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An adjective is a word which modifies a noun, that is, shows or points out some distinguishing mark or feature of the noun.
List of Descriptive Adjectives
Descriptive adjectives can be divided into different categories such as colors, sizes, sound, taste, touch, shapes, qualities, time, personality and ages.
Colors are adjectives : black, blue, white, green, red Sizes : big, small, large, thin, thick Shapes: triangular, round, square, circular Qualities: good, bad, mediocre Personality : happy, sad, angry, depressed Time : Yearly , monthly, annually Ages : new, young, old, brand-new, second-hand Sound related Adjectives : loud, noisy, quiet, silent Touch related Adjectives t: slippery, sticky Taste related Adjectives : juicy, sweet
(* Exercise 1-3: Find the adjective) Attributive and Predicative Adjectives Most adjectives can occur both before and after a noun:
the blue sea the old man
~ the sea is blue ~ the man is old
happy children ~ the children are happy
Adjectives in the first position - before the noun - are called ATTRIBUTIVE adjectives. Those in the second position - after the noun - are called PREDICATIVE adjectives. Notice that predicative adjectives do not occur immediately after the noun. A predicate adjective modifies the subject of the sentence. In the sentence “The flowers are blue,” the subject is “the flowers.” In this example, “blue” is what modifies the subject, “the flowers,” and is connected to the subject by what is known as a linking verb.
Having predicate adjectives means that we can describe subjects without putting the adjectives before him. Instead of having to say, “The good boy” followed by a verb, we can simply say, “the boy is good.” In this sentence, we can identify that “the boy” is the subject, “is” is the linking verb, and “good” is the predicate adjective. “Good” effectively renames the subject of the sentence. More examples: her new dress a kind person the phonetic alphabet accuracy is important She had a beautiful smile He bought two brown bread rolls. Her smile is beautiful She didn’t seem happy He handed me a bucket of hot water. (attributive position) I put my hand in the bucket, the water was very hot. (predicative position, emphasising hot.) There are a few adjectives which cannot occur in both predicative and attributive position. Some only occur in attributive position (they can't function as a predicate). Examples include "main" and "former".
2. Position: attributive only
There are some adjectives which can only be used before a noun, in the attributive position. For instance, we talk about the main problem but cannot say, the problem was main. Adjectives which occur only in the attributive position are generally those which identify something as being of a particular type. For instance, we can talk about a financial decision where financial distinguishes this from other types of decision, e.g.: medical, political. This group of adjectives are often referred to as classifying adjectives, and rarely occur in the predicative position unless we specifically want to emphasise a contrast, e.g.: For example:
This is the main reason. * This reason is main. (ungrammatical) This is the former president. * This president is former. (ungrammatical)
a chemical reaction not, e.g.: a reaction which was/is chemical
the phonetic alphabet not, e.g.: the alphabet is phonetic It was an indoor pool. not, e.g.: The pool was indoor Other adjectives which generally appear in the attributive position are those which are used for emphasis, e.g.: The show was absolute/utter rubbish. You made me look a complete fool.
Anchor Point:33. Position: predicative only
There are some adjectives which only usually occur in the predicative position, as complements of be or other link verbs. For instance, you can say He felt glad. but wouldn’t normally talk about a glad person. Adjectives which usually occur in the predicative position include those which describe feelings, such as afraid, content, glad, ready, sure, sorry and upset, e.g.: She felt afraid. but not, e.g.: an afraid girl My daughter is upset. but not, e.g.: my upset daughter They also include a group of adjectives with prefix a-, such as asleep, alive, alone, ashamed, awake, aware, e.g.: I like being alone. but not, e.g.: I like being an alone person. The baby’s asleep. but not, e.g.: the asleep baby. A few other adjectives can only be predicative, i.e. they can't occur in attributive position. An example of this is "alone":
This man is alone. * This is an alone man. (ungrammatical)