success of the animated film, Happy Feet, has further

reinforced the popular appeal. National Tap Dance Day in the United States, now celebrated May 25, was
signed into law by President George Bush on November 7, 1989. (May 25 was chosen because it is the
birthday of famous tapper Bill "Bojangles" Robinson.) Prominent modern tap dancers have included Ann
Miller, Brenda Bufalino, The Clark Brothers, Savion Glover, Gregory and Maurice Hines, LaVaughn
Robinson, Jason Samuels Smith, Chloe Arnold, and Dianne "Lady Di" Walker Indie-pop band Tilly and the
Wall also features a tap dancer, Jamie Pressnall, tapping as percussion.

Jazz: is a classification shared by a broad range of dance styles. Before the 1950s, jazz dance referred to
dance styles that originated from African American vernacular dance. In the 1950s, a new genre of jazz
dance — modern jazz dance — emerged, with roots in Caribbean traditional dance. Every individual style
of jazz dance has roots traceable to one of these two distinct origins. Jazz was a big hit in the early 50's and
it is still a well-loved style of dance all over the world. Moves used In Jazz Dance include Jazz Hands,
Kicks, Leaps, Sideways Shuffling, Rolled Shoulders, and Turned Knees.
The term "Jazz" was first applied to a style of music and dance during World War I. Jazz in a
dance form, however, originates from the vernacular dances of Africans when they were brought to the
Americas on slave ships. This dance form developed alongside jazz music in New Orleans in the early
1900s. Beginning in the 1930s and continuing through the 1960s, Jazz dance transformed from this
vernacular form into a theatre-based performance form of dance that required a highly trained dancer.
During this time, choreographers from the modern and ballet dance worlds experimented with the jazz
dance style. This includes choreographers like George Balanchine, Agnes de Mille, Jack Cole, Hanya
Holm, Helen Tamiris, Michael Kidd, Jerome Robbins, and Bob Fosse. All of these choreographers
influenced jazz by requiring highly trained dancers to perform a specific set of movements, which differed
greatly from the colloquial form of New Orleans in the 1900s. Also during this time period (circa. 1950)
jazz dance was profoundly influenced by Caribbean and other Latin American dance styles which were
introduced by anthropologist and dancer Katherine Dunham.
Throughout its history, jazz dance has developed in parallel to popular music. This pattern of
development has resulted in a few elements of movement key to the dance style, the most important being
that jazz is the physical embodiment of the popular music of a given time. An example of this is that during
a down time of jazz dancing from 1945–1954, when big bands and dance halls were declining, the
vernacular of the dance followed less jazz music and leaned more toward rock and roll, creating moves like
"The Monkey" and "The Jerk".
Syncopated rhythm is a common characteristic in jazz music that was adapted to jazz dance in the
early twentieth century and has remained a significant characteristic.
Isolations are a quality of movement that were introduced to jazz dance by Katherine Dunham.
Improvisation was an important element in early forms of jazz dance, as it is an important element
of jazz music.
A low center of gravity and high level of energy are other important identifying characteristics of
jazz dance. Other elements of jazz dance are less common and are the stylizations of their respective
choreographers. One such example are the inverted limbs and hunched-over posture of Bob Fosse.

Scottish Highland Dancing is a style of competitive solo dancing developed in the Scottish Highlands in
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the context of competitions at public events such as the Highland
games, where it is often performed to the accompaniment of Highland bagpipe music. It is now seen at
nearly every modern day Highland games event.
Highland dancers wear specialized shoes called ghillies.
Highland dance has been subject to many influences from outside the Highlands. For example, it
has been heavily influenced by the aesthetics of the patrons of Scotland since the nineteenth century and
Highland dance should not be confused with Scottish country dance.
Highland dancing is a competitive and technical dance form requiring technique, stamina, and
strength, and is recognized as a sport by the Sport Council of Scotland.
In Highland dancing, the dancers dance on the balls of the feet. Highland dancing is a form of
solo step dancing, from which it evolved, but while some forms of step dancing are purely percussive in
nature, Highland dancing involves not only a combination of steps but also some integral upper body, arm,
and hand movements.

Highland dancing should not be confused with Scottish country dancing which is both a social
dance (that is, a dance which is danced with a partner or partners) like ballroom dancing, and a formation
dance (that is, a dance in which an important element is the pattern of group movement about the dance
floor) like square dancing.
Some Highland dances do derive from traditional social dances, however. An example is the
Highland Reel, also known as the Foursome Reel, in which groups of four dancers alternate between solo
steps facing one another and a figure-of-eight style with intertwining progressive movement. Even so, in
competitions, the Highland Reel dancers are judged individually. Most Highland dances are danced solo.

Music Forms/References in the Play

Counterpoint: In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically
interdependent (polyphony), but independent in rhythm and contour. It has been most commonly identified
in classical music, developing strongly during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period,
especially in Baroque music. The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning "point
against point".

‘60s Girl Trios and DREAMGIRLS: A girl group is a popular music act featuring several young female
singers who generally harmonise together.
Girl groups emerged in the late 1950s as groups of young singers teamed up with behind-the-
scenes songwriters and music producers to create hit singles, often featuring glossy production values and
backing by top studio musicians. Some acts had certain members taking the lead vocalist position with the
other members as supporting vocalists. In later eras the girl group template would be applied to disco,
contemporary R&B, and country-based formats as well as pop.
During the Music Hall/Vaudeville era, all-girl singing groups were mainly novelty acts singing
nonsense songs in silly voices. One of the first major exceptions was the Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce, an
American trio who successfully toured England and parts of Europe in 1927, recorded and appeared on
BBC radio - they toured the US variety and big-time theaters extensively, and later changed their stage
name to the Three X Sisters. The ladies were together from 1923 until the early 1940s, and known for their
close harmonies, as well as barbershop style or novelty tunes, and utilized their 1930s radio success.[3]
Boswell Sisters, who became one of the most popular singing groups from 1930 to 1936, had over twenty
hits. The Andrews Sisters started (1937) as a Boswell tribute band and continued recording and performing
through the 1940s into the late-1960s, achieving more record sales, more Billboard hits, more million-
sellers, and more movie appearances than any other girl group to date.
The Chordettes, The Fontane Sisters, and The McGuire Sisters were popular from the dawn of the
rock era, if not earlier, with all three acts topping the pop charts at the end of 1954 to the beginning of
1955. The DeCastro Sisters' "Teach Me Tonight" reached #2 at nearly the same time. The Lennon Sisters
were a mainstay on The Lawrence Welk Show from 1955 on. In early 1956 the Bonnie Sisters were a one-
hit wonder with "Cry Baby", as were The Teen Queens with "Eddie My Love". The Bobbettes lasted for 5
1/2 months with "Mr. Lee" in 1957, and The Chantels were charting from 1957 to 1963 (including 1958's
"Maybe" and 1961's "Look In My Eyes"). However, the group often considered to have started the girl
group genre is The Shirelles, who first reached the Top 40 with "Tonight's the Night", and in 1961 became
the first girl group to reach #1 on the Hot 100 with "Will You Love Me Tomorrow", written by Brill
Building songwriters Gerry Goffin and Carole King. The Shirelles solidified their success with five more
top 10 hits, most particularly 1962's #1 hit "Soldier Boy", over the next two and a half years.
Other songwriters and producers quickly recognized the potential of this new approach and
recruited existing acts (or, in some cases, created new ones) to record their songs in a girl-group style. Phil
Spector recruited The Crystals, The Blossoms, and The Ronettes, while Goffin and King handled much of
the output of The Cookies. Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller would likewise foster The Exciters, The Dixie
Cups, and The Shangri-Las. Other important girl group songwriters included Ellie Greenwich, Jeff Barry,
Cynthia Weil and Barry Mann. Motown labels also masterminded several major girl groups, beginning
with The Marvelettes and later with Martha and the Vandellas, The Velvelettes, and The Supremes. The
Gypsies, later renamed The Flirtations, sounded like The Supremes. The Sensations, The Orlons, The
Chiffons, and The Angels were also prominent in the early 1960s. One-hit wonder The Jaynetts' "Sally Go

'Round the Roses" achieved a mysterious sound quite unlike that of any other girl group. A few months
later, one-hit wonder The Murmaids took David Gates' "Popsicles and Icicles" to the top 3. The Jewels'
"Opportunity" was small in late 1964. Except for a small number of the foregoing groups and possibly The
Toys and the Sweet Inspirations, the only girl group with any significant chart presence from the beginning
of the British Invasion through 1970 was The Supremes.
Dreamgirls is a Broadway musical, with music by Henry Krieger and lyrics and book by Tom
Eyen. Based upon the show business aspirations and successes of R&B acts such as The Supremes, The
Shirelles, James Brown, Jackie Wilson, and others, the musical follows the story of a young female singing
trio from Chicago, Illinois called "The Dreams", who become music superstars. The musical opened on
December 20, 1981 at the Imperial Theatre, and was nominated for thirteen Tony Awards, including the
Tony Award for Best Musical, and won six. It was later adapted into a motion picture from DreamWorks
and Paramount Pictures in 2006.

R&B: Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B and RnB, is a genre of popular African-American
music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe
recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz
based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.
The term has subsequently had a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, the term rhythm
and blues was frequently applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music
contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that
developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music. By the 1970s, rhythm
and blues was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed,
becoming known as "Contemporary R&B".

Dialect Work in the Play: Liverpool, German,

*Jessie has dialect tapes and drill pages for all of these for the students that will need them.

Liverpool: Scouse /ˈskaʊs/ is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county
of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool and in the more urban parts of the
neighboring metropolitan boroughs of Sefton, Knowsley, and Wirral. The accent is known to be as far
reaching as Flintshire in Wales, and Runcorn and Skelmersdale in Cheshire and Lancashire respectively.
The Scouse accent is highly distinctive, and has little in common with those used in the
neighbouring regions of Cheshire and Lancashire. The accent itself is not specific to all of Merseyside,
with the accents of residents of St Helens and Southport, for example, more commonly associated with the
historic Lancastrian accent.
The accent was primarily confined to Liverpool until the 1950s when slum clearance in the city
resulted in migration of the populace into new pre-war and post-war developments into surrounding areas
of what was informally named Merseyside and later to become officially known as Merseyside in 1974.[6]
The continued development of the city and its urban areas has brought the accent into contact with areas
not historically associated with Liverpool such as Prescot, Whiston and Rainhill in Merseyside and Widnes
and Runcorn in Cheshire.
Variations within the accent and dialect are noted, along with popular colloquialisms, that show a
growing deviation from the historical Lancashire dialect and a growth in the influence of the accent in the
wider area.
Inhabitants of Liverpool are called Liverpudlians but are more often described by the
colloquialism "Scousers."
Scouse is notable in some circumstances for a fast, highly accented manner of speech, with a range
of rising and falling tones not typical of most of northern England.
Irish influences include the pronunciation of the name of the letter "H" as /heɪtʃ/ and the 2nd
Person plural (you) as 'youse/yous/use' /juːz/.

There are variations on the Scouse accent, with the south side of the city adopting a softer, lyrical
tone, and the north a rougher, more gritty accent. Those differences, though not universal, can be seen in
the pronunciation of the vowels.
Words such as 'book' and 'cook', for example, can be pronounced as 'boo-k' or 'bewk' and 'koo-k'.
This is true to other towns from the midlands, northern England and Scotland. Oddly enough words such as
'took' and 'look', unlike some other accents in northern towns, revert to the type and are pronounced 'tuck'
and 'luck'. Not all Liverpudlians are brought up to speak with this variation but this does not make it any
less Scouse.
The use of a long /uː/ in such words was once used across the whole of Britain, but is now
confined to the more traditional accents of Northern England and Scotland.
The word "scouse" is a shortened form of "lobscouse", derived from the Norwegian lapskaus,
Swedish lapskojs and Danish labskovs (or the Low German Labskaus), a word for a meat stew commonly
eaten by sailors. In the 19th century, people who commonly ate "scouse" such as local dockers, families
and sailors became known as "scousers" especially in the north end of Liverpool and the "Wallasey Pool".
Originally a small fishing village, Liverpool developed as a port, trading particularly with Ireland,
and after the 1700s as a major international trading and industrial centre. It consequently became a melting
pot of several languages and dialects, as sailors and traders from different areas, and migrants from other
parts of Britain, and Ireland, established themselves in the area. Until the mid-19th century, the dominant
local accent was similar to that of neighboring areas of Lancashire. The influence of Irish and Welsh
incomers contributed to a distinctive local "Scouse" accent. The first reference to a distinctive Liverpool
accent was in 1890. Linguist Gerald Knowles suggested that the accent's nasal quality may have derived
from poor 19th-century public health, by which the prevalence of colds for many people over a long time
resulted in a nasal accent becoming regarded as the norm and copied by others learning the language.
The Liverpool accent of the 1950s and before was more a Lancashire-Irish hybrid. But since then,
as with most accents and dialects, Scouse has been subject to phonemic evolution and change. Over the last
few decades the accent is no longer a melange but has started to develop further. One could compare the
way George Harrison and John Lennon spoke in the old Beatles films such as A Hard Day's Night with
modern Scouse speakers such as Steven Gerrard and Leighton Baines. Harrison pronounced the word 'fair'
more like the standard English 'fur' – as Cilla Black does still (it could be argued that Brian Epstein's
influence led to his artists adopting a softer Liverpool accent to appeal to a wider audience). This is a pure
Lancashire trait but modern Scousers do it the other way round pronouncing 'fur' like 'fair'.
RP English Old Scouse
[ɜː] as in 'fur' [ɜː]
[ɛə] as in 'square' [ɜː]
[riːd] as in 'read' [iː]
[sliːp] as in 'sleep' [iː]
[bʌtə] as in 'butter' [bʊtə]
[fɔːk] as in 'fork' [fɔːx]
[bɑːθ] as in 'bath [bɑf]
Even if Irish accents are rhotic, meaning that they pronounce /r/ at the beginning as well as at the end of a
syllable, Scouse is a non-rhotic accent, pronouncing /r/ only at the beginning of a syllable and between
vowels, but not at the end of a syllable.
Rhotic Accent Scouse
[flɔːr] as in 'floor' [flɔː]
[wɝd] as in 'word' [wɛːd]
The loss of dental fricatives, /ð/ and /θ/, was commonly attributed as being present due to Irish English
influence. They were realized as /d/ and /t/ respectively. However, in the younger generation in some areas
but by no means all, this feature is being outnumbered by those who realize them as labiodental fricatives.
• /θ/ becomes /f/ in all environments. [θɪŋk] becomes [fɪŋk] for "think."
• /ð/ becomes /v/ in all environments except word-initially, in which case it becomes /d/. [dɪðə]
becomes [dɪvɛ] for "dither"; [ðəʊ] becomes [dəʊ] for "though."

The use of me instead of my was also attributed to Irish English influence: for example, "That's me book
you got there" for "That's my book you got there”. An exception occurs when "my" is emphasized: for
example, "That's my book you got there" (and not his).
Other Scouse features include:
• The use of 'giz' instead of 'give us'.
• The use of the term 'made up' to portray the feeling of happiness or joy in something. For example,
'I'm made up I didn't go out last night'.
• The terms 'sound' and 'boss' are used in many ways. They are used as a positive adjective such as
'it was sound' meaning it was good. It is used to answer questions of our wellbeing, such as 'I'm
boss' in reply to 'How are you?' The term can also be used in negative circumstances to affirm a
type of indifference such as 'I'm dumping you'. The reply 'sound' in this case translates to 'yeah
fine', 'ok', 'I'm fine about it', 'no problem' etc.
• [k] pronounced as [x] at the ends of some words.

German: (From STAGE DIALECTS by Jerry Blunt). A German dialect is an emphatic speech,
characterized more by the strength of its vowel and consonant substitutions than by idiomatic expressions.
Definiteness of utterance negates slur in syllable formation. The result is that the key sounds of the dialect
are relatively easy to detect. In most cases they are also easy to form. The same is true of an Austrian
The German tongue itself is one specific branch, perhaps the principal one, of the the Teutonic
language group. Present-day Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian are also members of that group. So
is English, although it is the least noticeable member, its words and sounds being the farthest removed of
any from present German speech. Between those cousin languages which are located on the Continent –
German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian—some understanding is possible in written and oral
communication. Not so with English. A study of the German language is required before an equal
understanding can come to an Englishman or an American.
Consequently, the number of German words of transferable use to the dialectician is limited,
causing the speaker to rely heavily on the use of key sounds in the German dialect. On the other hand, the
advantage to an English or American dialectician is that a German dialect introduces only a few new
sounds – the rest are native to us.

Russian: (from STAGE DIALECTS by Jerry Blunt). The Slavonic language group includes many
geographic areas: westward from the Urals to the borders of Germany, southward from the Arctic to the
Aegean and Black Seas. Many regional and national groups are contained within that area, each with a
language or dialect of its own, but all stemming from a Slavonic base.
One of the principal characteristics of this family of tongues is the large number of similar sounds
found in the major and minor groupings, indicating that there are more oral characteristics held in common
than is usual in so large and extensive a language body. In contrast, the national and regional differences
within the Celtic language group are much more marked.
In demonstration of existing similarities, two girls, one from Eastern-Central Europe and the other
a Russian, when recorded in succession, sounded so like each other in major characteristics it was difficult
to distinguish between them; the main difference was non-critical, caused by the fact that one had spent
some time in France while the other had not. Also the accents of a Lithuanian forester matched those of an
émigré Russian pastor and a Polish businessman to a remarkable extent.
In consequence, it is possible to work from the theory that the key sounds studied as part of the
Russian dialect can also be applied to many of the other divisions of the Slavonic language group.
A major division itself, the Russian language is designated as Eastern Slavonic, and includes the
geographical area generally designated as Russia proper. Within that area, as is expected, are many
regional subdivisions of the national speech. Concern with all of them is neither possible nor necessary.
Our concentration centers upon those key sounds held and uttered in common. These are fewer in number
than those in most dialects, but lack of quantity is made up by strength and distinctiveness. For example,
the effect of regional speech, personal mannerisms, and the extent of education could cause ten Russians to
speak in ten different ways. But when all ten spoke in English the similarities would be sufficient in
quantity and strength to give solid foundation for a Russian dialect.

A few bold linguistic strokes can serve to characterize this study. None are so divergent from
English formations as to require the practice of new and difficult muscular patterns. Distinction comes,
rather, from an emphasis upon the fullness of dialect sounds. Oral Russian is a full-bodied language. Both
muscular energy and vigor in attack are necessary to achieve the requisite strength. In contrast to our own
utterance, in a Russian dialect no articulatory member (lips, jaw, tongue) nor any area (front, middle, or
back of the mouth) may remain inactive during speech.
The alterations that occur are matters of degree rather than difference. The jaw must drop down in
a larger than usual motion to permit an enlargement of the oral cavity; the plosive consonants must be
delivered with more than usual energy and be cut off with greater sharpness; vocal slurs or glides must be
given with more emphasis than is customary with us; and both the tongue and the walls of the pharyngeal
cavity must accommodate themselves to the action necessary to achieve a full-bodied throatiness.
All dialects have occasional effects that creep into speech outside the rules. Russian has more
than most. Single sounds and single words in variety in the work ahead will bear testimony to this
phenomenon. Two particular sounds, both glides, are especially susceptible to a kind of elision that is most
prominent in the Russian language itself. [j], as in ya, and [w] are the consonants in question. Both are the
result of an enlarging action by the articulators, and both will be heard in expected and unexpected places.

Ogre History
Ogres (feminine singular: ogress, plural: ogresses) are beings that are usually depicted as large,
hideous, humanoid monsters. They are frequently featured in mythology, folklore, and fiction throughout
the world. Ogres appear in many classical works of literature, and are most often described in fairy tales
and folklore as eating babies. In visual art, ogres are often depicted as having a large head, abundant hair
and beard, a voracious appetite, and a strong body.
The word ogre is of French origin. Its earliest attestation is in Chrétien de Troyes’ late 12th-
century verse romance PERCEVAL, LI CONTES DEL GRAAL, which contains the lines: “And it is
writen that he will come again to all the realms of Logres, known as the realm of ogres and they are feared
by many people, and destroy them with that lance.” The ogres in this rhyme may refer to the ogres who, in
the pseudohistorical work HISTORY OF THE KINGS OF BRITAIN by Geoffrey of Monmouth, were the
inhabitants of Britain prior to human settlement. Ogre could possibly derive from the two mythical giants
GOG AND MAGOG (or from the Greek river god Oiagros, father of Orpheus).
The word ogre came into wider usage in the works of Charles Perrault (1628-1703) or Mari-
Catherine Jumelle de Berneville, Comtesse d’Aulnoy (1650-1705), both of who were French authors.
Other sources say that the name is derived from the word Hongrois, which means Hungarian, as western
cultures referred to Hungarians as a kind of monstrosity. The word ogre is thought to have been
popularized by the works of Italian author Giambattista Basile (1575-1632), who used Neapolitan word
uerco, or in standard Italian, orco. This word is documented in earlier Italian works (Fazio degli Uberti,
14th century; Luigi Pulci, 15th century; Ludovico Ariosto, 15th-16th centuries) and has even older cognates
with the Latin orcus and the Old English orcneas found in BEOWULF lines 112-113, which inspired J.R.R
Tolkien’s Orc. All these words may derive from a shared Indo-European mythological concept (as Tolkien
himself speculate, as cited by Tom Shippey, THE ROAD TO MIDDLE-EARTH, 45). Some see the
French myth of the ogre as being inspired by the real-life crimes of Gilles de Rais.
The first appearance of the word ogre in Perrault’s work occurred in his HISTOIRES AU
CONTES DU TEMPS PASSÉ (1696). It later appeared in several of his other fairy tales, many of which
were based on the Neapolitan tales of Basile. The first example of a female ogre being referred to as an
ogress is found in his version of SLEEPING BEAUTY, which it is spelled ogresse. The Comtesse
d’Aulnoy first employed the word ogre in her story L’ORANGIER ET L’ABEILLE (1698), and was the
first to use the word ogree to refer to the creature’s offspring.
In German, this French word became associated with the characters in German fairy tales who are
cannibals (adult-eaters) or specifically child-eaters. Foreign, especially English-speaking, authors do not
realize this, and translation of their works into German has to use some other description to avoid
association with cannibalism, which would render the characters incapable of being a figure of fun, or an
incidental character type to a fantasy story or game, at all.
The most well-known example is the animated feature film SHREK, whose name comes from the
German, but whose localize subtitle translates back into “The Foolhardy Hero”.

The word ogress has been adopted as well for fierce female characters of the mythology of non-
European countries such as the Matrika Putana killed by Krishna, the Japanese ogress Kijo, the ogress
Sanda Muhki, who offered her own breasts to the Buddha, and Hariti, who converted to Buddhism and has
been widely combined with Guanyin in Sino-Japanese practice, and the se ogress of the Thai folktale story
Phra Aphai Mani, among others.

Time Period: circa 17th Century France: conte

de fees – “Les Contes des Fees: The Literary
Fairy Tales of France” by Terri Windling
The term fairy tale, now used as a generic label for magical stories for children, comes from the
French term conte de fées, coined for a group of 17th-century tales written for adults. These stories have
come down through the years in simplified forms adapted for children: Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Queen
Cat, The White Deer, and Donkeyskin, among others. They have their roots deep in the oral folk tradition,
but they are not anonymous folk tales themselves . . . they are literary works by a group of Parisian authors,
enormously popular in their day, who can, in some respects, be compared with modern writers of fantasy
fiction. In this article, we’re going to go back to the later days of the reign of Louis XIV and take a closer
look at the fairy tales of 17th- and 18th-century France.
First, we need to distinguish between the oral folk tales and the literary fairy tales of Europe.
Magical folk tales, of course, have been part of the storytelling tradition since the dawn of
time . . . including stories of fairies, sorcerers, witches, and human folk under enchantment. Folk tales are
humbler stories than the great cosmological myth cycles or long heroic Romances, and as such have been
passed through the generations largely by the lower caste portions of society: women, peasants, slaves, and
outcast groups such as the gypsies. The literary fairy tale, by contrast, began as an art form of the upper
classes -- made possible by advances in printing methods and rising literacy. Literary fairy tales borrow
heavily from the oral folk tales of the peasant tradition (as well from myth, Romance, and literary sources
like Apuleius’s Golden Ass and Boccaccio’s Decameron), but these motifs are crafted and reworked
through a single author’s imagination. The earliest literary fairy tales we know of come from 16th-century
Italy: Giovan Francesco Straparola’s Le piacevoli (published in 1550-53) and Giambattista Basile’s Il
Pentamerone (published posthumously in 1634-36). Basile’s work in particular was an influence on the
French fairy tale enthusiasts one hundred years later; and his book contains the earliest known written
versions of such classic tales as Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Snow White, Puss in Boots, and many others.
Creators of literary fairy tales from the 17th-century onward include writers whose works are still widely
read today: Charles Perrault (17th-century France), Hans Christian Andersen (19th-century Denmark),
George Macdonald and Oscar Wilde (19th-century England). The Brothers Grimm (19th-century Germany)
blurred the line between oral and literary tales by presenting their German "household tales" as though they
came straight from the mouths of peasants, though in fact they revised these stories to better reflect their
own Protestant ethics. It is interesting to note that these canonized writers are all men, since this is a
reversal from the oral storytelling tradition, historically dominated by women. Indeed, Straparola, Basile,
Perrault, and even the Brothers Grimm made no secret of the fact that their source material came largely or
entirely from women storytellers. Yet we are left with the impression that women dropped out of the
history of fairy tales once they became a literary form, existing only in the background as an anonymous
old peasant called Mother Goose.
In my usually-reliable favorite reference volume, Maria Leach’s Standard Dictionary of Folklore,
Myth, and Legend (in the French Folklore section signed by Marius Barbeau), we find this snide but
common reference to the women writers of 17th-century Paris, in the heyday of the French fairy tale:
"Folktales once more found their way among the literati when Charles Perrault published Les Contes de ma
Mère l’Oyle, in 1697. Imitators, mostly among women, followed his example, the best among them the
baronne d’Aulnoy (1698). In all this derivative literature, the traditional stories served as a pretext to ‘belle-
lettres’ according to the artificial tastes of the period; they were rearranged, developed, and pampered, yet
became household familiars." Dismissive statements of this sort have stood unchallenged until fairy tale
scholars in recent years (Jack Zipes, Marina Warner, and Lewis Seifert foremost among them) began to
reclaim the history of French contes de fées by studying the actual publications of the period, along with

critical works, diaries, and correspondence. Thus we now know that when Charles Perrault first turned to
writing fairy tales, he was joining an already established, immensely popular fairy tale movement that had
begun over twenty years earlier, at least as early as 1670, among a group of nonconformist (and somewhat
scandalous) upper-class women. Madame d’Aulnoy, contrary to the citation above, didn’t "imitate" Perrault
-- she pre-dated him. D’Aulnoy was famed throughout the city for the stories she told in her rue Saint-
benoit salon beginning in 1685 . . . tales which she began to write down and publish in 1690. (Perrault, who
moved in the same social circles, would have known these tales quite well.) Perrault deserves his place in
history for his lovely renditions of classic folklore themes . . . but that place is far more interesting when we
look at the entire movement he was a part of and responding to.
Prior to the 17th century, French folk tales were considered the vulgar province of the peasantry,
although members of the upper-classes often knew such tales via nurses and servants. In the mid-17th
century, a vogue for magical tales emerged among the intellectuals who frequented the salons of Paris.
These salons were regular gatherings hosted by prominent aristocratic women, where women and men
could gather together to discuss the issues of the day. At court, contact between men and women was
socially constrained and ritualized; and many topics of conversation were considered inappropriate for
well-bred ladies. In the 1630s, disaffected women began to gather in their own living rooms (salons) in
order to discuss the topics of their choice: arts and letters, politics (carefully, for the Sun King’s spies were
everywhere), and social matters of immediate concern to the women of their class: marriage, love, financial
and physical independence, and access to education. This was a time when women were barred from
schools and universities; when arranged marriages were the norm, divorce virtually unheard of, birth
control methods primitive, and death by childbirth common. These women, and the sympathetic men who
were increasingly attracted to their lively gatherings, came to be called précieuses, for they perfected a
witty, inventive, précieux mode of conversation . . . rather like the bon mots popular in the Aesthetic
movement of Oscar Wilde’s day. (Although "precious" is the English translation of prècieux, the French
term didn’t carry derogatory connotations.) Some of the most gifted women writers of the period came out
of these early salons (such as Madeleine de Scudéry and Madame de Lafayette), which encouraged
women’s independence and pushed against the gender barriers that circumscribed their lives. The
salonnières argued particularly for love, tendresse, and intellectual compatibility between the sexes,
opposing the system of arranged marriages in which, at its worst, women of their class were basically sold
off to the highest bidder. They railed against a culture that permitted men to take lovers while demanding
that women remain faithful to men they’d never wanted to marry in the first place. They sought to control
their own money, and property, and to travel without chaperones. Most of all, they wanted the opportunity
to exercise their intelligence and talents. Encouraged by the success of the salons, women began to write
fiction, poetry, and plays in unprecedented numbers . . . and to earn a living through this work which
enabled them to remain unmarried or to establish separate households. The salons became quite
influential . . . fashions grew out of them, artistic ideas, and even political movements. (The Fronde, an ill-
fated nobleman’s uprising, was plotted in the early salons, and bold women salonnières joined in the
fighting in the streets.)
Some time in the middle of the 17th century, a passion for conversational parlor games based on
the plots of old folk tales swept through the salons. Each salonnière was called upon to retell an old tale or
rework an old theme, spinning clever new stories that not only showcased verbal agility and imagination,
but also slyly commented on the conditions of aristocratic life. Great emphasis was placed on a mode of
delivery that seemed natural and spontaneous . . . but in fact people devised and practiced their stories
before they trotted them out in public, and a style emerged that was both archly sophisticated and faux-naif.
Today, these tales may seem quaintly old-fashioned, dripping with too many pearls and jewels . . . but to
audiences in 17th-century France the rich rococo language of the tales seemed cutting-edge and deliciously
subversive . . . in deliberate contrast with the mannered restraint of works approved by the French
Academy (an all-male institution). In the famous "Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns," Boileau, Racine,
and other literary men insisted that French literature should strive to emulate the classical works of Greece
and Rome, while the Moderns (Charles Perrault among them) believed that the homegrown source material
of French folk lore and myth could inspire a vigorous new literature, free of antiquated rules. (Stories of
ogres in seven-league boots were the true inheritors of the Homeric tradition, Perrault argued, not odes
composed in Latin.) The king eventually ruled in favor of the Ancients, but Modern literary
experimentation continued to go on with popular (if not critical) support . . . particularly in the world of the
salons, where women writers often had no choice but to boldly take up the Modern cause. Largely self-
educated, few of them could read and write in Latin.

The rococo language of the fairy tales also served another important function . . . disguising the
subversive subtext of the stories and sliding them past the court censors. Critiques of court life (and even of
the king) were embedded in flowery utopian tales and in dark, sharply dystopian ones. Not surprisingly, the
tales by women often featured young (but clever) aristocratic girls whose lives were controlled by the
arbitrary whims of fathers, kings, and elderly wicked fairies . . . as well as tales in which groups of wise
fairies (i.e., intelligent, independent women) stepped in and put all to rights. D’Aulnoy, as her
contemporaries note, was a major force behind the fairy tale vogue and the first to publisher her salon tales,
but she was soon followed by a number of other writers (Mme. de Murat, Mlle. L’H’éritier, Mlle. Bernard,
Mlle. de la Force, etc.), most of whom knew and were influenced by each other to varying degrees.
Although d’Aulnoy’s name is largely left out of the canon (you’ll find numerous Perrault collections, for
example, and none devoted to d’Aulnoy), her tales are still retold today, republished in modern
bowdlerized forms: The White Cat, The White Deer, Green Snake, The Yellow Dwarf, Bluecrest, The
Royal Ram, and other magical works.
Madame d’Aulnoy’s own history is almost as fantastical as any of her stories. Marie-Catherine Le
Jumel de Barneville was born in Normandy in 1650, and received a modest convent education . . . arranged
for her by Francois de la Motte, Baron d’Aulnoy, a wealthy aristocrat who was thirty years her senior.
When Marie-Catherine was 15 or 16, the Baron abducted her from the convent (with the connivance of her
father, who profited financially) and a forced marriage ensued -- from which, in that time and place, there
was no possibility of divorce. The Baron was famed for his dissolute habits, including drunkenness, an
addiction to gambling, and sexual irregularities. Three long years later, it looked as though the girl might be
freed from her odious husband when the Baron was arrested and charged with a crime of high treason
against the king. Then the two men who had implicated the Baron recanted their testimony under torture.
These men were discovered to be the lovers of the young Baroness and her beautiful mother, and it was
now believed that the whole affair had been cooked up between the four of them. The Baron was released,
the men were executed, and d’Aulnoy and her mother fled to Spain. The two adventurous women spent the
next several years traveling the Continent, and may have been spying for Louis XIV as a way of regaining
his favor. Baroness d’Aulnoy received royal permission to return to Paris in 1685, where she promptly set
up a literary salon in the rue San-benoit. Intelligent, beautiful, and tinged with an aura of mystery, she soon
formed a glittering group around her of nonconformist women and men (and then became embroiled in
another scandal when a close friend killed her husband).
Henriette-Julie de Castelnau, Comtesse de Murat, was part of the d’Aulnoy circle . . . and another
writer of magical tales with a colorful history. Born in Brittany in 1670, she came to Paris at the age of
sixteen upon her marriage to the Comte de Murat, quickly making a name for herself with her wit and
insouciance. Her high spirits landed her in trouble when a tale she wrote was recognized as a thinly veiled
satire of the king’s mistress; she was subsequently denounced by her husband for wild behavior,
immodesty, and rumors of lesbianism. Banished by the king to the provincial town of Loche at the age of
twenty-four, de Murat constantly petitioned to be released from this sentence, to no avail. She was kept
confined to a Loche chateau for all but one year of the rest of her life . . . returning to Paris only when King
Louis died, just before her own death. Yet even in confinement, she managed to maintain close contact
with her women friends, and continued to play an active role in the Parisian fairy tale movement. She wrote
and published a large number of novels and stories, and set up her own literary salon (dubbed the Académie
du domicile), recreating the atmosphere of Paris in Loche and scandalizing the town. Her best known tales
include Bearskin, in which a young king falls in love with a princess-in-exile disguised as a big brown bear.
The bear wins the young man’s heart through the elegance of her conversation and the erudition of her
beautiful letters and poems. Unlike Disney-style fairy tales today, where a beautiful face is a girl’s main
attraction (think of Cinderella, or the film "Pretty Woman"), this king falls in love before he discovers the
royal maiden inside the gentle bear -- in fact, he agonizes over his unnatural attraction to the animal and is
greatly relieved when a fairy finally assures him that his beloved is actually human.
Marie-Jeanne L’Héritier de Villandon, by contrast to the authors above, was able to lead a more
self-determined life . . . partly because she was born into a family of scholars who saw nothing untoward in
her desire to be a writer, and partly because she followed the example of her mentor, the writer and
salonnière Madeleine de Scudéry, by refusing all offers of marriage. (A wealthy woman’s patronage and
the income from her writing made this possible.) Charles Perrault was her uncle, as well as her colleague in
the world of the salons; she was also close to de Murat, to whom she dedicated her first major collection of
tales. Eventually she inherited de Scudéry’s famous salon upon her mentor’s death, and ran it with great
success as her own literary reputation grew. Scholars are now divided on whether L’Héritier (an early

champion of fairy tale themes) influenced Perrault or whether it was Perrault who influenced his niece. It
hardly matters, for in all likelihood the two of them influenced each other -- they were friends, they moved
in the same social circles, they wrote fairy tales during the same stretch of years, and they drew their
themes from a common stock of oral folk tales, as well as from Basile. L’Héritier is best remembered for
The Discreet Princess, a wry and charming tale in which a king locks his three daughters away in order to
safeguard their chastity. An evil prince from a nearby kingdom manages to trick his way into the tower, and
then to seduce and impregnate each of the foolish older princesses. The youngest, Finette, is a clever girl,
and more than a match for the honey-tongued prince. "Once this devious prince had locked up her sisters,"
writes L’Héritier, "he went in search of Finette in her room, which she had locked against him. He spoke
the same compliments at her door that he had used with each of her sisters, but this princess was not so
easy to dupe, and did not respond. . . . The wicked prince lost his patience. Fetching a large wooden log, he
broke the door in. He found Finette armed with a large hammer, her eyes glittering with rage. ‘Prince,’ she
said, ‘if you approach me, then I shall split open your skull!" In the end, the prince is outwitted, killed in a
trap he has laid for Finette, and she marries the prince’s gentle brother, the new heir to the neighboring
Catherine Bernard, born in Rouen in 1662, was not accepted at the court, but became a part of the
fairy tale circle and attended L’Héritier’s salons. She resisted marriage in order to devote herself to a
literary career, writing poems, novels, and tragedies known to have influenced Voltaire. As a fantasist,
she’s best known for her version of an oral folk tale called Riquet of the Tuft, published around the same
time as Perrault’s rendition of the story. Both versions are good ones, and thus it’s interesting to compare
the two, demonstrating the differences in tales by men and women of the period. In Perrault’s charming
retelling, a beautiful princess is cursed with stupidity by a malevolent fairy and then encounters Riquet of
the Tuft, a courteous but ugly prince who gives her the gift of intelligence in exchange for her promise to
marry him in one year’s time. During that year, the now-dazzling princess entirely forgets gentle Riquet of
the Tuft . . . until she encounters him once again on the day she had promised to wed him. She attempts to
weasel out of the promise, using all her new-found cleverness . . . until he assures her that it is quite within
her power to make him as beautiful as herself, provided she agrees to love him. She does so, Riquet
changes shape, and now he’s as handsome as he is courteous. Perrault then ends the tale with the
suggestion that Riquet may have not changed his shape after all, but merely appeared to be beautiful to the
princess once her love was pledged. Catherine Bernard’s version of the old folk tale is a considerably
darker one, and takes a dimmer view of her heroine’s prospects for happiness. The lovely but stupid
princess encounters Riquet, an ugly and bossy little gnome, ruler of a wealthy gnome kingdom in a realm
deep underground. He gives the girl a spell to chant that will render her intelligent, and then informs her
that she has no choice but to marry him in one year’s time. The princess soon grows witty and charming,
suitors flock to court her, and she loses her heart to a man who is very handsome but has no wealth.
Secretly, she ponders the dreadful fate that is awaiting her, and the day finally comes when she must give
herself to the horrid gnome. Her deep distaste for the marriage is so obvious that Riquet presents her with a
choice: she can marry him of her own free will and retain her new intelligence, or she can return to her
father’s house as stupid as she was before she met him. Loathe to give up her intelligence, and fearful of
losing her handsome lover’s regard, she chooses the lesser evil and marries Riquet of the Tuft. The tale
continues after the marriage, in Riquet’s kingdom under the ground. Angered by his wife’s continued
aversion, the gnome avoids her company . . . and she concocts a plan to bring her lover to the palace. Her
plan succeeds, and for a time she revels in stolen happiness . . . but the sudden bloom in her cheeks
awakens her gnome-husband’s suspicions. After various machinations, Riquet discovers his wife’s secret,
and he takes ingenious revenge by turning her beloved into a replica of himself. "Thus," writes Bernard,
"she lived with two husbands instead of one and could no longer distinguish between them, living in fear of
mistaking the object of her hatred for the object of her love." Whereas Perrault’s version ends with a moral
("We find that what we love is wondrous fair."), Bernard’s version ends with a warning: "In the end, lovers
turn into husbands anyway."
A number of Modern, nonconformist men frequented the leading women’s salons, contributing
fairy tales of their own as part of the conversational games. The Chevalier de Mailly and Jean de Préchac
went on to publish some wonderful tales, as did Charles Perrault, already well known as a poet and
polemicist. Born in Paris in 1628 to a distinguished family of high-achievers, Perrault’s father had been a
lawyer and member of the Paris Parliament, and his four brothers forged glittering careers in the areas of
theology, architecture, and law. Perrault became a lawyer himself after passing examinations at the
University of Orleans, but he gave it up to become a court administrator three years later. As secretary to

Jean Baptiste Colbert, the Sun King’s powerful finance minister, he was able to wield his influence in
support of culture and the arts. (He was one of the men in charge of the design of the Louvre and
Versailles, for instance.) He began to write poetry, essays, and panegyrics for the king, and was elected to
the French Academy in 1671. In 1672, Perrault married Marie Guichon and the couple had three sons, but
Marie died of smallpox a few years later and he never remarried. Losing his government post upon
Colbert’s death, Perrault turned to writing full-time. He was one of the leading initiators of the "Quarrel of
the Ancients and the Moderns" in the 1680s, and in the 1690s he composed several poems and tales using
folklore themes. He produced three magical tales in verse, then a prose version of The Sleeping Beauty,
and finally (in 1697) his famous collection Contes du temps passé, published under the name of his son:
Pierre Perrault Darmancour. The reason for this pseudonym has been hotly debated by fairy tale scholars.
Some say he wanted to distance himself from the tales, so different from his "respectable" works, but Jack
Zipes posits the most credible theory, judging by the available evidence: Perrault was masking his identity,
says Zipes, largely so that he would not be blamed for re-igniting the Quarrel of the Ancients and the
Moderns by publishing stories which clearly exemplified his Modern ideas. "Numerous critics," Zipes
points out, "have regarded Perrault’s tales as written directly for children, but they overlook the fact that no
children’s literature per se existed at that time and that most writers of fairy tales were composing and
reciting their tales for their peers in the literary salons. Certainly if Perrault intended them to make a final
point in the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, he obviously had an adult audience in mind that
would understand his humor and the subtle manner in which he transformed folklore superstition to convey
his position about the ‘modern’ development of French civility." Perrault turned the blunt language and
earthy imagery of peasant folk stories into tales that were urbane, aristocratic, stylish and highly refined,
disguising his more subversive ideas behind a façade of light, dry humor. His stories fit the fashion of the
time, yet contain a few marked difference from those of the female salonnières. In particular (and despite
his own friendships with out-spoken, independent women), the princesses in Perrault’s tales tend to be
passive, helpless creatures, praised for their beauty, modesty, and quiet obedience. His princes stride off to
seek their fortunes, outwitting ogres and hacking through briars, while the princesses sleep or sit in the
ashes, virtuously awaiting rescue. Compare Bluebeard’s wife, lying prostrate before him in tears while her
brothers ride in to save the day, with clever Finette, in The Discreet Princess created by Perrault’s niece
L’Héritier, waving her hammer at the prince and shouting "Come closer and I’ll open your skull!"
Rather than beginning the rage for fairy tales, publication of Perrault’s collection in 1697 came
close to the end of the "first wave" of fairy tales . . . if only because many of the major writers had either
died or been banished from Paris by the early 18th-century. Perrault died in 1703, d’Aulnoy in 1705,
Bernard in 1712; de Mailly was in trouble with the king, de Murat was still under house-arrest in Loche,
and de la Force had been banished to a convent for publishing "impious" works. Exotic stories from the
Orient became the new fashion in the next decades -- such as Antoine Gallard’s phenomenally successful
translation of The Thousand and One Nights, and Arabian-style pastiche by men such as Abbé Jean Paul
Bignon. The Oriental stories comprise what’s called the "second wave" of fairy tales, and lack the element
of social critique that characterized the earlier stories. The "third wave" of fairy tales began with of a host
of parodies and burlesques, such as those by Anthony Hamilton and Claude Philippe de Caylus in the
1730s and 1740s. By the middle of the century, however, several writers emerged who were clearly
influenced by the "first wave" of fairy tale writers, such as the prolific Mademoiselle de Lubert, best known
for Princess Camion, and Madame de Villeneuve, author of the original Beauty and the Beast.
Madame Leprince de Beaumont, who published in London from the 1750s onward, was one of the
first French writers to recast these tales as children’s fiction. Working as a governess in England (after
leaving her marriage to a dissolute libertine), she borrowed liberally from earlier writers to create stories
that were moral and instructive, publishing them in the new genre of magazines for young people. De
Beaumont rewrote de Villeneuve’s Beauty and the Beast for an English girls’ magazine, shortening the
narrative and imbuing the text with clear moral lessons. Despite her didactic tendencies, de Beaumont’s
prose had a simple enchantment, and it is her version of Beauty and the Beast, rather than de Villeneuve’s
rococco narrative, that people know today. She wasn’t the only one rewriting and publishing tales by earlier
writers. Throughout the 18th century, stories by d’Aulnoy, de Murat, L’Héritier, Perrault and other
salonnières began to find their way into the pages of the Bibliotheque Bleue -- a series of cheap and popular
chapbooks distributed by traveling book peddlers. Intended for readers of the lower classes, the tales were
shortened and simplified -- and in this form, they started to slip right back into the oral folk tradition. Thus
dialogue, details, characters, and plots original to the salon writers can now be found diffused into the oral
folk tales of France and other countries.

Fortunately, the salon tales as they were originally written and published have been preserved for
us in a monumental work called Les Cabinet de fees: an enormous collection of stories from the 17th and
18th centuries. First published in three volumes in Amsterdam in 1731, it swelled to an astonishing forty-
one volumes, published in Paris and Amsterdam (and then Geneva) beginning in 1785. These volumes
contain a treasure-trove of stories, the vast majority of them by women. So how, we might ask, did Perrault
become known as the only French fairy tale author of note? Elizabeth W. Harries addresses the question in
her essay "Fairy Tales About Fairy Tales: Notes on Canon Formation." Aside from the gender bias, too
obvious to need any explication, she points out that the next generation of fairy tale enthusiasts were men
like the Brothers Grimm . . . fairy tale "collectors," not literary artists, who prized a simple, "peasant" style
of prose, and were deeply suspicious not only of the subversive subtext of the salon tales, but of the very
language used by the women and men of the précieux movement. (One can only wonder what they’d have
made of Angela Carter today!) Although Perrault’s tales were modern literary creations like those of the
other salonnières, he adopted a simpler prose style than that of his "inferior imitators," as the Grimms
referred to d’Aulnoy and de Murat in the Introduction to their first collection (Kinder und Hausmärchen,
1812). The Grimms, writes Harries, "had to posit a rupture or separation between literate and oral culture,
between modern, self-conscious writing and older, ‘natural,’ spontaneous story-telling or ballad-singing.
Their nostalgia for a vanishing or vanished culture . . . assumed to be simpler or more poetic than their
own . . . still permeates most fairy-tale collecting and research."
The Grimms’ dismissal of the other salon writers merely echoed the attacks the women received
by the literary establishment of their own day. In 1699, Abbé de Villiers published a long Dialogue that
praised Perrault while damning his salon colleagues, railing in particular against the popularity and
financial success those colleagues enjoyed. ("Most women only enjoy reading because they enjoy laziness
and the trivial," de Villiers declared. "Everything that requires a little effort tires and bores them; they
amuse themselves with a book in the same way they play with a fly or a ribbon. So does it astonish you that
tales and little stories are popular?") Rosseau wrote scathingly of women’s fairy tales and the destructive
influence of fantasy; what’s more, he added, "Every woman in Paris gathers in her apartment a harem of
men more womanish than she;" and he strongly advocated the establishment of English-style clubs
exclusively for men. He needn’t have worried. The social and literary ground that the women salonnières
had gained was already slipping away from them by the early 18th century. As the Marquise de Lambert
lamented (quoted by Marina Warner, in Wonder Tales): "There were, in an earlier time, houses where
women were allowed to talk and think, where muses joined the society of the graces. The Hôtel de
Rambouillet [a famous salon], greatly honored in the past century, has become the ridicule of ours." In the
decades and centuries that followed, the salon stories, except for Perrault’s, were reprinted less and
less . . . or appeared in bowdlerized form with erroneous or missing author credits. "Tales by d’Aulnoy and
Murat," writes Harries, "were no longer considered authentic or moral enough to reproduce -- or even to be
mentioned, except in parentheses." By the 19th century, children’s books had become a thriving industry,
and the French salon tales were plundered as a cheap source of story material. The tales were shortened,
simplified, and given a gloss of Victorian propriety. Then they were often published under the name of that
anonymous, illiterate peasant woman known only as Mother Goose, while the real women behind the tales
were slowly disappearing.
Yet those pioneering, scandalous, précieux women and men were not entirely forgotten. At the
end of the 20th century, their history began to be reclaimed by a new generation of fairy tale scholars . . . at
the same time that their tales were being rediscovered, reappraised, and retranslated. Such tales are
providing inspiration for a whole new wave of fairy tale authors . . . Angela Carter, A. S. Byatt, Emma
Donoghue, Margaret Atwood, Robert Coover, Tanith Lee, and Delia Sherman among them. A number of
fantasists of my acquaintance were raised, as I was, on the French salon stories in a volume called The
Golden Book of Fairy Tales -- translated into English by Marie Ponsot, illustrated by the French artist
Adrienne Ségur. That single book cast a spell on us that has lasted right up to this day, resulting in careers
spent studying, writing, painting, and editing fairy tales. I have written elsewhere (in the anthology The
Armless Maiden) about the particular importance of fairy tales in my own childhood, growing up in a
troubled household, and how the quests in magic tales can prepare us for the quests we face in life. What I
didn’t know as a girl was how very lucky I was to have that particular book as my introduction to fairy
tales . . . containing, as it did, the stories of d’Aulnoy and Perrault, shortened for young readers but not
overly revised . . . rather than the sugary Disney-style tales most children are confronted with today. I also
didn’t know that those tales were connecting me . . . a working-class girl in 20th-century America . . . with
a group of strong-minded, upper-class women who had grouped together in 17th-century Paris, and had

struggled, as I was, against societal expectations for an education and independence. The subversive
message of their tales was buried deep in rococo imagery of fairies, princesses, diamonds, and
pearls . . . and yet I heard it. I learned at a very young age not to sit in the cinders awaiting rescue. I picked
up a hammer (metaphorically speaking!) and set off to seek my fortune instead.
I like to think that d’Aulnoy and her friends would be pleased to know that the "fad" they started is still
going strong three hundred years later. There are still many of us retelling fairy tales, using their symbols to
comment on the lives of women and men today. We gather via writers’ conventions or the Internet rather
than in elegant Parisian salons, and we come from all classes and walks of life and not just the aristocracy,
but in other ways we’re not so different from our predecessors. Our work still runs counter to contemporary
ideas of what constitutes "serious" literature . . . our names are absent from the roles of modern American
writers, and from the publications and prizes that go along with such mainstream recognition. Our novels
and stories are dismissed as trivial, as feminine, as fantasy or genre fiction. And yet, like the works of the
salon writers, they are popular, widely read, and avidly discussed by readers all across this country and

And perhaps three hundred years from now Jane Yolen’s tales, or Patricia McKillip’s, or Neil Gaiman’s, or
Ursula K. Le Guin’s, will be read alongside d’Aulnoy’s and Perrault’s, to inspire a new generation.

Heroes and Heroines

Joseph Campbell’s monomyth, or the hero’s journey, is a basic pattern that its proponents argue is found in
many narratives from around the world. This widely distributed pattern was described by Campbell in
THE HERO WITH A THOUSAND FACES (1949). An enthusiast of novelist James Joyce, Campbell
borrowed the term monomyth from Joyce’s FINNEGAN’S WAKE.
Campbell held that numerous myths from disparate times and regions share fundamental strctures
and stages, which he summarized in THE HERO WITH A THOUSAND FACES: “A hero ventures forth
from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered
and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to
bestow boons on his fellow man.”
In a monomyth, the hero begins in the ordinary world, and receives a call to enter an unknown
world of strange powers and events. The hero who accepts the call to enter this strange world must face
tasks and trials, either alone or with assistance. In the most intense versions of the narrative, the hero must
survive a severe challenge, often with help. If the hero survives, he may achieve a great gift or "boon." The
hero must then decide whether to return to the ordinary world with this boon. If the hero does decide to
return, he or she often faces challenges on the return journey. If the hero returns successfully, the boon or
gift may be used to improve the world. The stories of Osiris, Prometheus, Moses, Gautama Buddha, for
example, follow this structure closely.
Campbell describes 17 stages or steps along this journey. Very few myths contain all 17 stages—
some myths contain many of the stages, while others contain only a few; some myths may focus on only
one of the stages, while other myths may deal with the stages in a somewhat different order. These 17
stages may be organized in a number of ways, including division into three sections: Departure (sometimes
called Separation), Initiation, and Return. "Departure" deals with the hero's adventure prior to the quest;
"Initiation" deals with the hero's many adventures along the way; and "Return" deals with the hero's return

home with knowledge and powers acquired on the journey.

Characters in Order of Appearance

Shrek is a large, green, physically intimidating ogre, with an accent described by Mike Myers as
"a Scottish guy who's lived in Scarborough for 40 years.” Even though his background is something of a
mystery, in the musical, it is revealed that on his seventh birthday Shrek was sent away by his parents
because it was an ogre tradition (like in the book where his parent send him away). He is seen traveling
alone, either being screamed at or teased by passers-by. The only time he receives a pleasant greeting is a
wave from a young Fiona, who is promptly led away by her parents. After scaring away an angry mob, he
arrives at his swamp, enters an outhouse and literally breaks out as the adult Shrek. Though surly,
misanthropic, and venomously cranky, Shrek is peaceful and doesn't care to hurt anyone, but he just wants
to live his life in solitude and be left alone.
Shrek is befriended by Donkey, an excitable, hyperactive, and talking donkey. It's notable that
when Shrek's first seen, he's successfully scaring off villagers by roaring at them, but it later becomes
obvious that they were only attacking him because he's an ogre, not because he did anything particularly
In the first Shrek movie, during a conversation with Donkey, he laments that he is constantly
judged by the outside world the minute people meet him, and is thus better off alone ("I'm not the one with
the problem, Donkey; it's the world that seems to have a problem with me. People take one good look at me
and go 'Aah! Help! Run! A big stupid ugly ogre!' They judge me before they even know me. That's why I'm
better off alone!"). This implies that he became a recluse after trying and failing to find acceptance among
Another factor causing lack of acceptance can be found in Shrek the Third, it's revealed Shrek had
a father who tried to eat him as Shrek stated, "I guess I should have seen it coming. He used to bathe me in
barbecue sauce and put me to bed with an apple in my mouth," even though he may have been joking.
Shrek lives in an Ogre Swamp, which is green and murky, like any other swamp. The swamp
contains small and big ponds of muddy water and it also has geysers that squirt out mud. The swamp
contains the living quarters of Shrek, which consists of an outhouse and Shrek's house. The swamp is also a
home to different kinds of species including the swamp slug that Shrek uses for his toothpaste. This
basically beginning portrays Shrek as a real grubby beast.
When he finds squatters where he lives, he agrees to the rescue of Princess Fiona to evict all the
squatters. However, during the course of the mission, Shrek falls deeply in love with Fiona.
Since he's an ogre, Shrek has a considerable amount of physical strength, being able to break
wood and metal constructs, get in physical combat with a number of armored humans and usually winning,
unintentionally destroying a wooden vessel with a bottle of wine, and even lifting or turning objects that are
too heavy for a normal human being, such as a gigantic vat of magic potion against the maximum security
of the Fairy Godmother in Shrek 2.
In Shrek and the Swamp Gang Karaoke Dance Party, Shrek sings "Just the Way You Are". In Far
Far Away Idol, he sang "What I Like About You" by The Romantics with Fiona.
Shrek has a little problem socializing due to the fact that people think he is a mean ugly ogre, even
though his appearance is remarkably humanoid, with a few cosmetic exceptions. In being in the process
Shrek is said to have sociophobia. However, from Shrek the Third onward, Shrek has become a well-liked
celebrity, at least in Far Far Away. In the fourth movie, people managed to realize that Shrek isn't
dangerous and lost their fear and prejudice over him, but to Shrek's dismay, they also come to regard him as
a folk hero and visit him with even more frequency than before, disturbing him. But after the experiences
of the movie, Shrek comes to appreciate his life more than ever.

Shrek’s Parents Read above description about Shrek
for details on their characters.

Princess Fiona is a fictional character from

DreamWorks' 2001 computer-animated feature film, Shrek, and its three theatrically-released sequels,
Shrek 2 (2004), Shrek the Third (2007) and Shrek Forever After (2010). In all film appearances, Fiona is
voiced by American actress Cameron Diaz.
Princess Fiona is a cursed princess who spent her entire life locked in a dragon-guarded castle,
waiting for a handsome prince to come rescue her and break her enchantment. She is the daughter of King
Harold and Queen Lillian of the kingdom of Far Far Away.
In the first film of the series, Fiona first appears as an option for a princess bride selected by Lord
Farquaad, who desires to become a king in order to access dominant authority, in order to accomplish this
dream. Ignoring warnings of a secret possessed by Fiona, Farquaad proceeds with his plan and decides to
search for the woman so he may marry her and become a king, though she is soon encountered by Donkey
and Shrek, and at first the group holds hateful feelings towards one another. However, late one night,
Donkey learns that because of a magical spell that had been cast on her years before, Fiona transforms into
an ogress every night, but by morning reverts to her regular human form. Eventually, Shrek and Fiona start
to warm up to each other and perhaps even begin to fall in love, but this is interrupted when Shrek and
Fiona get into a misunderstanding followed by Shrek bringing Lord Farquaad to get Fiona, who then
proceed to a marriage. Shrek and Donkey interrupt Fiona's wedding ceremony and try to cancel any
possibilities of her wedding Lord Farquaad, and her ogre transformation spell is triggered and manages to
appall Farquaad into losing desires of marrying her. At the end of the movie, Shrek marries Fiona and
Farquaad is swallowed by Donkey's new girlfriend, Dragon.
In Shrek 2, Princess Fiona is trying to convince Shrek to meet her parents in the kingdom of Far
Far Away (resembling the shallowness of Hollywood). They go, and her Fairy Godmother, who had her
locked away in the tower to begin with, still believes she is under the original curse. When the Fairy
Godmother finds out that she is in fact married to an ogre, Fairy Godmother plots to kill Fiona's husband so
her son, Prince Charming, can marry her. It turns out that there was a semi-complex plan where the Prince

Charming, not Shrek, was supposed to rescue Fiona and marry her. It was the King's way of repaying the
Fairy Godmother for a favor she had done him while courting Fiona's mother. Fiona is briefly returned to
human form after Shrek drinks a "Happily Ever After" potion, which changes both the drinker and their
true love into more beautiful forms. To make the change permanent however, she must kiss her true love by
midnight. Fairy Godmother tries to get King Harold to give his daughter a love potion so that she would
fall in love with Charming and kiss him to make the potion's effect permanent. Both plans ultimately fail
however. Harold, after seeing how much Fiona despises Charming, does not give her the love potion. When
Shrek tries to kiss Fiona, she tells him that she wants to live happily ever after with the ogre she married.
She and Shrek then turn back into ogres, and Donkey (who had turned into a white stallion) turns back into
a donkey (it is presumed that Dragon was transformed into a bird).

In Shrek the Third, Princess Fiona becomes the acting Queen of Far, Far Away while her father is
ill. When the latter passes away, Shrek sets out to find her cousin Arthur Pendragon (or Artie). She tells
him that she is pregnant (something that she has been hinting since the start of the film). While she is
having a baby shower, Prince Charming stages an invasion so that he can proclaim himself king of Far Far
Away. Fiona organises the resistance with her friends Cinderella, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Rapunzel
and Doris the Ugly Stepsister, but Rapunzel betrays them to marry Prince Charming. Thanks to her
mother's fighting abilities, they escape prison, and the other princesses 'cut loose' and become more
independent. Artie makes a speech to convince the villains to go straight. In the end, Fiona gives birth to
ogre triplets with Shrek.
During the babies' birthday party, Fiona sees Shrek getting steadily more irritated and eventually
losing his temper by smashing one of the birthday cakes. Outside Fiona confronts him about his outburst.
Shrek responds that he is sick of not having his privacy respected and that he wishes everything as "back to
the way they used to be...when the world made sense". When Fiona asks him if he means before he rescued
her, Shrek cruelly confirms her fear. Fiona is shocked and upset by Shrek's actions, she tells him that he
had everything he could have ever wanted: "three beautiful children", a "wife who loves [him]" and
"friends that adore [him]". She goes back inside to the party, disappointed in him.
When Shrek makes his deal with Rumpelstiltskin, for a single day he is brought to a universe
where he was never born. Here, Rumpel has seized power by tricking Fiona's parents out of ruling the
kingdom of Far Far Away. Fiona remains under the witch's curse from the first movie and has subsequently
become the leader of a group of Ogre resistance fighters. Shrek initially believes that the relationship
between him and Fiona is still existent there but when she doesn't even recognize him, he finally accepts
completely that the reality, he is in, is not his own and that Stiltskin has truly altered reality to be as if he
never existed until now.
Fiona is shown to still be kind hearted and caring but bitterly cynical and disillusioned about the
power of true love, because she was never rescued from her tower. She begins to fall in love with him again
when he starts training with her, but still does not kiss him (having only started to find him likable). But
Fiona's attitude towards Shrek changes as she and the other ogres head off to take down Rumpelstiltskin
once and for all. During the day, Shrek realizes that a loophole will negate the deal if he can receive a True
Love's kiss from Fiona. After a failed attempt, they realize that he has succeeded when Fiona's curse has
been broken. The timeline returns to normal, and Shrek returns to his children's birthday party and warmly
greets Fiona. This is the only movie where Fiona has her hair down. She also reveals she always wanted to
have a daughter named Felicia. We also learn that Shrek and Fiona's sons are Fergus and Farkle.

King Harold was the king of Far Far Away, although he was not born into the
true royal family of Far Far Away. He was also the husband of Queen Lillian. He still maintained the title
of King through his marriage with Queen Lillian and his horrible secret that he used to be a frog was
hidden. King Harold is best described as stubborn and unwilling to change. At first, he highly opposed the
marriage of Shrek and his daughter Princess Fiona. He even went as far as employing an assassin (Puss in
Boots) to murder Shrek, to allow the handsome Prince Charming to take throne next to Fiona. This was
most likely done because Harold doubted Shrek's love for Fiona. He eventually gives Shrek and Fiona his
blessing at the ending of Shrek 2. His storyline is very similar to that of the frog prince, except it is only a
reverse story (initially a frog who turned human). This is also similar to Shrek's character, a non-human
species that falls in love with a female human. Donkey makes a reference to this in the end of Shrek 2 when
King Harold has turned back into a frog from the Fairy Godmother's wand by saying "...And he gave Shrek
a hard time...".
Harold was never actually a human. He was a frog who lived in a pond. One day, he met up with
the Fairy Godmother, who allowed him to pursue his dream of marrying and loving Lillian, by making him
human. Their first date was in the night and their first kiss made him human. After the death of Lillian's
father, he became the king. His true identity was never discovered until his last months on the throne as
ruler. Even when his true identity was discovered he was still loved by his people and family, greatly. He
and Lillian are the mysterious princess and the frog.
At beginning Harold doesn't like Shrek too much. He and Shrek argue at the dinning table during a
feast to celebrate the return of Fiona thus, destroying the feast. In the night, he was taken in Fairy
Godmother's carriage where she told him that he must have Shrek killed, so her son can become the king.
So he hires Puss in Boots to assassinate him in Poison Apple bar. He was happy that his daughter is human
again and that she thinks that Charming is her husband, but he was also sad because Fiona was sad. Harold
was ordered to put a magical love potion into Fiona's tea so she can kiss Charming and love him. But,
Harold swapped the tea with Fiona and he drank the potion, which enraged the Fairy Godmother. The Fairy
Godmother tried to cast a spell on Shrek (which most likely causes a human being to reverse with the initial
form, as Shrek is a human at the time), but Harold dived in front of Shrek, saving Shrek, turning Harold
back into a frog.
King Harold was sick in bed in the beginning, so Shrek and Fiona were taking the roles as King
and Queen. Then the King was dying and so he called Queen Lillian, Shrek, Fiona, Donkey, and Puss to his
room. The King almost died twice, but he was told that if Shrek doesn't want to be king, then he must find
his nephew Arthur Pendragon. King Harold then passes away and is buried in a Foot Locker box. He was
then sent away in the pond.
There is a flashback about how Rumpelstiltskin was close into getting King Harold to sign a
Magical Contract, however, just as the King and Queen were about to sign it, he was told that Fiona was
rescued. In an alternative universe, Harold signed it, and he and Lillian disappeared. But then at the end of
the movie, however, the King was dead. Later, during the Ogre Triplets' party (the end-credits scenes),

King Harold appears shown in a self-portrait (in the picture, he makes various expressions including a
smile); proving he still remains, this time as a spirit.

Queen Lillian (born Lillian Pendragon) was the queen of Far Far Away. She is the wife
of King Harold and the mother of Princess Fiona. She is a good and pious Queen; she is loved by the
people; and she is a good mother because she doesn't mind that her daughter married an ogre, she just
wants her to be happy.
In Shrek the Third, it is revealed that she is a skilled fighter (she says to Fiona that her fighting
skills were inherited from her). At the end of the film she became a grandmother when Fiona gave birth to
Ogre triplets. She is of royal birth, unlike her husband, her father was the King of Far Far Away. The
throne was passed on towards Lillian and her husband, Harold, after the latter's death. They became the
new "King and Queen" of Far Far Away. It is most likely suggested that Arthur Pendragon's father was her
Queen Lillian makes her debut in the film Shrek 2, as the "Queen" of Far Far Away. Although
initially surprised at Fiona's transformation into an ogre, she is far more understanding of what has
happened and, seeing that her daughter is deeply in love, accepts Shrek into their family. When King
Harold is turned back into a Frog at the end of the movie, she still accepts him as she did many years ago. It
was revealed that she and Harold are the "Princess and the Frog" from the famous fairy tale by Brothers
She becomes a more determined character, leading the pack of princesses through a series of
tunnels in the castle, and breaking two walls with her head, whilst humming "My Favorite Things" (an in-
joke referring to the song sung by Julie Andrews in The Sound of Music) and "A Spoonful of Sugar" from
Mary Poppins, another role Andrews is famous for. She is able to rally the other princesses from being
damsels in distress to independent fighters. It was also revealed in the movie that Fiona inherited her
fighting skills from her mother (Lillian even asks "Well, you didn't think you got your fighting skills from
your father, did you?") Lillian is last seen after the movie's finale in Shrek's swamp home, happily seeing
her grandchildren and plays with an ogre triplet, who spits gobs up on her dress. She initially looks
distressed and a little disgusted, this changes as she finds it adorable and cute.
At the beginning of SHREK FOREVER AFTER, she is right about to sign a contract to
Rumpelstiltskin, to "lose all their problems" but then one of their servants said that her daughter was freed
from the tower. In the present party of her grand-children: Fergus, Farkle and Felicia. In the alternate
universe, Rumpelstiltskin explains that he had the kingdom when King Harold and Queen Lillian signed
the contract and unleashed all their problems. They eventually disappeared, but it is a facade as she is still
the "Queen" of Far Far Away.

Unicorns The unicorn is a legendary creature like a horse, but with
a slender, usually spiral, horn growing out of its forehead. The popular image of the unicorn is that of a
white horse differing only in the horn.
In medieval lore, the spiraled horn of the unicorns was called the alicorn, and was thought to
neutralize poisons. In popular mythology, unicorns were hunted for their horns, which were said to protect
one against diseases, or, if made into a cup, would protect on eform any poison that might have been added
to one's drink. This belief is derived from Ctesias' reports on the unicorn in India, where it was used by the
rulers of that place for anti-toxin purposes so as to avoid assassination.
People sold what they purported to be unicorn horns at this time, but were actually selling narwall
horns (narwalls are whales with large, horn-like tusks that swim in cold water.)
Traditionally, the unicorn had a billy-goat beard, a lion's tail, and cloven hoofs. Ironically, this
perception was more realistic, as only cloven-hoofed animals have horns. Unicorns were once thought of as
nasty, easily provoked creatures, unlike the gentle perception we have of them today. They were thought to
have deep, bellowing voices. As Ctesias, the ancient Greek physician, said:
"The unicorn was native to India, the size of a donkey, with a burgundy head and white body; it
had blue eyes, a single horn that was bright red at the top, black in the middle, and white at the bottom; the
horn was also eighteen inches long."
Julius Ceasar also described the unicorn, saying, "It had a deer's head, elephant's feet, a three-foot
long horn, and a boar's tail." It was not until the Middle Ages that the unicorn began to take on its present
form. Today when you hear about unicorns in books, movies, or mythology classes at military friendly
colleges the image you picture is less frightening.
A widespread legend is that, when Noah gathered two of every kind of animal, he neglected to
gather the unicorns, which is why they do not exist today.
The quilin, a creature in Chinese myth, is sometimes called "the Chinese unicorn," but is not
directly related to the Western unicorn. The quilin has the body of a deer, the lead of a lion, green scales
and a long froth-covered horn. In Japanese, the word kirin (written with the same Chinese ideograms) is
used to designate both the giraffe and the mythical creature. Although the Japanese kirin is based on
Chinese myth, it more closely resembles the Western Unicorn than does the Chinese quilin. – From

Teddy Bears Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United
States, is the person responsible for giving the teddy bear his name. On November 14, 1902, Roosevelt was
helping settle a border dispute between Mississippi and Louisiana. During his spare time he attended a bear
hunt in Mississippi. During the hunt, Roosevelt came upon a wounded young bear and ordered the mercy
killing of the animal. The Washington Post ran an editorial cartoon created by the political cartoonist
Clifford K. Berryman that illustrated the event. The cartoon was called "Drawing the Line in Mississippi"
and depicted both state line dispute and the bear hunt. At first Berryman drew the bear as a fierce animal,
the bear had just killed a hunting dog. Later, Berryman redrew the bear to make it a cuddly cub. The
cartoon and the story it told became popular and within a year, the cartoon bear became a toy for children
called the teddy bear.
Morris Michtom made the first official toy bear called the teddy bear. Michtom owned a small
novelty and candy store in Brooklyn, New York. His wife Rose was making toy bears for sale in their store.
Michtom sent Roosevelt a bear and asked permission to use the teddy bear name. Roosevelt said yes.
Michtom and a company called Butler Brothers, began to mass-produce the teddy bear. Within a year
Michtom started his own company called the Ideal Novelty and Toy Company. – From

Pinocchio When children (and even adults) hear the name

Pinocchio, it usually brings to mind the character and story of the Walt Disney movie. However, the true
Pinocchio character and story in its original Italian version doesn’t completely resemble the Disney version
that made Pinocchio so popular in the rest of the world. The original story was written by Carlo Lorenzini,
better known as Carlo Collodi, a pen name taken from his town of birth Collodi in the province of Lucca in
Tuscany. As well as his writing career, Collodi also served in the Department of the Interior and then with
the Department of the Prefecture of Florence. He is best remembered as a writer, and Pinocchio is
considered the masterpiece of all his writings.
The Disney version storyline differs somewhat from Collodi’s original. Collodi’s Pinocchio was
anything but the cute cuddly baby-faced boy Disney artists created. The story line differences between the
Disney version and Collodi’s book is not of significant importance; what is important is the end result and
the moral of the story are the same. Had Disney not adopted the story, Pinocchio might not ever have
become popular in America. It should be noted that Collodi’s original was much more intricate, and

Pinocchio was more defiant and mischievous in Collodi’s original story, while Disney writers portrayed
Pinocchio as innocent and gullible. Although the Disney version retained most of the same character
names, one difference was the character of Stromboli. In the original novel by Collodi, the evil puppet
master was named “Mangiafuoco” (fire-eater). In the Disney film version we can surmise that the story
takes place in Italy, but from the depiction of the characters’ clothing and the landscape design, the setting
was more in the style of the Tyrol or Switzerland. Collodi’s story takes place more in the north central
region of Italy. Today Collodi’s book has been translated into many languages, including a Latin version,
Pinoculus, published by S.F. Vanni Books in New York.
Readers interested in seeing a Pinocchio film that follows Collodi’s version more closely might
want to buy or rent one of several versions. Two of the most recent Pinocchio films star Roberto Benigni as
Pinocchio and the other stars Jonathan Taylor-Thomas, of TV’s “Home Improvement” fame. As for
Pinocchio, in his native land he still remains a very popular and adored character. Many toys and other
items, crafted in the image as described by Collodi, are available both to children and even tourists who are
fascinated by Pinocchio’s presence in shops and outdoor markets. It’s also not unusual for some Italian
homes to decorate their Christmas trees with a Pinocchio ornament. Among the most popular items or
souvenirs available are pencils, pens, dolls, school bags, key chains, snow domes, and of course,
marionettes, small ones to life size. – From

Lord Farquaad Lord Farquaad is the

main antagonist from the 2001 animated feature film Shrek. He is voiced by John Lithgow. He doesn't
appear in William Steig's picture book of the same name as the film.
Lord Farquaad is the comically short-in-stature, ruthless ruler of Duloc. Several times in the film it
is commented that, in his capital city Duloc's towering height, Farquaad may be compensating for
something. His birthday is April 15th.
In his pursuit of perfection, Farquaad attempts to rid his Kingdom of Fairy Tale creatures, offering
a bounty for their capture and then exiling imprisoned creatures to Shrek's swamp. However, because
Farquaad is not of royal stock, he cannot become a king until he marries a princess. He decides that
Princess Fiona will be the perfect wife and queen, but she first must be rescued from her tower which is
guarded by a fire-breathing dragon.
Unwilling to perform the rescue himself, Farquaad holds a tournament to discover the knight who
will rescue Princess Fiona. Shrek and Donkey arrive at Duloc during the journey and become involved.
They defeat the knights, so Farquaad decides to send Shrek on the quest. Farquaad agrees to move the Fairy
Tale creatures out of Shrek's swamp if he rescues Fiona. Shrek delivers Fiona to Farquaad and Farquaad
immediately proposes marriage, unaware that she becomes an ogress at sunset. Shrek disrupts the marriage
ceremony, delaying a kiss between Farquaad and Fiona until after sunset. Fiona makes the transition from
human to ogress form, upon which Farquaad rejects his new bride, banishing her back to the tower and
claiming the title of King. He also sentences Shrek to death at that time as well. Before Farquaad finishes
his claim of becoming the new King, the dragon who had guarded Fiona, and who developed a crush on

Donkey while Fiona was being rescued from her castle, crashes through the window in response to a
beckoning whistle from Shrek. She eats Farquaad. Moments later the dragon burps and Farquaad's crown
comes out. Farquaad was apparently not well-liked in Duloc; when he is eaten, the citizens laugh and cheer.
It is presumed that he is dead when he enters as a ghost in the Shrek 4-D ride at Universal Studios and the
30 min Shrek Special on Nick in which he attempts to murder Shrek and Donkey, and kidnap and kill Fiona
so that she can be his ghost queen. Princess Fiona is again rescued when Lord Farquaad is presumably
destroyed by the Dragon again.

Shrek the Third

Lord Farquaad makes a cameo appearance in Shrek the Third during Gingy the Gingerbread Man's
flashbacks, in which Farquaad yanks off Gingy's legs and mocks Gingy with them. This is a reference to
the first Shrek film.

Scared Shrekless
Despite being eaten by Dragon in the first film, Lord Farquaad plays a fairly major role in the made-for-TV
Halloween special, Scared Shrekless. Shrek challenges his friends to spend Halloween night in Farquaad's
haunted castle, Duloc. The three little pigs note that Duloc was where Farquaad lived and died. Later on,
Shrek also mentions how Donkey played a role in the death of Farquaad.

Thelonious: Thelonius was Lord Farquaad's henchman. He had a lack of

intelligence. He also had a hood covering his head, so he could have been also the executioner.
Thelonious is the henchman of Lord Farquaad and is the one who tortures Gingy and threatens the
Magic Mirror. He isn't seen until Shrek's Karaoke Dance Party where he seems to have become friends
with Gingy, after he turned on Lord Farquaad.
Thelonius also appears in Shrek 4-D, where he first became the henchman of Lord Farquaad again
but during the story he turns on Farquaad and became friends with Fiona, Shrek, Donkey and Dragon. It is
unknown where he went after Farquaad's Ghost disappeared.

Magic Mirror: Magic Mirror on the Wall is a
mirror with magical properties. The mirror is loosely based on the magic mirror from Snow White as well
as the Disney mirror.
The mirror is able to answer any sort of question imaginable. The Mirror first appears in Shrek
where it helps Lord Farquaad pick a princess. It appears briefly at the end of Shrek 2, as well as in Shrek
Forever After.
He appeared in Shrek under command of Lord Farquaad and helps him to pick a princess for him.
Farquaad could choose between: Cinderella, Snow White and Fiona. He is later seen in Shrek's Karaoke
Dance Party.
In Shrek 2, the Magic Mirror now appears to be claimed as a TV screen, reporting the news of
Shrek, Donkey and Puss in Boots being captured by the guards of Far Far Away.
In Shrek Forever After, here again he is being used as a TV screen announcing that
Rumpelstiltskin would have an announcement to the people of Far Far Away that if they catch the ogre
Shrek they get a grand reward.
Three Little Pigs and the Wolf

In Shrek, the Three Little Pigs are one of the many fairy tales who has escaped to Shrek's swamp.
They were not seen again until Shrek's Karaoke Dance Party singing “Who Let The Dogs Out” along with
The Big Bad Wolf.

In Shrek 2, while Shrek, Donkey, and Fiona went to Far Far Away, the pigs watched over the
swamp, alongside the other fairy tale creatures.
They weren't seen again until later on, when they saw Shrek (who was transformed into a human),
Donkey (who was transformed into a stallion), and Puss in Boots getting arrested. The group then went to
the prison and helped the trio escape.
At the end of the film, the Three Little Pigs helped Shrek defeat the Fairy Godmother.
In Shrek the Third, the Three Little Pigs where at Fiona's baby shower and gave her a present.
When Prince Charming and Captain Hook broke in, they demanded to know where Henry was. Gingy
refused to tell, and when confronted by Hook, his life flashed before his own eyes. Then Hook asked it to
Pinocchio since he can't lie but he was twisting the truth and Bricks couldn't take it longer and told where
Henry was.
The Three Little Pigs was also at the big rescue seen in the end, where they fought the evil fairy
In Shrek the Halls, the Three Little Pigs join Christmas at Shrek's swamp.
In Shrek Forever After, when Shrek enters the alternate reality, the Three Little Pigs are seen to be
taking care for Rumpelstiltskin 's pet Fifi and have to do everything for her. They also made a cameo at the
party of the Ogre Triplets and in a deleted scene where they fight Shrek.
In The Pig Who Cried Werewolf, the Three Little Pigs find themselves in trouble when they ignore
the warning signs of Big Bad Wolf, their new neighbor, moving in next door who takes on a ferocious form
during a full moon. The pigs, whose names are Heimlich, Dieter, and Horst, are heading home from the
hospital where Heimlich got his leg hurt from spying on neighbors, like the Poor Lady and the Shoe and
Jack and Jill. When they arrived at home, Heimlich saw that there's a new neighbor: The Big Bad Wolf.
When the bag falls down, Heimlich, spying on Big Bad Wolf, saw that Big Bad Wolf has a box of knives,
but Dieter and Horst didn't see it. Big Bad Wolf then buries the knives in the ground and goes into his
At night, the moon is full and Big Bad Wolf is turned into a lady named Chef (Sean Bishop). She
is getting the knives, but when Heimlich almost drops the telescope, she can hear the noise. Heimlich was
about to show Dieter and Horst that there's something going on the house. When Dieter looks at the house,
he sees Big Bad Wolf saying hi to them, but Heimlich doesn't know that because when he looks, Chef
played the knives and said, "Get the maniac." Dieter and Horst are going in that house and they get
captured by Chef. When Chef gets in the house, a scared Heimlich is captured to her / Wolf's house. After
he screams in terror, he sees Dieter and Horst having dinner. When Chef arrives in the room, she turns back
into the Wolf and the Three Little Pigs don't know. He tells them to get out, but when he turns back into
Chef, the pigs run away. Chef gives chase and keeps changing back to Wolf and herself as she chases the
Three Little Pigs.
The Big Bad Wolf, or just Wolfie, is one of the fairytale creatures that appeared in Shrek, Shrek
2, Shrek the Third, and Shrek Forever After. He was going to appear in Shrek The Finale. He wears a pink
"Grandma" dress.
The Big Bad Wolf appeared in Shrek as one of the many fairy tales who escaped to Shrek's swamp
after Red Riding Hood tried to sell him to Lord Farquaad 's army. Shrek discovers him lying in his bed. He
wasn't seen further until Shrek's Karaoke Dance Party singing “Who Let The Dogs Out” along with The
Three Little Pigs.
In Shrek 2, it appeared that Wolfie had been living in the tower where Fiona was trapped. He was
found in Fiona's bed by Prince Charming. While Shrek, Princess Fiona and Donkey went to Far Far Away,
Wolfie and the other fairy tale creatures watched over the swamp. He wasn't seen again until later on when
he saw Shrek, Donkey and Puss in Boots getting arrested. The group then went to the prison and helped the
trio escape.
The Big Bad Wolf also helped Shrek defeat the Fairy Godmother at the end of the film.
In Shrek the Third , The Big Bad Wolf was at Fiona's baby shower and gave her a present. When
Prince Charming and Captain Hook broke in, they demanded to know where Shrek was. Gingy refused to
tell, and when confronted by Hook , his life flashed before his own eyes. Then Hook asked it to Pinocchio
since he can't lie but he was twisting the truth and Bricks couldn't take it longer and told where Shrek was,
with Wolfie only saying "Oh, Dear". The Big Bad Wolf was also at the big rescue seen in the end, where
they fought the evil fairy tales.
In Shrek the Halls, Wolfie joins Christmas at Shrek's swamp.

In Shrek Forever After, Wolfie was Rumplestiltskin's Wig handler and he was wearing a maid

Fairy Godmother The Fairy

Godmother is the main antagonist of Shrek 2 and one of the minor villains in Thriller Night (in which she
comes out as a zombie, just like the others). She is a beautiful old fairy who makes all of the princesses'
wishes come true, and their celebrity of Far Far Away. The Fairy Godmother is also the mother of the
handsome Prince Charming, who searches for a princess his whole life.
She wants her son to marry Princess Fiona and turns Shrek and Donkey into a human and a
stallion, respectively, and has Charming convince Fiona that he's Shrek as a human with a different voice.
However, her plans are foiled when Fiona realizes that Charming isn't really Shrek,
subsequently knocking him out with a headbutt. The Fairy Godmother tries to zap Shrek with her wand and
kill him, but King Harold protected Shrek and the power deflected back toward the Fairy Godmother and
killed her. She's the only main antagonist of a Shrek film to be a woman (although in Puss in Boots Jill is
one of the main antagonists, however this isn't a Shrek film but a spinoff and therefore doesn't count).
The Fairy Godmother isn't like her classic benevolent counterpart who uses her magic for the right
reasons - Instead, she is a conniving businesswoman who's only out to use others to benefit herself and her
son. She is not above blackmail, as she threatened Harold by taking away his happily ever after, and
proudly admits she that forces others to fall in love all the time.the fairy godmother is also very close to
some of her previous clients like king Harold who she uses to her own advantage many times during the
She has no qualms about using her magic to get what she wants, and is spiteful to those who
interfere with her plans or business. But the Fairy Godmother is no fool. She uses any and every
underhanded trick, some that make her appear more benevolent and kind than she really is. She pretends to
gently and kindly convince Shrek to "stop living in a fairytale," but once she's seen for what she really is,
she's ruthless, vengeful, and will stop at nothing to remove those who stand in her way.
The only one the Fairy Godmother loves truly is her son, whom she dotes on, and wants to make
king by marrying him to Fiona.

Ugly Duckling is a literary fairy tale by Danish poet and
author Hans Christian Andersen (1805 – 1875). The story tells of a homely little bird born in a barnyard
who suffers abuse from the others around him until, much to his delight (and to the surprise of others), he
matures into a beautiful swan, the most beautiful bird of all. The story is beloved around the world as a tale
about personal transformation for the better. “The Ugly Duckling” was first published 11 November 1843
with three other tales by Andersen in Copenhagen, Denmark to great critical acclaim. The tale has been
adapted to various media including opera, musical, and animated film. The tale is completely Andersen's
invention and owes no debt to fairy or folk lore.

Three Bears The Three Bears appear in

the beginning of the first Shrek film as some of the fairy tale creatures banished to Shrek's Swamp. A rug
resembling Mama Bear, with an identical bow on her head, is seen later in Lord Farquaad's bedroom. In the
dance at the end of the film, only Papa and Baby Bear are shown; however in the DVD edition, in the
"Swamp Karaoke Party" that follows the credits, Mama Bear is alive and well, but then so is Lord Farquaad
so it's likely an out of character Party and she is indeed dead.

Peter Pan Peter Pan is a character that only appeared in Shrek and was
mistaken for in Shrek The Third.
In Shrek, Peter is seen waiting in line to sell Tinkerbell. When Tinkerbell inadvertently sprinkles
fairy dust on Donkey, Peter cries "He can fly!".
When the villains enter Far Far Away, Captain Hook stops by a boy, mistaking him for Peter Pan.
When a girl corrects him, he responds, "Shut up, Wendy!".

Sugar Plum Fairy The Sugar Plum Fairy is a character in the ballet The
Nutcracker. This ballet was first presented in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1892. The character was danced at
that time by Antonietta Dell'Era. The Sugar Plum Fairy only dances in Act 2 of the ballet. She is the ruler
of the Land of Sweets. She welcomes the Nutcracker Prince and his love Clara to her land and orders the
festivities. The character is danced by a prima ballerina (or, principal dancer), but she has very little
dancing to do. She is joined by a male dancer (whose character is called Prince Coqueluche) for a pas de
deux near the end of the ballet. Her number in this pas de deux is called "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy". It
is famous for the celesta music that is played as the ballerina dances. The part of the Sugar Plum Fairy has
been danced by many great ballerinas like Darcy Kistler in the movie version of George Balanchine's The

Witch Witches are characters in the Shrek universe. They have brooms
used to fly and have pointy hats. They are recognized by their evil cackle. Their appearance and weakness
to water is based on the Wicked Witch of the West.
Mostly they are old ladies that are green with pointy noses. A lot of the witches are evil and melt if
they touch water. The witches first appeared in Shrek 2 as customers at the Poison Apple.
The same witches of Shrek 2 return as companions of Prince Charming to take over Far Far Away,
but they turned good at the end of the film.
The witches work for Rumpelstiltskin, but since this is in an alternate universe the witches are
bad, but in Shrek's universe they are good.

Humpty Dumpty Humpty Alexander Dumpty, better known as just

Humpty Dumpty, is Puss in Boots' sidekick and appears only in Shrek 4-D and Puss in Boots and also
returns in Shrek Super Slam as an unlockable character.
He appears first in the underground bar, revealing he had hired Kitty Softpaws to bring Puss to
him. He had located the magical beans he and Puss spent their childhood searching for. However, Puss
refuses, saying Humpty is a traitor, and leaves. Puss later tells Kitty that Humpty was his only friend at the
orphanage they both grew up in. However, as they grew up, the harmless pranks they performed as children
soon turned into crimes. This changes when Puss stops a bull from killing the head soldier's elderly mother.
Puss, the new town hero, had less time to spend with Humpty, leaving him desperate, he attempts to steal
without Puss, landing him in jail, until Puss bails him out and tells him he is not stealing anymore. In his
desperation, he wakes up Puss one night, telling him he owes Little Boy Blue (the orphanage bully, and the
reason they became friends) and his gang money, so asks Puss to help him leave town. When Puss gets him
over what he believes to be the town wall, he realizes in horror that the "town wall" was actually the wall

around the town bank, which Humpty had just robbed. Humpty escapes with all the money in the bank as
the alarm goes off. The police arrive immediately, and, seeing Puss with Humpty, believes he helped in the
Wrongly accused, Puss flees with Humpty in their cart, which is destroyed on the bridge, and all
the money in the town falls in the river. In his desperation and depression, Puss jumps in the water. This
event is what leads to the frosty relationship between Puss and Humpty. Later, seduced by Kitty, Puss
agrees to go with them on their journey. Eventually, they steal the magic beans from Jack and Jill, an act
which nearly costs them their lives. Soon after, they reach the only soil in which the magic beans can grow.
In the clouds, they sneak into the long-dead giant's castle, steal the golden goose, and escape. After they
celebrate and go to sleep, Jack and Jill come and knock Puss out. When he wakes up, he follows their trail
to his hometown, where he is shocked to find Humpty handing out golden eggs to the residents. Humpty
explains that it was all as part of his master plan to get revenge, and that everyone, the bar patrons, Jack and
Jill, even Kitty, worked for him. He then has Puss arrested. While Puss is in jail, Puss learns that the Great
Terror, the monster they encountered in the castle, will come and destroy the town in order to retrieve the
Golden Goose (which was Humpty's plan all along), as the Great Terror is a giant goose who is the mother,
and the Golden Goose is its baby. Puss, however, convinces Humpty against it.
However, it is too late. As the Great Terror descends on the town, Humpty helps lead it to the bridge, where
he sacrifices himself so Puss can give the mother the golden goose. As the mother is about to leave, Puss
sees where Humpty landed in the canyon, where he sacrificed himself, a golden egg surrounded by
eggshell. The mother takes the egg back with her, and Puss says to himself, "I always knew you were good
inside." Though, during the end credits, Humpty is seen in his normal form, dancing on the mother's back
with the golden goose.

Tweedle-Dee and Tweedle-Dum:

are fictional characters in an English nursery rhyme and in Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass, and
What Alice Found There. Their names may have originally come from an epigram written by poet John
Byrom. The nursery rhyme has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 19800. The names have since become
synonymous in western popular culture slang for any two people who look and act in identical ways,
generally in a derogatory context.

PLAY Conservatory past production characters: There are many costumes already built for this, we
just need to secure them. If there is not a costume for the character suggested in my cast list, then we’ll just
substitute it for a character that is there.

Gingerbread Man The Gingerbread Man is a gingerbread cookie that
was baked by the Muffin Man.
Gingy was created by the Muffin Man, along with the rest of the Gingerbread people. Some years
later, he attended Cookie Academy, at which he excelled in Home Economics.
Sometime later, he got married to a red-head gingerbread woman, but the relationship did not last.
Soon, gumdrop buttons were placed in to him, and he was brought in to the world.
In Shrek, Gingy is being tortured by the evil Lord Farquaad. Farquaad had ordered his evil
henchman Thelonious to drown Gingy in milk and rip off his legs so he couldn't escape. Farquaad went on
to taunt him by making his legs run around while saying, "Run, run, run, as fast as you can! You can't catch
me, I'm the Gingerbread Man!" and crumbled one of the legs to pieces. When Gingy wouldn't give
Farquaad straight answers, he threatened to take off his gumdrop buttons. So the Gingerbread Man started
to talk about how the Muffin Man was hiding them (most likely lying). When the Magic Mirror arrived,
Gingy was thrown into the trash by Farquaad.
At the end of the movie, Gingy is fine and his leg not crumbled by Lord Farquaad got glued back
on with white glaze, while a candy cane made up for the lost one.
At the beginning of Shrek 2, Gingy finally gets his other leg replaced. While Shrek, Princess
Fiona, and Donkey go to Far Far Away, Gingy and the other fairy tale creatures watch over the swamp.
He isn't seen again until later on when he sees Shrek, Donkey, and Puss in Boots getting arrested. The
group then goes to the prison and helps the trio escape. Afterwards, Shrek and Gingerbread Man go to the
Muffin Man's house and make a giant gingerbread man named Mongo. Using Mongo, Shrek breaks into the
castle, but Mongo remains in the moat, after he has hot milk poured onto him by the guards. Gingy was
grieved and almost got stuck in the moat himself.
The Gingerbread Man also helps Shrek defeat the Fairy Godmother at the end of the film.
In Shrek the Third, Gingy was present to Fiona, where he and Pinocchio gave her a baby carrier.
When Prince Charming and Captain Hook broke in, they demanded to know where Shrek was. Gingy
refused to tell, and when confronted by Hook, his life flashed before his own eyes. He was placed in a
deserted bakery, but was rescued by Donkey and Puss in Boots.
Gingy was also at the big rescue seen in the end, where he slid down Rapunzel's hair, revealing
that it was really a wig.
In Shrek the Halls, Gingy reveals that he's afraid of Santa Claus because he ate his girlfriend Suzy;
though no one believes him.
At the climax, when Shrek and the gang go outside and see Santa riding in his sleigh, Gingy runs
back inside screaming.
In Shrek Forever After, when Shrek enters the alternate reality, Gingy is seen fighting animals
crackers as a gladiator, using a lollipop as a weapon.
Later, he is seen approaching Shrek, offering information on Rumpelstiltskin. Unfortunately, a fat
and lazy Puss eats him before he's able to convey any information to Shrek. However, when Shrek returns
to the real world at the end, the real Gingy is still alive and well.
In a deleted scene shows Gingy fighting along with Pinocchio, The Big Bad Wolf, The Three
Little Pigs and The Three Blind Mice against Shrek. He also uses his Animal Crackers to attack Shrek.

Elves An elf (plural: elves) is a type of
supernatural being in Germanic mythology and folklore. In Rise of the Guardians and The Guardians of
Childhood series. It is noted that the elves don't actually make any toys, North and the others just let them
(and the rest of the world) think that. It's the Yetis that make the toys while the Elves "test" them.

Donkey Donkey is seen as being euphoric, annoying, talkative, donkey-like, and

sensitive. He enjoys such foods as waffles, parfait and "upside-down coconut soufflé with mango chutney
sauce." In a scene about Merlin's bonfire, Donkey's sweet tooth gets the best of him, for he sees only a
fudge torte on it in the enchanted smoke. He hates spiders. Eddie Murphy called Donkey "a really positive
character. He's always looking at the bright side of everything, trying to work it out. A happy-go-lucky
donkey." Donkey was modeled after Pericles (born 1994; also known as Perry), a real miniature donkey
from Barron Park, Palo Alto, California.
Donkey first makes his debut at a sale of animal or mythical characters from beloved fairy-tales
being sold to the evil Lord Farquaad's knights. An old woman attempts to sell Donkey, but magic pixie dust
accidentally is unleashed upon him from a caged fairy, thus giving him the temporary ability to fly, he flies
off saying "You might have seen a housefly, maybe even a superfly, but I bet you ain't never seen a
DONKEY fly!” However, the spell unleashed upon Donkey then breaks and he falls to the ground, he is
chased by Farquaad's knights into the woods, where he meets Shrek. Shrek is at first reluctant to meet the
talkative Donkey, who follows him around, but Shrek does not consider Donkey a friend until the end of
the film. Donkey also follows Shrek on his quest to find Princess Fiona, whom Lord Farquaad wants to
make his bride. While passing a mountain guarded by a vicious, fire-breathing dragon, Donkey tries to talk
the dragon guard into allowing him and Shrek to pass and compliments the dragon, whom he discovers is a
female, and the dragon is greatly pleased by Donkey's flattering and lets them pass. Things often went
roughly between Shrek and Donkey during the quest mainly due to Shrek's being reluctant about having
Donkey as a forced "friend" and poor attitude, but by the end of the movie they were both very remarkable
friends. After Shrek saved Fiona from marrying Lord Farquaad and Dragon swallowed the evil fiend,
Donkey sang "I'm a Believer" at Shrek and Fiona's wedding reception and takes his love, Dragon, as his
wife. At the Shrek and the Swamp Gang Karaoke Dance Party, he sings "Baby Got Back" by Sir Mixalot.

Donkey was having troubles in his relationship with Dragon as she was acting strangely, but he
could not determine the cause (later revealed to be because she was laying eggs), and accompanied Shrek
and Fiona to the Far Far Away kingdom but keeps on asking every second like what kids would say on
long trips "Are we there yet?" Shrek and Fiona keep answering no.
He then meets Puss in Boots and becomes jealous as he is spending a lot of time with Shrek. By
the end of the film they are great friends. At one point in the film, he reveals that he was the donkey traded
by Jack for the magic beans, which greatly offended him. He and Shrek ended up drinking the "Happily
Ever After" potion from the Fairy Godmother's workshop and while Shrek transformed into a human,
Donkey became a magnificently bred and handsome white stallion (albeit with the same buck teeth and
voice, and on the bottle it says that it's not for those with nervous disorders. After which Shrek and
everyone else stares at Donkey as it is strongly hinted that he has one, but Donkey remains clueless as to
the reason of why everyone's staring at him). After the duo worked together with their mission to stop her
plans to force Fiona to engage with her son Prince Charming, both return to their normal forms, though
Donkey seemed to be quite disappointed at returning to his original form although Shrek told Donkey he
still sees Donkey as a noble steed. After the credits, Donkey and Dragon are reunited and he meets their
newborn children, flying flame breathing miniature Donkeys. He later sings "Disco Inferno" on Far Far
Away Idol.
Donkey is enjoying fatherhood in Shrek the Third, and he is still first and foremost Shrek's
sidekick and closest friend. When Far Far Away is in need of a new king, Donkey ventures off with Shrek
in search of Fiona's cousin Arthur Pendragon, known simply as Artie at the Worcestershire boarding school
where he resides. In their magical transport back to Far Far Away (aided by a slightly off-kilter Merlin),
Donkey and Puss accidentally switch bodies, (most likely from holding hands) and Puss finds Donkey's
quadrupedal form hideous. Donkey, meanwhile, can't figure out how Puss can walk with such fancy
accoutrements. They must put that aside and work together, however, if they are to save Far Far Away from
a vindictive Prince Charming. After Charming is defeated, the same sorcerer comes to change them back, it
works, but switches their tails (in the next scene, their tails have been corrected as well).
In the fourth and final film, Donkey brings his Dronkey children over often, much to Shrek's
annoyance at the ensuing daily chaos. He takes part in innocently ruining Shrek's children's birthday party.
In Rumplestiltskin's alternate reality, Donkey first meets Shrek when he pulled a wagon the ogre was
imprisoned in, forced to sing (reminiscent of a car stereo) by the witches, who whip him to change songs.
After being taken to Rumplestiltskin, Shrek escapes and takes Donkey with him, much to the latter's
chagrin. At first, Donkey fears Shrek and runs away, but returns after seeing Shrek crying over his babies'
toy. Having never seen an ogre cry before, Donkey decides to trust Shrek and befriends him. Donkey also
proves to be highly intelligent, and helps Shrek find a loophole in Rumplestiltskin's contract, comparing
Shrek's situation to The Twilight Zone. The duo meet Fiona, Puss, and the rebellion of ogres in the woods,
and Donkey befriends Puss in Boots and the ogres as well. Donkey and Puss later save Shrek and Fiona
from the Pied Piper, and then lead the assault on Rumplestiltskin's castle.
In the ending, with reality restored, Donkey celebrates Shrek's children's birthday. In the final shot
of the film, Donkey, along with the other characters, is last seen making a mud angel.

Dragon Dragon first appeared in Shrek while guarding

Princess Fiona's Tower and has had a role in every following production.
Dragon first appears while guarding the derelict castle, which serves as Princess Fiona’s prison.

It can be assumed that this is her long-time, permanent domicile, since the tower houses a large hoard of
treasure and happens to be littered with the bones and armour of many unsuccessful knights who tried to
rescue Fiona.
While searching for the princess, Shrek and Donkey become separated within the castle. Dragon
traps Donkey on a stone pinnacle, intent on eating him so many other intruders. Out of desperation, Donkey
smooth talks Dragon with compliments, causing her to become infatuated and spare his life.
Dragon hauls an unwilling Donkey and attempts to flirt with him. Her attraction initially appears
quite one-sided, but this does little to dissuade her and she attempts to kiss Donkey. Unfortunately, Shrek
intervenes right at that moment to rescue his companion, leading Dragon to accidentally kiss his butt.
Infuriated, Dragon resumes her rampage, but Shrek manages to collar her with a hanging lamp attached to a
heavy chain. This gambit saves Shrek, Donkey and Fiona by preventing Dragon from pursuing them across
the bridge. Dragon is left alone and devastated.
Later, Shrek and Donkey break up their friendship. A brooding Donkey discovers Dragon,
weeping with loneliness by a brook. While her escape from the castle is unexplained, Dragon clearly has no
wish to return to her old life, or even her hoard. Feeling sorry for her, Donkey overcomes his initial
hesitation and approaches the forlorn woman, whereupon the two reconcile and become a couple.
A tamed Dragon helps Shrek and Donkey prevent Fiona’s wedding to Farquaad by flying them to Duloc.
Upon landing, Donkey tells Dragon to have fun – which entails her chasing off some local knights.
However, Shrek’s failure to rescue Fiona from Farquaad’s clutches prompt the Ogre to whistle for Dragon
At this point, Dragon intervenes by smashing through a glass window, breaking through the glass and
devouring Farquaad. The glass then shattered from Dragon's body weight simply crashing through the
window. Donkey, riding her head, threatens the assembly by claiming "I have a dragon here and I'm not
afraid to use it". This restores peace, since everyone present is glad to be rid of Farquaad, as well as being
frightened of a dragon, who simply smashed the glass window and completely destroyed it (Dragon
vandalized the place by smashing the windows). He is later seen again in her stomach, but the events of
Shrek 4-D confirm his inevitable death by digestion.
This was also the first time Dragon had ever smashed through glass, however shortly after she
punches her fist through another glass window, breaking it into pieces. Dragon became notorious for
breaking of glass which she promised never to do again.
During Shrek and Fiona’s wedding celebration at the swamp, Dragon cavorts with the rest of the
fairy tale creatures. As the newlyweds leave in their carriage, she catches the bouquet thrown by Fiona and
lovingly presents the flowers to an embarrassed Donkey.
A later karaoke number was produced for the CD of Shrek. One scene features the two lovebirds
performing a song-and-dance. While Donkey sings a rendition of Baby Got Back, Dragon provocatively
shakes her backside at the camera – eventually knocking her boyfriend off his feet with her swaying tail.

Pied Piper The Pied Piper of Hamelin is a

minor character in Shrek. He is among the fairy tale creatures exiled in Shrek's swamp, where he rallies
many rats with his enchanted flute.
He becomes a secondary antagonist in Shrek Forever After, hired by Rumpelstiltskin to capture
the ogres by forcing them to dance and follow him with his enchanted flute. He can handle different species
(rats, ogres, witches...) or even objects (Rumpelstiltskin's socks) by setting the "target" dial of his flute. He
never speaks and only using his flute to communicate.

When all of the fairy tale fugitives are forced to move to Shrek's swamp, The Pied Piper can be
seen playing his pipe to the rats. In this movie, he is shown wearing red clothes and looks much different
than in Shrek Forever After.
The Pied Piper is hired as a bounty hunter by Rumpelstiltskin to find and capture Shrek, when the
latter escapes from his castle.
He has a magical flute with a dial on it; Whichever symbol he chooses, the creature represented
will be forced to do nothing but dance and follow him once he starts playing. The known things he can
handle are rats, witches, ogres, socks and possibly dwarves, as at the end of the film he controls
Rumpelstiltskin with his flute and he is a dwarf. His flute is also his primary way of communicating, as he
is unable to (or chooses not to) speak. When Piper is first introduced, Rumpelstiltskin's witches show
disbelief in his role as a bounty hunter, but this is quickly changed when he starts playing Sure Shot on his
flute and the witches are forced to break dance. Later on, Piper tricks the ogres into thinking he is Fifi by
hiding in a giant goose costume during the planned ambush. He soon has the ogre army, as well as Shrek
and Fiona, under his control as he forces them to dance to Rumpelstilstkin's dungeon by playing Shake
Your Groove Thing. Donkey and Puss in Bootscometo Shrek and Fiona's aid, though, resulting in Piper
subsequently being fired by Rumpel. Before he is fired though, he is told to pull Rumpels socks up using
his pipe.
Piper's Past is a book that was made in 2007. It explains a lot about Piper and how the 'mix up'
The Pied Piper's origins are elaborated further in the comic book prequel of Shrek Forever After.
In this story, his flute was stolen by the Rat King as revenge for having his rat army taken from him,
leaving Piper helpless against the creatures until he could gain his flute back. Donkey finds the dejected
Piper on his way back from a music store, and proceeds to show him the way there. After failing to find
another instrument to match the powers of his flute, Piper and Donkey are approached by Rumpelstiltskin,
who is a worker at the store. He makes a deal with Piper, saying if he would ever help him out in a future
bind, he would help him gain his flute back and get rid of 'that annoying Donkey' in the process. With his
flute returned to him, Piper commands the rat army to turn against their Rat King and is satisfied with being
returned to his position of power.

Rats (See Three Blind Mice)

The Seven Dwarfs are a group of little people that appear in Shrek, Shrek 2, and one of them
appears in Shrek the Third as present from Snow White to Fiona, a babysitter. Obviously they are a
reference to the Seven Dwarfs from the Tale Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
They can be seen in the first film putting Snow White's coffin on Shrek's table, and they were
mentioned by the Magic Mirror when he describes Snow White to Lord Farquaad.
They reappear in Shrek 2 where they forge a ring with the words "I Love You" in flaming letters
engraved on it, giving it to Shrek, who gives it to Fiona. The ring is an allusion of the One Ring in Lord of
the Rings.

One of the dwarfs appears in Shrek the Third as a present to Fiona on her baby shower given to
her by Snow White. That same dwarf appears at the end of the movie asking to babysit The Ogre Triplets
but ends up getting stuffed with a baby bottle and the door slammed on him by Shrek, that dwarf probably
is Grumpy. The name of Dopey (one of the 7 dwarfs) also appeared as a tattoo on Snow White's arm.

Princess and the Pea Princess Pea was a princess of the kingdom of
Duloc. She was the mother of Farquaad, and the wife of Grumpy. She is based on the princess from The
Princess and the Pea.
Pea was a princess of the kingdom of Duloc. She married Grumpy out of love, and in turn was
disinherited. She had a hard time sleeping on the couple's lumpy matress, so Grumpy stacked 25 mattresses
on top of one another to ease her sleeping. However, due to the great height, Pea fell off of the mattresses
and to her death.

Three Blind Mice The Three Blind Mice are identical white mice
brothers that are blind and can't see anything throughout the entire course of the films.
In Shrek they are banished into his swamp by Lord Farquaad. Shrek notices the Three Blind Mice
first, walking over the table.
In Shrek 2 They have a larger role. They are three of Shrek's friends who watch his swamp while
Shrek and Princess Fiona are visiting Far Far Away. Later, along with Gingy, Pinocchio, Big Bad Wolf and
The Three Little Pigs, they save Shrek from the Fairy Godmother.
The Mice have very little screen time in Shrek the Third. They appear briefly at King Harold's
funeral, and then say goodbye to Shrek, Donkey and Puss when they go on a quest to find Artie.

Mourning Dove The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) is a member of

the dove family (Columbidae). The bird is also called the Turtle Dove or the American Mourning Dove or
Rain Dove, and formerly was known as the Carolina Pigeon or Carolina Turtledove. It is one of the most
abundant and widespread of all North American birds. It is also the leading game-bird, with more than 20

million birds (up to 70 million in some years) shot annually in the U.S., both for sport and for meat. Its
ability to sustain its population under such pressure stems from its prolific breeding: in warm areas, one
pair may raise up to six broods a year. Its plaintive woo-OO-oo-oo-oo call gives the bird its name. The
wings can make an unusual whistling sound upon take-off and landing. The bird is a strong flier, capable of
speeds up to 88 km/h (55 mph).
Mourning Doves are light grey and brown and generally muted in color. Males and females are
similar in appearance. The species is generally monogamous, with two squabs (young) per brood. Both
parents incubate and care for the young. Mourning Doves eat almost exclusively seeds, but the young are
fed crop milk by their parents.

White Rabbit The White Rabbit is a fictional character in

Lewis Carroll's book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. He appears at the very beginning of the book, in
chapter one, wearing a waistcoat, and muttering "Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be too late!" Alice follows him
down the rabbit hole into Wonderland. Alice encounters him again when he mistakes her for his housemaid
Mary Ann and she becomes trapped in his house after growing too large. The Rabbit shows up again in the
last few chapters, as a herald-like servant of the King and Queen of Hearts.

Hobbits Hobbits are a fictional diminutive

humanoid race who inhabit the lands of Middle-earth in J. R. R. Tolkien's fiction.
Hobbits first appeared in the novel The Hobbit, in which the main protagonist, Bilbo Baggins, is
the titular hobbit. The novel The Lord of the Rings includes more Hobbits as major characters, Frodo

Baggins, Samwise Gamgee, Peregrin Took and Meriadoc Brandybuck, as well as several other minor
hobbit characters. Hobbits are also briefly mentioned in The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales.
According to the author in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings, Hobbits are "relatives"[1] of the
race of Men. Elsewhere Tolkien describes Hobbits as a "variety" or separate "branch" of humans. Within
the story, Hobbits and other races seem aware of the similarities (hence the colloquial terms "Big People"
and "Little People" used in Bree). However, within the story, Hobbits considered themselves a separate
people. At the time of the events in The Lord of the Rings, Hobbits lived in the Shire and in Bree in the
north west of Middle-earth, though by the end, some had moved out to the Tower Hills and to Gondor and

1. Air Guitar: is a form of dance and movement in which the performer pretends to play rock or
heavy metal-style electric guitar, including riffs, solos, etc. Playing an air guitar usually consists of
exaggerated strumming and picking motions and is often coupled with loud singing or lip-
synching. Air guitar is generally used in the imaginary simulation of loud electric guitar music.
2. Amorous: Showing, feeling, or relating to sexual desire.
3. Aries: (meaning “ram”) is the first astrological sign in the Zodiac, spanning the first 30 degrees of
celestial longitude, which area the Sun transits, on average, between March 21 to April 20 each
year. According to the Tropical system of astrology, the Sun enters the sign of Aries when it
reaches the northern vernal equinox, which occurs around March 21. Due to the fact that the Earth
takes approximately 365.25 days to go around the Sun, the precise time of the equinox is not the
same each year, and generally will occur about 6 hours later each year, with a jump of a day
(backwards) on leap years. Since 1900 the vernal equinox date ranged from March 20 at 08h
(2000) to March 21 at 19h (1903) (all times UTC). In Sidereal astrology, the sun currently transits
the constellation of Aries form 15 April to 15 May (approximately). Individuals born during these
dates, depending on which system of astrology they subscribe to, may be called Arians or Ariens.
Aries is the first sign of the zodiac, and that's pretty much how those born under this sign see
themselves: first. Aries are the leaders of the pack, first in line to get things going. Whether or not
everything gets done is another question altogether, for an Aries prefers to initiate rather than to
complete. Do you have a project needing a kick-start? Call an Aries, by all means. The leadership
displayed by Aries is most impressive, so don't be surprised if they can rally the troops against
seemingly insurmountable odds -- they have that kind of personal magnetism. An Aries won't shy
away from new ground, either. Those born under this sign are often called the pioneers of the
zodiac, and it's their fearless trek into the unknown that often wins the day. Aries is a bundle of
energy and dynamism, kind of like a Pied Piper, leading people along with its charm and
charisma. The dawning of a new day -- and all of its possibilities -- is pure bliss to an Aries.

The symbol of Aries is the Ram, and that's both good and bad news. Impulsive Aries might be
tempted to ram their ideas down everyone's throats without even bothering to ask if they want to
know. It's these times when you may wish Aries' symbol were a more subdued creature, more
lamb than ram perhaps. You're not likely to convince the Ram to soften up; these folks are blunt
and to the point. Along with those qualities comes the sheer force of the Aries nature, a force that
can actually accomplish a great deal. Much of Aries' drive to compete and to win comes from its
Cardinal Quality. Cardinal Signs love to get things going, and Aries exemplifies this even better
than Cancer, Libra or Capricorn.

Aries is ruled by Mars. Taking a peek at Roman mythology, we find that Mars was the God of
War. Our man Mars was unafraid to do battle, and much the same can be said for Aries. These
folks are bold, aggressive and courageous. They can summon up the inner strength required to
take on most anyone, and they'll probably win. Aries do not lack energy or vitality, and they can
stay in the game longer than most anyone else. Now that's a winning edge. Rams are also, for the
most part, independent and well aware of their own interests in a given situation. This sometimes
myopic view may not be for everyone, but it does help Aries get things going. Further, their
competitive natures ensure that they will play the game with zeal and vigor. At times, their
approach may be construed as arrogant and domineering, but it takes a lot of focus to be a leader
(or so an Aries would say). Sadly, Aries won't usually be around for the final victory (defeat?
never). These folks will more than likely have bolted to the next project before the first one is

The element associated with Aries is Fire. Think action, enthusiasm and a burning desire to play
the game. Aries love physicality, so they won't sit on the sidelines for long, if at all. They'll jump
into the fray full force and will contribute much in the process. Talk about eager beavers! Sure,
some of their decisions may later prove to have been hasty, but you'll never find an Aries who

regretted taking a shot.

Making things happen is what it's all about to these folks. Aries are also unafraid of stepping onto
new terrain. The challenge inherent in taking on the unknown is heaven on Earth for Rams. Sure,
they may appear arrogant when they take on the world, but they'll be quick to tell you it's the only
way to go. While a common Aries refrain might well be 'me first,' there's no point in arguing with
them since, in their minds, they are first. Is this unbridled ego? Maybe, but that might be what it
takes to blaze a new trail. Oh, and on the subject of arguing, it's the Ram who will have the last
word, so save your breath.

Aries plays as hard as they work. These folks are happiest in a spirited soccer match or engaging
in the martial arts. In the game of love, the Ram's ardor is unquestioned, although Aries can also
be playful and romantic with their mate. With Aries ruling the head, face and brain, those born
under this sign need to be on the lookout for headaches and are well-served to take the occasional
deep breath. The Ram's color is bright red, a sure sign of the fire that breathes within.

The great strength of the Aries-born is in their initiative, courage and determination. These folks
love to get things going and are fearless along the way. Their dynamism and competitive spirit add
considerably to any of their endeavors.
4. Asunder: Apart; divided.

5. Army Cot: Having to provide many for

use of solidies, the army cot is a very basic bed. It serves no other purpose than to be more
comfortable to sleep on than the ground.
6. Assinine: stupid, dim-witted, pointless (funny because it also refers to an ‘ass,’ which Donkey,
literally is…).
7. Awry: away from the appropriate, planned, or expected course; amiss: “many youthful romances
go awry”. Out of the normal or correct position; askew.
8. Balls: (Urban Dictionary) Courage or bravery. Manliness.
9. Bi-Polar: Bipolar disorder is a condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods
of being extremely happy or being cross or irritable.
10. Booty: pirate treasure, plunder or other ill-gotten gains. Butt, specifically female posterior.
11. Bowling: refers to a series of sports of leisure activities in which a player rolls or throws a
bowling ball. In indoor bowling, the target is usually to knock of pins. In outdoor variations, the
aim is usually to get the ball as close to the target ball as possible. The indoor version of bowling
is often played on a flat wooden or other synthetic surface, while outdoor bowling the surface may
be grass, gravel or a synthetic surface. The most common types of indoor bowling include ten-

pin, nine-pin, candlepin, duckpin and five-pin bowling, while in outdoor bowling, bowls, bocce,
petanque and boules are popular. Today, the sport of bowling is enjoyed by 95 million people in
more than 90 countries worldwide. There are many forms of bowling, with one of the most recent
being ten-pin bowling, also known as the norm. The earliest most primitive forms of bowling can
be dated back to Ancient Egypt and the Roman Empire. Indeed, about 2,000 years ago a similar
game evolved between Roman legionaries: it entailed tossing stone objects as close as possible to
other stone objects (this game became popular with Roman soldiers, and eventually evolved into
Italian Bocce, or outdoor bowling). The first standardized rules for pin were established in New
York City, on September 9, 1895. Today, bowling is enjoyed by 95 million people in more than
ninety countries worldwide and continues to grow through entertainment media such as video
games for home consoles and handheld devices.
12. Bratwurst: also known as a brat, is a sausage usually composed of veal, pork or beef. The name is
dreved form Old High German Brätwurst, from brat-, which is finely copped meat and Wurst, or
sausage. Though the brat in bratwurst described the way the sausages are made, nowadays
Germans associate it with the German verb “braten”, which means to pan fry or roast. Bratwurst
is usually grilled or pan fried, and sometimes cooked in broth or beer. The first documented
evidence of the Bratwurst in Germany dates back to 1313, and can be found in the Franconian city
of Nuremberg, which is still an internationally renowned center for the production of grill
13. Brimstone: is an alternative name for sulfur, which is a chemical element wit the symbol S and
the atomic number 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur
atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula. Elemental sulfur is a bright
yellow crystalline solid when at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an
oxidant or reducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several nonmetals, including carbon, which
leads to its negative charge in most organosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strong
oxidants, such as oxygen and fluorine.

14. Britches: breeches, an item of clothing

covering the body from the waist down, with separate coverings for each leg, usually stopping just
below the knee, though in some cases reaching to the ankles. The breeches were normally closed
and fastened about the leg, along its open seams at varied lengths, and to the knee, by either
buttons or by a draw-string, or by one or more straps and buckle or brooches. Formerly a standard
item of Western men’s clothing, they had fallen out of use by the early 19th century in favor of
pantaloons and then trousers.

15. Butter and Grits: refers to a ground-corn food
of Native American origin, that is common in the Southern United States and mainly eaten at
breakfast. Modern grits are commonly made of alkali-treated corn known as hominy. Grits are
similar to other thick maize-based porridges from around the world such as polenta or the thinner
farina. “Instant grits” have been processed to speed cooking. The word grits derives from the Old
English word “grytt,” meaning coarse meal. This word originally referred to wheat and other
porridges now known as groats in parts of the U.K. Maize, unknown in Europe in the Middle
Ages, is a food derived from corn (a New World plant) and “corn” had been used to describe
wheat products in many European regions. “Grits” may be either singular or plural; historically,
in the American South the word was invariably singular notwithstanding its plural form (cf. such
food names as “spaghetti” or linguine”, likewise plural in form, but singular in use). Sometimes,
grits are called sofkee or sofkey (from a Native American Muskogee word).
16. Captain of the Guard: is the commanding position of a military security force. The position of
Captain of the Guard is not or no longer associated with the rank of Captain. The Guard is
commonly associated with bodyguard duty for royalty or head of state, but the Guard can refer to
the military security force of a city or region such as a province, state, or territory.

17. Chamber Pot: a jerry, a po, a gazunder (likely a

contraction of “goes under”), a piss pot, a potty, or a thunder pot) is a bowl-shaped container with
a handle, and often a lid, kept in the bedroom under a bed or in the cabinet of a nightstand and
generally used as a toilet at night. In Victorian times, some chamber pots would be built into a
cabinet with a closable cover. Chamber pots were used in ancient Greece at least since the 6th
century BC. The introduction of indoor toilets started to displace chamber pots in the 19th century
but such pots were in common use until the mid-20th century. Chamber pots continue in use today
in countries lacking indoor plumbing such as rural areas of China.
18. Coiffuer: a man who is a hairdresser.
19. Colossus: an exceptionally large statue.
20. Conga-Line: is a Cuban carnival march that was first developed in Cuba and became popular in
the United States in the 1930s and 1950s. The dancers form a long, processing line. It has three
shuffle steps on the beat, followed by a kick that is slightly ahead of the fourth beat. The conga, a
term mistakenly believed to be derived from the African region of Congo, is both a lyrical and
danceable genre, rooted in the music of carnival troupes or coparsas. The conga dance was
originally a street dance in Cuba. The style was appropriated by politicians during the early years
of republic in an attempt to appeal to the masses before election. During the Machado

dictatorships in Cuba, Havana citizens were forbidden to dance the conga, because rival groups
would work themselves to high excitement and explode into street fighting. When Fulgencio
Batista became president in the 1940s, he permitted people to dance congas during elections, but a
police permit was required.
21. Conquer by Dividing: (or ‘defeat in detail’) is a military phrase referring to the tactic of bring a
large portion of one’s own force to bear on small enemy units in sequence, rather than engaging
the bulk of the enemy force all at once. This exposes one’s own units to a small risk, yet allows
for eventual destruction of an entire enemy force. One definition states: “Defeat in detail is a
doctrinal military term that means to defeat an enemy by destroying small portions of its armies
instead of engaging its entire strength.”
22. Cupid and Psyche: is a story from the Latin novel METAMORPHOSES, also known as THE
GOLDEN ASS, written in the 2nd century AD by Apuleius. It concerns the overcoming obstacles
to the love between Psyche (“Soul” or “Breath of Life”) and Cupid (“Desire”) or Amor (“Love”),
and their ultimate union in marriage. Although the only extended narrative from antiquity is that
of Apuleius, Eros and Psyche appear in Greek art as early as the 4th century BC. The story’s
Neoplatonic elements and allusions to mystery religions accommodate multiple interpretations,
and it has been analyzed as an allegory and in light of folktale, or fairy tale and myth. Since the
rediscovery of Apuleius’s novel in the Renaissance, the reception of CUPID AND PSYCHE in the
classical tradition has been extensive. The story has been retold in poetry, drama, and opera, and
depicted widely in painting, sculpture, and even wallpaper. The basic story is that Aphrodite
sends Eros to curse Psyche. Eros falls in love with her instead. Aphrodite curse Psyche herself,
declaring that she will never find a husband. Eros gets upset and goes on strike until Aphrodite
lets him have Psyche for himself. Psyche is whisked away to a great palace where she is well-
treated, but is never allowed to see the face of her lover. Her sisters convince her that he must be a
monster, so she breaks that one rule and looks on his face to find out. Eros is angered and
abandons her. Heartbroken, Psyche appeals to Aphrodite, who sets her all manner of impossible
tasks to complete. In the final task, her curiosity again gets the better of her and she is sent into a
deep sleep as a result. Eros, no longer harboring any ill will towards the woman who has well and
truly proven her devotion to him, cures her, marries her and makes her his goddess.

23. Daisy chain: a daisy garland created from

daisy flowers, the original meaning and then derives the meaning in electrical engineering, which
is wiring scheme in which multiple devices are wired together in sequence or in a ring.
24. Derring: Daring or reckless action.

25. Dossier: A dossier is a collection of papers
or other sources, containing detailed information about a particular person or subject, together
with a synopsis of their content.
26. Dragon’s Keep: a den or resting place of a wild animal; a secluded or hidden place, especially a
secret retreat or base of operations; a hideout or hideaway
27. Drury Lane: is a street on the eastern boundary of the Covent Garden area of London, running
between Aldwych and High Holborn. The northern part is in the borough of Camden and southern
part in the City of Westminister. It took its start from the west end of Wych Street, redeveloped in
the later 19th century as Aldwych. The lane led to the house built by Sir William Drury, Knight of
the Garter in Queen Elizabeth’s reign. Drury House, with a coachyard in front and a garden in
back, was a scene of the intrigues that led to the ill-fated rebellion of the Queen’s favorite, the Earl
of Essex. In the 17th century it was the London house of the Earl of Craven, then a public house
under the sign of his reputed mistress, the Queen of Bohemia, but by the 18th century Drury Lane
had become one of the worst slums in London, dominated by prostitution and gin palaces. The
area was eventually cleared to make way for the developments of Kingsway and Aldwych. The
name of the street is often used to refer to the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, which has in different
incarnations been located in Drury Lane since the 17th century. Also in Drury Lane is the New
London Theatre. The street Drury Lane is also where The Muffin Man lives as mentioned in the
popular nursery rhyme. It is not known whether the song refers to Drury Lane in London or
another town. 173 Drury Lane was the location of the first J Sainsbury story, now one of the UK’s
largest retailers. The store opened in 1869.
28. Dunghill: A heap of dung or refuse, esp. in a farmyard.
29. Eng and Chang: (May 11, 1811-January 17, 1874) were conjoined twin brothers whose condition
and birthplace became the basis for the term “Siamese twins.”
30. Expendable: Designed to be used only once and then abandoned or destroyed. Of little
significance when compared to an overall purpose, and therefore able to be abandoned.
31. Flim-flammer: Nonsense; humbug. A deception; a swindle.
32. Foraging: is searching for and exploiting food resources. It affects an animal’s fitness because it
plays an important role in an animal’s ability to survive.
33. “For the Love of Pete”: ‘For God’s sake’. Also ‘for goodness’ or ‘heaven’s’ or ‘Pete’s’ or ‘pity’s
sake’, are exclamations showing surprise, impatience, anger, or some other emotion, depending on
the context. For example, For God’s sake, I didn’t expect to see you here, or Hurry up, for
goodness sake, or For heaven’s sake, how can you say such a mean thing? The variants are
euphemisms for God. (c. 1300)
34. Gizzards: is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals. This specialized stomach
constructed of thick, muscular walls is used for grinding up food; often rocks are instrumental in
this process.
35. Glandular Condition: Something 1 out of maybe 100 people has, effectively causing them to be
hugely obese. Most obese people who they have one do not and are making excuses for

36. Goon: Someone hired to rough someone up, usually someone big and dumb who commits acts of
violence for money.
37. GPS: Global Positioning System is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides
location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there
is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical
capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the
United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
38. Grits Teeth: to grind or clench one’s teeth together in anger or determination or to accept a
difficult situation and deal with it in a determined way.

39. Guillotine: is a device designed for carrying out execution by decapitation. It

consists of a tall upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and
suspended. The condemned person is secured at the bottom of the frame, with his or her neck held
directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to fall swiftly and sever the head from the
body. The device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution,
when it “became a part of popular culture, celebrated as the people’s avenger by supporters of the
Revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror by opponents. However,
it continued to be used long after the Revolution and remained France’s standard method of
judicial execution until the abolition of capital punishment in 1981. The last person guillotined in
France was Hamida Djandoubi, on 10 September 1977. The guillotine has also been employed in
other countries. In Germany, it saw rapid and prolific use during the Third Reich and was used
once by West Germany in 1949 and the German Democratic Republic as late as 1966.
40. Half-pint: a short, small, or inconsequential person.
41. Heiny: childish euphemism for buttocks. Possibly from the German word “hinder’ (to prevent as
in prevent getting kicked in the butt; cover your hinder.

42. Herring: are forage fish, mostly belonging to the

family Clupeidae. They often move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast. The
most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow,
temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as
well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognized, and provide
about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring,
providing over half of all herring capture. Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine
fisheries in Europe, and early in the twentieth century their study was fundamental to the evolution
of fisheries science. These oily fish also have a long history as an important food fish, and are
often salted, smoked, or pickled. Herring has been a staple food source since 3000 B.C.
43. Hocus-pocus: is a generic term that may be derived from an ancient language and is currently
used by magicians, usually the magic words spoken when bringing about some sort of change. It
was once a common term for a magician, juggler, or other similar entertainer. According to the

Oxford English Dictionary the term originates from hax pax max Deus adimax, a pseudo-Latin
phrase used as a magic formula by conjurors.
44. Hot-House Flower: is flower that isn’t hardy enough to grow under natural conditions. It has to
be pampered and grown in a greenhouse or hothouse. In regard to people it’s used to describe
someone who need pampering or special conditions.

45. Hot plate: is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance that

features one, two or more gas burners or electric heating elements. A hot plate can be used as a
stand alone appliance, but is often used as a substitute for one of the burners from an oven range
or the cook top of a stove. Hot plates are often used for food preparation, generally in locations
where a full kitchen stove would not be convenient or practical, as hot plates are easily moved
from one location to another.
46. Hulking: Large, heavy, or clumsy.
47. Hysteria: in colloquial use, describes unmanageable emotional excesses. People who are
“hysterical” often lose self-control due to an overwhelming fear that may be caused by events in
one’s past that involves some sort of severe conflict. The fear can be centered on a body part, or
most commonly, on an imagined problem with that body part. Disease is a common complaint.
Generally, modern medical professionals have given up the use of “hysteria” as a diagnostic
category, replacing it with more precisely defined categories such as somatization disorder.
48. Incinerated: to cause to burn to ashes. Medieval Latin incineratus ‘ashes’; akin to Greek konis
dust, ashes.
49. Insolent: showing a rude or arrogant lack of respect.
50. I-Spy: is a guessing game. One player chooses and object that is visible to all the players and
says, “I spy with my little eye something beginning with…”, naming the letter the chosen object
starts with (e.g. “I spy with my little eye something beginning with C” if the chose object is a car).
Other players guess the chose object. An alternative version is played where the color is given
rather than the initial letter. I spy is often played with young children as a means to avert boredom
on long car journeys.
51. Jabbering: Talk rapidly and excitedly but with little sense.
52. Jaunty: having or expressing a lively, cheerful, and self-confident manner.
53. Jurisdiction: (from the Latin iuris meaning “law” and dicere meaning “to speak”) is the practical
authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make
pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area
of responsibility. The term is also used to denote the geographical area or subject-matter to which
such authority applies.

54. Kibbles and Bits: is a brand name of dog food
manufactured and marketed by Del Monte Foods. It was originally created in 1981 as the first
dula textured dog food having soft chewy pieces as well as hard crunchy ones.
55. Kindling: easily ignited material, such as dry sticks of wood, used to start a fire.
56. Kumbaya: (Gullah – the creole languate spoken by former slaves living on the Sea Islands of
South Carolina and Georgia, “Come By Here”) is a spiritual song form the 1930s. It became a
standard campfire song in Scouting and summer camps, and enjoyed broader popularity during the
folk revival of the 1960s. The song was originally associated with human and spiritual unity,
closeness and compassion, and it still is, but more recently it is also cited or alluded to in satirical
or cynical ways which suggest false moralizing hypocrisy, or naively optimistic views of the
world and human nature.
57. Lackey: is a term for a uniformed manservant, in its original meaning(attested 1529, according to
the Oxford English Dictionary). The modern connotation of “servile follower” appeared later, in
58. Landfill: (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground and historically as a
midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste
treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste
disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Some landfills are also used for waste
management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of
waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling).
59. Linger: to be slow in parting or in quitting something: tarry.
60. Maestro: (from the Italian maestro, meaning “master” or “teacher”) is a title of extreme respect
given to a master musician. The term is most commonly used in the context of Western classical
music and opera. This is associated with the ubiquitous use of Italian vocabulary for classical
music terms. The title of maestro may be bestowed upon composers, performers, impresarios,
music directors, conductors, and music teachers.
61. Mal-tempered: ill-tempered. Having a bad temper; irritable

62. Man Cup: A codpiece (from Middle English: cod, meaning

“scrotum”) is a covering flap or pouch that attaches to the front of men’s trousers and usually
accentuates the genital area. It was held closed by string ties, buttons, or other methods. It was an
important item of European clothing in the 15th and 16th centuries, and is still worn in the modern
era in performance costumes for rock music and metal musicians and in the leather subculture
while an Athletic cup protects in a similar fashion.

63. Manly Hose: Manly hose is another name for pantyhose for men.
64. Mikey: Little Mikey was a character of a young boy played by John Gilchrist in an American
television commercial created by art director Bob Gage (who also directed the commercial) and
copywriter Edyth Vaughn “Edie” Stevenson of the Doyle Dane Berbach agency for Quaker Oats
to promote their breakfast cereal, Life. First airing in 1972, the popular commercial would be in
regular rotation for more than twelve years, ending up as one of the longest continuously running
commercial campaigns ever aired. The iconic commercial centers on three brothers eating
breakfast. Lying before them sits a heaping bowl of Life breakfast cereal. Two of the brothers
question each other about the cereal, prodding each other to try it. Noting that it is supposed to be
healthy, neither wants to try it (“I’m not gonna try it—you try it!”), so they get their brother Mikey
to try it (“Let’s get Mikey”), noting “he hates everything.” Mikely briefly stares at the bowl.
After moments of contemplation, Mikey begins to vigorously consume the cereal before him,
resulting in his brothers excitedly exclaiming, “He likes it! Hey, Mikey!”
65. Monorail: is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole
support and its guideway. The term also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the
vehicles traveling on such a beam or track. The term originates from joining mono (one) and rail
(rails), from as early as 1897, possibly from German engineer Eugen Langen who called the
elevated railway system with wagons suspended the Rugen Langen One-railed Suspension
Tramway. The transportation system is often referred to as a railway.
66. Mother Hubbard: “Old Mother Hubbard” is an English language nursery rhyme, first printed in
1805 and among the most popular publications of the nineteenth century. The exact origin and
meaning of the rhyme is disputed. It has a Roud Fold Song Index number of 19334. “Old Mother
Hubbard/ Went to the cupboard/ To get her poor doggie a bone,/ When she got there/ The
cupboard was bare/ So the poor little doggie had none.”
67. Moxie: Energy, pep. Courage, determination. Know-how. From Moxie, a trademark carbonated
soft-drink that originated in 1930.
68. Mulch: is a layer of material applied to the surface of an area of soil. Its purpose is any or all of
the following: to conserve moisture, to improve the fertility and health of the soil, to reduce weed
growth, to enhance the visual appeal of the area. A mulch is usually but not exclusively organic in
nature. It may be permanent (e.g. bark chips) or temporary (e.g. plastic sheeting). It may be
applied to bare soil, or around existing plants. Mulches of manure or compost will be
incorporated naturally into the soil by the activity of worms and other organisms. The process is
used both in commercial crop production and in gardening, and when applied correctly can
dramatically improve soil productivity.
69. Mushrooms: Psilocybin mushrooms, also known as psychedelic muchrooms, are mushroom that
contain psychoactive indole alkaloids. Common colloquial terms include magic mushrooms and
shrooms. Psilocybin mushrooms have likely been used since prehistoric times and may have been
depicted in rock art. Many cultures have used these mushrooms in religious rites.
70. Mutton: Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep. The meat of sheep in its first
year is lamb; that of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget, and the meat of an adult sheep
is mutton.
71. Nonny: a silly fellow; a ninny.

72. Pam: is a cooking spray currently owned and distributed by
ConAgra. Its main ingredient is canola oil. PAM was introduced in 1961 by Leon Rubin who,
with Arthur Meyerhoff, started Gibraltar Industries to market the spray. The name PAM is an
acronym for Product of Arthur Meyerhoff. PAM is marketed in various flavors, such as “butter”
and “olive oil”, meant to impart the flavor of cooking with those ingredients. Flavors such as
“lemon” or “garlic” are also offered.

73. Parfaits: is a French word literally meaning

“perfect” commonly employed to describe a kind of frozen dessert, beginning in 1894. In France,
parfait refers to a frozen dessert made from a base of sugar syrup, egg, and cream. A parfait
contains enough fat, sugar, alcohol, and/or to a lesser extent air to allow it to be made by stirring
infrequently while freezing, making it possible to create in a home kitchen without specialist
equipment. The fat, sugar, alcohol or air interferes with the formation of water crystals, which
would otherwise give the ice cream an uncomfortable texture in the mouth. The formation of ice
crystals is managed in the making of regular ice cream by agitating the ice cream constantly while
it freezes or chemically by adding glycerol. Neither should be necessary when making a high-
quality parfait.

74. Peaches and Cream: is a simple, traditionally
summertime dessert consisting of sliced peaches, whipped cream, and other ingredients, popular in
the United States (especially the South) and other countries. As a dessert, it is relatively healthy,
since it is made up of raw, low-calorie, vitamin rich fruit. It is sometimes served at ice cream
stands and float shops. May types of hard candy, such as Crème Savers, also come in a peaches
and cream flavor.

75. Perfect Rescue Image

76. Peril: Serious and immediate danger.
77. Perk: Become more cheerful, lively, or interesting. Money goods, or other benefit to which one is
entitled as an employee or as a shareholder of a company.
78. Pheromones: is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members
of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting
individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individual. There are alarm pheromones, food
trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior and physiology.
Pheromones are used from basic unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes.
Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates and
plants communicate by using pheromones.

79. Pine-sap: any of several yellowish or
reddish parasitic or saprophytic herbs (genus Monotropa) of the wintergreen family resembling the
Indian pipe.

80. Piñata: is a container often made papier-mâché, pottery, or

cloth; it is decorated with small toys or candy, or both, and then broken as part of a ceremony or
celebration. They are most commonly associated with Mexico, but their origins are considered to
be in China. The idea of breaking a container filled with treats came to Europe in the 14th century,
where the name, from the Italian pignatta, was introduced. The Spanish brought the European
tradition to Mexico, although there were similar traditions in Mesoamerica. The Aztecs had a
similar tradition to honor the birthday of the god Huizilopochtli in mid-December. According to
local records, the Mexican piñata tradition began in the town of Acolman, just north of Mexico
City, where piñatas were introduced for catechism purposes as well as to co-opt the
Huitzilopochtli ceremony. Today the piñata is still part of Mexican culture, the cultures of other
countries in Latin America, as well as the United States, but has mostly lost its religious character.

81. Piranha: is a member of family Characidae in order

Characiformes, an omnivorous freshwater fish that inhabits South American rivers. In Venezuela,
they are called caribes. They are know for their sharp teeth and a voracious appetite for meat.
82. Pondering: Think about (something) carefully, esp. before deciding or concluding.

83. Pop Rocks: is a carbonated candy with ingredients
including sugar, lactose (milk sugar) corn syrup, and flavoring. It differs from typical hard candy
in that it creates a fizzy reaction when it dissolves in one’s mouth. Although still popular, Pop
Rocks are regarded nostalgically as an aspect of 1970s pop culture.

84. Portcullis: (from the French porte coulissante or

gliding door) is a latticed grille made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. Portcullises
fortified the entrances to many medieval castles, securely closing off the castle during time of
attack or siege. Each portcullis was mounted in vertical grooves in castle walls and could be
raised or lowered quickly by means of chains or ropes attached to an internal winch. There would
often be two portcullises to the main entrance. The one closer to the inside would be closed first
and then the one farther away. This was used to trap the enemy and often, burning wood or fire-
heated sand would be dropped onto them from the roof or murder-holes. Hot oil, however, was
not commonly used in this manner, contrary to popular belief, since oil was extremely expensive.
There were often arrowslits in the sides of the walls, enabling archers and crossbowmen to
eliminate the trapped group of attackers. In England, working portcullises survive at the Tower
of London, Monk Bar in York, Amberley Castle and Hever Castle.

85. Pose for a Rescued Maiden:
86. Pristine: In its original condition; unspoiled. Clean and fresh as new; spotless.
87. Quirk: A peculiarity of behavior; an idiosyncrasy. An unpredictable or unaccountable act or
88. Rancid: Having the disagreeable odor or taste of decomposing oils or fats; rank.
89. Razzamatazz: A flashy action or display intended to bewilder, confuse, or deceive. Ambiguous
or evasive language; double talk. Ebullient energy; vim.
90. Regiment: a military unit of ground troops consisting of at least two battalions, usually
commanded by a colonel. A large group of people.
91. Resettlement: Population transfer or Resettlement is the movement of a large group of people
from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or
international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion.
92. Septic Tank:

is a key component of the septic system, a small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas
with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or private corporations.

(Other components, typically mandated and/or restricted by local governments, optionally include
pumps, alarms, sand filters, and clarified liquid effluent disposal means such as a septic drain
field, ponds, natural stone fiber filter plants or peat moss beds.) Septic systems are a type of On-
Site Sewage Facility (OSSF). In North America, approximately 25% of the population relies on
septic tanks; this can include suburbs and small towns as well as rural areas (Indianapolis is an
example of a large city where many of the city’s neighborhoods are still on separate septic
systems). In Europe, they are in general limited to rural areas only. Since a septic system requires
a drainfield that uses a lot of land area, they are not suitable for densely built cities.
93. Shoddy: made of or containing inferior material. Of
94. Shrouded: wrap or dress (a body) in a shroud for burial. Cover or envelop so as to conceal from
95. Shut-ins: a person who is either unwilling or unable to leave his/her home, often due to disability,
or a mental disease such as agoraphobia.
96. Snowballs Chance: Little or no likelihood of occurrence or success. Often used in the negative
for even more emphasis.
97. Solitary Confinement: is a special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated from any
human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff. It is sometimes
employed as a form of punishment beyond incarceration for a prisoner and has been cited as an
additional measure of protection from the inmate or is given for violations of prison regulations. It
is also used as a form of protective custody and to implement a suicide watch. Solitary
confinement is colloquially referred to in American English as “the hotbox,” “the hole,”
“lockdown,” “SCU” (Solitary Confinement Unit), “AdSeg” (Administration Segregation), the
“SHU” (pronounced ‘shoe’) – an acronym for security housing unit, or “the pound”; and in British
English as “the block” or the “the cooler”. In Canada they are known as a Special Handling Unit.
Issues of mental health and insanity due to solitary confinement and other extreme forms of
isolation date back to the 19th century and have been broadly researched by a variety of academics
and scholars. Historically, Quakers and Calvinists could both be seen in supporting solitary
confinement. In 1818, New York reformer and Friend, Thomas Eddy, lobbied for inmate labor
and solitary confinement in place of other forms of punishment such as hanging. Shortly after,
New York decided to include solitary confinement and inmate labor into their penal system.
Some of these early prison experiments indicated that prisoners may prefer the lash over solitary,
because it did not induce permanent damage and would not incite madness like solitary
confinement arguably could. Mental instability has been linked to solitary confinement since as
far back as the 1860s. Prison records from Denmark institute during 1870-1920 illustrate that staff
noticed inmates were exhibiting signs of mental illnesses while in isolation, revealing that this
persistent problem has been around for decades. The practice is used when a prisoner is
considered dangerous to oneself or to others, is suspected of organizing or being engage in illegal
activities outside of the prison, or, in the case of a prisoner such as pedophile or witness, is at a
high risk of being harmed by another inmate or inmates. The latter example is a form of
protective custody. Solitary confinement is also the norm in Supermax prisons where prisoners
who are deemed dangerous or of high risk are held.
98. Squalor: A state of being extremely dirty.
99. Stalwart: loyal, reliable, and hardworking: “he remained a stalwart supporter of the cause”.
100. Steed: is a working animal used as a mount (especially for warfare).
101. Stepford: THE STEPFORD WIVES is a 1972 satirical thriller by Ira Levin. The story concerns
Joanna Eberhart, a photographer and young mother who begins to suspect that the frighteningly
submissive housewives in her new idyllic Connecticut neighborhood may be robots created by
their husbands. Two films of the same name have been adapted from the novel; the first starred
Katharine Ross and was released in 1975, while a remake starring Nicole Kidman appeared in
2004. Edgar J. Scherick produced the 1975 version, all three sequels, and was posthumously
credited as producer in the 2004 remake. The term “Stepford wife”, which is often used in
popular culture, stemmed from the novel, and is usually a reference to a submissive and docile
102. Strictures: A restriction on a person or activity: “religious strictures on everyday life”. A sternly
critical or censorious remark or instruction.

103. Sturm and Drang: (Sturm und Drang – literally “Storm and Drive”, “Storm and Urge”, though
conventionally translated as “Storm and Stress”) is a proto-Romantic movement in German
literature and music taking place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual
subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the
perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic
movement. The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger’s play STURM UND DRANG,
which was first performed by Abel Seyler’s famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher
Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of STURM UND DRANG, with Jakob
Michael Reinhold Lenz, H.L. Wagner and Friedric Maximilian Klinger also significant figures.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was also a notable proponent of the movement, though he and
Friedric Schiller ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar

104. Tambourine: is a musical instrument in the percussion

family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called
“zils”. Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some
variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets.
They can be mounted, but position is largely down to preference. Tambourines come in many
shapes with the most common being circular. It is found in many forms of music: Greek folk
music, Italian folk music, classical music, Persian music, gospel music, pop music, and rock
music. Tambourines originated in Mesopotamia, Middle East, India, Greece and Rome, and were
mainly used in religious contexts. The word tambourine finds its origins in French tambourin,
which referred to a long narrow drum used in Provence, the word being a diminutive of tambour
“drum,” altered by influence of Arabic tunbur “drum”. From the Middle Persian word tambur
“lute, drum”.
105. Tartar: was a name used by Europeans from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to
designate the Great Steppe, that is the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the
Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean inhabited mostly by Turkic, Mongol
peoples and also by some Cossacks of Russian origin, citizens of the Mongol Empire who were
generically referred to as “Tartars”, i.e. Tatars. It incorporated the current areas of Pontic-Caspian
steppe, Volga-Urals, Caucasus, Siberia, Turkestan, Mongolia, and Manchuria.
106. Terrain: a geographic area, a piece of land, ground, the physical features of a tract of land.
107. Trippin’: When someone is overreacting or getting all bent out of shape over something small.
108. Undershirt: an article of underwear worn underneath a dress shirt intended to protect them from
body sweat and odors. It can have short sleeves or be sleeveless. The term most commonly refers
to upper-body wear worn by males. It also makes dress shirts less transparent. It can also be worn
during winter months as an extra layer of warmth.
109. Unorthodox: contrary to what is usual, traditional, or accepted; not orthodox.
110. Unsavory: disagreeable to taste, smell, or look at.
111. Vamoose: From Spanish vamos; to leave hurriedly.
112. Vandal: The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe who in 429 under king Genseric entered Africa
and by 439 established a kingdom which included the Roman Africa province, besides the islands
of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta and the Belearics. In 455, they sacked the city of Rome. Their
kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War of 533-4, in which Justinian I managed to reconquer the

Africa province for the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Renaissance and Early Modern
writers characterized the Vandals as barbarians, “sacking and looting” Rome. This led to the use
of the term vandalism, to describe any senseless destruction, particularly the barbarian defacing of
artworks. However, modern historians tend to regard the Vandals during thie transitional period
(from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages) as perpetuators, not destroyers, of Roman culture.
113. Vermin: (colloquially varmint or varmit) are pests or nuisance animals, especially those that
threaten human society by spreading diseases or destroying crops and livestock. Use of the term
implies the need for extermination programs. Since the term is defined in relation to human
activities, which species are included vary from area to area and person to person. The term
derives from the Latin vermis (worm), and was originally used for the worm-like larvae of certain
insects, many of which infest foodstuffs.
114. Verse: A verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition. However, verse has
come to represent any division of grouping of words in a poetic composition, with groupings
traditionally having been referred to as stanzas. Moreover, verse has also been a traditional
application in drama, which is therefore known as dramatic poetry, verse drama, or dramatic verse.
115. Viking: (Old Norse vikingr) were seafaring north Germanic people who raided, traded, explored,
and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia, and North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-
11th centuries. The Vikings employed wooden longships with wide, shallow-draft hulls, allowing
navigation in rough seas or in shallow river waters. The ships could be landed on beaches, and
their light weight enabled them to be hauled over portages. These versatile ships allowed the
Vikings to travel as fast east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, as far west as
Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, and as far south as Nekor. This period of Viking
expansion, known as the Viking Age, constitutes an important element of the medieval history of
Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, Russia, and the rest of Europe. Popular conceptions of the
Vikings often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and written sources.
A romanticized picture of Vikings as noble savages began to take root in the 18th Century, and this
developed and became widely propagated during the 19th-century Viking revival. The received
views of the Vikings as violent brutes or intrepid adventurers owe much to the modern Viking
myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations are typically
highly clichéd, presenting the Vikings as familiar caricatures.

116. Viking Ship: Viking ships were vessels used during

the Viking Age in Northern Europe. Scandinavian tradition of shipbuilding during the Viking Age
was characterized by slender and flexible boats, with symmetrical ends with true keel. They were
clinker built, which is the overlapping of planks riveted together. They might have had a dragon’s
head or other circular object protruding from the bow and stern, for design, although this is only
inferred from historical sources. They ranged in the Baltic Sea and far from the Scandinavian
home areas, to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Newfoundland, the Mediterranean, and
Africa. The ships are normally divided into classes based on size and function. They were from
10 meters long (33 ft.) to sometimes even 30 meters (99 ft.).
117. Whitman’s Sampler: Whitman's is one of America's largest and oldest brands of boxed
chocolates. Whitman's confections have been produced since 1842, originally by Stephen
Whitman in Philadelphia and currently by Russell Stover Candies. The Whitman's Sampler, an
assortment of boxed chocolates, is still popular.
118. Willy-nilly: by compulsion: without choice. Alteration of will I nill I or will ye nill ye or will he
nill he.

119. Writ: In  common  law,  a  writ  is  a  formal  written  order  issued  by  a  body  with  administrative  
or  judicial  jurisdiction;  in  modern  usage,  this  body  is  generally  a  court.  Warrants,  
prerogative  writs  and  subpoenas  are  common  types  of  writs  but  there  are  many  others.
120. Yearn: Have an intense feeling of loss or lack and longing for something.
121. Yin and Yang: In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin-yang, which is often called “yin and
yang”, is used to describe how seemingly opposite or contrary forces are interconnected and
interdependent in the natural world; and, how they give rise to each other as they interrelate to one
another. Many natural dualities (such as male and female, light and dark, high and low, hot and
cold, water and fire, life and death, and so on) are thought of as physical manifestations of the yin-
yang concept. The concept lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and
philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine, and the central
principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as buguazhang, taijiqua (a’ai
chi), and qigong (Chi Kung) and of I Ching. Yin and yang are actually complementary, no
opposing, forces, interacting to form a whole greater than either separate part; in effect, a dynamic
system. Everything has both yin and yang aspects, (for instance shadow cannot exist without
light). Either of the two major aspects may manifest more strongly in a particular object,
depending on the criterion of the observation. In Taoist metaphysics, good-bad distinctions and
other dichotomous moral judgments are perceptual, not real; so, yin-yang is an indivisible whole.
In the ethics of Confucianism on the other hand, most notably in the philosophy of Dong
Zhongshu, (c. 2nd century BCE) a moral dimension is attached to the yin-yang idea. The concept
of yin and yang is often symbolized by various forms of the Taijitu symbol, for which it is

probably best know in Western cultures.

122. Zealot: a zealous person; especially : a fanatical partisan <a religious zealot>

Most of the information was gathered from reputable Wikipedia sources, WikiShrek, Merriam-Webster’s
dictionary, the Urban Dictionary, and IMDB. Other sources are cited within the document.


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